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How to set a static IP (client side) in OpenVPN?

I am setting up a VPN network with a lot of little devices (running OpenWRT). In my use case, the devices are all identified by a number and I would like their ip adresses to match their ID (e.g: the device number 6 will have an ip in X.X.X.6).

I am aware of client-config-dir and ifconfig-push but i cannot use them because all my devices use the same certificate ( duplicate-cn is enabled). This is a requirement since generating one certificate for each devices will be too constraining (moreover, we don't want to change the configuration of the VPN server if we add a device in the system)

Is it possible to set the ip adress in the client configuration file ? I didn't found anything in the documentation about that particular topic... And everything I tried didn't succeed.

Basically, what I have in mind would be the following:

  • Client Connect to the VPN server and asks for a specific adress ("give me the ip: 172.16.0.22")
  • If the adress is already taken, the handshake fails. If it is free, the client is given the adress he asked before
  • linux-networking

Morreski's user avatar

  • You don't need to change VPN server configuration when adding a new device with a new key. That is exactly why the keys are used - the server verifies the key using the PKI, namely the certificates of the authority that issued the user/device certificate (in his case probably your own one). –  peterph Commented Apr 13, 2019 at 21:28
  • @peterph but you do if you are using the certificate to identify the IP address on the server –  Stack Exchange Supports Israel Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 8:21

3 Answers 3

You should be able to do this with the ifconfig-pool-persist config option. You can pre-configure the file and set seconds = 0 to tell OpenVPN to only read the file.

We use it to ensure the same user is assigned the same IP when connected via VPN for audit purposes.

From the man page :

--ifconfig-pool-persist file [seconds] Persist/unpersist ifconfig-pool data to file, at seconds intervals (default=600), as well as on program startup and shutdown. The goal of this option is to provide a long-term association between clients (denoted by their common name) and the virtual IP address assigned to them from the ifconfig-pool. Maintaining a long-term association is good for clients because it allows them to effectively use the --persist-tun option. file is a comma-delimited ASCII file, formatted as ,. If seconds = 0, file will be treated as read-only. This is useful if you would like to treat file as a configuration file. Note that the entries in this file are treated by OpenVPN as suggestions only, based on past associations between a common name and IP address. They do not guarantee that the given common name will always receive the given IP address. If you want guaranteed assignment, use --ifconfig-push

jas_raj's user avatar

  • 1 OK I think I understand the way this option work, thanks for your explanation. There is still something I didn't get though, how does it work when the certificate is shared between several devices since they all have the same CN ? –  Morreski Commented Jan 18, 2017 at 9:48
  • Yes I think you're right - this works based on the common name of the certificate. We have a unique certificate per user. In your original question you said "we don't want to change the configuration of the VPN server if we add a device in the system". You can create a parent VPN certificate that OpenVPN uses and then create sub certificates for each of the devices. That way you can have a unique certificate per device and requires no change to OpenVPN every time you get a new device –  jas_raj Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 10:23
  • I used this guide to help me set it all up and it works well: jamielinux.com/docs/openssl-certificate-authority/… . –  jas_raj Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 10:25
  • Note that the entries in this file are treated by OpenVPN as suggestions only, based on past associations between a common name and IP address. They do not guarantee that the given common name will always receive the given IP address. But if you specify "seconds = 0", then that would guarantee it, right? –  pacoverflow Commented Aug 23, 2020 at 4:23
  • where does the seconds = 0 goes? can you provide a working example? –  Petr Commented Mar 13, 2022 at 15:11

Suppose we are setting up a company VPN, and we would like to establish separate access policies for 3 different classes of users:

The basic approach we will take is (a) segregate each user class into its own virtual IP address range, and (b) control access to machines by setting up firewall rules which key off the client's virtual IP address.

In our example, suppose that we have a variable number of employees, but only one system administrator, and two contractors. Our IP allocation approach will be to put all employees into an IP address pool, and then allocate fixed IP addresses for the system administrator and contractors.

Note that one of the prerequisites of this example is that you have a software firewall running on the OpenVPN server machine which gives you the ability to define specific firewall rules. For our example, we will assume the firewall is Linux iptables.

First, let's create a virtual IP address map according to user class:

Next, let's translate this map into an OpenVPN server configuration. First of all, make sure you've followed the steps above for making the 10.66.4.0/24 subnet available to all clients (while we will configure routing to allow client access to the entire 10.66.4.0/24 subnet, we will then impose access restrictions using firewall rules to implement the above policy table).

First, define a static unit number for our tun interface, so that we will be able to refer to it later in our firewall rules:

In the server configuration file, define the Employee IP address pool:

Add routes for the System Administrator and Contractor IP ranges:

Because we will be assigning fixed IP addresses for specific System Administrators and Contractors, we will use a client configuration directory, ccd :

Now place special configuration files in the ccd subdirectory to define the fixed IP address for each non-Employee VPN client, as follows.

ccd/sysadmin1 file:

ccd/contractor1 file:

ccd/contractor2 file:

Each pair of ifconfig-push addresses represent the virtual client and server IP endpoints. They must be taken from successive /30 subnets in order to be compatible with Windows clients and the TAP-Windows driver. Specifically, the last octet in the IP address of each endpoint pair must be taken from this set:

This completes the OpenVPN configuration. The final step is to add firewall rules to finalize the access policy.

Source: https://openvpn.net/index.php/open-source/documentation/howto.html#policy

RichVel's user avatar

  • 1 As of 2023, the "The /30 subnet allocation" is deprecated, the subnet mask approach is now preferred. Source: community.openvpn.net/openvpn/wiki/Concepts-Addressing –  Kar.ma Commented Jan 18, 2023 at 12:04
  • 1 This answer is deprecated, now the second argument of ifconfig-push is netmask. –  Youran Commented Jun 7, 2023 at 5:43
  • @Kar.ma how would you extend the multiple virtual ip address networks shown in the OP example for net30 topology to topology subet ? I'm trying to do this right now, getting errors re. unreachable networks locally (I am using the netmask as the 2nd arg to ifconfig-push, as documented) –  Life5ign Commented Dec 6, 2023 at 23:22

I had some problems configuring like @jas_raj. Now I am doing the next:

1) In /etc/openvpn create a new folder. For example " dir "

2) server.conf add line " client-config-dir dir/ "

3) Inside "dir", you need to create a new file with the **same name that you wrote in your cert ** and type:

ifconfig-push IP MASK

For example: ifconfig-push 10.0.0.10 255.0.0.0

jdmorei's user avatar

  • I don't understand how I'll be able to know in advance which adress will be assigned to which device with this method. –  Morreski Commented Jan 18, 2017 at 9:44
  • Because depending your vpn server configuration you can have 2 issues: 1) 1 certificate for 1 device 2) same certificate, different users in your server –  jdmorei Commented Jan 18, 2017 at 17:02
  • How do you know that no other user will be assigned 10.0.0.10? –  TheAmigo Commented Jun 23, 2020 at 14:50
  • When you create the certificate you must provide a "name" (each device use its own certificate) or you must use a user system to identify it (all devices use the same certificate) , then your client must have an username in order to init the session and this username is the name of the file that you wrotte in 3 –  jdmorei Commented Jul 16, 2020 at 17:05
  • When I do this I can connect the vpn client just fine, but once I try to make any request in my browser it just keeps loading and eventually fails with ERR_CONNECTION_TIMED_OUT –  Jespertheend Commented Nov 24, 2021 at 17:29

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vpn ip assignment

integrating IT

ASA AnyConnect VPN IP pool assignment using RADIUS

In most scenarios the VPN POOL(s) to assign IP addresses for AnyConnect Remote Access VPNs are statically configured under the tunnel-group. In some situations, it may be desired to dynamically assign the VPN Pool from a RADIUS server, perhaps to use a different IP address pool for certain types of users.

This post describes the steps to use Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) and Microsoft Windows Network Policy Server (NPS) RADIUS servers to dynamically assign the VPN Pool during authorisation.

This guide assumes the basic configuration of ASA Remote Access VPN and authentication via ISE or NPS is already setup.

IP Pool assignment using NPS

Microsoft NPS RADIUS server does not contain a detailed list of predefined Vendor Specific Attributes (VSA) to select from. Therefore, a custom vendor must be selected and manually specify the VSA. Refer to the Cisco ASA guide for RADIUS server attributes https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/security/asa/asa92/asdm72/general/asa-general-asdm/aaa-radius.html . The guide lists the supported Cisco VPN RADIUS attributes, these attributes are sent from the RADIUS server to the ASA.

For the NPS configuration, the important information from this Cisco guide is as follows:

  • The Cisco VPN related Vendor Specific Attributes (VSA) are identified by the RADIUS vendor ID 3076.
  • The attribute number for address-pools is 217, as is defined as a string .

The following configuration assumes a Remote Access VPN is configured on the ASA and authenticates via NPS; the steps below describe how to configure the NPS Policy to assign the desired address pool to the ASA.

NPS Configuration

  • Navigate to Settings > Vendor Specific
  • From the Vendor drop-down list, select Custom
  • Select Vendor Specific , then Add

vpn ip assignment

  • Enter 3076 as the Vendor Code
  • Select Yes. It Conforms
  • Click Configure Attributes

vpn ip assignment

  • From the Vendor-assign attribute number , select 217 (this is the VSA for address-pool, as per the Cisco guide )
  • Specify Attribute format as String
  • Specify the Attribute value using the name of the VPN IP address pool as define on the ASA , in this instance NPS_POOL

vpn ip assignment

  • Click Ok to complete

vpn ip assignment

ASA Configuration

On the ASA we will create a dedicated IP Pool called NPS_POOL, this is the exact name and case as configured on the NPS policy .

The NPS RADIUS server must be configured as the aaa-server and defined under the tunnel-group.

In this scenario the ASA has three IP pools defined, including the NPS_POOL previously created.

vpn ip assignment

The tunnel-group is explicitly configured with an address-pool called VPN_POOL_1 , this assigns an IP address from the 192.168.14.0/24 address range. Without the NPS configuration to dynamically assign the VPN IP pool NPS_POOL users would be assigned an IP address from VPN_POOL_1 .

vpn ip assignment

  • From the CLI of the ASA turn on RADIUS debugs using the command debug radius
  • From a test client computer, login to AnyConnect VPN client

From the CLI of the ASA, observe the output of the RADIUS debug. From the output below, we can confirm the Type = 217 attribute number and the value of NPS_POOL is received.

vpn ip assignment

  • Run the command show vpn-sessiondb anyconnect from the CLI of the ASA.

From the output below we can confirm the user received an IP address of 192.168.16.10, which is from the NPS_POOL.

vpn ip assignment

If the dynamically assigned IP address pool did not work, the user would receive an IP address of the VPN pool configured under the tunnel-group, which would be an IP address in the 192.168.14.0/24 range.

IP Pool assignment using ISE

Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) has a dictionary list of Cisco and 3 rd party vendors. A dictionary represents a collection of vendor specific attributes (VSA). The same VSA used when configuring the address-pool on the NPS server above, is pre-defined in a dictionary in ISE. The Cisco VPN VSA’s are stored in a dictionary called CVPN3000/ASA/PIX7x on ISE, these attributes work with both ASA and FTD.

The following configuration assumes a Remote Access VPN is configured on the ASA and authenticates via ISE; the steps below describe how to configure the Authorization Profile to assign the desired address pool to the ASA.

ISE Configuration

  • Navigate to Policy > Policy Elements > Results > Authorization > Authorization Profiles
  • Click Add to create a new authorisation profile
  • Name the authorization profile appropriately, i.e., IP_POOL
  • From the Advanced Attributes Settings drop-down list, select Cisco-CVPN3000 dictionary.
  • From the dictionary list, select the attribute CVPN3000/ASA/PIX7x-Address-Pools (217)

vpn ip assignment

  • Navigate to Policy > Policy Sets > NAME OF POLICY
  • Navigate to the Authorization Policy section of the Policy Set
  • Modify or create the authorization rule, select the Result Profile of the Authorization Profile called IP_POOL created in the previous step.

vpn ip assignment

On the ASA we will create a dedicated IP Pool called ISE_POOL, this is the exact name and case as configured in the ISE Authorization Profile.

The ISE RADIUS server must be configured as the aaa-server and defined under the tunnel-group.

In this scenario the ASA has four IP pools defined, including the ISE_POOL previously created.

vpn ip assignment

The tunnel-group is explicitly configured with an address-pool called VPN_POOL_1, this assigned an IP address from the 192.168.14.0/24 address range.

vpn ip assignment

Without the ISE configuration to dynamically assign the VPN IP pool ISE_POOL users would receive and IP address from VPN_POOL_1.

From the CLI of the ASA, observe the output of the RADIUS debug. From the output below, we can confirm the Type = 217 attribute number and the value of ISE_POOL is received.

vpn ip assignment

From the output below we can confirm the user received an IP address of 192.168.17.10, which is from the ISE_POOL.

vpn ip assignment

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  • Access Server Tutorials

Tutorial: Set a Static IP Address for a User Through a Group Subnet

Set up a unique subnet using a group IP address network and Access Server will then have a subnet it can use for static IP address assignment.

This tutorial shows how to set up static IP address assignments for Access Server users through a group assignment. Alternatively, you can use a global static IP address network to assign a static IP address to a user .

Refer to this tutorial to set up a group dynamic IP address assignment.

Default Client Address Assignment

Access Server works with Layer 3 routing mode by default. In this mode, VPN clients are assigned addresses from a private subnet, which is different from other subnets used in your networks.

Access Server automatically assigns dynamic IP addresses to clients when they connect. This is usually done in sequential order until it reaches the end of the subnet portion available to the OpenVPN daemon the client connects with, at which point it starts reusing older addresses.

This behavior is similar to DHCP, but Access Server doesn't technically run a DHCP server. It's more like a rough emulation of assigning addresses automatically.

To find the subnet for VPN clients:

Sign in to the Admin Web UI.

Click Configuration > VPN Settings .

The IP address and netmask bits are displayed under Dynamic IP Address Network .

If you're configuring static IP address assignments for Access Server in layer 2 mode, you must set the IP address on the client system's virtual network adapter. (We no longer recommend or offer support for using Access Server in layer 2 mode.)

In our documentation, we use example IPv4 addresses and subnets reserved for documentation , such as 192.0.2.0/24 , 198.51.100.0/24 , and 203.0.113.0/24 .

Ensure you replace them with valid IPv4 addresses and subnets for your network(s).

Prerequisites

An installed Access Server .

User accounts .

At least one group account .

Step 1: Assign a group subnet

Click User Management > Group Permission .

Click More Settings for the group to assign the subnet.

Additional group settings display.

Enter the subnet for the static IP address network in Subnets assigned to this group (optional) under VPN IP Addresses .

group-subnet.png

Click Save Settings and Update Running Server .

Each subnet's first and last IP address in Access Server is reserved. Suppose you specify the subnet 198.51.100.0/24 . You should ensure you don't assign 198.51.100.1 or 198.51.100.254 to VPN clients.

We don't support public IP address subnets here. Access Server operates in a private network because it's a virtual private network solution. It's possible to force public IP addresses into Access Server's configuration, but we don't support that solution.

If helpful, you can refer to our subnet mask cheat sheet .

Step 2: Assign a static IP address to the user

Click User Management > User Permissions .

Click More Settings for the user to assign the static IP address.

Additional user settings display.

Under IP Addressing click Use Static .

Enter the static IP address into the VPN Static IP Address field.

user-static-IP.png

Ensure the IP address falls within the static IP address network you previously defined.

Access Server now assigns the static IP address to your user when they connect.

Step 3: Assign the user to the group

Finally, ensure the user is in the group you assigned the subnet:

Click the Group drop-down for the user.

Select the group from step 1.

assign-user-to-group.png

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Understanding IP Address Assignment: A Complete Guide

avatar

Introduction

In today's interconnected world, where almost every aspect of our lives relies on the internet, understanding IP address assignment is crucial for ensuring online security and efficient network management. An IP address serves as a unique identifier for devices connected to a network, allowing them to communicate with each other and access the vast resources available on the internet. Whether you're a technical professional, a network administrator, or simply an internet user, having a solid grasp of how IP addresses are assigned within the same network can greatly enhance your ability to troubleshoot connectivity issues and protect your data.

The Basics of IP Addresses

Before delving into the intricacies of IP address assignment in the same network, it's important to have a basic understanding of what an IP address is. In simple terms, an IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., 192.168.0.1) and can be either IPv4 or IPv6 format.

IP Address Allocation Methods

There are several methods used for allocating IP addresses within a network. One commonly used method is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP allows devices to obtain an IP address automatically from a central server, simplifying the process of managing large networks. Another method is static IP address assignment, where an administrator manually assigns specific addresses to devices within the network. This method provides more control but requires careful planning and documentation.

Considerations for Efficient IP Address Allocation

Efficient allocation of IP addresses is essential for optimizing network performance and avoiding conflicts. When assigning IP addresses, administrators need to consider factors such as subnetting, addressing schemes, and future scalability requirements. By carefully planning the allocation process and implementing best practices such as using private IP ranges and avoiding overlapping subnets, administrators can ensure smooth operation of their networks without running out of available addresses.

IP Address Assignment in the Same Network

When two routers are connected within the same network, they need to obtain unique IP addresses to communicate effectively. This can be achieved through various methods, such as using different subnets or configuring one router as a DHCP server and the other as a client. Understanding how IP address assignment works in this scenario is crucial for maintaining proper network functionality and avoiding conflicts.

Basics of IP Addresses

IP addresses are a fundamental aspect of computer networking that allows devices to communicate with each other over the internet. An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a network. It serves as an identifier for both the source and destination of data packets transmitted across the network.

The structure of an IP address consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., 192.168.0.1). Each set can range from 0 to 255, resulting in a total of approximately 4.3 billion possible unique combinations for IPv4 addresses. However, with the increasing number of devices connected to the internet, IPv6 addresses were introduced to provide a significantly larger pool of available addresses.

IPv4 addresses are still predominantly used today and are divided into different classes based on their range and purpose. Class A addresses have the first octet reserved for network identification, allowing for a large number of hosts within each network. Class B addresses reserve the first two octets for network identification and provide a balance between network size and number of hosts per network. Class C addresses allocate the first three octets for network identification and are commonly used in small networks.

With the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, IPv6 was developed to overcome this limitation by utilizing 128-bit addressing scheme, providing an enormous pool of potential IP addresses - approximately 3.4 x 10^38 unique combinations.

IPv6 addresses are represented in hexadecimal format separated by colons (e.g., 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334). The longer length allows for more efficient routing and eliminates the need for Network Address Translation (NAT) due to its vast address space.

Understanding these basics is essential when it comes to assigning IP addresses in a network. Network administrators must consider various factors such as the number of devices, network topology, and security requirements when deciding on the IP address allocation method.

In the next section, we will explore different methods of IP address assignment, including Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment. These methods play a crucial role in efficiently managing IP addresses within a network and ensuring seamless communication between devices.

Methods of IP Address Assignment

IP address assignment is a crucial aspect of network management and plays a vital role in ensuring seamless connectivity and efficient data transfer. There are primarily two methods of assigning IP addresses in a network: dynamic IP address assignment using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment.

Dynamic IP Address Assignment using DHCP

Dynamic IP address assignment is the most commonly used method in modern networks. It involves the use of DHCP servers, which dynamically allocate IP addresses to devices on the network. When a device connects to the network, it sends a DHCP request to the DHCP server, which responds by assigning an available IP address from its pool.

One of the key benefits of dynamic IP address assignment is its simplicity and scalability. With dynamic allocation, network administrators don't have to manually configure each device's IP address. Instead, they can rely on the DHCP server to handle this task automatically. This significantly reduces administrative overhead and makes it easier to manage large networks with numerous devices.

Another advantage of dynamic allocation is that it allows for efficient utilization of available IP addresses. Since addresses are assigned on-demand, there is no wastage of unused addresses. This is particularly beneficial in scenarios where devices frequently connect and disconnect from the network, such as in public Wi-Fi hotspots or corporate environments with a high turnover rate.

However, dynamic allocation does have some drawbacks as well. One potential issue is that devices may receive different IP addresses each time they connect to the network. While this might not be an issue for most users, it can cause problems for certain applications or services that rely on consistent addressing.

Additionally, dynamic allocation introduces a dependency on the DHCP server. If the server goes down or becomes unreachable, devices will not be able to obtain an IP address and will be unable to connect to the network. To mitigate this risk, redundant DHCP servers can be deployed for high availability.

Static IP Address Assignment

Static IP address assignment involves manually configuring each device's IP address within the network. Unlike dynamic allocation, where addresses are assigned on-demand, static assignment requires administrators to assign a specific IP address to each device.

One of the main advantages of static IP address assignment is stability. Since devices have fixed addresses, there is no risk of them receiving different addresses each time they connect to the network. This can be beneficial for applications or services that require consistent addressing, such as servers hosting websites or databases.

Static assignment also provides greater control over network resources. Administrators can allocate specific IP addresses to devices based on their requirements or security considerations. For example, critical servers or network infrastructure devices can be assigned static addresses to ensure their availability and ease of management.

However, static IP address assignment has its limitations as well. It can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially in large networks with numerous devices. Any changes to the network topology or addition/removal of devices may require manual reconfiguration of IP addresses, which can be a tedious task.

Furthermore, static allocation can lead to inefficient utilization of available IP addresses. Each device is assigned a fixed address regardless of whether it is actively using the network or not. This can result in wastage of unused addresses and may pose challenges in scenarios where addressing space is limited.

In order to efficiently allocate IP addresses within a network, there are several important considerations that need to be taken into account. By carefully planning and managing the allocation process, network administrators can optimize their IP address usage and ensure smooth operation of their network.

One of the key factors to consider when assigning IP addresses is the size of the network. The number of devices that will be connected to the network determines the range of IP addresses that will be required. It is essential to accurately estimate the number of devices that will need an IP address in order to avoid running out of available addresses or wasting them unnecessarily.

Another consideration is the type of devices that will be connected to the network. Different devices have different requirements in terms of IP address assignment. For example, servers and other critical infrastructure typically require static IP addresses for stability and ease of access. On the other hand, client devices such as laptops and smartphones can often use dynamic IP addresses assigned by a DHCP server.

The physical layout of the network is also an important factor to consider. In larger networks with multiple subnets or VLANs, it may be necessary to segment IP address ranges accordingly. This allows for better organization and management of IP addresses, making it easier to troubleshoot issues and implement security measures.

Security is another crucial consideration when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should implement measures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems to protect against unauthorized access or malicious activities. Additionally, assigning unique IP addresses to each device enables better tracking and monitoring, facilitating quick identification and response in case of any security incidents.

Efficient utilization of IP address ranges can also be achieved through proper documentation and record-keeping. Maintaining an up-to-date inventory of all assigned IP addresses helps prevent conflicts or duplicate assignments. It also aids in identifying unused or underutilized portions of the address space, allowing for more efficient allocation in the future.

Furthermore, considering future growth and scalability is essential when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should plan for potential expansion and allocate IP address ranges accordingly. This foresight ensures that there will be sufficient addresses available to accommodate new devices or additional network segments without disrupting the existing infrastructure.

In any network, the assignment of IP addresses is a crucial aspect that allows devices to communicate with each other effectively. When it comes to IP address assignment in the same network, there are specific considerations and methods to ensure efficient allocation. In this section, we will delve into how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses and discuss subnetting and IP address range distribution.

To understand how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses, it's essential to grasp the concept of subnetting. Subnetting involves dividing a larger network into smaller subnetworks or subnets. Each subnet has its own unique range of IP addresses that can be assigned to devices within that particular subnet. This division helps manage and organize large networks efficiently.

When it comes to assigning IP addresses within a subnet, there are various methods available. One common method is manual or static IP address assignment. In this approach, network administrators manually assign a specific IP address to each device within the network. Static IP addresses are typically used for devices that require consistent connectivity and need to be easily identifiable on the network.

Another widely used method for IP address assignment is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP is a networking protocol that enables automatic allocation of IP addresses within a network. With DHCP, a server is responsible for assigning IP addresses dynamically as devices connect to the network. This dynamic allocation ensures efficient utilization of available IP addresses by temporarily assigning them to connected devices when needed.

When considering efficient allocation of IP addresses in the same network, several factors come into play. One important consideration is proper planning and design of subnets based on anticipated device count and future growth projections. By carefully analyzing these factors, administrators can allocate appropriate ranges of IP addresses for each subnet, minimizing wastage and ensuring scalability.

Additionally, implementing proper security measures is crucial when assigning IP addresses in the same network. Network administrators should consider implementing firewalls, access control lists (ACLs), and other security mechanisms to protect against unauthorized access and potential IP address conflicts.

Furthermore, monitoring and managing IP address usage is essential for efficient allocation. Regular audits can help identify any unused or underutilized IP addresses that can be reclaimed and allocated to devices as needed. This proactive approach ensures that IP addresses are utilized optimally within the network.

The proper assignment of IP addresses is crucial for maintaining network security and efficiency. Throughout this guide, we have covered the basics of IP addresses, explored different methods of IP address assignment, and discussed considerations for efficient allocation.

In conclusion, understanding IP address assignment in the same network is essential for network administrators and technical professionals. By following proper allocation methods such as DHCP or static IP assignment, organizations can ensure that each device on their network has a unique identifier. This not only enables effective communication and data transfer but also enhances network security by preventing unauthorized access.

Moreover, considering factors like subnetting, scalability, and future growth can help optimize IP address allocation within a network. Network administrators should carefully plan and allocate IP addresses to avoid conflicts or wastage of resources.

Overall, a well-managed IP address assignment process is vital for the smooth functioning of any network. It allows devices to connect seamlessly while ensuring security measures are in place. By adhering to best practices and staying updated with advancements in networking technology, organizations can effectively manage their IP address assignments.

In conclusion, this guide has provided a comprehensive overview of IP address assignment in the same network. We hope it has equipped you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions regarding your network's IP address allocation. Remember that proper IP address assignment is not only important for connectivity but also plays a significant role in maintaining online security and optimizing network performance.

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VPN Connects but cannot access remote network computers or folders

I am connecting to a remote network via Windows 10 VPN. I can make the connection but cannot access the remote's local network even though I have allowed access on the Server's Incoming setting. The login account has read/write permissions to the local shares.

Both Remote and Client have different local IPs

Client - from 200.200.200.1

Server - from 192.168.1.1

The VPN assigns the IPs between 2.2.2.1 to 2.2.2.10

On Connection, the Server gets the IP 2.2.2.2 while the Client has the IP 2.2.2.8

Typing in \\2.2.2.2\My Documents into the Explorer Window gets "Windows Cannot access \\2.2.2.2\My Documents"

SMB is enabled on both machines.

I can Remote Desktop between both machines.

1723 is forwarded.

I am unable to access the folders/files either on the lan or wan through VPN but I can access the folders via the local neighborhood network.

MaturaUU's user avatar

  • Did you enable a subnet-wide mask on your network (255.255.255.0) ? –  anon Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 22:12
  • The subnet on both machines is 255.255.255.0 but the VPN's subnet is 255.255.255.255. Do I need to change the VPN's 255.255.255.255 to 255.255.255.0? I see no option in the Incoming Connection setting. –  MaturaUU Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 22:30
  • Try addressing the folder resources by IP address. I am not sure what you mean be VPN subnet. In the VPN remote group settings, it should allow all addresses. So I think you need to change this based on your description. –  anon Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 22:32
  • Do you mean by the VPN's assigned IP \\2.2.2.2\? because I tried that also tried the Public IP. When connected to the remote computer, in network connection I see the client connected. In the Status box it states IPv4 and IPv6 Connectivity as "Not Connected", Media State "Connected". –  MaturaUU Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 22:44
  • I am not sure. In my VPN (IPsec), security and basic VPN connection has to succeed before folders can be mapped. So I am not certain here. –  anon Commented Aug 28, 2021 at 22:47

Refer to this video for the solution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOG-UlXNmDw

Things to do:

  • Make sure that the VPN Server's IP assignment is within the DHCP Pool. I was using from 2.2.2.1 when I should have used from 192.168.1.1 (eg 192.168.1.50 to 192.168.1.59)
  • Allow UDP 1723 in the Inbound rules of Windows Firewall
  • Also in the Inbound Rules, the Public Profile for "File and Printer Sharing (SMB-In)", in the Scope Tab add "Internet" to the Remote IP Addresses.

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Always On VPN Client IP Address Assignment Methods

vpn ip assignment

When Always On VPN clients connect to the VPN server, they must be assigned an IP address to facilitate network communication. When using Windows Server and Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) for VPN services, administrators must choose between Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static address pool assignment methods.

DHCP is a quick and easy way to handle VPN client IP address assignment. However, there are some drawbacks and limitations associated with this option. Consider the following.

DHCP for Always On VPN clients does not work as you might expect. For example, when a VPN client connects, it does not obtain its IP address directly from the DHCP server. Instead, the VPN server leases a block of IP addresses from the DHCP server and manages those on behalf of its clients. On the DHCP server, you will see the Unique ID column of these IP address leases indicating RAS .

vpn ip assignment

Address Block Size

After configuring the VPN server to use DHCP VPN client IP address assignment, the VPN server will automatically lease a block of ten IP addresses from a DHCP server. When this initial block of ten IP addresses is exhausted, the VPN server will lease another block of ten IP addresses. Administrators can increase the size of the requested address block by creating the following registry key on each VPN server.

Key: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\RemoteAccess\Parameters\IP Value: InitialAddressPoolSize Type: DWORD Data: <size of DHCP pool request>

Alternatively, administrators can download Update-VpnServerDhcpPoolSize.ps1 from my GitHub repository and run it on each VPN server to increase the size of the initial DHCP address pool request.

DHCP Options

The VPN server discards all DHCP option information returned by the DHCP server. The VPN server uses only the IP address from the DHCP lease. The client is unaware of any other information in the DHCP lease.

By default, the VPN server will only request DHCP addresses from a scope that matches the same subnet as the IP address assigned to the VPN server’s network adapter. If the VPN server has more than one network interface, it will send DHCP requests from the network interface listed on the Adapter drop-down list, as shown here.

vpn ip assignment

Note: This option is only available on servers configured with multiple network interfaces. Also, if the value is set to Allow RAS to select adapter , it is best to specifically define the network interface where DHCP and DNS requests are made.

When using the DHCP assignment method, ensure the DHCP scope contains enough IP addresses to support the number of concurrent connections expected on all VPN servers.

DHCPv6 is not supported on RRAS for VPN client IP address assignment. The only option for IPv6 is prefix assignment.

vpn ip assignment

RRAS in Azure

DHCP is not supported when deploying RRAS in Azure. Administrators deploying RRAS in Azure to support Always On VPN must use the static address pool assignment method. More details here .

Known Issues

When using DHCP with Windows Server 2019 RRAS servers, a known issue prevents this from working correctly. Administrators can download Update-VpnServerDhcpPrivileges.ps1 from my GitHub repository and run it on each VPN server to ensure proper DHCP operation.

Increased Complexity

Since the VPN server leases IP addresses on behalf of clients and discards DHCP option information included in the lease, there’s no real benefit to using DHCP. Using DHCP only adds complexity and introduces another dependency, making the solution more brittle and difficult to manage. Using the static address pool assignment method is a better choice.

Static Pool

Implementation best practices dictate using the static address pool assignment method instead of DHCP. The following is guidance for configuring RRAS to support the static address pool option for VPN client IP address assignment.

Unique Subnet

Using a unique IP subnet is best when using the static address pool assignment method. However, this also requires configuring internal network routing to return traffic for that subnet to the individual VPN server where that subnet is assigned. Each server must have a unique IP address pool assigned. Define static address pools using subnet boundaries when configuring multiple VPN servers. Assigning IP address pools along subnet boundaries simplifies internal network routing configuration. Ensure that assigned IP address pool subnets are large enough to accommodate the total number of concurrent connections expected on each server. Be sure to overprovision to handle failover scenarios.

Same Subnet

Alternatively, administrators can assign VPN client IP addresses from the same subnet as the VPN server’s network interface. Assigning VPN client IP addresses from the same subnet as the VPN server eliminates the need for any internal network routing configuration, simplifying deployment. However, server subnets are often small and may not have enough IP address space to support numerous concurrent VPN connections. Be sure to plan accordingly.

Static IP Addresses

It is possible to assign a static IP address to an individual user. However, assigning a static IP address to a specific device is not. I will discuss static IP address assignments for Always On VPN clients in a future blog post.

Other Limitations

Here are some additional things to consider when creating a VPN client IP addressing strategy.

Always On VPN clients can be configured to register their IP address in DNS. However, the VPN client configuration controls this setting. The DHCP server does not register IP addresses in DNS when using DHCP. The client registers its IP address in DNS directly after it connects. In addition, a VPN client will receive a different IP address each time it connects to the VPN server. DNS propagation can delay hostname resolution on-premises for remote-connected VPN clients.

Selective Addressing

Regardless of which assignment method is selected, assigning different IP addresses to different types of connections is not possible. For example, a common ask is to assign user connections from one IP address pool and device connections from another. The only option to support this is to use different servers for each type of connection.

The best practice for IPv4 VPN client addressing is to use the static address pool method with a unique IPv4 subnet per server. Using static address pool assignment provides the most flexible configuration options and eliminates the dependency on internal services, making the solution more resilient and easier to manage. A unique address pool per server ensures that a large enough subnet can be defined to support the expected number of concurrent connections, regardless of the subnet size the VPN server is assigned to. Also, a unique IP subnet for VPN clients makes configuring internal firewall rules to control VPN client access easier.

Additional Information

Always On VPN and IPv6

Always On VPN Client DNS Server Configuration

Always On VPN Routing Configuration

Always On VPN RRAS Internal Interface Non-Operational

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Posted by Richard M. Hicks on February 12, 2024

https://directaccess.richardhicks.com/2024/02/12/always-on-vpn-client-ip-address-assignment-methods/

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How are VPN Clients given IP addresses when they connect to VPN Routers such as VyOS? (How do Virtual IP Address Pools fit in?)

I'd like to know the nitty gritty details of how VPN Remote Clients are given Private IP Addresses on a Remote Network when they connect to the StrongSWAN or OpenVPN VPN Server that's embedded in VyOS Routers, as well as how Virtual IP Address Pools fit in the process.

In the past, I just assumed that VPN Servers built into Routers established a virtual tunnel exit point as a point of entry for remote clients to connect to a remote network, and pointed the remote clients to DHCP Servers that existed on the Remote LAN, but then I started noticing that Several VPN Solutions mention something called Virtual IP Address Pools ("VIPAPs"), which made me question if there's more going on then I'd previously thought.

  • What exactly are "VIPAPs" why do they exist? What purpose do they serve?
  • Are "VIPAPs" separate from DHCP? (which also has a pool of reserved addresses)
  • Are "VIPAPs" dynamically generated based on the DHCP pool range?
  • If "VIPAPs" have statically set ranges, should they perfectly overlap DHCP range or should they be part of a reserved space outside of DHCP pool range?

Here's my Current Understanding:

I believe that in the past you used to have WAN -> Basic Firewall/Router and establish port forwarding of ports associated with VPN connections to a VPN server on the LAN. Such as a OpenVPN Server or StrongSWAN VPN Server. Now adays a mini OpenVPN Server exists on pfSense Firewalls, and a mini StrongSWAN VPN Server exists on VyOS Routers (and if you put these on the edge you don't need to forward ports.)

strongswan.org mentions something about a Virtual IP address pool. Let's pretend we have a 1 ethernet port computer acting as a StrongSWAN VPN Server. My understanding is that by default port forwarding (or DMZ) sort of remaps the WAN IP to the Laptop's private IP so it's accessible from the internet when behind a Firewall/NAT'd Router. And by default, the Server's Ethernet Port has a Private IP address 10.0.0.100, and a Virtual Network Adapter tunnel interface with an IP address in a 3rd subnet that's only used for routing through the virtual tunnel. Then whenever a remote client connects to the VPN Server, the VPN Server attaches a Virtual IP Address to it's Ethernet Port, which represents the client.

How it gets that Virtual IP Address for the client is the part that's confusing me.

Normally when I attach a new computer to my network, it gets an IP from DHCP's DORA process which occurs at layer 2. It gets DNS and subnet info from the O stage of DORA process. A VPN client would be coming into the network at layer 3, and not have a layer 2 presense on the remote network, and thus couldn't use DHCP which operates at layer 2.

Maybe when a client connects to a VPN Server, the VPN server makes a virtual network interface on the VPN Server to give the client a Layer 2 presence on the remote network, and the VPN Server initiates DHCP DORA process by proxy on behalf of the remote client, and then the DHCP server on the remote network assigns an IP address with DNS info to a virtual network interface that exists on the VPN Server and this virtual network interface represents the remote client? (Not saying it works like that, just saying I'm trying to visualize how it might work.)

But if it's that simple then why does something called Virtual IP Address Pool exist? Or am I getting my concepts mixed up and VIPAPs have nothing to do with remote DHCP resolution?

neoakris's user avatar

  • This url makes me think my understanding was right that it was that simple, and that "VIPAPs" are an alternative to DHCP. help.stonesoft.com/onlinehelp/StoneGate/SMC/5.4.5/SGAG/… T –  neoakris Commented Jan 8, 2018 at 1:25
  • This was one of the original URLs that confused me, the author mentions they have an OpenVPN Server running on a host configured with private DHCP pool 172.16.10.0/24 and OpenVPN pool of 172.16.11.0/24 networkengineering.stackexchange.com/questions/881/… –  neoakris Commented Jan 8, 2018 at 1:34
  • Unfortunately, questions about home networking, consumer-grade devices, and host/server configurations are all off-topic here. You could try to ask this question on Super User . –  Ron Maupin ♦ Commented Jan 8, 2018 at 1:56
  • I'd argue that is protocol theory, making it on-topic –  Ron Trunk Commented Jan 8, 2018 at 2:09
  • 2 DHCP is not a layer-3 protocol, and it is nominally off-topic here. " it uses ARP layer 2 broadcast to find a DHCP server who then hands out a Layer 3 IP address and DNS info. " That is incorrect. IPv4 DHCP requests are broadcast, which is how they find a server, but there are DHCP relays. ARP and DHCP have nothing to do with each other, although both use broadcast for IPv4. IPv6 doesn't have broadcast, and it uses a standard multicast address for DHCP server discovery, nor does it have ARP. –  Ron Maupin ♦ Commented Jan 8, 2018 at 9:31

2 Answers 2

DHCP requires a link layer which doesn't really exist for VPN clients. Usually, a routed VPN connection is used and the VIPAP pool is used instead of the non-existent DHCP pool.

With a bridged VPN connection, the VPN client uses an address in the same subnet as the VPN server. However, the bridge is not fully functional and DHCP doesn't work - the server uses proxy ARP to route the frames into the tunnel.

For a clean setup, DHCP and VIPAP shouldn't overlap. I suppose that already used IP addresses aren't re-used but I wouldn't depend on that. Additionally, you should always use routed VPN with a dedicated subnet unless bridging is absolutely necessary.

For the client, there is no difference between DHCP and VIPAP. At least the Windows OpenVPN TAP interface used to claim it's got a DHCP address.

Zac67's user avatar

  • Ok so there are 2 types of VPN connections: Bridged VPN and Routed VPN. With Routed VPN the client enters at layer 3 (and thus has no layer 2 presence on the remote network), and thus need Proxy ARP and can't participate in DHCP's DORA Process as it operates at layer 2. So VIPAPs had to come into existence as an alternative to DHCP for this scenario. (DNS info is usually given to the client during the O stage of DORA DHCP process, do you manually set DNS server when creating a VIPAP pool? or is there another way the remote client gets DNS info about the remote network?) –  neoakris Commented Jan 9, 2018 at 4:45
  • The second from the bottom paragraph of my understanding in my question clarifies a way for a remote client to gain a Layer 2 presence on the remote network, any idea about if my theory to how Bridge VPNs work is accurate? If it is it'd mean that VIPAPs aren't needed for Bridged VPNs/they'd only apply to Routed VPNs. I'm guessing VIPAP and DHCP aren't designed to directly talk with each other so separate subnets as a best practice makes since. –  neoakris Commented Jan 9, 2018 at 4:47
  • Can you elaborate on what you mean by "However, the bridge is not fully functional and DHCP doesn't work" specifically the part about the bridge is not fully functional? (Are you just referring to the lack of ability to pass certain protocols through as if you were on the local network? Like how basic IPSEC tunnels can't forward multicast, VTI IPSEC tunnels can forward multicast but not legacy protocols like IPX/Apple Talk, but GRE tunnel inside IPSEC tunnel is a fully functional bridge in that it can forward all traffic including legacy protocols as if you were physically connected.) –  neoakris Commented Jan 9, 2018 at 4:52
  • OpenVPN in bridge mode does not implement a fully functional bridge. For instance, MAC addresses are not learned from the VPN link, the router just knows them. You can't put the VPN client in bridge mode (through additional software) and expect the two bridges to work. OpenVPN always works more like a router, its bridge mode only emulates a real bridge. VIPAP can be interpreted as part of that emulation. –  Zac67 ♦ Commented Jan 9, 2018 at 12:09
  • Do you have a source for that claim? In my experiance using openvpn in bridge mode in conjuction with linux bridging to join two ethernet networks together works just fine. –  Peter Green Commented Jun 15, 2018 at 19:53

The answer is that it depends entirely on the VPN Technology being used:

VTI Diagram

  • Remote-Access VPN OpenVPN/SSL/TLS Based VPN Technology: Client PC would install VPN client software which would install a virtual network adapter, which would be configured to form a connection with the remote OpenVPN Router. This virtual network adapter wouldn't get an IP address from the local DHCP server and it wouldn't get an IP address from the remote DHCP server either, instead, it'd get a Virtual IP Address(VIP) from a pool reserved for VPN clients, and this pool would need to be configured to give DNS information as well (as normally you'd get DNS info from the DHCP server). So what ends up happening is that the client PC has: -A physical interface with an IP address on their local LAN with their local DNS. -A Virtual interface with a VIP address that exists on the remote LAN that's configured with whatever DNS the remote pool was configured with. -The ability to ping local servers and remote servers by local private ip, remote private ip, local DNS resolution, and remote DNS resolution. Pro: This would work regardless of what network the client was connected to. Con: Need to install software and have a configuration on the client.

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Configure Static IP Address Assignment to AnyConnect Users via RADIUS Authorization

vpn ip assignment

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Bias-Free Language

The documentation set for this product strives to use bias-free language. For the purposes of this documentation set, bias-free is defined as language that does not imply discrimination based on age, disability, gender, racial identity, ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality. Exceptions may be present in the documentation due to language that is hardcoded in the user interfaces of the product software, language used based on RFP documentation, or language that is used by a referenced third-party product. Learn more about how Cisco is using Inclusive Language.

Introduction

This document describes how to configure RADIUS Authorization with an Identity Services Engine (ISE) server so it always forwards the same IP address to the Firepower Threat Defense (FTD) for a specific Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client user via the RADIUS Attribute 8 Framed-IP-Address.

Prerequisites

Requirements.

Cisco recommends that you have knowledge of these topics:

  • Firepower Management Center (FMC)
  • Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client
  • RADIUS protocol

Components Used

The information in this document is based on these software versions:

  • FMCv - 7.0.0 (build 94)
  • FTDv - 7.0.0 (Build 94)
  • ISE - 2.7.0.356
  • AnyConnect - 4.10.02086
  • Windows 10 Pro

The information in this document was created from the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices used in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, ensure that you understand the potential impact of any command.

Network Diagram

Configure remote access vpn with aaa/radius authentication via fmc.

For a step-by-step procedure, refer to this document and this video:

  • AnyConnect Remote Access VPN Configuration on FTD
  • Initial AnyConnect Configuration for FTD Managed by FMC

Remo t e Access VPN configura tion on the FTD CLI is:

Configure Authorization Policy on ISE (RADIUS Server)

Step 1. Log in to the ISE server and navigate to Administration > Network Resources > Network Devices .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_16

Step 2. In the Network Devices section, click Add so ISE can process RADIUS Access Requests from the FTD.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_17

Enter the network device Name and IP Address fields and then check RADIUS Authentication Settings box. The Shared Secret must be the same value that was used when the RADIUS Server object on FMC was created.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_18

Save it with the button at the end of this page.

Step 3. Navigate to Administration > Identity Management > Identities .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_19

Step 4. In the Network Access Users section, click Add in order to create user1 in ISE's local database.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_20

Enter username and password in the Name and Login Password fields, and then click Submit .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_21

Step 5. Repeat the previous steps in order to create user2 .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_22

Step 6. Navigate to Policy > Policy Sets .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_23

Step 7. Click the arrow > on the right side of the screen.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_24

Step 8. Click the arrow > next to Authorization Policy to expand it. Now, Click the + symbol in order to add a new rule.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_25

Provide a name to the rule an select the + symbol under Conditions column.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_26

Click in the Attribute Editor textbox and click the Subject icon. Scroll down until you find RADIUS User-Name attribute and choose it.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_27

Keep Equals as the operator and enter user1 in the text box next to it. Click Use in order to save the attribute.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_28

The condition for this rule is now set.

Step 9. In the Results / Profiles column, click the + symbol and choose Create a New Authorization Profile .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_29

Give it a Name and keep ACCESS_ACCEPT as the Access Type . Scroll down to the Advance Attributes Settings section.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_30

Click the orange arrow and choose Radius > Framed-IP-Address--[8] .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_31

Type the IP address that you want to statically assign always to this user and click Save .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_32

Step 10. Now, choose the newly created Authorization Profile.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_33

The Authorization rule is now all set. Click Save .

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_34

Step 1. Navigate to your client machine where the Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility client is installed. Connect to your FTD headend (a Windows machine is used here) and enter the user1 credentials.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_35

Click the gear icon (lower left corner) and navigate to the Statistics tab. Confirm in the Address Information section that the IP address assigned is indeed the one configured on ISE Authorization policy for this user.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_36_

The debug radius all command output on FTD shows:

The FTD logs show:

The RADIUS Live logs on ISE show:

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_40

Step 2. Connect to your FTD headend (a Windows machine is used here) and enter the user2 credentials.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_38

The Address Information section shows that the IP address assigned is indeed the first IP address available in the IPv4 local pool configured via FMC.

TZ_Static_IP_Address_RADIUS_Authorization_39

Note : You mus t use differen t IP address ranges for IP address assignment on bo t h F T D ip local pool and ISE Au t horiza t ion policies in order t o avoid duplica t e IP address conflic ts among your AnyConnec t Clien t s. In t his configura t ion example, F T D was configured wi th an IPv4 local pool from 10.0.50.1 t hrough 10.0.50.100 and ISE server assigns s t a t ic IP address of 10.0.50.101.

Troubleshoot

This section provides the information you can use in order to troubleshoot your configuration.

  • debug radius all
  • RADIUS live logs

Revision History

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TAC Authored

Contributed by Cisco Engineers

  • David Rivera Perez Cisco TAC Engineer

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Manage a public IP address with a VPN gateway

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Public IP addresses are available in two SKUs; standard, and basic. The selection of SKU determines the features of the IP address. The SKU determines the resources that the IP address can be associated with.

A VPN gateway is a virtual network gateway used to send encrypted traffic between an Azure virtual network and an on-premises location over the public Internet. You can also use a VPN gateway to send encrypted traffic between Azure virtual networks over the Microsoft network. Each virtual network can have only one VPN gateway. A VPN gateway requires a public IP address for its configuration. A public IP address is used as the external connection point of the VPN.

VPN gateway supports standard and basic SKU public IP addresses depending on the SKU of the VPN gateway. Public IP prefixes aren't supported.

In this article, you learn how to create a VPN gateway using an existing public IP in your subscription.

Prerequisites

  • An Azure account with an active subscription. Create one for free .
  • For the purposes of the examples in this article, name the new public IP addresses myStandardPublicIP .

Create VPN gateway using existing public IP

In this section, you create a VPN gateway. You select the IP address you created in the prerequisites as the public IP for the VPN gateway.

Create virtual network

Sign in to the Azure portal .

In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Virtual network .

In the search results, select Virtual networks .

Select + Create .

In Create virtual network , enter or select the following information.

Setting Value
Subscription Select your subscription.
Resource group Select .
Enter .
Select .
Name Enter .
Region Select .

Select the Review + create tab, or select the blue Review + create button.

Select Create .

Select myVNET in Virtual networks .

Select Subnets in Settings of myVNET .

Select + Gateway subnet .

In Add subnet , change the Subnet address range from /24 to /27 .

Select Save .

Create VPN gateway

In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Virtual network gateway .

In the search results, select Virtual network gateways .

In Create virtual network gateway , enter or select the following information.

Setting Value
Subscription Select your subscription.
Name Enter .
Region Select .
Gateway type Leave the default of .
VPN type Leave the default of .
SKU Select .
Virtual network Select .
Subnet Entry will autoselect you created earlier
Public IP address Select .
Choose public IP address Select or your public IP address
Enable active-active mode Leave the default of .
Configure BGP Leave the default of .

This is a simple deployment of a VPN gateway. For advanced configuration and setup, see Tutorial: Create and manage a VPN gateway using Azure portal .

For more information on Azure VPN Gateway, see What is VPN Gateway?

Change or remove public IP address

VPN Gateway doesn't support changing the primary public IP address after creation.

  • Public IPv6 addresses aren't supported for VPN Gateways at this time.

In this article, you learned how to create a VPN gateway using an existing public IP address.

  • To learn more about public IP addresses in Azure, see Public IP addresses .
  • To learn more about VPN gateways, see What is VPN Gateway?

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How to Change Your IP Address With and Without a VPN

You can refresh your IP address using several methods. Here's how to do it with a VPN, a proxy server, restarting your router, and manually or automatically updating it on your device.

vpn ip assignment

Every internet-connected device has an IP address containing information about your general geographic location and internet service provider. Often, you don't have to think about an IP address — they're automatically assigned to internet-connected devices. But sometimes you’ll have to get a new IP address.

There are several ways to get a fresh IP address, including a virtual private network, a proxy server, rebooting your router or manually obtaining a new IP. Here are all the ways you can change your IP address.

How to change your IP address using a VPN

A laptop and mobile devices

A VPN doesn't change your device's IP address but instead reroutes your traffic through an encrypted server so that apps and websites don't view your IP, but that of the server you're connected to. Essentially, it makes apps or websites think you have a different IP address. Your ISP can't see your online activity, like the apps you're using or websites you're visiting, and sites or apps view your traffic as originating from your VPN company's server. VPNs are great for situations where you want extra privacy, need to access geo-blocked content or have to bypass throttling restrictions and censorship.

Here's how to hide your IP address with a VPN:

  • Sign up for a plan with a VPN provider .
  • Download and install a VPN app on your device.
  • Open the newly installed VPN app and sign in.
  • Enable your VPN and select your preferred server.

The exact process for using a VPN varies slightly by device. You can quickly test whether your VPN is working correctly by looking up your IP address with your VPN toggled off and then on — the IP addresses shouldn't match.

How to change your IP address using a proxy server

A proxy server and VPN are similar because they're both middlemen between your device and the internet. Like VPNs, proxies hide your IP address from apps and websites. However, a proxy server doesn't encrypt your connection, so the connection isn't as secure or private as a VPN. A proxy may work for basic pseudo-anonymity for web browsing or streaming videos, but for an encrypted connection, you'll need a virtual private network. Before I switched to a VPN, I used a proxy service — GetFlix — to unblock geo-restricted content, like streaming TV shows from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation while in the US.

Setting up a proxy server differs depending on the platform you're using. Generally, you'll configure your proxy server address in your device's settings, enable your proxy and choose an IP address. Some proxy services include user-friendly apps, so you can just download an app, sign in, start your proxy and pick a server.

How to change your IP address by resetting your router

A wireless router with antenna extended

Rebooting your router is a simple method for obtaining a new IP address:

  • Check your IP address and make a note of it.
  • Unplug your router for a minimum of five minutes.
  • Plug your router back in — it may take a few minutes for your internet connection to return.
  • Reconnect your device to your network if it doesn’t automatically do so.
  • Recheck your IP address — this time, it should be different than it was when you first looked.

Your router assigns IP addresses to each connected device, so resetting it is supposed to make it forget your gadget and dole out a fresh IP address. Usually, it works, but sometimes it doesn't. If you still see the same IP address from before after a router reboot, try resetting your router again or for a longer period of time. Folks with a separate router and modem may need to reset both networking devices to obtain a new IP address.

How to change your IP address automatically or manually

System preferences on a laptop

Most devices let you easily update your IP address automatically, meaning you won't need to know a free IP address to use, unlike manually configuring an IP. Updating your IP address automatically is more user-friendly — you won't need to know a free IP address on your network to use. But sometimes you'll want to manually add an IP, like if you're running a home server and wish to assign a static IP address — for example, I host a Plex server and have a static IP address set up. Here's how to update your IP address manually and automatically on different platforms.

How to change your IP address on Windows

To automatically refresh your IP address:

  • Open the Run dialog box by simultaneously pressing the Windows key and R button ( Win + R ). Alternatively, you can head to the Start Menu and search for Run.
  • Type CMD and tap Enter to open a command prompt.
  • Type ipconfig /release and hit Enter to give up the current IP address of your Windows machine.
  • Type ipconfig /renew and tap Enter to get a new IP address automatically.

To manually update your IP address:

  • Head to Start .
  • Go to Settings .
  • Select the Network & internet tab.
  • Click Wi-Fi if you're using a wireless network or Ethernet for a wired connection.
  • For Wi-Fi, select [network name] properties (for instance, my W-Fi name is WuTangSecret, so I clicked WuTangSecret properties ). With Ethernet, you don't need to select anything else to get to the IP assignment screen.
  • Next to IP assignment , click Edit .
  • Click Manual .
  • Toggle on IPv4 or IPv6 , whichever you'd like to use or your router and modem support.
  • Punch in the IP address you want to use.  

Alternatively, you can switch your IP address from the Control Panel:

  • Open the Control Panel .
  • Click Network and Internet .
  • Visit the Network and Sharing Center .
  • Select your network.
  • Choose Properties .
  • Click TCP/IP .
  • Punch in the IP address you want to use. 

How to change your IP address on Mac

To automatically get a new IP address:

  • Visit System Settings .
  • Click Network .
  • Select Wi-Fi , then the Details button next to your network.
  • Select TCP/IP .
  • Pick Renew DHCP Lease .

To manually obtain a fresh IP address:

  • Go to System Settings .
  • Choose Configure IPv4 > Manually or Configure IPv6 > Manually .
  • Type in your desired IP address.

How to change your IP address on Linux

  • Open the Application (you can do this by pressing the super key, which is the Windows button or Command key on an Apple keyboard).
  • Launch the Connections application.
  • Select your network, then click the IPv4 or IPv6 tab.
  • Switch Method to Manual .
  • Enter the IP address of your desired DNS server in the DNS Servers section.

Note that these instructions might vary slightly depending on the specific Linux operating system you're using, but should generally be the same for most Debian-based OSes, like Ubuntu, Kubuntu or Linux Mint.

How to change your IP address on Android

  • Head to Settings .
  • Tap Wi-Fi .
  • Press the i button beside the Wi-Fi network you're connected to.
  • To automatically get a new IP address: Tap Forget to disconnect from your wireless network — it's a trashcan icon. Then reconnect to your Wi-Fi network and you should get a new IP address.
  • To manually refresh your IP address: Tap IP settings . Select Static . Enter the IP address you'd like to use.

How to change your IP address on iOS and iPadOS

  • Select your wireless network.
  • Press Configure IP .
  • Pick Automatic to automatically refresh your IP address, or tap Manual , then punch in an IP address of your choice.

What is an IP address?

An Internet Protocol — or IP — address is a unique string of four numbers used to identify an internet-connected device. For instance, your IP address might look like 192.168.1.96. An IP address is like a phone number. Similar to your cell phone number, your IP address contains information about your geographical location. You can look up your own IP address using a website like the aptly-named WhatIsMyIPAddress , where you’ll find information such as your internet service provider and your approximate region.

Why would you want to change your IP address?

If you can view info like your ISP and general physical location by looking up your IP address, other entities — your ISP, websites you visit or apps you use — can glean this sort of data as well. You might want to change your IP address for privacy reasons. 

Some apps and websites, like streaming services, are region-restricted, so you can't access them outside of certain countries. A new IP address from a specific country can help unblock geo-protected content, like foreign Netflix libraries.

You can change your IP address to circumvent censorship, like viewing websites blocked by your government or school administration. Likewise, a fresh IP address could allow you to bypass throttling restrictions from your ISP or mobile carrier.

Changing IP addresses may help you get your device working again if there's an issue with its connectivity to your router or modem, which is helpful for IT troubleshooting.

How to change your IP address FAQs

Is it possible to change your ip address.

It is possible to change your IP address. You can refresh your IP address using a VPN, with a proxy server, by restarting your router or manually and automatically refreshing your IP address on your device.

Is it legal to change your IP address?

In the US, it is legal to change your IP address. Often, your IP address may even update automatically when reconnecting to your Wi-Fi network. But altering your device’s IP address to impersonate a person or business, which is called IP spoofing, could violate the US Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. So long as you’re abiding by local laws, simply changing your IP address should be completely legal.

Can you change your IP address for free?

You can change your IP address for free. In fact, most methods for getting a new IP address -- manually or automatically updating your IP address and restarting your router -- don’t cost any money. Using a proxy server or VPN service might, although you can use a free VPN like Proton VPN’s no-cost tier to change your IP address without spending a dime.

Does resetting a router change your IP address?

Yes, restarting your router normally changes your IP address if you’re using a dynamic IP address. But if you’re using a static IP, it won’t automatically update with a router reset -- instead, you’ll need to manually update it.

Does your IP address change when you use different Wi-Fi?

Yes, your IP address changes when you use a different Wi-Fi network. However, you can establish a static IP address so you’ll always use the same IP address on a particular wireless network, but you can’t configure the same IP address to use across all Wi-Fi networks.

How can you look up your current IP address?

You can quickly find out your current IP address by using a website like WhatIsMyIPAddress .

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How to Get UK IP Address: A Comprehensive Guide

In an increasingly globalized world, accessing region-specific content can be a challenge. Whether you’re an expat yearning for your favorite British TV shows, a traveler needing to access UK-only websites, or someone looking to enhance online privacy through a UK IP address, a good understanding of how to work around these limitations is essential.

In this guide, we’ll show you a way to obtain a British IP address fast and easy, then discuss the benefits of having one. Let’s jump in!

UK IP address benefits

Before we dive into how to get a UK IP address, let’s first understand the main benefits of it. Simply put, a UK IP address allows you to access content and services that are only available within the United Kingdom. This could include streaming sites like BBC iPlayer or Channel 4, using online banking services, and even accessing government websites.

Normally, IP addresses are assigned based on your physical location, so if you’re not physically in the UK, you won’t be able to access these region-specific websites and services. However, by obtaining a UK IP address, you can trick these sites into thinking that you are located within the UK, granting you access to all the content and services that come with it.

You can think of it this way — having a UK IP address is like having a passport to all the online content and services that are exclusive to the United Kingdom, regardless of your physical location.

How to get UK IP address?

Now that we’ve established the importance of having a UK IP address, let’s explore the various methods you can use to obtain one.

Proxy servers

mars proxies

A good example of a proxy server is Mars Proxies — a premium proxy provider that offers UK-based proxies. You can purchase their services and set up the proxy on your device to obtain a UK IP address (starts at $4.99 per month for their Ultra Residential Plan).

However, keep in mind that proxy servers have their limitations, such as slower internet speeds and potential security risks. While they may work for basic web browsing, they might not be suitable for tasks like streaming or online banking.

Tor browser

tor browser

The Tor browser works a bit differently than a proxy server, as it routes your internet traffic through multiple servers in different locations, including the UK. This can be a more secure option compared to proxies, but it also comes with slower internet speeds.

Apart from a donation-based system, the Tor browser is entirely free to use and can be installed on most devices including Linux and Android.

Get UK IP address with a VPN

Inarguably the best and most secure way to get a UK IP address is by using a Virtual Private Network (VPN). A VPN encrypts your internet traffic and routes it through their server network, making it appear as if you’re accessing the web from a different location.

The advantage of using a VPN over proxies or Tor browser is that it offers faster speeds, better security features (AES 256), and can also unblock geo-restricted content on streaming sites like Netflix or Amazon Prime Video. Plus, unlike most proxy servers, most premium VPNs are extremely easy to use and come with user-friendly apps for all devices.

Take ClearVPN for example — a fast and reliable premium VPN provider that offers a UK server among many others. With ClearVPN, you can easily connect to UK servers from anywhere in the world in just a few easy steps:

  • Download and install the ClearVPN app on your device. The premium VPN service works on a PC, macOS, Android, or iOS devices (iPhones or iPads). Note that for mobile devices, you’ll need to get the app via the Apple app store or the Google Play Store.
  • Run the ClearVPN app and sign-up for an account. While you can explore the app for free, you’ll need to purchase a subscription (starts at $9.99 per month) to access premium features such as the ability to choose a specific server location (UK).

new clearvpn main screen mac

And that’s it! With ClearVPN, you can easily get a UK IP address and access all the region-specific content and services that come with it. Plus, you get access to advanced features like kill switches, split-tunneling, and ad-blockers to enhance your online privacy even further.

How to access UK websites from abroad?

To access UK websites from abroad, use a VPN to connect to a UK server. This changes your IP address, making it appear as if you are browsing from within the UK, allowing you to access region-locked content and services seamlessly.

Is it illegal to change your IP address to UK?

No, it is not illegal to change your IP address to the UK. All methods mentioned in this guide are essentially privacy tools that allow you to access region-specific content and services without any legal implications. However, what you do with your UK IP address may fall under the legal jurisdictions of the country where you are located.

For example, streaming copyrighted content may be illegal in some countries, even if you’re using a UK IP address to access it. So make sure to stay within the boundaries of the law while using a UK IP address.

Can I use a free VPN to get a UK IP address?

While there are some free VPNs options available, they usually come with limitations such as slower speeds, data caps, and lack of advanced features like kill switches or ad-blockers. Additionally, most free VPNs have fewer server options compared to premium ones, which could limit your ability to choose a specific location (such as the UK).

Can UK police track a VPN?

Yes, UK police can potentially track a VPN if they obtain the necessary legal permissions to do so, such as a court order. However, that would be extremely difficult for VPN services with a strict no-logs policy, and based outside of the UK’s jurisdiction. Even then, any information provided by the VPN service would likely be limited and not reveal anything useful.

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How to Set Up a VPN on Android: A Step-by-Step Guide

In today’s digital age, ensuring the privacy and security of your online activities has never been more critical. Whether you’re looking to protect your data from cyber threats, access region-restricted content, or maintain anonymity while browsing, setting up a VPN for Android (Virtual Private Network) is an essential move. This guide will walk you through...

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  1. Assigning A Static VPN Client IP Address To A User

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  2. Always On VPN Client IP Address Assignment Methods

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  3. How to Tell Which Ip Is Being Used for Vpn

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  4. Vpn Configuration, Ip Security and Data Encryption

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  6. VPN Server

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  5. How to Configure VPN

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COMMENTS

  1. How Does a VPN Manage Local IP Addresses

    Here's a diagram: In this VPN Scenario you keep your IP address from your local DHCP server, but your router now has a route to the remote Private LAN, through the tunnel, and you can ping the private IP addresses of the Remote LAN. (The tunnel is able to bypass NAT and Firewall, Tunnel = a virtual interface on your local router that connects ...

  2. How to set up a static IP address

    Find out how to set up a static IP address on Windows, MacOS, Android, iOS, Linux, and more. This guide will show you to change your IP from dynamic to static.

  3. Can someone please explain to me how ip addresses work with vpn?

    A dedicated IP address is a a static IP address assigned to 1 single customer. Because each IP address costs the VPN money, dedicated IP's tend to be much more expensive (2-5x) of a shared VPN service. The advantage is, you don't have to share your IP with anyone so security risks are very low. On the downside, privacy is reduced because ...

  4. Tutorial: Assign a Static VPN Client IP Address to Users

    Default Client Address Assignment Access Server works with Layer 3 routing mode by default. In this mode, VPN clients are assigned addresses from a private subnet, which is different from other subnets used in your networks.

  5. PDF Configuring IP Addresses for VPN

    Configuring DHCP Addressing, page 5-5 Configuring DHCP Addressing, page 5-5 Configuring an IP Address Assignment Policy The ASA can use one or more of the following methods for assigning IP addresses to remote access clients. If you configure more than one address assignment method, the ASA searches each of the options until it finds an IP address.

  6. Static IP Address

    A static IP address stays the same over time, giving your clients a consistent address for connecting. We recommend setting up a custom hostname that points to your server's static IP address. It's easier to use and remember a hostname than an IP address. If you launch Access Server on a cloud provider, ensure it's assigned a static IP address.

  7. How to set a static IP (client side) in OpenVPN?

    We use it to ensure the same user is assigned the same IP when connected via VPN for audit purposes. From the man page:

  8. ASA AnyConnect VPN IP pool assignment using RADIUS

    In most scenarios the VPN POOL (s) to assign IP addresses for AnyConnect Remote Access VPNs are statically configured under the tunnel-group. In some situations, it may be desired to dynamically assign the VPN Pool from a RADIUS server, perhaps to use a different IP address pool for certain types of users.

  9. Tutorial: Set a Static IP Address for a User Through a Group ...

    Default Client Address Assignment Access Server works with Layer 3 routing mode by default. In this mode, VPN clients are assigned addresses from a private subnet, which is different from other subnets used in your networks.

  10. Get a dedicated IP

    But there's also a dedicated IP that you can get on top of your VPN subscription. In this case, a VPN encrypts your connection, routes it through a remote server, and assigns you an IP address that isn't shared with other users.

  11. Understanding IP Address Assignment: A Complete Guide

    IP address assignment is a crucial aspect of network management and plays a vital role in ensuring seamless connectivity and efficient data transfer. There are primarily two methods of assigning IP addresses in a network: dynamic IP address assignment using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment.

  12. Configure a Static IP Address on an AnyConnect Remote Access VPN with

    Background Information When users perform VPN authentication with a Cisco ASA with the AnyConnect VPN Client software, in some instances it is useful to assign the same static IP address to a client. Here, you can configure a static IP address per user account in AD and use this IP address whenever the user connects to the VPN.

  13. IP assignment for remote VPN

    I would like to assign an IP address to a user connected to remote VPN.

  14. VPN Connects but cannot access remote network computers or folders

    Do you mean by the VPN's assigned IP \\2.2.2.2\? because I tried that also tried the Public IP. When connected to the remote computer, in network connection I see the client connected.

  15. Configure user groups and IP address pools for P2S User VPNs

    Learn how to configure user groups and assign IP addresses from specific address pools based on identity or authentication credentials.

  16. Always On VPN Client IP Address Assignment Methods

    Always On VPN Client IP Address Assignment Methods When Always On VPN clients connect to the VPN server, they must be assigned an IP address to facilitate network communication. When using Windows Server and Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) for VPN services, administrators must choose between Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static address pool assignment methods.

  17. How to Set Up a Static IP Address

    DHCP is fine, unless you're looking to perform advanced networking tasks. Here's how to set a Static IP address (or DHCP reservation) for any device on your network.

  18. How are VPN Clients given IP addresses when they connect to VPN Routers

    3 I'd like to know the nitty gritty details of how VPN Remote Clients are given Private IP Addresses on a Remote Network when they connect to the StrongSWAN or OpenVPN VPN Server that's embedded in VyOS Routers, as well as how Virtual IP Address Pools fit in the process.

  19. Configure Static IP Address Assignment to AnyConnect Users via ...

    Introduction This document describes how to configure RADIUS Authorization with an Identity Services Engine (ISE) server so it always forwards the same IP address to the Firepower Threat Defense (FTD) for a specific Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client user via the RADIUS Attribute 8 Framed-IP-Address.

  20. Why aren't more VPNs rotating IP addresses?

    However, with rotating IPs, the VPN server will assign you a new IP address periodically without interrupting your connection. The main advantage of using a time-based rotating IP is enhanced ...

  21. Manage a public IP address with a VPN gateway

    A VPN gateway is a virtual network gateway used to send encrypted traffic between an Azure virtual network and an on-premises location over the public Internet.

  22. How to Change Your IP Address With and Without a VPN

    You can refresh your IP address using several methods. Here's how to do it with a VPN, a proxy server, restarting your router, and manually or automatically updating it on your device.

  23. How to Reserve a Lease IP for a device connected via Network Access. (VPN)

    Description You are using Network Access (VPN) and want to assign a specific lease IP address to a specific device or user. This article describes the general procedure. Environment Access Policy Manager (APM) Cause The lease IP address cannot be directly managed. Recommended Actions Start by creating a lease pool with just that one address.

  24. How to Get UK IP Address: A Comprehensive Guide

    Get UK IP address with a VPN. Inarguably the best and most secure way to get a UK IP address is by using a Virtual Private Network (VPN). A VPN encrypts your internet traffic and routes it through their server network, making it appear as if you're accessing the web from a different location.

  25. What's My IP Address and How Do I Change It?

    Under IP Assignment click Edit. Choose Manual and reset your IP address. Mac Operating System. Go to the Apple menu. Find System Settings, then click Network. ... Because your web traffic comes from the VPN's server, your IP address is pretty much hidden, making it more difficult to track what you're doing. There are several good VPN services ...