• More from M-W
  • To save this word, you'll need to log in. Log In

Definition of hypothesis

Did you know.

The Difference Between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis is an assumption, an idea that is proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested to see if it might be true.

In the scientific method, the hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done, apart from a basic background review. You ask a question, read up on what has been studied before, and then form a hypothesis.

A hypothesis is usually tentative; it's an assumption or suggestion made strictly for the objective of being tested.

A theory , in contrast, is a principle that has been formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. It is used in the names of a number of principles accepted in the scientific community, such as the Big Bang Theory . Because of the rigors of experimentation and control, it is understood to be more likely to be true than a hypothesis is.

In non-scientific use, however, hypothesis and theory are often used interchangeably to mean simply an idea, speculation, or hunch, with theory being the more common choice.

Since this casual use does away with the distinctions upheld by the scientific community, hypothesis and theory are prone to being wrongly interpreted even when they are encountered in scientific contexts—or at least, contexts that allude to scientific study without making the critical distinction that scientists employ when weighing hypotheses and theories.

The most common occurrence is when theory is interpreted—and sometimes even gleefully seized upon—to mean something having less truth value than other scientific principles. (The word law applies to principles so firmly established that they are almost never questioned, such as the law of gravity.)

This mistake is one of projection: since we use theory in general to mean something lightly speculated, then it's implied that scientists must be talking about the same level of uncertainty when they use theory to refer to their well-tested and reasoned principles.

The distinction has come to the forefront particularly on occasions when the content of science curricula in schools has been challenged—notably, when a school board in Georgia put stickers on textbooks stating that evolution was "a theory, not a fact, regarding the origin of living things." As Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, has said , a theory "doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”

While theories are never completely infallible, they form the basis of scientific reasoning because, as Miller said "to the best of our ability, we’ve tested them, and they’ve held up."

  • proposition
  • supposition

hypothesis , theory , law mean a formula derived by inference from scientific data that explains a principle operating in nature.

hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation.

theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth.

law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions.

Examples of hypothesis in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'hypothesis.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Greek, from hypotithenai to put under, suppose, from hypo- + tithenai to put — more at do

1641, in the meaning defined at sense 1a

Phrases Containing hypothesis

  • counter - hypothesis
  • nebular hypothesis
  • null hypothesis
  • planetesimal hypothesis
  • Whorfian hypothesis

Articles Related to hypothesis

hypothesis

This is the Difference Between a...

This is the Difference Between a Hypothesis and a Theory

In scientific reasoning, they're two completely different things

Dictionary Entries Near hypothesis

hypothermia

hypothesize

Cite this Entry

“Hypothesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hypothesis. Accessed 6 Jun. 2024.

Kids Definition

Kids definition of hypothesis, medical definition, medical definition of hypothesis, more from merriam-webster on hypothesis.

Nglish: Translation of hypothesis for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of hypothesis for Arabic Speakers

Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about hypothesis

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

Play Quordle: Guess all four words in a limited number of tries.  Each of your guesses must be a real 5-letter word.

Can you solve 4 words at once?

Word of the day.

See Definitions and Examples »

Get Word of the Day daily email!

Popular in Grammar & Usage

What's the difference between 'fascism' and 'socialism', more commonly misspelled words, commonly misspelled words, how to use em dashes (—), en dashes (–) , and hyphens (-), absent letters that are heard anyway, popular in wordplay, 8 words for lesser-known musical instruments, 9 superb owl words, 'gaslighting,' 'woke,' 'democracy,' and other top lookups, 10 words for lesser-known games and sports, etymologies for every day of the week, games & quizzes.

Play Blossom: Solve today's spelling word game by finding as many words as you can using just 7 letters. Longer words score more points.

  • Daily Crossword
  • Word Puzzle
  • Word Finder
  • Word of the Day
  • Synonym of the Day
  • Word of the Year
  • Language stories
  • All featured
  • Gender and sexuality
  • All pop culture
  • Writing hub
  • Grammar essentials
  • Commonly confused
  • All writing tips
  • Pop culture
  • Writing tips

Advertisement

[ hahy- poth - uh -sis , hi- ]

  • a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation working hypothesis or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.
  • a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument.
  • the antecedent of a conditional proposition.
  • a mere assumption or guess.

/ haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs /

  • a suggested explanation for a group of facts or phenomena, either accepted as a basis for further verification ( working hypothesis ) or accepted as likely to be true Compare theory
  • an assumption used in an argument without its being endorsed; a supposition
  • an unproved theory; a conjecture

/ hī-pŏth ′ ĭ-sĭs /

, Plural hypotheses hī-pŏth ′ ĭ-sēz′

  • A statement that explains or makes generalizations about a set of facts or principles, usually forming a basis for possible experiments to confirm its viability.
  • plur. hypotheses (heye- poth -uh-seez) In science, a statement of a possible explanation for some natural phenomenon. A hypothesis is tested by drawing conclusions from it; if observation and experimentation show a conclusion to be false, the hypothesis must be false. ( See scientific method and theory .)

Discover More

Derived forms.

  • hyˈpothesist , noun

Other Words From

  • hy·pothe·sist noun
  • counter·hy·pothe·sis noun plural counterhypotheses
  • subhy·pothe·sis noun plural subhypotheses

Word History and Origins

Origin of hypothesis 1

Synonym Study

Example sentences.

Each one is a set of questions we’re fascinated by and hypotheses we’re testing.

Mousa’s research hinges on the “contact hypothesis,” the idea that positive interactions among rival group members can reduce prejudices.

Do more research on it, come up with a hypothesis as to why it underperforms, and try to improve it.

Now is the time to test your hypotheses to figure out what’s changing in your customers’ worlds, and address these topics directly.

Whether computing power alone is enough to fuel continued machine learning breakthroughs is a source of debate, but it seems clear we’ll be able to test the hypothesis.

Though researchers have struggled to understand exactly what contributes to this gender difference, Dr. Rohan has one hypothesis.

The leading hypothesis for the ultimate source of the Ebola virus, and where it retreats in between outbreaks, lies in bats.

In 1996, John Paul II called the Big Bang theory “more than a hypothesis.”

To be clear: There have been no double-blind or controlled studies that conclusively confirm this hair-loss hypothesis.

The bacteria-driven-ritual hypothesis ignores the huge diversity of reasons that could push someone to perform a religious ritual.

And remember it is by our hypothesis the best possible form and arrangement of that lesson.

Taken in connection with what we know of the nebulæ, the proof of Laplace's nebular hypothesis may fairly be regarded as complete.

What has become of the letter from M. de St. Mars, said to have been discovered some years ago, confirming this last hypothesis?

To admit that there had really been any communication between the dead man and the living one is also an hypothesis.

"I consider it highly probable," asserted Aunt Maria, forgetting her Scandinavian hypothesis.

Related Words

  • explanation
  • interpretation
  • proposition
  • supposition

More About Hypothesis

What is a hypothesis .

In science, a hypothesis is a statement or proposition that attempts to explain phenomena or facts. Hypotheses are often tested to see if they are accurate.

Crafting a useful hypothesis is one of the early steps in the scientific method , which is central to every field of scientific experimentation. A useful scientific hypothesis is based on current, accepted scientific knowledge and is testable.

Outside of science, the word hypothesis is often used more loosely to mean a guess or prediction.

Why is hypothesis important?

The first records of the term hypothesis come from around 1590. It comes from the Greek term hypóthesis , meaning “basis, supposition.”

Trustworthy science involves experiments and tests. In order to have an experiment, you need to test something. In science, that something is called a hypothesis . It is important to remember that, in science, a verified hypothesis is not actually confirmed to be an absolute truth. Instead, it is accepted to be accurate according to modern knowledge. Science always allows for the possibility that new information could disprove a widely accepted hypothesis .

Related to this, scientists will usually only propose a new hypothesis when new information is discovered because there is no reason to test something that is already accepted as scientifically accurate.

Did you know … ?

It can take a long time and even the discovery of new technology to confirm that a hypothesis is accurate. Physicist Albert Einstein ’s 1916 theory of relativity contained hypotheses about space and time that have only been confirmed recently, thanks to modern technology!

What are real-life examples of hypothesis ?

While in science, hypothesis has a narrow meaning, in general use its meaning is broader.

"This study confirms the hypothesis that individuals who have been infected with COVID-19 have persistent objectively measurable cognitive deficits." (N=81,337) Ventilation subgroup show 7-point reduction in IQ https://t.co/50xrNNHC5E — Claire Lehmann (@clairlemon) July 23, 2021
Not everyone drives. They can walk, cycle, catch a train, tram etc. That’s alternatives. What’s your alternative in your hypothesis? — Barry (@Bazzaboy1982) July 27, 2021

What other words are related to hypothesis ?

  • scientific method
  • scientific theory

Quiz yourself!

True or False?

In science, a hypothesis must be based on current scientific information and be testable.

  • Privacy Policy

Research Method

Home » What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

What is a Hypothesis

Definition:

Hypothesis is an educated guess or proposed explanation for a phenomenon, based on some initial observations or data. It is a tentative statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation and experimentation.

Hypothesis is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments and the collection and analysis of data. It is an essential element of the scientific method, as it allows researchers to make predictions about the outcome of their experiments and to test those predictions to determine their accuracy.

Types of Hypothesis

Types of Hypothesis are as follows:

Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a statement that predicts a relationship between variables. It is usually formulated as a specific statement that can be tested through research, and it is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments.

Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as a starting point for testing the research hypothesis, and if the results of the study reject the null hypothesis, it suggests that there is a significant difference or relationship between variables.

Alternative Hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is a significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as an alternative to the null hypothesis and is tested against the null hypothesis to determine which statement is more accurate.

Directional Hypothesis

A directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the direction of the relationship between variables. For example, a researcher might predict that increasing the amount of exercise will result in a decrease in body weight.

Non-directional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables but does not specify the direction. For example, a researcher might predict that there is a relationship between the amount of exercise and body weight, but they do not specify whether increasing or decreasing exercise will affect body weight.

Statistical Hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is a statement that assumes a particular statistical model or distribution for the data. It is often used in statistical analysis to test the significance of a particular result.

Composite Hypothesis

A composite hypothesis is a statement that assumes more than one condition or outcome. It can be divided into several sub-hypotheses, each of which represents a different possible outcome.

Empirical Hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis is a statement that is based on observed phenomena or data. It is often used in scientific research to develop theories or models that explain the observed phenomena.

Simple Hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement that assumes only one outcome or condition. It is often used in scientific research to test a single variable or factor.

Complex Hypothesis

A complex hypothesis is a statement that assumes multiple outcomes or conditions. It is often used in scientific research to test the effects of multiple variables or factors on a particular outcome.

Applications of Hypothesis

Hypotheses are used in various fields to guide research and make predictions about the outcomes of experiments or observations. Here are some examples of how hypotheses are applied in different fields:

  • Science : In scientific research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain natural phenomena. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular variable on a natural system, such as the effects of climate change on an ecosystem.
  • Medicine : In medical research, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of treatments and therapies for specific conditions. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new drug on a particular disease.
  • Psychology : In psychology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of human behavior and cognition. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular stimulus on the brain or behavior.
  • Sociology : In sociology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of social phenomena, such as the effects of social structures or institutions on human behavior. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of income inequality on crime rates.
  • Business : In business research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain business phenomena, such as consumer behavior or market trends. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new marketing campaign on consumer buying behavior.
  • Engineering : In engineering, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of new technologies or designs. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the efficiency of a new solar panel design.

How to write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps to follow when writing a hypothesis:

Identify the Research Question

The first step is to identify the research question that you want to answer through your study. This question should be clear, specific, and focused. It should be something that can be investigated empirically and that has some relevance or significance in the field.

Conduct a Literature Review

Before writing your hypothesis, it’s essential to conduct a thorough literature review to understand what is already known about the topic. This will help you to identify the research gap and formulate a hypothesis that builds on existing knowledge.

Determine the Variables

The next step is to identify the variables involved in the research question. A variable is any characteristic or factor that can vary or change. There are two types of variables: independent and dependent. The independent variable is the one that is manipulated or changed by the researcher, while the dependent variable is the one that is measured or observed as a result of the independent variable.

Formulate the Hypothesis

Based on the research question and the variables involved, you can now formulate your hypothesis. A hypothesis should be a clear and concise statement that predicts the relationship between the variables. It should be testable through empirical research and based on existing theory or evidence.

Write the Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, which is the hypothesis that you are testing. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variables. It is important to write the null hypothesis because it allows you to compare your results with what would be expected by chance.

Refine the Hypothesis

After formulating the hypothesis, it’s important to refine it and make it more precise. This may involve clarifying the variables, specifying the direction of the relationship, or making the hypothesis more testable.

Examples of Hypothesis

Here are a few examples of hypotheses in different fields:

  • Psychology : “Increased exposure to violent video games leads to increased aggressive behavior in adolescents.”
  • Biology : “Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will lead to increased plant growth.”
  • Sociology : “Individuals who grow up in households with higher socioeconomic status will have higher levels of education and income as adults.”
  • Education : “Implementing a new teaching method will result in higher student achievement scores.”
  • Marketing : “Customers who receive a personalized email will be more likely to make a purchase than those who receive a generic email.”
  • Physics : “An increase in temperature will cause an increase in the volume of a gas, assuming all other variables remain constant.”
  • Medicine : “Consuming a diet high in saturated fats will increase the risk of developing heart disease.”

Purpose of Hypothesis

The purpose of a hypothesis is to provide a testable explanation for an observed phenomenon or a prediction of a future outcome based on existing knowledge or theories. A hypothesis is an essential part of the scientific method and helps to guide the research process by providing a clear focus for investigation. It enables scientists to design experiments or studies to gather evidence and data that can support or refute the proposed explanation or prediction.

The formulation of a hypothesis is based on existing knowledge, observations, and theories, and it should be specific, testable, and falsifiable. A specific hypothesis helps to define the research question, which is important in the research process as it guides the selection of an appropriate research design and methodology. Testability of the hypothesis means that it can be proven or disproven through empirical data collection and analysis. Falsifiability means that the hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that it can be proven wrong if it is incorrect.

In addition to guiding the research process, the testing of hypotheses can lead to new discoveries and advancements in scientific knowledge. When a hypothesis is supported by the data, it can be used to develop new theories or models to explain the observed phenomenon. When a hypothesis is not supported by the data, it can help to refine existing theories or prompt the development of new hypotheses to explain the phenomenon.

When to use Hypothesis

Here are some common situations in which hypotheses are used:

  • In scientific research , hypotheses are used to guide the design of experiments and to help researchers make predictions about the outcomes of those experiments.
  • In social science research , hypotheses are used to test theories about human behavior, social relationships, and other phenomena.
  • I n business , hypotheses can be used to guide decisions about marketing, product development, and other areas. For example, a hypothesis might be that a new product will sell well in a particular market, and this hypothesis can be tested through market research.

Characteristics of Hypothesis

Here are some common characteristics of a hypothesis:

  • Testable : A hypothesis must be able to be tested through observation or experimentation. This means that it must be possible to collect data that will either support or refute the hypothesis.
  • Falsifiable : A hypothesis must be able to be proven false if it is not supported by the data. If a hypothesis cannot be falsified, then it is not a scientific hypothesis.
  • Clear and concise : A hypothesis should be stated in a clear and concise manner so that it can be easily understood and tested.
  • Based on existing knowledge : A hypothesis should be based on existing knowledge and research in the field. It should not be based on personal beliefs or opinions.
  • Specific : A hypothesis should be specific in terms of the variables being tested and the predicted outcome. This will help to ensure that the research is focused and well-designed.
  • Tentative: A hypothesis is a tentative statement or assumption that requires further testing and evidence to be confirmed or refuted. It is not a final conclusion or assertion.
  • Relevant : A hypothesis should be relevant to the research question or problem being studied. It should address a gap in knowledge or provide a new perspective on the issue.

Advantages of Hypothesis

Hypotheses have several advantages in scientific research and experimentation:

  • Guides research: A hypothesis provides a clear and specific direction for research. It helps to focus the research question, select appropriate methods and variables, and interpret the results.
  • Predictive powe r: A hypothesis makes predictions about the outcome of research, which can be tested through experimentation. This allows researchers to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis and make new discoveries.
  • Facilitates communication: A hypothesis provides a common language and framework for scientists to communicate with one another about their research. This helps to facilitate the exchange of ideas and promotes collaboration.
  • Efficient use of resources: A hypothesis helps researchers to use their time, resources, and funding efficiently by directing them towards specific research questions and methods that are most likely to yield results.
  • Provides a basis for further research: A hypothesis that is supported by data provides a basis for further research and exploration. It can lead to new hypotheses, theories, and discoveries.
  • Increases objectivity: A hypothesis can help to increase objectivity in research by providing a clear and specific framework for testing and interpreting results. This can reduce bias and increase the reliability of research findings.

Limitations of Hypothesis

Some Limitations of the Hypothesis are as follows:

  • Limited to observable phenomena: Hypotheses are limited to observable phenomena and cannot account for unobservable or intangible factors. This means that some research questions may not be amenable to hypothesis testing.
  • May be inaccurate or incomplete: Hypotheses are based on existing knowledge and research, which may be incomplete or inaccurate. This can lead to flawed hypotheses and erroneous conclusions.
  • May be biased: Hypotheses may be biased by the researcher’s own beliefs, values, or assumptions. This can lead to selective interpretation of data and a lack of objectivity in research.
  • Cannot prove causation: A hypothesis can only show a correlation between variables, but it cannot prove causation. This requires further experimentation and analysis.
  • Limited to specific contexts: Hypotheses are limited to specific contexts and may not be generalizable to other situations or populations. This means that results may not be applicable in other contexts or may require further testing.
  • May be affected by chance : Hypotheses may be affected by chance or random variation, which can obscure or distort the true relationship between variables.

About the author

' src=

Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

You may also like

Research Report

Research Report – Example, Writing Guide and...

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical Framework – Types, Examples and...

Research Paper

Research Paper – Structure, Examples and Writing...

Research Recommendations

Research Recommendations – Examples and Writing...

Appendix in Research Paper

Appendix in Research Paper – Examples and...

Data collection

Data Collection – Methods Types and Examples

What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)

If...,Then...

Angela Lumsden/Getty Images

  • Scientific Method
  • Chemical Laws
  • Periodic Table
  • Projects & Experiments
  • Biochemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Medical Chemistry
  • Chemistry In Everyday Life
  • Famous Chemists
  • Activities for Kids
  • Abbreviations & Acronyms
  • Weather & Climate
  • Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observation. The definition depends on the subject.

In science, a hypothesis is part of the scientific method. It is a prediction or explanation that is tested by an experiment. Observations and experiments may disprove a scientific hypothesis, but can never entirely prove one.

In the study of logic, a hypothesis is an if-then proposition, typically written in the form, "If X , then Y ."

In common usage, a hypothesis is simply a proposed explanation or prediction, which may or may not be tested.

Writing a Hypothesis

Most scientific hypotheses are proposed in the if-then format because it's easy to design an experiment to see whether or not a cause and effect relationship exists between the independent variable and the dependent variable . The hypothesis is written as a prediction of the outcome of the experiment.

Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Statistically, it's easier to show there is no relationship between two variables than to support their connection. So, scientists often propose the null hypothesis . The null hypothesis assumes changing the independent variable will have no effect on the dependent variable.

In contrast, the alternative hypothesis suggests changing the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable. Designing an experiment to test this hypothesis can be trickier because there are many ways to state an alternative hypothesis.

For example, consider a possible relationship between getting a good night's sleep and getting good grades. The null hypothesis might be stated: "The number of hours of sleep students get is unrelated to their grades" or "There is no correlation between hours of sleep and grades."

An experiment to test this hypothesis might involve collecting data, recording average hours of sleep for each student and grades. If a student who gets eight hours of sleep generally does better than students who get four hours of sleep or 10 hours of sleep, the hypothesis might be rejected.

But the alternative hypothesis is harder to propose and test. The most general statement would be: "The amount of sleep students get affects their grades." The hypothesis might also be stated as "If you get more sleep, your grades will improve" or "Students who get nine hours of sleep have better grades than those who get more or less sleep."

In an experiment, you can collect the same data, but the statistical analysis is less likely to give you a high confidence limit.

Usually, a scientist starts out with the null hypothesis. From there, it may be possible to propose and test an alternative hypothesis, to narrow down the relationship between the variables.

Example of a Hypothesis

Examples of a hypothesis include:

  • If you drop a rock and a feather, (then) they will fall at the same rate.
  • Plants need sunlight in order to live. (if sunlight, then life)
  • Eating sugar gives you energy. (if sugar, then energy)
  • White, Jay D.  Research in Public Administration . Conn., 1998.
  • Schick, Theodore, and Lewis Vaughn.  How to Think about Weird Things: Critical Thinking for a New Age . McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.
  • Null Hypothesis Examples
  • Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
  • Definition of a Hypothesis
  • What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
  • Six Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Independent Variable Definition and Examples
  • What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?
  • Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments
  • Scientific Method Flow Chart
  • Scientific Method Vocabulary Terms
  • What Is a Testable Hypothesis?
  • What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
  • How To Design a Science Fair Experiment
  • What Is an Experiment? Definition and Design

What is a scientific hypothesis?

It's the initial building block in the scientific method.

A girl looks at plants in a test tube for a science experiment. What's her scientific hypothesis?

Hypothesis basics

What makes a hypothesis testable.

  • Types of hypotheses
  • Hypothesis versus theory

Additional resources

Bibliography.

A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world. It's the initial building block in the scientific method . Many describe it as an "educated guess" based on prior knowledge and observation. While this is true, a hypothesis is more informed than a guess. While an "educated guess" suggests a random prediction based on a person's expertise, developing a hypothesis requires active observation and background research. 

The basic idea of a hypothesis is that there is no predetermined outcome. For a solution to be termed a scientific hypothesis, it has to be an idea that can be supported or refuted through carefully crafted experimentation or observation. This concept, called falsifiability and testability, was advanced in the mid-20th century by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper in his famous book "The Logic of Scientific Discovery" (Routledge, 1959).

A key function of a hypothesis is to derive predictions about the results of future experiments and then perform those experiments to see whether they support the predictions.

A hypothesis is usually written in the form of an if-then statement, which gives a possibility (if) and explains what may happen because of the possibility (then). The statement could also include "may," according to California State University, Bakersfield .

Here are some examples of hypothesis statements:

  • If garlic repels fleas, then a dog that is given garlic every day will not get fleas.
  • If sugar causes cavities, then people who eat a lot of candy may be more prone to cavities.
  • If ultraviolet light can damage the eyes, then maybe this light can cause blindness.

A useful hypothesis should be testable and falsifiable. That means that it should be possible to prove it wrong. A theory that can't be proved wrong is nonscientific, according to Karl Popper's 1963 book " Conjectures and Refutations ."

An example of an untestable statement is, "Dogs are better than cats." That's because the definition of "better" is vague and subjective. However, an untestable statement can be reworded to make it testable. For example, the previous statement could be changed to this: "Owning a dog is associated with higher levels of physical fitness than owning a cat." With this statement, the researcher can take measures of physical fitness from dog and cat owners and compare the two.

Types of scientific hypotheses

Elementary-age students study alternative energy using homemade windmills during public school science class.

In an experiment, researchers generally state their hypotheses in two ways. The null hypothesis predicts that there will be no relationship between the variables tested, or no difference between the experimental groups. The alternative hypothesis predicts the opposite: that there will be a difference between the experimental groups. This is usually the hypothesis scientists are most interested in, according to the University of Miami .

For example, a null hypothesis might state, "There will be no difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't." The alternative hypothesis would state, "There will be a difference in the rate of muscle growth between people who take a protein supplement and people who don't."

If the results of the experiment show a relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis has been rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, according to the book " Research Methods in Psychology " (​​BCcampus, 2015). 

There are other ways to describe an alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis above does not specify a direction of the effect, only that there will be a difference between the two groups. That type of prediction is called a two-tailed hypothesis. If a hypothesis specifies a certain direction — for example, that people who take a protein supplement will gain more muscle than people who don't — it is called a one-tailed hypothesis, according to William M. K. Trochim , a professor of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University.

Sometimes, errors take place during an experiment. These errors can happen in one of two ways. A type I error is when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is also known as a false positive. A type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected when it is false. This is also known as a false negative, according to the University of California, Berkeley . 

A hypothesis can be rejected or modified, but it can never be proved correct 100% of the time. For example, a scientist can form a hypothesis stating that if a certain type of tomato has a gene for red pigment, that type of tomato will be red. During research, the scientist then finds that each tomato of this type is red. Though the findings confirm the hypothesis, there may be a tomato of that type somewhere in the world that isn't red. Thus, the hypothesis is true, but it may not be true 100% of the time.

Scientific theory vs. scientific hypothesis

The best hypotheses are simple. They deal with a relatively narrow set of phenomena. But theories are broader; they generally combine multiple hypotheses into a general explanation for a wide range of phenomena, according to the University of California, Berkeley . For example, a hypothesis might state, "If animals adapt to suit their environments, then birds that live on islands with lots of seeds to eat will have differently shaped beaks than birds that live on islands with lots of insects to eat." After testing many hypotheses like these, Charles Darwin formulated an overarching theory: the theory of evolution by natural selection.

"Theories are the ways that we make sense of what we observe in the natural world," Tanner said. "Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts." 

  • Read more about writing a hypothesis, from the American Medical Writers Association.
  • Find out why a hypothesis isn't always necessary in science, from The American Biology Teacher.
  • Learn about null and alternative hypotheses, from Prof. Essa on YouTube .

Encyclopedia Britannica. Scientific Hypothesis. Jan. 13, 2022. https://www.britannica.com/science/scientific-hypothesis

Karl Popper, "The Logic of Scientific Discovery," Routledge, 1959.

California State University, Bakersfield, "Formatting a testable hypothesis." https://www.csub.edu/~ddodenhoff/Bio100/Bio100sp04/formattingahypothesis.htm  

Karl Popper, "Conjectures and Refutations," Routledge, 1963.

Price, P., Jhangiani, R., & Chiang, I., "Research Methods of Psychology — 2nd Canadian Edition," BCcampus, 2015.‌

University of Miami, "The Scientific Method" http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/161/evolution/161app1_scimethod.pdf  

William M.K. Trochim, "Research Methods Knowledge Base," https://conjointly.com/kb/hypotheses-explained/  

University of California, Berkeley, "Multiple Hypothesis Testing and False Discovery Rate" https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~hhuang/STAT141/Lecture-FDR.pdf  

University of California, Berkeley, "Science at multiple levels" https://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_19

Sign up for the Live Science daily newsletter now

Get the world’s most fascinating discoveries delivered straight to your inbox.

100-foot 'walking tree' in New Zealand looks like an Ent from Lord of the Rings — and is the lone survivor of a lost forest

Earth from space: Shapeshifting rusty river winds through Madagascar's 'red lands'

'Increased evidence that we should be alert': H5N1 bird flu is adapting to mammals in 'new ways'

Most Popular

  • 2 2,000-year-old rock art, including nearly 140-foot-long snake, may mark ancient territories in Colombia, Venezuela
  • 3 Early Celtic elites inherited power through maternal lines, ancient DNA reveals
  • 4 STEVE — the bizarre purple ribbon in the sky — has a 'secret twin' that appears only before dawn, study finds
  • 5 32 of the loudest animals on Earth
  • 2 The 165-year reign of oil is coming to an end. But will we ever be able to live without it?
  • 3 A 'new star' could appear in the sky any night now. Here's how to see the Blaze Star ignite.
  • 4 The brain can store nearly 10 times more data than previously thought, study confirms
  • 5 GPT-4 didn't ace the bar exam after all, MIT research suggests — it didn't even break the 70th percentile

define hypothesis form

Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

On This Page:

A research hypothesis, in its plural form “hypotheses,” is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method .

Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding

Some key points about hypotheses:

  • A hypothesis expresses an expected pattern or relationship. It connects the variables under investigation.
  • It is stated in clear, precise terms before any data collection or analysis occurs. This makes the hypothesis testable.
  • A hypothesis must be falsifiable. It should be possible, even if unlikely in practice, to collect data that disconfirms rather than supports the hypothesis.
  • Hypotheses guide research. Scientists design studies to explicitly evaluate hypotheses about how nature works.
  • For a hypothesis to be valid, it must be testable against empirical evidence. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.
  • Hypotheses are informed by background knowledge and observation, but go beyond what is already known to propose an explanation of how or why something occurs.
Predictions typically arise from a thorough knowledge of the research literature, curiosity about real-world problems or implications, and integrating this to advance theory. They build on existing literature while providing new insight.

Types of Research Hypotheses

Alternative hypothesis.

The research hypothesis is often called the alternative or experimental hypothesis in experimental research.

It typically suggests a potential relationship between two key variables: the independent variable, which the researcher manipulates, and the dependent variable, which is measured based on those changes.

The alternative hypothesis states a relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable affects the other).

A hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a key component of the scientific method. Some key points about hypotheses:

  • Important hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested empirically. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.

In summary, a hypothesis is a precise, testable statement of what researchers expect to happen in a study and why. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

An experimental hypothesis predicts what change(s) will occur in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated.

It states that the results are not due to chance and are significant in supporting the theory being investigated.

The alternative hypothesis can be directional, indicating a specific direction of the effect, or non-directional, suggesting a difference without specifying its nature. It’s what researchers aim to support or demonstrate through their study.

Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable does not affect the other). There will be no changes in the dependent variable due to manipulating the independent variable.

It states results are due to chance and are not significant in supporting the idea being investigated.

The null hypothesis, positing no effect or relationship, is a foundational contrast to the research hypothesis in scientific inquiry. It establishes a baseline for statistical testing, promoting objectivity by initiating research from a neutral stance.

Many statistical methods are tailored to test the null hypothesis, determining the likelihood of observed results if no true effect exists.

This dual-hypothesis approach provides clarity, ensuring that research intentions are explicit, and fosters consistency across scientific studies, enhancing the standardization and interpretability of research outcomes.

Nondirectional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis, also known as a two-tailed hypothesis, predicts that there is a difference or relationship between two variables but does not specify the direction of this relationship.

It merely indicates that a change or effect will occur without predicting which group will have higher or lower values.

For example, “There is a difference in performance between Group A and Group B” is a non-directional hypothesis.

Directional Hypothesis

A directional (one-tailed) hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. It predicts in which direction the change will take place. (i.e., greater, smaller, less, more)

It specifies whether one variable is greater, lesser, or different from another, rather than just indicating that there’s a difference without specifying its nature.

For example, “Exercise increases weight loss” is a directional hypothesis.

hypothesis

Falsifiability

The Falsification Principle, proposed by Karl Popper , is a way of demarcating science from non-science. It suggests that for a theory or hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and irrefutable.

Falsifiability emphasizes that scientific claims shouldn’t just be confirmable but should also have the potential to be proven wrong.

It means that there should exist some potential evidence or experiment that could prove the proposition false.

However many confirming instances exist for a theory, it only takes one counter observation to falsify it. For example, the hypothesis that “all swans are white,” can be falsified by observing a black swan.

For Popper, science should attempt to disprove a theory rather than attempt to continually provide evidence to support a research hypothesis.

Can a Hypothesis be Proven?

Hypotheses make probabilistic predictions. They state the expected outcome if a particular relationship exists. However, a study result supporting a hypothesis does not definitively prove it is true.

All studies have limitations. There may be unknown confounding factors or issues that limit the certainty of conclusions. Additional studies may yield different results.

In science, hypotheses can realistically only be supported with some degree of confidence, not proven. The process of science is to incrementally accumulate evidence for and against hypothesized relationships in an ongoing pursuit of better models and explanations that best fit the empirical data. But hypotheses remain open to revision and rejection if that is where the evidence leads.
  • Disproving a hypothesis is definitive. Solid disconfirmatory evidence will falsify a hypothesis and require altering or discarding it based on the evidence.
  • However, confirming evidence is always open to revision. Other explanations may account for the same results, and additional or contradictory evidence may emerge over time.

We can never 100% prove the alternative hypothesis. Instead, we see if we can disprove, or reject the null hypothesis.

If we reject the null hypothesis, this doesn’t mean that our alternative hypothesis is correct but does support the alternative/experimental hypothesis.

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

How to Write a Hypothesis

  • Identify variables . The researcher manipulates the independent variable and the dependent variable is the measured outcome.
  • Operationalized the variables being investigated . Operationalization of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression, you might count the number of punches given by participants.
  • Decide on a direction for your prediction . If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis. If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
  • Make it Testable : Ensure your hypothesis can be tested through experimentation or observation. It should be possible to prove it false (principle of falsifiability).
  • Clear & concise language . A strong hypothesis is concise (typically one to two sentences long), and formulated using clear and straightforward language, ensuring it’s easily understood and testable.

Consider a hypothesis many teachers might subscribe to: students work better on Monday morning than on Friday afternoon (IV=Day, DV= Standard of work).

Now, if we decide to study this by giving the same group of students a lesson on a Monday morning and a Friday afternoon and then measuring their immediate recall of the material covered in each session, we would end up with the following:

  • The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
  • The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

More Examples

  • Memory : Participants exposed to classical music during study sessions will recall more items from a list than those who studied in silence.
  • Social Psychology : Individuals who frequently engage in social media use will report higher levels of perceived social isolation compared to those who use it infrequently.
  • Developmental Psychology : Children who engage in regular imaginative play have better problem-solving skills than those who don’t.
  • Clinical Psychology : Cognitive-behavioral therapy will be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety over a 6-month period compared to traditional talk therapy.
  • Cognitive Psychology : Individuals who multitask between various electronic devices will have shorter attention spans on focused tasks than those who single-task.
  • Health Psychology : Patients who practice mindfulness meditation will experience lower levels of chronic pain compared to those who don’t meditate.
  • Organizational Psychology : Employees in open-plan offices will report higher levels of stress than those in private offices.
  • Behavioral Psychology : Rats rewarded with food after pressing a lever will press it more frequently than rats who receive no reward.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Related Articles

Qualitative Data Coding

Research Methodology

Qualitative Data Coding

What Is a Focus Group?

What Is a Focus Group?

Cross-Cultural Research Methodology In Psychology

Cross-Cultural Research Methodology In Psychology

What Is Internal Validity In Research?

What Is Internal Validity In Research?

What Is Face Validity In Research? Importance & How To Measure

Research Methodology , Statistics

What Is Face Validity In Research? Importance & How To Measure

Criterion Validity: Definition & Examples

Criterion Validity: Definition & Examples

Cambridge Dictionary

  • Cambridge Dictionary +Plus

Meaning of hypothesis – Learner’s Dictionary

Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio

(Definition of hypothesis from the Cambridge Learner's Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)

Translations of hypothesis

Get a quick, free translation!

{{randomImageQuizHook.quizId}}

Word of the Day

any of the rods that join the edge of a wheel to its centre, so giving the wheel its strength

Worse than or worst of all? How to use the words ‘worse’ and ‘worst’

Worse than or worst of all? How to use the words ‘worse’ and ‘worst’

define hypothesis form

Learn more with +Plus

  • Recent and Recommended {{#preferredDictionaries}} {{name}} {{/preferredDictionaries}}
  • Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English English Learner’s Dictionary Essential British English Essential American English
  • Grammar and thesaurus Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English Grammar Thesaurus
  • Pronunciation British and American pronunciations with audio English Pronunciation
  • English–Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Simplified)–English
  • English–Chinese (Traditional) Chinese (Traditional)–English
  • English–Dutch Dutch–English
  • English–French French–English
  • English–German German–English
  • English–Indonesian Indonesian–English
  • English–Italian Italian–English
  • English–Japanese Japanese–English
  • English–Norwegian Norwegian–English
  • English–Polish Polish–English
  • English–Portuguese Portuguese–English
  • English–Spanish Spanish–English
  • English–Swedish Swedish–English
  • Dictionary +Plus Word Lists
  • Learner’s Dictionary    Noun
  • Translations
  • All translations

To add hypothesis to a word list please sign up or log in.

Add hypothesis to one of your lists below, or create a new one.

{{message}}

Something went wrong.

There was a problem sending your report.

  • Dictionaries home
  • American English
  • Collocations
  • German-English
  • Grammar home
  • Practical English Usage
  • Learn & Practise Grammar (Beta)
  • Word Lists home
  • My Word Lists
  • Recent additions
  • Resources home
  • Text Checker

Definition of hypothesis noun from the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary

  • formulate/advance a theory/hypothesis
  • build/construct/create/develop a simple/theoretical/mathematical model
  • develop/establish/provide/use a theoretical/conceptual framework/an algorithm
  • advance/argue/develop the thesis that…
  • explore an idea/a concept/a hypothesis
  • make a prediction/an inference
  • base a prediction/your calculations on something
  • investigate/evaluate/accept/challenge/reject a theory/hypothesis/model
  • design an experiment/a questionnaire/a study/a test
  • do research/an experiment/an analysis
  • make observations/calculations
  • take/record measurements
  • carry out/conduct/perform an experiment/a test/a longitudinal study/observations/clinical trials
  • run an experiment/a simulation/clinical trials
  • repeat an experiment/a test/an analysis
  • replicate a study/the results/the findings
  • observe/study/examine/investigate/assess a pattern/a process/a behavior
  • fund/support the research/project/study
  • seek/provide/get/secure funding for research
  • collect/gather/extract data/information
  • yield data/evidence/similar findings/the same results
  • analyze/examine the data/soil samples/a specimen
  • consider/compare/interpret the results/findings
  • fit the data/model
  • confirm/support/verify a prediction/a hypothesis/the results/the findings
  • prove a conjecture/hypothesis/theorem
  • draw/make/reach the same conclusions
  • read/review the records/literature
  • describe/report an experiment/a study
  • present/publish/summarize the results/findings
  • present/publish/read/review/cite a paper in a scientific journal

Definitions on the go

Look up any word in the dictionary offline, anytime, anywhere with the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary app.

define hypothesis form
  • The research question will also give us the hypothesized parameter value. This is the number that goes in the hypothesis statements (i.e., \(\mu_0\) and \(p_0\)). For the difference between two groups, regression, and correlation, this value is typically 0.
  • Hypotheses are always written in terms of population parameters (e.g., \(p\) and \(\mu\)).  The tables below display all of the possible hypotheses for the parameters that we have learned thus far. Note that the null hypothesis always includes the equality (i.e., =).

    • Scientific Methods

    What is Hypothesis?

    We have heard of many hypotheses which have led to great inventions in science. Assumptions that are made on the basis of some evidence are known as hypotheses. In this article, let us learn in detail about the hypothesis and the type of hypothesis with examples.

    A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.

    Characteristics of Hypothesis

    Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:

    • The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
    • If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
    • The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
    • The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.

    Sources of Hypothesis

    Following are the sources of hypothesis:

    • The resemblance between the phenomenon.
    • Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
    • Scientific theories.
    • General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.

    Types of Hypothesis

    There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:

    • Simple hypothesis
    • Complex hypothesis
    • Directional hypothesis
    • Non-directional hypothesis
    • Null hypothesis
    • Associative and casual hypothesis

    Simple Hypothesis

    It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.

    Complex Hypothesis

    It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease.

    Directional Hypothesis

    It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect.

    Non-directional Hypothesis

    It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.

    Null Hypothesis

    It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “H O ”.

    Associative and Causal Hypothesis

    Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables.

    Examples of Hypothesis

    Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:

    • Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
    • All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
    • If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.

    Functions of Hypothesis

    Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:

    • Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
    • It becomes the start point for the investigation.
    • Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
    • It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

    How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?

    Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:

    • Formation of question
    • Doing background research
    • Creation of hypothesis
    • Designing an experiment
    • Collection of data
    • Result analysis
    • Summarizing the experiment
    • Communicating the results

    Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

    What is hypothesis.

    A hypothesis is an assumption made based on some evidence.

    Give an example of simple hypothesis?

    What are the types of hypothesis.

    Types of hypothesis are:

    • Associative and Casual hypothesis

    State true or false: Hypothesis is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into a prediction.

    Define complex hypothesis..

    A complex hypothesis shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables.

    Quiz Image

    Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!

    Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz

    Visit BYJU’S for all Physics related queries and study materials

    Your result is as below

    Request OTP on Voice Call

    Leave a Comment Cancel reply

    Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

    Post My Comment

    define hypothesis form

    Register with BYJU'S & Download Free PDFs

    Register with byju's & watch live videos.

    Hunter Biden trial begins Monday in Wilmington: What you need to know about the case

    define hypothesis form

    • Hunter Biden faces three firearms felonies, all of which focus on whether Biden lied on a form when he purchased a gun and whether he lied about being addicted to drugs.
    • Prosecutors have a mountain of evidence showing Hunter Biden's drug use, including his own words from his 2021 memoir, "Beautiful Things."
    • Defense attorneys have unsuccessfully sought to toss the case using arguments that the charges are legally defective
    • A jury of 12 picked from residents of New Castle County will evaluate the evidence and be tasked with rendering the verdict.

    The felony gun trial for Hunter Biden will be the first in U.S. history for the child of a sitting president, and it comes days after another historic first: the felony trial of former President Donald Trump.

    The proceeding will occur inside a Wilmington courthouse and is expected to explore the depths of Biden's drug use through the context of a bizarre series of events in which he purchased a gun in Delaware that authorities recovered after it was thrown into a trash can in a Delaware grocery store weeks later.

    The following is a rundown of the case:

    What did Biden do?

    In October 2018, Hunter Biden walked into the StarQuest Shooters & Survival Supply gun shop on U.S. Route 202 north of Wilmington and purchased a .38 special revolver along with other items.

    People who purchase firearms are required to provide identification and fill out a standardized form collected by federal authorities. On that form, they are asked whether they are an unlawful user or are addicted to controlled substances, narcotics and other listed substances. Biden is accused of answering "no" to that question on the form.

    Biden has been open about his longtime struggles with crack cocaine addiction. He's written about it in his book and discussed it during a court hearing last year, stating he's been sober since 2019.

    He was able to purchase the gun and kept it for less than a month before it was thrown by his lover into a trash receptacle outside the upscale Janssen's Market grocery store in Greenville. This prompted a Delaware State Police search for a man who found the gun while collecting recyclables outside the store and − several years later − drew federal prosecutors' attention back to the form.

    Why is that allegedly a crime?

    Biden faces three firearms felonies.

    The first two relate specifically to the form he filled out to purchase the gun, accusing Biden of lying about this drug use on the form.

    The third charge pertains to Biden's possession of a firearm while he was allegedly an unlawful user or addicted to controlled substances.

    What must prosecutors prove to the jury?

    For the first charge, prosecutors must generally convince the jury that:

    • Biden filled out the form and that he made a false statement, specifically that he was an unlawful user of or addicted to controlled substances.
    • That he knew that statement was false.
    • That the statement was meant to deceive the salesman on a fact material to the sale. In other words: the sale would not have occurred had he answered otherwise.

    The second charge is similar. Prosecutors need to show that Biden knowingly made a false statement, but need not show the statement was material to the transaction.

    For the third charge, prosecutors need to prove:

    • Biden was either an unlawful user of or addicted to controlled substances.
    • That he knowingly possessed the firearm.
    • That he knew he was an unlawful user of or addicted to controlled substances.

    What is a user and an 'addict'?

    To find Biden was an unlawful user of controlled substances or addicted to drugs, the jury must have a common definition of what those terms mean in order to apply the evidence to the question. This has been a hotly litigated topic in pretrial motions and continues to be where defense attorneys are concentrating their litigation days ahead of trial.

    Last week, Judge Maryellen Noreika granted the prosecutors' motion barring defense attorneys from arguing or suggesting that they must show Biden used controlled substances the day of the firearm purchase in order to get a guilty verdict.

    Prosecutors successfully argued that relevant definitions dictate they need to simply show that the "unlawful use has occurred recently enough to indicate that the individual is actively engaged in such conduct."

    Recent : What is an addict? Hunter Biden is fighting what that means as gun trial looms

    However, the debate on the issue continues as of Wednesday in litigation over what definitions jurors will work with. On Wednesday, defense attorney submitted arguments seeking a more constrained definition of "addict" and unlawful user than what prosecutors have sought in their proposed jury instructions.

    Among other requests, defense filings request specific instructions telling the jury that if they do not find that Biden knew himself to fit the definition of drug user or "addict" at the time he purchased the gun, the verdict must be not guilty.

    How the judge decides these definitions and instructions could be key to how Biden defends himself at trial.

    What evidence and witnesses will prosecutors use?

    Regardless of what definitions are ultimately presented to the jury, prosecutors have a mountain of evidence showing Biden's drug use.

    A primary vein of evidence will be Biden’s own words exploring his drug use in his 2021 memoir “Beautiful Things.” In it, he said he was in active addiction for four years leading to March 2019 and speaks about rehab and relapses, according to excerpts identified by prosecutors.

    Prosecutors will also lean on his text messages: missives like, “I was sleeping in a car smoking crack on 4th Street and Rodney.”

    The book: Hunter Biden says he was 'smoking crack every 15 minutes', more jaw-dropping moments from memoir 'Beautiful Things'

    Additionally, they will call close family witnesses including what court documents indicate are his ex-wife, Kathleen Buhle, as well as Hallie Biden, the widow of Biden’s brother and Hunter Biden’s former lover. In court, prosecutors said these witnesses will testify to Biden’s conduct, as well as verify digital communications entered as evidence in the trial.

    Prosecutors also intend to call witnesses from the gun shop to testify about the purchase of the revolver.  

    What will Biden's defense argue?

    So far, defense attorneys have unsuccessfully sought to toss the case using arguments that the charges are legally defective.

    As trial looms, his attorneys have hinted at a defense that emphasizes the requirement that prosecutors show that Biden knowingly lied about his status as an unlawful drug user when he filled out paperwork to purchase the gun.

    Abbe Lowell, Biden's primary defense attorney, has sought permission to introduce at trial expert testimony from a specialist who can testify regarding a person with addiction’s understanding of and state of denial about their own addiction.

    “Someone, like Mr. Biden who had just completed an 11-day rehabilitation program and lived with a sober companion after that, could surely believe he was not a present tense user or addict,” Lowell wrote in court documents filed earlier this month.

    Prosecutors have argued that Lowell submitted paperwork to admit that witness too late, asking the judge to bar such testimony.

    Secondarily, Lowell has hinted he may seek a line of questioning that attacks the credibility of the gun shop employees responsible for keeping the form on which Biden is accused of lying.

    This avenue was opened by the fact that the form was altered between when it was first emailed to federal authorities in 2018 and when the original was turned over to federal investigators years later. Employees at the gun shop added another form of identification verification to the form after the fact that may not have actually been submitted by Biden, according to court documents.

    In court, Lowell said the alteration calls the credibility of the shop employees to question and presents questions over whether the witnesses are obtaining a benefit from prosecutors since they appeared to have, like Biden, written false information on the form.

    Who will decide whether Biden is guilty?

    A jury of 12 picked from residents of New Castle County will evaluate the evidence and be tasked with rendering the verdict. Because of the high-profile nature of the defendant, hundreds are being called into the courthouse for jury selection on Monday.

    The court will use pre-decided questions to cull potential jurors who can't be impartial down to a smaller pool. Then, prosecutors and defense attorneys will have the choice to strike a certain number of prospective jurors. This process could take days.

    Where is this happening and how long will it take?

    After jury selection, each side will present opening statements and prosecutors will begin to call witnesses.

    Prosecutors have said they expect to take three days to present their case. Lowell, Biden's attorney, indicated he will possibly also present a case and said if he does, it won't take double the time prosecutors have projected for their own.

    In all, the court expects the case to last about two weeks.

    The trial will take place in the federal courthouse on King Street in downtown Wilmington.

    A piece of trivia: The court is housed in the J. Caleb Boggs Federal Building, named after the former U.S. senator a young Joe Biden defeated in 1972 to launch his political career in Washington D.C.

    Who is the judge?

    Federal Judge Maryellen Noreika is presiding over the case.

    Her career before the bench centered on civil litigation: intellectual property cases and corporate litigation in federal and state courts. Later on, she'd gain experience representing children in Delaware's Family Court.

    In 2017, Sens. Tom Carper and Chris Coons put forward Noreika and Colm F. Connolly to fill judicial vacancies in the Delaware District. Then- President Donald Trump nominated Noreika  and Connolly, and she was confirmed the following year.

    The judge: Biden gun charges remain before judge who questioned plea deal, placing spotlight on her

    Her political affiliations and contributions have been mixed, according to past reporting.

    Noreika gained national attention last year when a plea deal for Biden fell apart under her pointed questioning of the parties. Both sides went into the hearing having agreed to a deal that would have resolved both the gun case, as well as pending tax charges against Biden with a misdemeanor plea and recommended sentence of probation only.

    Failed plea deal: Here's how Hunter Biden's expected plea deal fell apart, leading to his not guilty plea

    However, Noreika repeatedly complained that both parties wanted her "rubber stamp" on the "unusual" agreement and subjected them to hours of questions. Her line of inquiry ultimately exposed differences in each side's interpretation of the deal and led to her ordering further legal briefings that prompted the sides to abandon the deal.

    Could the president's son go to prison?

    The charges carry a maximum penalty of 25 years in prison, though Biden is likely to get a shorter sentence if convicted. It is atypical for defendants to get a maximum sentence when they are first-time offenders like Biden.

    What about Biden's taxes?

    Separately, Biden faces tax evasion charges in a California case now set to go to trial this fall.

    Contact Xerxes Wilson at (302) 324-2787 or [email protected] .

    What is an addict? Hunter Biden is fighting what that means as gun trial looms

    define hypothesis form

    • Biden contends the definition was 'addict' wasn't explained to him when he bought the gun in 2018 and he had just completed a stint in rehab.

    Hunter Biden’s lawyers are sparring with prosecutors in his federal gun case over the definition of drug "addict," as they prepare for trial to begin June 3 .

    The president’s son is charged with lying on a federal form and to a gun dealer about whether he was addicted to drugs when he bought a pistol in 2018. He has acknowledged his years-long substance use in a book and interviews .

    But in court filings this week, Biden’s lawyers suggested he might deny being an "addict" at the time of the purchase because he had just completed a stint in rehabilitation.

    “The terms ‘user or ‘addict’ are not defined on the form and were not explained to him,” defense lawyer Abbe Lowell wrote in a filing Thursday. “Someone, like Mr. Biden who had just completed an 11-day rehabilitation program and lived with a sober companion after that, could surely believe he was not a present tense user or addict.”

    Prosecutors contend Biden was an addict when buying, possessing gun

    Prosecutors disagreed.

    Prep for the polls: See who is running for president and compare where they stand on key issues in our Voter Guide

    Justice Department special counsel David Weiss’s team argued in a filing Monday that Biden lied on a federal form for a background check “by falsely stating he was not an unlawful user of a controlled substance or an addict.”

    The indictment  charges Biden with knowingly deceiving a firearms dealer by buying a Colt Cobra 38SPL revolver on Oct. 12, 2018 and possessing it until Oct. 23, 2018. He is charged with falsely filling out a federal form denying he was an unlawful user to any narcotics. And he is charged with knowingly possessing the revolver despite the restrictions against substance users owning firearms.

    The charges carry a maximum penalty of 25 years in prison, although Biden is likely to get a shorter sentence if convicted.

    Trial on gun charges follows collapse of plea agreement

    Weiss secured the indictment after a plea agreement fell apart in July that would have potentially kept Biden out of a jail. Judge Maryellen Noreika refused to accept the deal because of disputes between prosecutors and defense lawyers over whether it protected Biden from potential future charges. Congressional Republicans blasted the plea agreement as too lenient.

    The plea bargain would have allowed Biden to enter a pretrial program for a gun charge that could have been dismissed if he complied.

    The agreement would also have allowed him to plead guilty to two misdemeanors for failing to pay his taxes in 2017 and 2018. Instead, he faces a trial Sept. 5 on six federal tax charges in California.

    Biden has lost appeals to dismiss both cases so prosecutors and defense lawyers continue to jockey over what evidence will be allowed at trial on gun charges.

    Noreika set a pretrial conference for noon Friday.

    Definition of 'addict' could be key at trial

    The dispute over the definition of an addict could be a key part of the trial.

    The form Biden filled out to buy the gun asked: “Are you an unlawful user of, or addicted to, marijuana or any depressant, stimulant, narcotic drug, or any other controlled substance?” Biden put an X in the “no” box.

    In outlining their case, prosecutors offered quotes from Biden’s book, “Beautiful Things,” where he describes “nearly four years of active addiction” and “a half dozen rehab attempts.”

    “I was a crack addict and that was that,” Biden wrote in his book. “I was doing nothing but drinking and drugging.”

    Prosecutors intend to show videos and pictures from Biden’s laptop of him smoking crack or of crack or drug paraphernalia straddling the key period around the gun purchase in October 2018. In court filings, two pictures from April 27 and 28, 2018, show white material in plastic bags and a frame from a video shows Biden holding something Dec. 22, 2018.

    Six videos and pictures from Biden’s laptop of him smoking crack or of crack or drug paraphernalia were submitted as exhibits. In court filings, two pictures from April 27 and 28, 2018, show white material in plastic bags and a frame from a video shows Biden holding something Dec. 22, 2018.

    Prosecutors argued the judge should instruct jurors about the definition of the terms “unlawful user of a controlled substance” and “drug addict.” Prosecutors suggested using a definition from Treasury Department regulations upheld by the 8 th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

    “The term ‘drug addict’ means any individual who habitually uses any controlled substance so as to endanger the public morals, health, safety, or welfare, or who is so far addicted to the use of a controlled substance as to have lost the power of self-control with reference to his addiction,” the regulation states.

    But Biden’s lawyers argued against the Treasury definition because he interpreted the question on the form as asking if he were an addict at the time he bought the gun.

    A 3 rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision in a gun possession case required a defendant “to have engaged in regular use” of narcotics that was “contemporaneous with possession of the firearm.” The appeals court overturned a conviction in the case where a defendant had used marijuana six hours before he was found in possession of a gun.

    “There is no more reason to prohibit gun possession by people who are not intoxicated, simply because they may get intoxicated when they are not physically possessing a gun,” Lowell wrote. “A gun owner who leaves their guns behind when they head to the bar for a drink or locks their gun in a lockbox or safe while using marijuana (or taking a legally prescribed Oxycontin) is being responsible and should not be treated like a felon.”

    IMAGES

    1. PPT

      define hypothesis form

    2. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

      define hypothesis form

    3. 🏷️ Formulation of hypothesis in research. How to Write a Strong

      define hypothesis form

    4. How to Form a Hypothesis

      define hypothesis form

    5. PPT

      define hypothesis form

    6. hypothesis in research methodology notes

      define hypothesis form

    VIDEO

    1. What Is A Hypothesis?

    2. Step 1. Form Null Hypothesis (H_0) and Alternative Hypothesis (H_1)

    3. Hypothesis Testing

    4. Concept of Hypothesis

    5. Writing a hypothesis

    6. hypothesis Testing

    COMMENTS

    1. Hypothesis Definition & Meaning

      hypothesis: [noun] an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument. an interpretation of a practical situation or condition taken as the ground for action.

    2. Hypothesis: Definition, Examples, and Types

      A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. It is a preliminary answer to your question that helps guide the research process. Consider a study designed to examine the relationship between sleep deprivation and test ...

    3. HYPOTHESIS Definition & Meaning

      Hypothesis definition: a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis ) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.. See examples of HYPOTHESIS used in a sentence.

    4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

      Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.

    5. What is a Hypothesis

      Definition: Hypothesis is an educated guess or proposed explanation for a phenomenon, based on some initial observations or data. It is a tentative statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation and experimentation. Hypothesis is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments ...

    6. What Is a Hypothesis? The Scientific Method

      A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observation. The definition depends on the subject. In science, a hypothesis is part of the scientific method. It is a prediction or explanation that is tested by an experiment. Observations and experiments may disprove a scientific hypothesis, but can never entirely prove one.

    7. HYPOTHESIS

      HYPOTHESIS definition: 1. an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved…. Learn more.

    8. HYPOTHESIS

      HYPOTHESIS meaning: 1. an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved…. Learn more.

    9. Scientific hypothesis

      hypothesis. science. scientific hypothesis, an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an "If…then" statement summarizing the idea and in the ...

    10. Hypothesis

      hypothesis, something supposed or taken for granted, with the object of following out its consequences (Greek hypothesis, "a putting under," the Latin equivalent being suppositio ). Discussion with Kara Rogers of how the scientific model is used to test a hypothesis or represent a theory. Kara Rogers, senior biomedical sciences editor of ...

    11. What is a scientific hypothesis?

      Bibliography. A scientific hypothesis is a tentative, testable explanation for a phenomenon in the natural world. It's the initial building block in the scientific method. Many describe it as an ...

    12. Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

      A research hypothesis, in its plural form "hypotheses," is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

    13. Hypothesis

      The hypothesis of Andreas Cellarius, showing the planetary motions in eccentric and epicyclical orbits.. A hypothesis (pl.: hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained ...

    14. hypothesis noun

      The hypothesis predicts that children will perform better on task A than on task B. The results confirmed his hypothesis on the use of modal verbs. These observations appear to support our working hypothesis. a speculative hypothesis concerning the nature of matter; an interesting hypothesis about the development of language

    15. Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Examples and Quick Tips

      Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, "Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking. 4.

    16. Hypothesis Testing

      Present the findings in your results and discussion section. Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps. Table of contents. Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis. Step 2: Collect data. Step 3: Perform a statistical test.

    17. Hypothesis

      Biology definition: A hypothesis is a supposition or tentative explanation for (a group of) phenomena, (a set of) facts, or a scientific inquiry that may be tested, verified or answered by further investigation or methodological experiment.It is like a scientific guess.It's an idea or prediction that scientists make before they do experiments. They use it to guess what might happen and then ...

    18. HYPOTHESIS

      HYPOTHESIS definition: a suggested explanation for something that has not yet been proved to be true. Learn more.

    19. hypothesis noun

      1 [countable] an idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct synonym theory to formulate/confirm a hypothesis a hypothesis about the function of dreams There is little evidence to support these hypotheses. Topic Collocations Scientific Research theory. formulate/advance a theory/hypothesis

    20. Hypothesis

      hypothesis: 1 n a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory" Synonyms: possibility , theory Types: show 17 types... hide 17 types... hypothetical a hypothetical ...

    21. 5.2

      5.2 - Writing Hypotheses. The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested. For each test you will have a null hypothesis ( H 0) and an alternative hypothesis ( H a ). When writing hypotheses there are three things that we need to know: (1) the parameter that we are testing (2) the ...

    22. Hypothesis Definition & Meaning

      Britannica Dictionary definition of HYPOTHESIS. [count] : an idea or theory that is not proven but that leads to further study or discussion. Other chemists rejected his hypothesis. put forward a hypothesis = advance a hypothesis. Their hypothesis is that watching excessive amounts of television reduces a person's ability to concentrate. The ...

    23. What is Hypothesis

      Functions of Hypothesis. Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis: Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible. It becomes the start point for the investigation. Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations. It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.

    24. Historic Hunter Biden gun trial set for Monday: Here are the details

      A jury of 12 picked from residents of New Castle County will evaluate the evidence and be tasked with rendering the verdict. The felony gun trial for Hunter Biden will be the first in U.S. history ...

    25. What is Natural Language Processing? Definition and Examples

      Natural language processing (NLP) is a form of artificial intelligence ( AI) that allows computers to understand human language, whether it be written, spoken, or even scribbled. As AI-powered devices and services become increasingly more intertwined with our daily lives and world, so too does the impact that NLP has on ensuring a seamless ...

    26. Hunter Biden, prosecutors dispute what 'addict' means before gun trial

      Hunter Biden's lawyers are sparring with prosecutors in his federal gun case over the definition of drug "addict," as they prepare for trial to begin June 3. The president's son is charged ...