Industrial Revolution 4.0

Introduction 

  • The concept of 'Industry 4.0' was initially formulated by the German government back in 2011.
  • Industry 4.0 signifies a novel stage in the Industrial Revolution, concentrating mainly on intercommunication , automation , application of machine learning , and instantaneous data .
  • Industry 4.0 integrates the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) and smart manufacturing , merging physical procedures and production with intelligent digital technologies , machine learning , and extensive data .
  • Objective: To develop a comprehensive and more interconnected ecosystem for businesses that are centered around manufacturing and supply chain management.
  • Companies and organizations today face a common challenge: the need for interconnectedness and real-time data across processes, partners, products, and personnel. This is where Industry 4.0 becomes crucial.

Industrial Revolution

Fourth industrial revolution in india: status

  • The digital economy is projected to reach $1 trillion by 2025 , contributing around 25% of India's GDP . (Source: McKinsey Global Institute) .
  • Industry 4.0 technologies have the potential to create 90 million jobs in India by 2030 . (Source: BCG and World Economic Forum).

Challenges to the 4th industrial revolution

  • Cybersecurity issues : The increased connectivity in this revolution exposes vulnerabilities to cybersecurity threats.
  • Reduction in low-skill jobs : Automation and artificial intelligence technologies can replace repetitive and manual tasks, resulting in a shift in the workforce and potentially fewer opportunities for low-skill jobs.
  • Industry and market disruption : Companies that fail to adapt and embrace innovation may struggle to survive in the new competitive landscape.
  • Rise in social inequalities : This can lead to heightened social tensions and widen the gap between different socio-economic groups.

Challenges specific to India

  • Infrastructure and connectivity: Insufficient power supply and high-speed internet, especially in rural areas, limit digital infrastructure. Skilled workforce development is crucial.
  • Data quality: Inconsistent standards and a significant informal sector affect the reliability and accuracy of data, impacting decision-making and policy implementation.
  • Limited research and development: India's inadequate investment in R&D hampers innovation and the ability to address challenges and opportunities in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Steps taken by the Government

  • SAMARTH Udyog Bharat 4.0 Initiative
  • It is an Industry 4.0 initiative by the Department of Heavy Industry, Ministry of Heavy Industry & Public Enterprises .
  • The goal is to establish an ecosystem for the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies in Indian manufacturing by 2025, including MNCs, large, medium, and small-scale Indian companies.
  • Centre of Excellence (CoE) on IT for Industry 4.0
  • The CoE serves as a knowledge center for entrepreneurs and startups, promoting the concept of IT and its application in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0).
  • Centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • World Economic Forum has established its fourth Center for Fourth Industrial Revolution in Mumbai, India.
  • This center will collaborate with NITI Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India) to co-design new policies and protocols for emerging technologies.
  • National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS)
  • Launched by the Union government in 2018 and implemented by the Department of Science & Technology .
  • The mission addresses society's technological needs and considers international trends and roadmaps for next-generation technologies.
  • National Strategy on Artificial Intelligence
  • NITI Aayog has adopted a three-pronged approach under the strategy:
  • Undertaking exploratory proof-of-concept AI projects in various areas
  • Crafting a national strategy for building a vibrant AI ecosystem in India
  • Collaborating with experts and stakeholders

Way Forward

  • Foster international collaboration:  
  • A joint platform between ministries, state governments, and industry bodies can be considered.
  • Promote industry-academia collaboration  
  • Introduce a compulsory apprenticeship program at the higher secondary level to provide hands-on experience in technology.
  • Increase investments.
  • Focus on improving productivity: Embrace digitalization by fostering competitive advantages along value chains. Prioritize productivity and address productivity gaps to enhance global competitiveness.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution offers more than just technological advancements; it presents an opportunity to create an inclusive, human-centred future.
  • It is essential for leaders, policymakers, and people from all income groups and nations to harness converging technologies for positive impact.

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Industrial Revolution 4.0

  • January 20, 2023

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Context: The World Economic Forum (WEF) has chosen Hyderabad for establishing its Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution focused on healthcare and life sciences. C4IR Telangana will be the 18th centre to join WEF’s Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) network that spans four continents.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

  • The first industrial revolution used water and steam power to mechanise production (the 1800s).
  • The second used electric power to create mass production (the early 1900s).
  • The third used electronics and information technology to automate production (the late 1900s).

About Industrial Revolution 4.0:

  • The term ‘Industry 4.0’ was coined by the German government in 2011 .
  • Industry 4.0 refers to a new phase in the Industrial Revolution that focuses heavily on interconnectivity, automation, machine learning, and real-time data.
  • Industry 4.0, which encompasses IoTs and smart manufacturing, marries physical production and operations with smart digital technology, machine learning, and big data .
  • Industry 4.0 comes into play when every company and organization operating today is different, they all face a common challenge—the need for connectedness and access to real-time insights across processes, partners, products, and people .

Industry 4.0 Technologies:

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

Significance of Industrial Revolution 4.0:

  • It has the potential to raise global income levels and improve the quality of life for populations around the world.
  • It will also lead to a supply-side miracle, with long-term gains in efficiency and productivity.
  • Transportation and communication costs will drop, logistics and global supply chains will become more effective, and the cost of trade will diminish, all of which will open new markets and drive economic growth.
  • Governments will gain new technological powers to increase their control over populations, based on pervasive surveillance systems and the ability to control digital infrastructure. .
  • Advances in technology will create the potential to reduce the scale or impact of violence, through the development of new modes of protection, for example, or greater precision in targeting.

Challenges of IR 4.0:

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

  • The immediate fear is that of job loss , particularly in the informal sector.
  • It could yield greater inequality, particularly in its potential to disrupt labor markets .
  • Besides all these, there are several other critical concerns surrounding safety, ethics, and the short- and long-term socio-economic impact that remain unanswered.
  • There is a growing concern that the existing fallacies in humans might only get more accentuated after 4IR.
  • There are several studies that show how facial recognition technologies have a higher chance of misidentifying African and Asian people compared to their Western counterparts. It is also going to be skewed as developing and least developed countries lack the data framework and infrastructure.
  • It will also profoundly impact the nature of national and international security , affecting both the probability and the nature of the conflict. This will lead to new fears.
  • One of the greatest individual challenges posed by new information technologies is privacy.

Need for India to adopt IR 4.0:

  • Business Analytics will work on the prediction and prevention of production defects.
  • Digitization of numerous manufacturing processes will lead to cost reduction with an improved experience for consumers.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

  • The implementation of automation will reduce manufacturing cycles, decrease cycle time, and will reduce wasteful use of capital.
  • IoT and man-machine connectivity will help supply chains to decrease lead times.

Status in India:

  • India is moving towards becoming a hub of global manufacturing, 3D printing, machine learning, data analytics, and IoT are key to promoting industrial growth,
  • In November 2020, the Modern Coach Factory (MCF) at Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, rolled out smart railway coaches that are fitted with a battery of sensors to provide a comfortable experience to passengers.
  • In May 2020, the Union Ministry of Heavy Industries launched the Smart Advanced Manufacturing and Rapid Transformation Hub (SAMARTH) scheme , which brings together manufacturers, vendors, and customers to make them aware of 4IR technologies.
  • In 2022’s budget speech, the Union finance minister announced a slew of new 4IR-driven projects, including Drone Shakti , to encourage start-ups that will facilitate the use of drone services.
  • India even has a 4IR centre in Mumbai run by WEF , which is closely working with several state governments.
  • The Centre has recently come up with the Fourth Industrial Revolution for Sustainable Transformation (FIRST) Cancer Care model in which 4IR technologies would be used to provide better healthcare for cancer patients
  • In February 2022, Government launched the pan-India 3D maps programme by Genesys International for the 100 smart cities.
  • The company plans to map an entire city in intricate detail so that many 4IR revolution technology-based projects, such as driverless cars, will become easier to implement.

Way Forward:

  • Data-driven decision-making is getting implemented in numerous fields.
  • Though certain steps have already been taken, a lot of work needs to be done.
  • Instead of just spending more capital, the emphasis must be on increasing the current asset base.
  • The implementation of smart manufacturing, data analytics, and the Internet of Things will give a positive direction to Indian industries.
  • To secure India’s active involvement in the fourth industrial revolution, it will be necessary to restructure some vital domestic industries and strengthen institutional capability.

Source: DownToEarth

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Home » Science & Technology » Robotics » 4th Industrial revolution and Robotics

4th Industrial revolution and Robotics

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0) is a term that describes present technological age. It is the fourth industrial era since the inception of the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. The key elements of the fourth revolution are the fusion of technologies ranging from the physical, digital to biological spheres. Prime Minister gave an institutional shape to the expression by launching the Centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution in India.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

As described by the founder and executive chairman of World Economic Forum, Klaus Schwab, “the fourth industrial revolution is a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work and relate to one another”.

Characteristics of IR 4.0:

  • It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.
  • It brings together digital technology and the physical world to create a new range of products and services.
  • The possibilities of billions of people connected by mobile devices, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity, and access to knowledge, are unlimited.
  • And these possibilities will be multiplied by emerging technology breakthroughs in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, autonomous vehicles, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, materials science, energy storage, and quantum computing.
  • The revolution is evolving at an exponential rather than a linear pace and it is disrupting almost every industry in every country.

Agriculture Sector:

  • AI can be used to predict advisories for sowing, pest control, input control can help in ensuring increased income and providing stability for the agricultural community.
  • Precision agriculture uses AI technology to aid in detecting diseases in plants, pests, and poor plant nutrition on farms.
  • AI sensors can detect and target weeds and then decide which herbicides to apply within the right buffer zone.
  • Climate pattern and effects on different crops can be analysed using AI software which will help in prediction of the best crop for the season and the possible outcomes.
  • Image classification tools combined with remote and local sensed data can bring a revolutionary change in utilization and efficiency of farm machinery, in areas of weed removal, early disease identification, produce harvesting and grading.

Manufacturing sector:

  • Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now; however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
  • The predictive maintenance of machineries would lead to reduced operational cost
  • IR technologies would be helpful in minimizing deterioration in the quality of the machinery
  • By having a repository of data regarding machines and equipment’s will aid in managing them well.
  • Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure.
  • Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence.
  • Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.

Way forward:

  • Governments, businesses and civil society organisations should put together an ecosystem for massive upskilling of the workforce.
  • India needs to prepare itself for a period of information and digital abundance, adapt itself to the scorching pace of innovation and learn to collaborate on scale, quickly transform the idea into a breakthrough innovation, shift from a system of time-bound education to a mode of continuous learning and create more employment opportunities than what new and disruptive technologies take away.
  • There is a need for good quality education to make India’s youth a productive asset.
  • Access to finance commensurate with maturity of the business model and beginning stage of the start-up lifecycle is extremely important to scale innovations.
  • Corporates will have a key role in championing this on-going movement, leveraging the ART Model – Alliances, Relationships enabled through Technology.

Conclusion:

Industrial Revolution that first began in Great Britain and later in United States (after end of Civil War) has helped nations in developing faster and easier means of mass production. It has transformed lives of people in many ways over about 250 years. India is also catching up with focussing on Industrial Revolution 4.0. Development of new technologies in this era can help the nations in many ways if these technologies are used effectively for the welfare of mankind.

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Current Affairs for UPSC IAS

Challenges and opportunities of fourth industrial revolution.

  • Category Economy
  • Published 29th Oct, 2018

The fourth industrial revolution is conceptualized as an upgrade on the third revolution and is marked by a fusion of technologies straddling the physical, digital and biological worlds. It will mark out as a new phase rather than a prolongation of the current revolution - velocity, scope, and systems impact and lead to the transformation of entire systems of production, management, and governance.

What is 'Fourth Industrial Revolution'?

The fourth industrial revolution is conceptualized as an upgrade on the third revolution and is marked by a fusion of technologies straddling the physical, digital and biological worlds. It will mark out as a new phase rather than a prolongation of the current revolution - velocity, scope, and systems impact and lead to the transformation of entire systems of production, management, and governance. In simple words, the new revolution can be said to be the advent of cyber-physical systems which, while being "reliant on the technologies and infrastructure of the third industrial revolution represent entirely new ways in which technology becomes embedded within societies and even our human bodies". 

Background:

  • The 1st Industrial Revolution which occurred in 18th century in Britain used water and steam power to mechanize production, harnessing of steam power and birth of modern factory. 
  • The 2nd Industrial Revolution, from the last 3rd of the 19th century to the outbreak of World War I, was powered by developments in electricity, transportation, chemicals, steel, and mass production and consumption. 
  • Now a 4th Industrial Revolution is building on the 3rd, the digital revolution that has been occurring since the middle of the last century. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.

How will it be different from 3rd revolution?

There are 3 reasons why today's transformations represent not merely a prolongation of the 3rd Industrial Revolution but rather the arrival of a 4th and distinct one: velocity, scope, and systems impact. The speed of current breakthroughs has no historical precedent. When compared with previous industrial revolutions, the 4th is evolving at an exponential rather than a linear pace. Moreover, it is disrupting almost every industry in every country. And the breadth and depth of these changes herald the transformation of entire systems of production, management, and governance.

Impacts of fourth industrial revolution:

On Business:

The Technologies that underpin the 4th Industrial Revolution will have a major impact on businesses. On the supply side, many industries are seeing the introduction of new technologies that create entirely new ways of serving existing needs and significantly disrupt existing industry value chains. It will improve the quality, speed, or price at which value is delivered. It will also lead to major shifts on the demand side are as growing transparency, consumer engagement, and new patterns of consumer behaviour (increasingly built upon access to mobile networks and data) force companies to adapt the way they design, market, and deliver products and services.

It will enable development of technology-enabled platforms that combine both demand and supply to disrupt existing industry structures of sharing or on demand economy. These technology platforms will create entirely new ways of consuming goods and services in the process. It will lower the barriers for businesses and individuals to create wealth, altering the personal and professional environments of workers. The main effects that the 4th Industrial Revolution have on business are-on customer expectations, on product enhancement, on collaborative innovation, and on organizational forms.

On Government:

New technologies and platforms will increasingly enable citizens to engage with governments, voice their opinions, coordinate their efforts, and even circumvent the supervision of public authorities. Though, the governments will gain new technological powers to increase their control over populations, based on pervasive surveillance systems and the ability to control digital infrastructure. But they will increasingly face pressure to change their current approach to public engagement and policymaking.

On Security:

The 4th Industrial Revolution will profoundly impact the nature of national and international security, affecting both the probability and the nature of conflict. The advances in technology will create the potential to reduce the scale or impact of violence, through the development of new modes of protection, for example, or greater precision in targeting.

Impact on people:

The 4th Industrial Revolution will change not only what people do but also who they are. It will affect identity and all the issues associated with it: sense of privacy, notions of ownership, consumption patterns, the time people devote to work and leisure, and how they develop careers, cultivate skills, meet people, and nurture relationships. Constant connection may deprive people of one of life's most important assets: the time to pause, reflect, and engage in meaningful conversation.

Pros and cons of Fourth Industrial revolution:

  • World Economic Forum report on FIR concludes that it will have an undeniable impact on job scenarios across the world disrupting erstwhile, well-established businesses, bringing sweeping changes to labour markets, and changing business models on the foundation of emerging economic theories.
  • Fourth Industrial Revolution has the potential to raise global income levels and improve the quality of life for populations around the world.
  • In the future, technological innovation will also lead to a supply-side miracle, with long-term gains in efficiency and productivity.
  • Transportation and communication costs will drop, logistics and global supply chains will become more effective, and the cost of trade will diminish, all of which will open new markets and drive economic growth.
  • Revolution is likely to increase inequality in the world as the spread of machines increases markets and disrupts labour markets. 
  • Inequality represents the greatest societal concern associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
  • The largest beneficiaries of innovation tend to be the providers of intellectual and physical capital the innovators, shareholders, and investors which explains the rising gap in wealth between those dependent on capital versus labour.
  • As automation substitutes for labour across the entire economy, the net displacement of workers by machines might exacerbate the gap between returns to capital and returns to labour.
  • With this revolution, it is also possible that in the future, talent, more than capital, will represent the critical factor of production. This will give rise to a job market increasingly segregated into low-skill/low-pay and high-skill/high-pay segments, which in turn will lead to an increase in social tensions.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution will change not only what we do but also who we are. It will affect our identity and all the issues associated with it: our sense of privacy, our notions of ownership, our consumption patterns, the time we devote to work and leisure, and how we develop our careers, cultivate our skills, meet people, and nurture relationships.

India and fourth industrial revolution:

  • India provides a potentially huge market access.
  • There is the very appealing demographic dividend with Indian youth representing approximately 20% of the global workforce by 2020. With more than 50 per cent of its population is under the age of 27, India can play a pivotal role in shaping the global fourth Industrial revolution in a responsible, scalable and inclusive manner.
  • There is a rising middle class
  • India is expected to become the fifth largest consumer marke t in two decades. Within this context, any form of consumption, entrepreneurship, startup or industry, can be viewed as a scaling opportunity.
  • The subcontinent has already taken steps to become an e-government. For example, the government has made efforts to enroll its citizens into a national database. Aadhaar is the world's largest biometrics database, with 1.2 billion Indian residents enrolled so far.
  • India also wants to become an AI hub with the government recently announcing its National Programme on AI to encourage the development of AI-related technology in the country.
  • India is also quickly rising up the ranks in terms of innovation. Last year, the country moved up five spots on the Global Innovation Index, ranking 57th out of 125 countries. In the category of ICT service exports, India was ranked first.
  • India also has a robust start-up scene, which reportedly has more firms than anywhere else in the world except for the US and the United Kingdom (UK).
  • With one of the youngest labour forces in the world, a sizeable technical aptitude , the second largest number of internet users on mobile devices and the second largest English speaking population, India is well positioned to enhance its global leadership in a post fourth industrial revolution era.
  • With the right mix of accelerators - including regulatory frameworks, educational ecosystems and government incentives - India can lead the fourth industrial revolution, while simultaneously enhancing the quality, equity and sustainability of its own growth and development outcomes
  • The enablers to actualize India’s sustainable transformation to fourth industrial revolution includes
  • Creation of an enabling ecosystem through incubators and accelerators to develop and scale innovations in ‘Future Now’ Cleantech sectors like clean energy, climate-smart agriculture, circular economy, green buildings and e-mobility is critical from the Indian context, to achieve transformative goals.
  • Participation of relevant ministries (like MoEFCC, MNRE) and Government-led coalitions (like International Solar Alliance) must be leveraged to champion this on-going movement.
  • World Economic Forum, in partnership with the Government of India has set up the Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution India to design and pilot practical tools for specific technologies. Such platforms and coalitions must be leveraged to assess the feasibility and scale innovative business models
  • Access to finance commensurate with maturity of the business model and beginning stage of the start-up lifecycle is extremely important to scale innovations. While Government-led initiatives like Start-Up Sangam will play a key role in crowding capital, private sector participation through grants, seed funding, equity capital and mainstream debt is necessary to scale innovations
  • Corporates will have a key role in championing this on-going movement, leveraging the ART Model – Alliances, Relationships enabled through Technology.
  • India is currently at a cusp of technovation revolution and the transition to a sustainable and inclusive growth trajectory will be accelerated by path-breaking innovations, enabling policies and availability of finance. These developments will lead to the emergence of ‘new-Gen’ business models, characterized by DICE – Design, Innovation and Creativity led Entrepreneurship to create social, environmental and economic positive impact.

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1. The fourth industrial revolution can not only disrupt labour market, but fundamentally alter them. Elaborate.

2. Examine the steps taken by government of India to address the challenges posed by the fourth industrial revolution.

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Home > Books > Industrial Robotics - New Paradigms

Fourth Industrial Revolution: Opportunities, Challenges, and Proposed Policies

Submitted: 03 September 2019 Reviewed: 07 November 2019 Published: 21 January 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.90412

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In this paper, key elements about the Fourth Industrial Revolution are set under examination. Concerns, challenges, and opportunities related to the Industry 4.0 are analyzed, and specific policies to deal with the challenges and take advantage from the opportunities are proposed. Other issues that are set under consideration in this paper are the rate at which the human labor is threatened by the technological achievements, the main factors that increase workers’ exposure to the risk of automation, the jobs that are more at risk due to automation, and the basic factors that make political intervention necessary in order to deal with the unpredictable consequences of the technological progress such as the threat of a nuclear disaster and a possible income and social inequality gap widening. Finally, a special reference is done for the case of Greece.

  • Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • industry 4.0
  • technological progress
  • creative disaster
  • artificial intelligence
  • true creativity
  • social intelligence

Author Information

Evanthia k. zervoudi *.

  • Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece

*Address all correspondence to: [email protected]

1. Introduction

In the last decades, the technological progress was remarkable. The fast and major technological changes offer the chance to improve human life, but they also create concerns about the future. One of the biggest fears related to the new technologies is that the robots and the artificial intelligence will replace the human factor in work leading to the “technological unemployment.” This is not the first time that people face the technological progress as a threat for their jobs. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when another major wave of technological progress took place, similar fears had arisen, but they had not been proven right; technological achievements of these centuries finally drove to the creation of new jobs that had fully compensated the consequences of the new job-saving technology adoption (“capitalization result”).

However, in view of the Fourth Industrial Revolution that has already begun in Europe and in the United States, the fear that the automation and the digitization will drive to the “End of Work” [ 1 ] wakes up again. A great discussion about the possibility of human factor replacement by machines and robots and a probable “creative disaster” have been emerged in a series of studies. Frey and Osborne [ 2 ] in their study support that 47% of jobs in the United States may be at risk of automation in the near future (see Figure 1 ). Bowles [ 3 ] in his study concludes that the proportion of sensitive-in-automation jobs in Europe varies from 45–60%, with Southern Europe being more exposed to a possible automation wave. The discussion about the consequences of the Industry 4.0 in World Economic Forum in Davos (2016) concluded that about 7 million jobs are at risk in the next 5 years with women being more affected.

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Employment by risk category in US.

There are various factors that could expose workers at the risk of automation. A low work experience is such a factor and mainly concerns young people who usually work as unskilled staff in routine positions that could be easily automated. Low levels of education and training is another crucial factor. Highly educated and highly specialized employees are less threatened by unemployment due to automation in contrast to low-skilled staff, whose tasks can be easily automated. The high percentages of people out of education, employment, or training (high NEET%) aggravates the situation since the difficulties of less-specialized workers to reenter into the labor market and get adapted to the new conditions will be great if they stay out of education, employment, or training for a long time. Figure 2 1 shows that there is a decreasing trend between educational level and the share of workers at high risk of automation; people with lower secondary education are the most exposed to the risk of automation, while highly educated employees with a Master’s/PhD are the most protected against the risk of automation.

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Share of workers at high automation risk by education level.

The low degree of adaptation to automation is maybe the most important among the risk factors of exposure to automation. Countries must acquire the mechanisms to help their citizens to be quickly and easily adapted to the new reality. In technologically advanced countries such as Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, men are increasingly working with robots in order to be highly adapted to automation reducing in this way the unemployment risk in comparison with other countries where adaptation to automation is slower.

2. Professional sectors and jobs more exposed to automation

The Fourth Industrial Revolution does not seem to threaten the human work as a whole. 2 The heterogeneity of jobs even within the same professional sector is great. Employees are differently exposed to automation depending on the position they hold and on their tasks. Routine jobs with a high volume of tasks related to information exchange, sales, data management, manual work, product transfer and storage, constructions, and office work are more exposed to the risk of automation. Construction and Manufacturing and Wholesale and Retail Trade are the professional sectors that are expected to be highly automated until 2030, with an estimated automation of approximately 45 and 34%, respectively (for OECD 3 countries). On the other hand, the risk of automation is lower for jobs with high educational requirements , the tasks of which demand high communicative and cognitive skills . Such tasks cannot be defined in terms of codes and algorithms (Engineering Bottlenecks); they are more related to the perception, the ability to manage complex situations, multilevel activity and flexibility, and the true creativity , for example, any task that cannot be provided by a machine but requires critical thinking such as the ability to develop new theories, literature, or musical compositions. There are also tasks that require social intelligence and comprehension such as elderly care; for these tasks there is a strong social preference to be provided by human employees and not by robots. Health and education are the professional sectors with the lowest estimated rates of automation (around 8–9% for OECD countries). This is also clear in Figure 3 according to which “Transportation and storage” and “Manufacturing” are the economic sectors that are more exposed to the risk of automation (up to 50%), while sectors such as “Human health and social work” and “Education” are the most protected against the automation risk implying that there are tasks such as teaching and nursing that cannot be replaced by machines.

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Potential impact of job automation across industry sectors.

3. Challenges related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution and policies to deal with them

Major technological achievements may imply significant public policy issues. McKinsey [ 8 ] in its report underlines that the key for the successful adaption to the new technological conditions is the ability of governments to adopt the right policies. Governments that will not be able to follow the appropriate long-term policies will set their economies at risk, that is, when all the other economies will run with great speed, their inability to be adapted to the new reality will drive to the deterioration of their competitiveness, the reduction of their revenue, and the increase in their spending with the possibility of a bankruptcy to be increased. But it is not only the ability of governments to be adapted to the new conditions. There are also severe social problems that may get bigger due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution making policy intervention crucial. Political leaders must ensure that the technological progress will work for the benefit of the society and not against it. Some of the most significant challenges that may arise due to the Industry 4.0 and basic policies to deal with them are given below (see [ 4 , 9 , 10 ] among others). Given that the Industry 4.0 is directly related to socioeconomic growth, these policies must be in complete accordance to the Sustainable Development Goals (SGs) adopted by United Nations Member States in 2015. 4 , 5

A major area on which governments should focus is that of work. The world of work becomes increasingly complex driving to loss of millions jobs. In the EU a significant decrease in the number of low and medium skilled jobs is already observed. The use of robots significantly reduces the labor cost and the likelihood of human error, while artificial intelligence begins to substitute the human factor even in jobs that require personal contact such as sales and customer service. The World Bank [ 10 ] estimates that the increase in automation will get at risk almost 57% of jobs in OECD countries, 47% of jobs in the United States, and 77% of jobs in China. Substantial differences concerning the impact of automation on jobs are also observed among countries, for example, the proportion of workers at high risk (due to automation) in Germany and in Austria is 12%, while in the technologically advanced Korea and Estonia is 6%. However, it is a common ascertainment that in all countries, the most educated and high-skilled workforce is able to be better adapted to the new technological requirements and enjoy higher real wages, while less educated and low-skilled workers are burdened by the cost of automation, being more exposed to income loss and unemployment.

Therefore, the basic policy that governments should follow in order to reduce the risk exposure of employees to automation is the investment in education and training for people of all ages so as to be able to be better adapted to new technologies and digitization. More specifically, a government should support (i) the practical training of professionals through job-related re-skilling and up-skilling programs so as to help people to get familiar with new technologies and become more competitive in labor market, (ii) the practical education and training of children and young people in new technologies so as to enter into the labor market having the appropriate skills and the necessary knowledge, (iii) the direct connection between education and labor market, (iv) the training in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) subject areas and the active participation of young people in such programs as young people in South Korea, Japan, Singapore, India, and China do, (v) internships and practice for young people (up to 24 years old) in order to gain work experience during their studies, and (vi) adult learning and lifelong learning programs so as to help elder people to be smoothly adapted to new technologies and digitization. Another significant goal of governments must be the job creation. The investment in education and training can be effective only if the right jobs are available. The public investment in sectors such as infrastructure and housing could benefit the long-term productivity of the economy driving to the increase of demand and the job creation.

Another issue that may arise due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution is the income inequality gap widening. Nowadays, global income inequality is at very high levels with the richest 8% of the world’s population to earn half of the world’s total income and the remaining 92% of people the other half. The income inequality rises globally in a fast pace. Between 1990 and 2010, the income inequality in developing countries reached at 11%. The rapid technological progress and the introduction of new technologies in all sectors, in combination with factors such as the insufficiently regulated financial integration and the growing competition in product and service markets, may widen this income inequality gap. The most educated and highly qualified staff has the ability and the skills to be better adapted to automation, and thus they will be widely benefited by the technological achievements. Moreover, people whose income, skills, and wealth are already high will be further favored by the significant increase of their assets’ value because of the technological progress. On the other hand, low-skilled workers will experience unemployment and constant downward pressure on their wages and their income. The workers that will be most affected by the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be those that may now feel invulnerable to competition with robots, that is, those whose jobs require moderate skills such as customer service that could be easily replaced by artificial intelligence. Many studies and reports underline that without the appropriate policies, the Fourth Industrial Revolution may contribute to the widening of the income inequality gap with unfavorable consequences for the society. Figure 4 below depicts this decreasing trend between income percentile and the share of workers at high risk of automation; people with lower income percentile (less than 10%) are the most exposed to the risk of automation, while well-paid employees with income percentile more than 75% are the most protected against the risk of automation. The fact that the well-paid employees are usually highly educated people highlights once more the importance of the education as a shield against the risk of automation.

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Share of workers at high automation risk by income level.

Studies that are referred to the relation between the Industry 4.0 and the income inequality are that of Acemoglu [ 11 ], Barro [ 12 ], Krueger [ 13 ], Krusell et al. [ 14 ], Hornstein et al. [ 15 ], Berman et al. [ 16 ], Card and DiNardo [ 17 ], Huber and Stephens [ 18 ], and Benioff [ 19 ], which argue that technological changes affect income distribution and deepen the gap between high and low-skilled workforce concluding that the income inequality gap expansion is due to the technological crises that can disproportionately increase the demand for capital and drive to a great job loss due to automation. Birdsall [ 20 ] in his study supports that the technological progress increases the “skill bonus” and replaces low-skill workers, deepening in this way the inequality. Papageorgiou et al. [ 21 ] conclude that variables such as technological development, access to education, sectorial employment rates, and national economic growth are deterministic for inequality in low- and high-income countries. In these variables, the International Labor Organization adds the technological change, the globalization, and the reduction of social welfare as key factors for widening income inequality. An alternative point of view is that of Goldin and Katz [ 22 ] according to which income inequality is mainly explained by changes in education rather than shifts in technology. In her study, A. Guscina [ 23 ] argues that during the period of pre-globalization (pre-IT period), technological progress enforced labor reducing the income inequality, while in the post-globalization period, technological progress enforced capital increasing in this way the inequality. According to the Deloitte Global report [ 24 ], the adoption of emerging technologies as artificial intelligence in countries such as India, South Africa, and China may drive to social turmoil and increase income inequality in the future. These countries had significant economic and political changes that in some cases led to high growth, but at the same time unknown “social cracks” had been introduced creating greater sensitivity to future social and economic changes. Kuzmenko and Roienko [ 25 ] in their study support that the income inequality will rapidly grow (under the influence of the Fourth Industrial Revolution) not only in the emerging economies but also in the developed countries such as France, United Kingdom, and Spain. According to the report of the Swiss bank UBS [ 26 ], the Industry 4.0 will have less impact on developed economies such as Switzerland and Singapore, but in emerging markets and especially in countries of Latin America and India, the impact of the extended use of artificial intelligence and robots will be particularly unfavorable as it will reduce their competitive advantage of low-cost labor.

Another severe social problem that is possible to get bigger due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution is poverty that is growing rapidly. Today, 767 million people live below the poverty line (with $1.90 per day). The evolution of technology and the job loss may worsen this situation driving more people to the unemployment and the poverty. The problem may become deeper if one takes into account the massive urbanization that is observed internationally. By 2030, almost 60% of the world’s population will be concentrated in urban areas. The rapid population growth and the non-sustainable urbanization may cause a great rising of poverty, conflicts, high waste of resources, and severe health and food security issues. In our days, one out of nine people worldwide (795 million) is malnourished.

Thus, a general conclusion is that the Fourth Industrial Revolution may contribute to the increase of poverty and hunger and to the widening of income and social inequality with rich and high-skilled people taking advantage from the technological progress and low-paid and less qualified employees suffering a greater reduction of their income. The widening of the income gap between rich and poor countries (but also within the countries) may also lead to an increase of illegal immigration which in turn may drive to serious cultural and political conflicts. Thus, the necessity of political intervention by authorities becomes crucial in order to reduce the inequalities and the negative social consequences.

Tax transformations could help in this direction. Governments may increase their tax revenue and social security contributions by workers whose earnings (income and wealth) will increase due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution such as the high-skilled people and apply a tax relief for workers whose income will be reduced. Tax revenue may be further increased by the reinforced productivity of the economy because of the use of new technologies. These increased tax revenue may finance investments in education, training, infrastructure and in stronger social security networks for those who have great difficulty to be adapted to new technologies such as elder people. Providing equal access to high-quality education and equal opportunities to people who do not have the financial ability for training and re-training, national authorities may drastically reduce the discriminations and the socioeconomic inequality. Other sensitive social policies are the extension of the existing social security benefits and the adoption of the universal basic income (UBI) in order to protect the income of people that are hit by unemployment. Finally, governments taking advantage from the opportunities that Industry 4.0 offers may also contribute to the reduction of the hunger worldwide by promoting the sustainable agricultural production and the “smart farming,” organizing food quality improvement programs for all and especially for young people using digital technology and artificial intelligence and supporting innovative ways of recycling and food waste reduction.

The risk of a gender gap expansion is another social issue that requires authority attention. In the future, industrial workforce will be mainly male, with less than 10% of European programmers being women. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, only 24% of the IT and communication sector workforce is female. McKinsey [ 8 ] in its report underlines that this fact constitutes a real business threat since companies with a higher percentage of women in managerial positions tend to perform better. Women’s thinking encourages creativity and innovation and promotes the interaction between technology and society contributing to technological progress. Governments must work in the direction of addressing the gender gap by emphasizing to the female creative thinking and encouraging their active participation to the innovation processes through IT and STEM programs that will help them to become more competitive in labor market and will promote their social mobility. The protection of women’s rights and the ensuring of equal opportunities for women in all countries, such as their unobstructed access to quality education, are prerequisites in order for the authorities to effectively deal with gender gap worldwide. Figure 5 6 captures the relation between both the educational level and the gender of employees with their exposure to the risk of automation. As it was previously highlighted, people with lower education are the most exposed to the risk of automation, while highly educated employees are the most protected ones. An interesting point in Figure 5 is that as the automation replaces the manual work, low- and medium-educated men tend to be more exposed to automation than low- and medium-educated women, while highly educated women are constantly more exposed to automation than highly educated men but less exposed than people of low and medium education.

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Potential impact of job automation across workers by education level.

There are also severe legal reasons that oblige authorities to follow strict policies so as to reduce the negative consequences of Fourth Industrial Revolution for people. The transparency and the cyber security must be priorities for governments. The wide use of Internet and the increasing use of social media create the need for protection against internet bullying and personality insulting. Moreover, the great volume of personal data that is currently being collected by companies in return for providing zero-cost services obliges authorities to create strict laws and regulations that will prevent possible violations of citizens’ personal data and their use in a malicious way and will protect individuals’ personality. Concerning transparency, digital portals and accountability mechanisms for combating corruption may support governments’ efforts and increase confidence in the governmental work. Another legal reason that requires governmental intervention is the use of new technologies for illegal activities, for example, the use of blockchain technologies for speculation purposes has been proven prone to failures and may drive to a great financial uncertainty. The use of models for secure and legal online payments and transactions and the use of new technologies for creating new, flexible, and secure service systems are crucial policies for ensuring the legality of online transactions and improving citizens’ service in a safe and legal way.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution may also affect the nature of national and international security. Conflicts and wars in the new age will mainly become “hybrid” with the threat of a nuclear or chemical conflict being visible. The use of nuclear and chemical weapons in a conflict among countries requires special attention by national governments since it may cause mass destruction of populations and condemn next generations. States must proceed to strict agreements and apply the appropriate legislation in order to protect their people from the unpredictable consequences (and a probable irreversible damage) that a possible misuse of new technologies may cause on their lives and on ecosystems.

For all the above reasons, the need for cooperation among countries, at European and at international level, becomes crucial. Besides the security issues that demand the European and international collaboration in order to be addressed, such collaborations may also help countries to overcome financial and managerial difficulties that may arise at national level. The lack of interest for research and development projects by private sector (because of their great risk), the insufficient public and private funding for development projects with great social returns (because of the budget constraints), and the large funding gap in infrastructure with significant social and financial returns are important issues with which national governments may be called to deal. The coordination of national policies allows a more effective diffusion of knowledge and best practices and a more efficient use of digital innovations and country-specific business models. In this direction, governments could use new technologies to (i) promote organization and collaboration programs among businesses for information and practices’ exchanging so as to increase their productivity, competitiveness, and exports, (ii) support the cooperation with European and International Institutions for funding research and development projects in all Member States, and (iii) promote the creation of forums and pan-European and international platforms so as to ensure that useful policy tools and best practices are identified, collected, exchanged, and disseminated to all countries.

Another major problem that may become more severe due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution is the climate change. Many studies have shown that the economic growth and the technological development contribute significantly to the climate change. The new species such as the drought-resistant vegetables and fruits and the new ecosystems that are created in order to deal with severe problems like hunger are up to a point helpful, but they may also affect humanity in an unpredictable and undesirable way. This fact in combination with the increasing extreme weather phenomena and the natural disasters that threaten human life (with the poorest areas to be more affected) obliges governments to take action in order to deal with climate change, sets limits in technological progress when this disturbs the environmental balance and threatens human life, and promotes the energy autonomy. In this direction, governments must use the new technologies as a tool in order to develop the appropriate policies, focusing on (i) programs and algorithms for prediction of extreme weather and climate phenomena, (ii) digital alert systems that improves the adaptability of countries to possible natural disasters, (iii) the adoption of new forms of affordable and “clean” energy such as the renewable sources of energy (wind, wave, solar) that may help countries to ensure their energy autonomy, (iv) sustainable industrialization and sustainable production infrastructure, (v) programs to promote the careful and sustainable use of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, (vi) the protection and sustainable use of forests, (vii) the protection and sustainable use of oceans and other water resources, (viii) the fight against desertification, and (ix) the protection of biodiversity.

4. The automation risk in Europe, the United States, and Asia

The industrial economies , that is, the economies where industrial production (that is easier to be automated), is still the dominant in total employment. Such economies are the Eastern European economies (Germany, Italy, etc.) that tend to have high shares of employment in industry sectors such as manufacturing and transport that will be easily automated until 2030s.

The services-dominated economies such as the United States , United Kingdom , and Netherlands, with relatively automatable jobs more concentrated in service sectors (that tend to be less automatable than industrial sectors) and low-skilled workers.

The Nordic countries such as Finland, Sweden, and Norway (in addition to New Zealand and Greece outside this region) with high employment rates, relatively less automatable jobs and high-skill workers.

The Asian nations (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Russia, etc.) with high levels of technological advancement and education and relatively less automatable jobs but also with relatively high concentrations of employment in industrial sectors. East Asian and Nordic economies seem to be less affected by the automation (with an estimated range 20–25%), and Eastern European economies are more affected with higher potential automation rate range around to 40%, while service-dominated countries such as the UK and US present intermediate levels of potential automation. Figures 6 – 8 8 depict this potential impact of automatability across countries (individually) and across the four country groups and a range of estimates about the share of existing jobs that are at high risk of automation by the 2030s.

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Potential impact of job automation across the four country groups.

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Potential impact across countries by employment shares and automatability of jobs.

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Potential rates of job automation by country.

Eastern European countries such as Slovakia (44%) and Slovenia (42%) face relatively high potential automation rates, while Nordic countries such as Finland (22%) and Asian countries such as South Korea (22%) have relatively lower shares of existing jobs that are potentially automatable. It is important here to underline that existing jobs in some countries with low automation rates, such as Japan and South Korea , may face higher automation rates in the short term, given that algorithmic technologies are already widely used there, but in the long term (when the automation will displace manual jobs) will have lower automation rates than countries with lower average workers’ skill levels and large manufacturing bases. On the other hand, countries such as Turkey may face a lower exposure in the short term but higher exposure to the later automation waves that will displace manual workers such drivers and construction workers.

Another interesting point in comparative analysis among these country groups (with an emphasis to the relation between European and Asian countries ) is that European countries present strong negative correlations between the potential share of existing jobs at high risk of automation and the country education metrics such as government expenditure on education (as a % of GDP). This relationship is not so strong for Asian countries that present lower education spend. On the other hand, Asian countries achieve higher educational outcomes, especially in STEM subjects. Thus, the negative relationship between high education and low automatability holds for these countries as well, even with lower education spend. Furthermore, workforces in the more technologically advanced Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, and Singapore have already adjusted to automation by increasingly working with robots , reducing in this way their future risk exposure (they may also be benefited by automation in terms of higher productivity and real wages). Figure 9 9 shows this negative correlation between the potential jobs at high risk of automation and the density of industrial robots per country.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

Relationship between density of industrial robots and industry-adjusted job automation rates.

Concerning the United States, a great effort has been put to integrate into the manufacturing industry the latest developments in IT, Internet, and mechanical engineering so as to reduce the risk exposure of employees to automation and get benefit by the technological achievements of the Industry 4.0. However, as Brookings Institution [ 27 ] in its report underlines the Industry 4.0, and the wider notion of advanced industries has much in common with the advanced manufacturing sector in Europe, although it includes services (e.g., software) and energy as well that led the US economy (especially services); the United States is losing ground to other countries in advanced industry competitiveness since the labor supply, the STEM occupations, the availability of skills, and the standards in comparison with other developed countries remain poor.

4.1 The Asian giant China

The leader among the Asian countries remains China . China’s main ambition is to become a “strong” manufacturing nation within a decade, giving priority on digitalization, modernization, and companies’ maturity in Industry 4.0 terms , including creativity, quality benefit, and integration of industrialization, information, and green development. Two main initiatives to achieve these goals are the Internet Plus (IP) and the “Made in China” (see [ 4 ] among others). IP is a plan aimed at upgrading traditional industries, searching for new technologies and spreading Internet applications into the public sector, increasing both quality and effectiveness of economic and social development. Made in China 2025 plan is strictly focused on five major projects among which new innovation centers, green and smart manufacturing, self-sufficiency in infrastructure, and indigenous R&D projects for high-value equipment, moving industrial companies up to the value chain. The main target of the Made in China 2025 roadmap is to develop a domestic innovation capacity that may be been seen as China’s equivalent to Industry 4.0 : “an effort to create a manufacturing revolution underpinned by smart technologies.” Moreover, a study by Fraunhofer IAO 10 about patents registered in China in relation to the Industry 4.0 technologies shows that Chinese researchers have patented important inventions in the fields of wireless sensor networks, low-cost robots, and big data, concluding that China will be leading the pack when it comes to production data in the future . In terms of the number of patents filed for Industry 4.0 technologies, China has far outperformed the United States and Germany (which is considered as a pioneer among European countries). The energy-efficient technologies intended for reliable industrial networks to robotics are basic areas in which Chinese have registered key innovations.

But the most important field of innovation in which China is considered as a pioneer among Asian countries (and worldwide) is the field of robotics . The number of industrial robots, using by businesses to boost their productivity, increases rapidly. According to the International Federation of Robotics or IFR (2015), the worldwide stock of robots reached in 2014 (5 years ago!) at 1.5 million units. This pace of “robotization” grows very rapidly, while the cost of new robots continues to fall and their capabilities to go up. Moreover, with the robot density in most industries to be low, the IFR anticipates that the pace of yearly robot installations will continue to grow even faster in the following years. By 2018, global sales of industrial robots were growing on average by 15% per year, and the number of units sold was around 400,000 units (see Figures 10 and 11 ) [ 28 ]. “The automation witnessed by the automotive sector and the electrical/electronics industry comes out top here with a market share of 64 percent,” said IFR President Arturo Baroncelli. “A new generation of robots is a strong echo of various demands — the ‘Made in China 2025’ plan, US re-industrialization, Japan’s rejuvenation strategy and the EU’s Industrial 4.0 all symbolize the new age of equipment’s transformation and a changing production mode,” said Dr. Daokui Qu, CEO of SIASUN Robot & Automation. The regional breakdown reveals that 70% of the global robot sales are going to five countries: China, Japan, the United States, South Korea, and Germany. China remains the main driver of the growth overtime and the world’s biggest industrial robots market .

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

Five countries account for 70% of the global robot sales that are strongly rising.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

Annual supply of industrial robots.

Chinese industries and country’s administration have recognized the need for further automation. In 2014, sales volume reached about 57,000 units, amounted to a 1/4 of the total global sales. During 2009–2014, sales of industrial robots increased by an annual average of 59%. According to IFR “The potential remains enormous despite the recent economic downturn. Chinese production industries currently have a robotic density of 36 units per 10,000 employees. By comparison, South Korea deploys 478 industrial robots per 10,000 employees, followed by Japan (315 units) and Germany (292 units). Production industries in the United States deploy just 164 industrial robots per 10,000 employees.” Statistics from the International Federation of Robotics show that China’s demand for industrial robots has been growing at almost 25% per year. It is estimated that the market value in China will reach the 100 billion yuan, driving to a boom in Chinese robot manufacturers. 11 It is estimated that more than 1/3 of the global supply of industrial robots was installed in the Republic of China in 2018. China’s rapid automation, says the IFR, represents a unique development in robotics history. As a result of this spectacular growth rate in robot sales, Asia, and China in particular, becomes the largest and fastest growing robotics market in the world . According to IFR, China including Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries is home to more than 60% of the robot stock in 2018, compared to 22% for Europe and 15% for the Americas.

4.1.1 The role of robotics in society

Previously in this chapter, it was analyzed the role of robots in labor market and in industry. The use of robots in industry may have both positive and negative consequences for human people jobs and lives. On the negative side, robots may be considered as a threat for human labor in the sense that the use of robots significantly reduces the labor costs and the likelihood of human error, and thus they may be preferred by international industries in order to reduce their costs, increase their output and their productivity, and improve their efficiency and their reliability in manufacturing by removing human errors. Moreover, job positions that were hard to be replaced by machines, such as customer services, are now easily replaced by artificial intelligence. It was also underlined that the greatest risk due to automation (including robots) is faced by low- and medium-skilled workers. The technological change overtime has been biased toward replacing labor in routine tasks that tended to decrease demand for low and middle-skilled occupations and increase the demand for high-educated workers rising in this way the inequality in advanced economies. Rising inequality and slow productivity may be the main economic challenges of the twenty-first century, 12 and the increased use of robots may affect both of these developments. There are also studies which support that robots may lift productivity, wages, and total labor demand but mostly for benefit of higher-skilled workers. In this chapter, the great importance of education was emphasized. As it is clear from Figure 12 (and Figure 2 ), the risk of automation declines significantly with the level of education. Education may help people to “protect” their jobs and finally get benefit from this technological progress. Since robots are capable of taking over a great number of tasks, humans have to exploit their comparative advantages such as their cognitive skills and their capability to think out of the box in order to manage complex situations, capabilities that may be significantly strengthened by education.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

Share of workers at high automatability by education.

On the positive side, automation may help workers to become more efficient in their jobs using robots as assistants/tools and entire industries and economies to become more productive . The productivity impact of robots is comparable to the contribution of steam engines in humanity (see [ 29 ] among others). Besides the improvement of efficiency and productivity, the use of robots in a workplace may also involve safety improvements for both employers and employees. Human workers are keeping away from dangers and risks that manual works often contain (high risk of industrial accident) and prevent employers from potentially facing expensive medical bills and lawsuits that are always more expensive than the repair bill for a robot. Moreover, in countries where men are increasingly working with robots, their adaption to automation is easier and higher (reducing in this way their unemployment risk) in comparison with other countries where adaptation to automation is slower. Besides their impact on purely industrial activities, robots may also offer important opportunities for AI in public services such as health and social care. Smart digital assistants and intelligent robots are already valuable tools in doctors’ hands in order to perform complex surgical procedures saving human lives. Robotics and AI may help to transform the whole medical ecosystem, including early detection, diagnosis, decision-making, treatment, and life care (see [ 7 ] among others). In general, there are many sectors and works where robots could be useful tools in order to facilitate people’s lives and help science and humanity to go one step further. The question is whether humans are prepared for the fundamental transformation brought by artificial intelligence and automation (including robots) and whether this fundamental transformation makes social and economic sense.

In the past, radical innovations have transformed the way in which humans live together; for example, cities acquire a less nomadic character with a higher population density. More recently, the invention of technologies such as the telephone and the internet revolutionized how people store and communicate information. However, these innovations did not change the fundamental aspects of human behavior such as love, friendship, cooperation, that remain remarkably consistent throughout the world. On the other hand, the artificial intelligence and the robots’ invention in our everyday life may become more disruptive. Nowadays, robots start to look and act like humans, live in our houses as personal assistants, become part of our lives, and have direct interactions with people and between each other.

The “machine behavior” is a field that does not see robots only as human-made objects but as a new class of social actors. The aspects of AI machines that should concern us are those that affect the core aspects of human social life. In 1940s, when the interaction between humans and artificial intelligence starts to seem not a distant prospect, Isaac Asimov posited his famous Three Laws of Robotics, with a main goal to keep robots from hurting people. Such a rule was “a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.” In 1985, Isaac Asimov added another law of robotics to his list: “A robot should never do anything that could harm humanity. But he struggled with how to assess such harm.” “A human being is a concrete object,” he wrote later. “Injury to a person can be estimated and judged. Humanity is an abstraction”.

Dr. Christakis in his lab at Yale conducted some experiments in order to explore the effects of the interaction between people and robots [ 30 ]. The results were ambiguous. In some experiments, the interaction of robots with humans made people more productive and improve the way humans relate to one another, but in other experiments, the presence of robots in a social environment made people to behave less productively and less ethically. More specifically, in an experiment designed to explore how AI might affect the “tragedy of the commons,” that is, “the notion that individuals’ self-centered actions may collectively damage their common interests,” robots converted a group of generous people into selfish persons that care only for themselves. Cooperation, trust, and generosity are key features for human social life. The fact that AI may significantly reduce people’s ability to work together is extremely concerning.

There are various social effects of the use of AI in our everyday life. Many parents have noted that their children develop close relationships with AI robots and that multiple times they behave rudely to those digital assistants, that is, they give them orders in a rude way. These facts made parents to worry that this rude behavior will not be limited only to robots, but it may be expanded to the way that their kids will treat people and/or that their kids will have socialization problems in the sense that they will prefer to have relationships with AI machines instead of people. Additionally, Judith Shulevitz pointed out that as digital assistants become part of our lives, people start to treat machines as confidants or even as friends and therapists. People start to feel more comfortable to talk to devices whose responses make them feel better than to people that may hurt them. So, which is the future of human relationships? As AI become part of our lives, it seems possible for human emotions to become “something” ridiculous and the deep human relationships to be transformed into “something” superficial and narcissistic. Kathleen Richardson, anthropologist at De Montfort University in the United Kingdom and director of the Campaign “Against Sex Robots,” pointed out that even love and sex will be dehumanized; the users of sex robots may pass from treating robots as instruments for sexual gratification to treat other people in the same way. Of course, there is also the opposite opinion such that of David Levy who defends in his book “Love and Sex with Robots” the positive implications of “romantically attractive and sexually desirable robots.” He suggests that some people will come to prefer robot mates to human ones in sex, and this must be seen as ethical and expected since robots will not be susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancies, while someone may easier fulfill his sexual fantasies with a robot.

Since robots are actively involved in human workplace, it would be interesting to set under consideration, besides the economic effects, the effects that such a coexistence (human workers and robots) may have on workers’ psychology [ 31 ]. Of course, the overall employee psychology is affected by the robots’ presence in their workplace both positively and negatively, basically depending on how the employer chooses to incorporate robots into the business. If the majority of the job positions in a workplace become automated, employees will feel insecure, unmotivated, unappreciated, and quite unhappy for the robots’ presence in their workplace. On the other hand, if the robots are incorporated into the business as assistants to the current workforce, workers will feel secure and satisfied by the robots’ presence in their workplace since employees will have a precious assistant to accomplish dangerous and uninteresting tasks while they will have the chance to work on more interesting and mentally stimulating tasks becoming more productive, shifting into more skilled positions and increasing their earning potential in the future.

The general conclusion is that robots and machines are already part of our everyday life, and this is a new reality that must be accepted by everyone. People must try to be adapted to this new reality in order to have a smooth transition from the old to the new world. The key is the way that people face this new reality. As it was underlined in this chapter, there are tasks such as teaching and nursing, for which there is a strong social preference to be provided by human employees and not by robots. However, robots are already used as personal assistants for elderly care with a very positive impact, for personal and domestic use and for many more categories that seem to be on the way. Based on the results of his experiments, Dr. Christakis underlined that “in what I call “hybrid systems”—where people and robots interact socially—the right kind of AI can improve the way humans relate to one another.” Based on the findings of this chapter, a key word for a harmonic coexistence of robots and human people is “the right kind of AI” and the way that people treat those AI robots and machines. AI must not replace humans but they may help people to become better. AI must not be treated by humans as family members or as friends but as digital assistants that make their lives easier. In this way, people will get benefited by these technological achievements, the human feelings and the human relationships will be protected, and the genetically inherited capacities for love, friendship, cooperation, and teaching that helped people to live together peacefully and effectively across the time will not be set in danger by the AI robots and machines present in their lives.

5. Opportunities related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Providing know-hows to start-ups and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) about next-generation technologies and digitalization in order to increase their revenue and reduce their production costs.

Supporting co-operations among enterprises, businesses and research institutes, enterprises and people who have great market experience as business angels, businesses, and public and regional authorities.

Promoting funding measures for start-ups and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to help them participating in technological development processes, for example, facilitation of their access to public funding and guarantees (and to private borrowing), support of co-financing by industry and market players, and use of innovative and close-to-market financing instruments such as business loans and tax incentives.

Facilitating the access to multilevel platforms that offer digital transformation programs for businesses in order to reduce information asymmetry and help businesses to remain updated and sustainable.

Reducing bureaucracy and barriers for business to be expanded in new markets and diversify their activities.

These policies may benefit both businesses and governments; entrepreneurs will be smoothly adapted to the new technological conditions and the digitalization having the appropriate support, and governments will increase their tax revenue due to the higher labor income and the increased business gains (due to the use of new technologies that improves businesses’ effectiveness). This additional tax revenue may finance higher public spending on health and education and support additional jobs in these areas.

The new IT systems may also give to entrepreneurs the chance to participate in new supply chains for small- and medium-sized enterprises and have access to new product and service markets that under other conditions would be difficult and costly. The development of new markets with greater quantity and variety of products and services, and eventual lower prices, in combination with the improvement of the existing jobs’ efficiency and the improvement of customer service, will benefit consumers driving to a demand increase and consequently to a labor demand increase. New technologies may further increase the labor demand by creating new, stable, and well-paid jobs in innovative technological sectors that will reduce the potential job loss due to automation and will substantially contribute to the fight against poverty worldwide. A characteristic example is the information and communication technology (ICT) sector that has been a key driver of economic growth in OECD countries and led to a 22% increase in jobs in 2013. Briefly, new technologies may contribute to the reduction of unemployment, to the fight against poverty and to the improvement of the quality and the prices of products and services offered to people improving in this way the quality of their lives.

In the direction of human life quality improvement, significant steps have also been done in the health sector. The broad technological innovation in the field of medicine, involving nanotechnology and genetic engineering, allow the treatment of devastating diseases and illnesses increasing the life expectancy. Moreover, smart digital assistants and intelligent robots are able to perform complex surgical procedures that under different circumstances would be impossible to be done. Except the physical health, the opportunity for more flexible forms of work due to the technological progress improves the mental health of people as well; workers have the possibility to distribute their time according to their needs, to create family and acquire a healthy social life having a better work-life balance.

Digital technology also facilitates the access of all people (in developing and developed countries) to education giving them the chance to improve their knowledge and their skills by attending educational and training programs by distance. In this way, the barriers in access to quality education for all are reduced, and the fight against inequalities and discrimination among countries and social classes becomes more effective. Moreover, the improvement of their skills enforces the self-confidence and the competiveness of individuals in labor market, helps them to be smoothly and quickly adapted to the new conditions, gives them the incentives to live and work in their country (and not to immigrate), and helps them to efficiently deal with their economic problems by becoming more productive in their work. In this way, labor income increases contributing to the reduction of poverty and hunger.

The fight against poverty and hunger is also supported by the technological progress in the field of sustainable agricultural production and the “smart farming,” using new effective “smart” cultivation systems that may help people not only to have food for a specific period but also to learn how to easily and effectively cultivate the land in order to ensure their food forever. In this direction, the varieties of drought-resistant vegetables and fruits that may ensure food to people who live in countries that are strongly affected by drought like many countries in Africa also contribute. The technological innovations in recycling for industry and households such as the innovative composting methods may also help in the direction of food waste reduction contributing further to the fight against hunger.

6. Case study: Greece

An interesting case study is that of Greece. It is about a country that does not belong to heavy industrial economies, such that of Germany, Slovakia, and Italy which have relatively inelastic labor markets and large tertiary service sectors that may be strongly affected by the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Jobs in Greece are more related to tasks that require the involvement of human factor such as teaching and elderly care and less to routine tasks.

In general, the automation process involves three overlapping waves: (i) an Algorithm wave that mainly focuses on automating simple computational tasks such as structured data analysis and mathematical calculations, and it is expected to reach its full maturity by 2020, (ii) an Augmentation wave that focuses on the automation of repeating tasks such as communication and information exchange and statistical analysis of unstructured data that is in progress, and (iii) an Autonomy wave that focuses on the physical and manual work automation, such as manufacturing and transporting, that is likely to reach its full maturity by 2030.

Based on international studies’ results (see [ 5 , 6 , 7 ], among others), less than 5% of the jobs in Greece is exposed to the automation risk due to the Algorithm wave, 10% is exposed due to the Augmentation wave and 10% of the jobs is exposed due to of the Autonomy wave, completing a percentage of about 25% of jobs in Greece that is exposed to the automation risk. This is the fourth lowest percentage of exposure to the automation risk among other OECD economies, along with some technologically advanced countries in East Asia and Scandinavia (20–25%).

Moving to an in-depth analysis of the data about the long-term impact of automation in Greece and making a separation by gender, age, educational level, and industry, one may firstly observe that the proportion of men exposed to the risk of automation (27%) is higher than that of women (18%). This is basically related to the nature of the tasks that men undertake, for example, manual work and tasks that require muscle strength and can be easily automated. Additionally, PISA scores show that women in Europe achieve better educational results than men, which may further explain the lower rate of exposure to automation risk for women. It is noteworthy that the percentage of women exposed to the risk of automation in Greece is among the lowest in Europe.

Focusing on the age groups, the highest rate of exposure (25%) is observed for the middle-aged group (40–50 years) and the lowest (19%) for the age group of young people with elderly people to follow with 20%. In the most European countries, the highest rate of exposure is observed for the age group of elderly people. This is mainly explained by the difficulty of elder people to be adapted to the new conditions and by the low participation rates of elderly people in labor market and in re-training programs that could help them to be adapted to the new reality. The high rates of “Not in Education, Employment, or Training” middle-aged people in Greece and their very low participation in re-skilling and up-skilling programs in order to get familiar with new technologies and become more competitive in labor market may offer an explanation for the high rate of exposure to the risk of automation for the middle-aged group in Greece.

Concerning educational level, the lowest rate of exposure to automation is observed for highly educated people (10%), the highest (30%) for people who have medium educational level, while people with low educational level present a rate of exposure of about 24%. It is about an expected result since highly qualified and educated people are at lower automation risk than medium- or low-qualified workers because of the nature of the tasks they undertake that is more complex and demanding and thus more difficult to be automated. The fact that the highest rate of exposure to automation is observed for people with medium educational level is in accordance to the results of several studies, such that of UBS [ 26 ], according to which the greatest impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be experienced by the medium-skilled employees in jobs such as the customer service that although require communication skills and personal contact with the clients can be easily replaced by artificial intelligence.

The industry that appears to be most exposed to automation in Greece is the manufacturing sector with 35% rate of exposure (the 4th lowest percentage among other OECD countries). The second most exposed industry is the construction sector with 25% rate of exposure (second lowest), followed by retail trade with 23% (third lowest), social protection and health industry with 20%, and the education sector with the lowest rate of exposure of 3%. Humanitarian activities such as social protection and care services, education, and teaching require high social and cognitive skills, personal contact, and communication skills and exhibit low exposure rates to automation in comparison with the manufacturing and the construction sectors. This is in accordance to the previous findings for the Fourth Industrial Revolution concerning the sectors that are more exposed to automation. In general, the rates of exposure to automation for all professional sectors in Greece are among the lowest in Europe; especially the risk of automation of the educational sector in Greece is lower than the average of all countries worldwide, emphasizing the anthropocentric nature of the Greek educational system that makes quite difficult the total replacement of human factor by machines and robots in the long run.

7. Conclusion

Major waves of technological progress such that of Fourth Industrial Revolution always create concerns about the future of human labor and the possibility of substitution of the human factor by machines and robots. The main findings of this paper show that the Industry 4.0 does not seem to threaten the human labor under the conditions that employees are able to be quickly adapted to the new reality and governments follow the appropriate policies to protect people from the unpredictable and undesirable consequences of technological progress. The jobs that are most exposed to automation are the routine jobs with a high volume of tasks that do not require high communicative and cognitive skills such as office work, constructions and manufacturing, and wholesale and retail trade. On the other hand, jobs such as teaching, nursing, and elderly care that are multitask and require flexibility, true creativity, and social intelligence are difficult to be automated. Therefore, the complete substitution of human workforce by robots in labor market is extremely unlikely to happen.

Deloitte’s report [ 24 ] characterizes the Fourth Industrial Revolution as “a mixture of hope and doubt.” On the one hand, new technologies create opportunities for sustainable economic growth and reduction of unemployment; create new job positions in innovative sectors; contribute to the strengthening of competitiveness and productivity of workers and businesses, to the increase of labor income and business gains, to the improvement of human life quality, and to the physical and mental health improvement increasing life expectancy; allow for high levels of innovation and knowledge; facilitate the access to quality education for all; and contribute to the early diagnosis of extreme weather events, to the sustainable urbanization, and to the fight against inequalities, poverty, and hunger. On the other hand, the loss of millions jobs due to automation, the invasion of artificial intelligence even in jobs where the human factor is crucial, the potential income and socioeconomic inequality gap widening with the poor and developing economies to be more affected, the gender gap expansion, the increase of poverty and hunger because of the potential job loss, the violation of personal data, the use of new technologies for illegal activities, the national and international security issues such as the threat of a nuclear or a chemical conflict, and the climate change with the increasing extreme weather phenomena are some of the most important challenges related with the Industry 4.0.

Indicative key policies that governments could follow to deal with these challenges and take advantage from opportunities arising from the Fourth Industrial Revolution are the following: (1) give priority to the education and the training for people of all ages (with an emphasis to STEM issues) in order to obtain the cognitive and social skills required by the labor market and protect job positions from automation; (2) create new well-paid jobs , so as to moderate the potential job loss (due to automation) and deal with income and socioeconomic inequality; (3) strengthen social security networks , especially for those who have difficulty to be adapted to new technologies; (4) apply tax transformations in order to increase tax revenue from workers whose earnings will increase due to the Industry 4.0 and apply a tax relief for workers whose income will be reduced; (5) support entrepreneurship , by giving small and start-up businesses the chance to improve their efficiency and increase their revenue using new technologies; (6) promote women’s participation in STEM programs and activities in order to reduce the gender gap; (7) support countries’ cooperation , for a better diffusion of knowledge and best practices among national governments; (8) give an emphasis to transparency through digital portals and accountability mechanisms; (9) impose strict rule s to prevent the use of new technologies for illegal activities and protect people from a possible violation of their personal data; (10) institutionalize strict laws and regulations to protect people from a possible nuclear or chemical conflict with unpredictable consequences; (11) promote smart agricultural production in order to deal with hunger; and (12) support sustainable use of resources , protection of ecosystems, and new forms of “clean” energy as renewable sources of energy in order to deal with climate change and ensure energy autonomy . All the policies must be fully compatible with the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations in order to effectively deal with the challenges of the Industry 4.0 and ensure a sustainable economic growth.

Finally, the case study of Greece is set under consideration in this paper. Greece does not belong to the heavy industrial economies of Europe, but it has a more people-focused labor market. Greece has the fourth lowest rate of exposure to the automation risk (about 24%) among other economies worldwide, with men being more exposed to the risk of automation than women mainly because of the nature of the tasks they undertake that is easier to be automated, for example, manual works. According to the results, the highest rate of exposure is observed for middle-aged people who have medium educational level. The high rates of “Not in Education, Employment, or Training” middle-aged people in Greece and their very low participation in re-skilling and up-skilling programs and the fact that the tasks of medium-educated employees can be easily replaced by artificial intelligence offer an explanation for this result. The industry that appears to be most exposed to automation in Greece is the manufacturing sector. Humanitarian activities such as care services, education, and teaching that require high social, cognitive, and communication skills exhibit low rates of exposure to automation; especially the rate of exposure to the automation risk of the educational sector is lower than the average of all countries worldwide, emphasizing the anthropocentric nature of the Greek educational system that makes difficult the total replacement of human factor by machines and robots in the long run.

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  • 24. Deloitte. The Fourth Industrial Revolution is Here—Are you ready? [Internet]. 2018. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/tr/Documents/manufacturing/Industry4-0_Are-you-ready_Report.pdf
  • 25. Kuzmenko O, Roienko V. Nowcasting income inequality in the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Socio Economic Challenges. 2017; 1 (1)
  • 26. Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), Baweja B, Donovan P, Haefele M, Siddiqi L, Smiles S. Extreme automation and connectivity: The global, regional, and investment implications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. UBS White Paper for the World Economic Forum. Annual Meeting 2016 [Internet]. 2016. Available at: https://www.ip-watch.org/weblog/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/ubs-vierte-industrielle-revolution-2016-01-21.pdf
  • 27. Muro M, Rothwell J, Andes S, Fikri K, Kulkarni SJ. What they are, where they are, and why they matter. In: America’s Advanced Industries. Brookings Institute; 2015. p. 32
  • 28. Burns A. Uncaged. New statistics from the International Federation of Robotics illustrate converging patterns of data, efficiency and demand. Site Selection: http://siteselection.com/onlineInsider/uncaged.cfm
  • 29. Bandholz H. The rise of the machines: Economic and social consequences of robotization. UniCredit Global Themes Series. Economics & FI/FX Research No. 36 [Internet]. 2016. Available at: https://blogs.worldbank.org/jobs/economic-and-social-consequences-robotization
  • 30. Christakis NA. How AI will rewire us. 2019. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/04/robots-human-relationships/583204/
  • 31. Harness J. The advantages of robotics in the workplace. 2019. Available at: https://bizfluent.com/info-8608752-advantages-robotics-workplace.html
  • 32. Digital Transformation Scoreboard 2017: Evidence of Positive Outcomes and Current Opportunities for EU Businesses [Internet]. 2017. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/21501/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/pdf
  • 33. Strategic Policy Forum on Digital Entrepreneurship. Accelerating the digital transformation of European industry and enterprises [Internet]. 2016. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/15856/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native
  • See [5, 6, 7].
  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
  • https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/.
  • 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): No Poverty (SDG1), Zero Hunger (SDG2), Good Health and Well-being (SDG3), Quality Education (SDG4), Gender Equality (SDG5), Clean Water and Sanitation (SDG6), Affordable and Clean Energy (SDG7), Decent Work and Economic Growth (SDG8), Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (SDG9), Reduced Inequality (SDG10), Sustainable Cities and Communities (SDG11), Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG12), Climate Action (SDG13), Life below Water (SDG14), Life on Land (SDG15), Peace and Justice Strong Institutions (SDG16), Partnerships to achieve the Goal (SDG17).
  • See [5, 7].
  • See [4, 7].
  • https://www.fraunhofer.de/en/press/research-news/2014/march/security-tools.html.
  • https://blogs.worldbank.org/jobs/economic-and-social-consequences-robotization.

© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Fourth Industrial Revolution

  • Last Updated : 16-Jan-2023
  • From the last 3rd of the 19th century to the outbreak of World War I, the 2nd Industrial Revolution was propelled by advances in energy, transportation, chemicals, steel, and mass production and consumption.
  • Now the 4th Industrial Revolution, the digital revolution that has been taking place since the middle of the last century, is building on the 3rd. It is defined by a convergence of technologies between the physical, digital, and biological worlds that blur the boundaries.
  • The developments underpinning the 4th Industrial Revolution would have a huge effect on companies. Many industries are seeing the implementation of new innovations on the supply side, which enable radically new ways of servicing existing needs and dramatically disrupt existing value chains in the industry. The standard, velocity, or price at which value is delivered will be increased.
  • It will allow the creation of technology-enabled networks that combine both demand and supply to challenge current sharing or demand-economy business structures. In the meantime, these technology networks can build completely new ways to access products and services. It will reduce the barriers to wealth development for corporations and individuals, altering the personal and professional environments of employees. The key impacts on business of the 4th Industrial Revolution are consumer preferences, product development, collective creativity, and organizational types.
  • Increasingly, emerging technologies and channels will allow people to communicate with governments, express their views, organize their efforts, and even bypass public authorities' oversight. Nevertheless, governments will obtain new technical forces, based on pervasive surveillance systems and the ability to monitor digital technology, to expand their monitor over populations. They will, however, face growing pressure to change their existing approach to public engagement and policymaking.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution would have a significant effect on the nature of national and international security, impacting both the likelihood of war and its nature. Technological developments can generate the ability to reduce the extent or effect of violence through, for example, the creation of new types of defence, or greater precision in targeting.
  • Not only can the 4th Industrial Revolution affect what people do, but also who they are. Identity and all the issues associated with it will be affected: sense of privacy, conceptions of ownership, habits of use, the time people spend on work and leisure, and how they build jobs, develop skills, meet people, and cultivate relationships. Constant connection can deprive individuals of one of the most valuable assets of life: the opportunity for meaningful interaction to pause, reflect, and engage.
  • FIR's World Economic Forum study concludes that it will have an unavoidable effect on work scenarios worldwide that will disrupt former, well-established firms, introduce sweeping changes to labour markets, and alter business models on the basis of new economic theories.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution has the ability to increase the amount of global income and boost the quality of life of people across the globe.
  • Technical progress would also lead to a supply-side miracle in the future, with long-term increases in productivity and quality.
  • The cost of transportation and communication will decrease, logistics and global supply chains will become more competitive and trade costs will decrease, opening up new markets and driving economic growth.
  • The main social problem associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution is inequality.
  • Suppliers of intellectual and physical resources to innovators, shareholders and investors tend to be the largest beneficiaries of innovation, illustrating the growing wealth disparity between those who are dependent on capital versus labour.
  • The net replacement of jobs by machines could worsen the difference between returns to capital and returns to labour as automation substitutes for labour across the entire economy.
  • With this revolution, it is also possible that the crucial factor in development will be talent, rather than money, in the future.
  • Not only can the Fourth Industrial Revolution affect what we do, but also who we are. It will influence our identity and all the related issues: our sense of privacy, our conceptions of ownership, our habits of consumption, the time we spend on work and leisure, and how we grow our jobs, grow our abilities, meet people, and maintain relationships.
  • India offers potentially enormous market access.
  • There is a very lucrative demographic dividend with Indian youth, accounting for approximately 20 % of the global workforce by 2020. India will play a crucial role in shaping the world's fourth industrial revolution in a responsible, scalable and inclusive way, with more than 50 percent of its population under the age of 27.
  • The middle class is on the rise.
  • Within two decades, India is expected to become the fifth largest consumer market. Within this context, any mode of consumption, entrepreneurship, start-up or industry can be seen as an opportunity to scale.
  • Measures have already been taken by the subcontinent to become an e-government. The government has made attempts, for instance, to enrol its citizens in a national database. With 1.2 billion Indian citizens enrolled so far, Aadhaar is the world's biggest biometrics database.
  • India also wants to become an AI centre, with the government recently announcing its National AI Program to support the growth of the country's AI-related technologies.
  • India is also growing rapidly in the innovation ranks. The nation jumped up five spots on the Global Innovation Index last year, ranking 57th out of 125 nations. India was ranked first in the category of ICT service exports.
  • India also has a large start-up scene, which, except for the US and the United Kingdom ( UK), is estimated to have more companies than anywhere else in the world.
  • With one of the world's youngest labour forces, considerable technological skills, the second largest number of mobile internet users and the second largest English-speaking population, India is well placed in the post-fourth industrial revolution period to expand its global leadership.
  • With the right accelerator combination-like regulatory mechanisms, ecosystems of education and government incentives. India is able to lead the fourth industrial revolution while improving the efficiency, equity and sustainability of its own growth and development performance at the same time.

- Creation of an enabling ecosystem through incubators and accelerators to develop and scale innovations in ‘Future Now’ Cleantech sectors like clean energy, climate-smart agriculture, circular economy, green buildings and e-mobility is critical from the Indian context, to achieve transformative goals.

- Proactive initiatives and policies to build on the positive aspects of the new industrial revolution and preventing further widening of the inequality gap are necessary. The Government of India, through its unique initiatives like Digital India, Startup India and Make in India Initiative is bolstering the opportunities for industry 4.0 and green entrepreneurs.

- Participation of relevant ministries (like MoEFCC, MNRE) and Government-led coalitions (like International Solar Alliance) must be leveraged to champion this on-going movement.

- World Economic Forum, in partnership with the Government of India has set up the Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution India to design and pilot practical tools for specific technologies. Such platforms and coalitions must be leveraged to assess the feasibility and scale innovative business models - Access to finance commensurate with maturity of the business model and beginning stage of the start-up lifecycle is extremely important to scale innovations. While Government-led initiatives like Start-Up Sangam will play a key role in crowding capital, private sector participation through grants, seed funding, equity capital and mainstream debt is necessary to scale innovations

-Corporations will play a key role in promoting this ongoing trend, leveraging the ART Model – Alliances, Relationships enabled through Technology.

-- India is currently at the height of the technological revolution and the transition to a prosperous and inclusive growth path will be accelerated by pioneering technologies, enabling policies and financial availability. Such innovations would contribute to the emergence of 'new-Gen' business models, characterised by DICE-Entrepreneurship driven by design , innovation and imagination to generate positive social , environmental and economic effects.

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What is Industrial Revolution 4.0?

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Industrial Revolution 4.0

Industry 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution related to manufacturing and chain production. It is driven by breakthroughs in digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, 3D printing, the IoT, Big Data etc.

The Drivers of Change :

  • Technological breakthroughs : New technological innovations such as Big Data, 3-D printing, artificial intelligence and robotics is bringing transformative impact on the nature work.
  • Demographic Changes: the world’s population is ageing, putting pressure on business, social institutions and economies. The shortage of a human workforce in a number of rapidly-ageing economies has necessitated automation.
  • Rapid urbanisation: The UN projects that by 2050, the world’s urban population will increase by some 72%. Rapidly growing cities have become drivers of a new industrial revolution.
  • Shifts in global economic power : Power shifting between developed and developing countries with a large working-age population will attract investments and become a driving force for the future of work.
  • Resource scarcity and climate change: According to the report Global Trends 2030, demand for energy and water is forecast to increase by 50% and 40% respectively by 2030. Jobs in alternative energy, new engineering processes, product design and waste management and re-use will be created.

Challenges to the Future of Work: Industry 4. 0

  • Low Job Creation: Job creation has not been sufficient to absorb the growth in the number of people seeking jobs. As of 2016, there were some 198 million jobless people globally who have been actively seeking employment
  • Poor Quality Employment: Globally, nearly 43% of employed people were in own-account or contributing family work which is often characterized by low pay, informality and limited social security.
  • Income inequality: ILO observes that although workers have become increasingly productive, the benefits of their work have increasingly accrued to capital income and to those at the top of the income distribution.
  • Gender Pay gap: Though female labour force participation has increased the gender pay gap remains a major concern with women still being paid 20% less than men.
  • Digital Divide: Only 53.6% of all households have internet access. In emerging countries, the share is only 15%. Given the rapid technological advancements, digital divide remains a key challenge for skill development and employment opportunities.
  • The Indian ICT sector is susceptible to AI/robots replacing workers in its major IT export markets.
  • The retail sector, the largest employer of lower skill youth, is job shedding as e-retail accelerates and human jobs in logistics, warehousing and delivery services are being robotised.

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It’s time for Industry 4.0

Home » It’s time for Industry 4.0

  • August 28, 2021
  • Industry and Infrastructure

Industry 4.0 or the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices, using modern smart technology. There is an increased importance in exploring how the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies can make MSMEs more efficient and competitive.

GS-III: Industry and Infrastructure (Industrial Growth, Industrial Revolution), GS-III: Indian Economy (Growth and Development of Indian Economy)

Mains Questions:

What is the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution’ and how have arrived at it? Discuss the role that MSMEs in India can play in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. (10 marks)

Dimensions of the Article:

Industrial revolution i, ii and iii – steam, electricity and digital, history: what is ‘the industrial revolution’ (18th to 19th century), fourth industrial revolution, the potential of msmes in the 4th industrial revolution, challenges faced by msmes in the 4th industrial revolution.

Industrial Revolution I

  • The First Industrial Revolution was about coal, water and steam, bringing with it the steam engine and innovations that enabled the large scale manufacturing of goods and products, such as textiles.
  • Its impact on civilisation was immense. No longer centered around villages, farming and the local crafting of goods, people flocked to cities to work in factories under low wages and in terrible conditions.

Industrial Revolution II

  • The Second Industrial Revolution came about with the invention of electricity and enabled mass production (think production lines).
  • Dating from the late 1800s to early 1900s, from this phase emerged the internal combustion engine, and thus the automobile.
  • The period was marked with an increased use of steel and eventually petroleum, and the harnessing of electric current.
  • It allowed much of the progress of the first industrial revolution to move beyond cities and achieve scale across countries and continents.

Industrial Revolution III

  • The Third Industrial Revolution was all about computers. From the 1950s onwards, computers and digital systems enabled new ways of processing and sharing information.
  • Transistors, microprocessors, robotics and automation – not to mention the internet and mass communications – would eventually allow for the ultimate in scale: globalisation.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

  • The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban.
  • Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. However, these cottage industries were enormously labour intensive, with the merchants supplying the raw materials and collecting the finished goods later. The whole process was largely inefficient. The supply was erratic as the self- employed workers had to tend other works.
  • Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries became the mainstay of industrial revolution. From cooking appliances to ships, all had components of iron and steel. The process went in hyper drive with the advent of steam engine and ships.
  • The industrial revolution took place in the rest of Europe after Britain. It was mainly inspired by the growth of technology, prosperity, and power of Britain. The base of the industrial revolution was dependent on local resources, political will and the socio-economic condition of each individual European country.
  • The industrial revolution spread in all corners of the British Empire and took roots in the United States in the 1860s, after the American Civil War (1861-65). This part of the revolution is called the Second Industrial Revolution. This changed America from an agrarian society to an industrial one.
  • The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0) is the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices, using modern smart technology. 
  • Large-scale machine-to-machine communication (M2M) and the internet of things (IoT) are integrated for increased automation, improved communication and self-monitoring, and production of smart machines that can analyze and diagnose issues without the need for human intervention.
  • Interconnection — the ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of things, or the internet of people (IoP).
  • Information transparency — the transparency afforded by Industry 4.0 technology provides operators with comprehensive information to make decisions. Inter-connectivity allows operators to collect immense amounts of data and information from all points in the manufacturing process, identify key areas that can benefit from improvement to increase functionality.
  • Technical assistance — the technological facility of systems to assist humans in decision-making and problem-solving, and the ability to help humans with difficult or unsafe tasks.
  • Decentralized decisions — the ability of cyber physical systems to make decisions on their own and to perform their tasks as autonomously as possible. Only in the case of exceptions, interference, or conflicting goals, are tasks delegated to a higher level.
  • Cyber-physical systems
  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • On-demand availability of computer system resources
  • Cognitive computing.

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

  • Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are expected to become the backbone of India as the economy grows larger.
  • MSMEs form more than 95% of the industries in India.
  • They produce more than 45% of the total manufacturing output and employ more than 40% of the workforce.
  • According to the Economic Survey 2020-21, over 6 crore MSMEs employ more than 11 crore people and contribute roughly 30% to the GDP and half of the country’s export.
  • MSMEs are also ancillaries to larger enterprises, leading to a seamless supply chain integration.
  • As a result, making MSMEs more efficient will be advantageous for the whole economy.
  • MSMEs face challenges in adopting the new technologies of Industry 4.0.
  • They lack awareness regarding Industry 4.0 and its benefits.
  • While Industry 4.0 believes in improving the existing system, MSMEs consider such technologies to be disruptive.
  • MSMEs will need to make major financial investments to adopt Industry 4.0.
  • Investing in the right set of technologies will also need experts and consultants.
  • The frameworks and steps that can assist MSMEs in adopting Industry 4.0 technologies have been missing.

-Source: The Hindu

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  • Prelims Special Facts

Industry 4.0 :EMPOWER IAS

  • Date: {{formatDate('Tue Oct 01 2019 17:57:23 GMT+0530 (India Standard Time)') }}
  • By: Empower IAS
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Industry 4.0

  • A Pilot Project for ushering in ‘Industry 4.0’ in the railways has been launched at the Modern Coach Factory (MCF), Raebareli.

About the project:

  • The pilot project would be undertaken under the aegis of “Technology Mission for Indian Railways (TMIR). 
  • It would be implemented by a consortium of Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Science & Technology. 
  • The project would be implemented on an investment sharing model for taking up identified railway projects for applied research and use on Indian Railways for advancement and modernization. 

Industry 4.0:

  • The fourth Industrial Revolution describes the present technological age ongoing in 21st century that has come up since the first such revolution took place in the 18th century.
  • It is a name given to the current trend of automation, inter-connectivity and data exchange in manufacturing technologies to increase productivity.
  • The 4th industrial revolution includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things, big data analytics, cloud computing, cognitive computing, artificial intelligence, 3-D printing, and autonomous vehicles among others.

https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/QJauqWe--AEJjPtSaSDKVTTcDQe3IgqmuWPX0tlWcu9mlIPLo7drHq5CQNbBhLYUlwm9w-kTe9z7y8QA4EqFTpb5qh6waDJ8pXKzimjjkRXnwcBl5shERrBO3gLlBZcuUicJL8bK

India and 4th industrial revolution:

  • India has become the fourth country in the world where World Economic Forum has opened its centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution. 
  • India is ready for massive digital and technological transformation.
  • The centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution works as a network that includes USA, China and Japan. 
  • The centre would be based in Maharashtra and it has selected drones, artificial intelligence and blockchain as the first three project areas.
  • NITI Aayog will coordinate the partnership on behalf of the government and the work of the centre among multiple ministries.

How can Industrial Revolution 4.0 help India?

  • It can play a major role in alleviating poverty.
  • Better and low-cost health care can be achieved through the implementation of AI-driven diagnostics, personalized treatment, early identification of potential pandemics, and imaging diagnostics, among others.
  • Enhancing farmer’s income by providing them with the latest technologies, improvement in crop yield through real-time advisory, advanced detection of pest attacks, and prediction of crop prices to inform sowing practices.
  • It will strengthen infrastructure and improve connectivity to the very last village.
  • Artificial intelligence can be used to empower and enable specially-abled people.
  • It will improve ease of living and ease of doing business using smart technologies.
  • Recently, India has announced her drone policy, which will play an important role in security, traffic and mapping.

Other Industrial Revolutions:

  • 1st industrial revolution :  The first Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last quarter of the 18th century with the mechanisation of the textile industry, harnessing of steam power, and birth of the modern factory.
  • 2nd industrial revolution :  The Second Industrial Revolution, from the last third of the nineteenth century to the outbreak of World War I, was powered by developments in electricity, transportation, chemicals, steel, and mass production and consumption. Industrialization spread even further – to Japan after the Meiji Restoration and deep into Russia, which was booming at the outset of World War I. During this era, factories could produce countless numbers of identical products quickly and cheaply.
  • 3rd industrial revolution :  The third industrial revolution, beginning c. 1970, was digital — and applied electronics and information technology to processes of production. Mass customisation and additive manufacturing — the so-called ‘3D printing’ — are its key concepts, and its applications, yet to be imagined fully, are quite mind-boggling.

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/transportation/railways/industry-4-0-railways-to-integrate-big-data-ai/articleshow/71349591.cms

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Industrial Revolution

Last updated on October 29, 2023 by ClearIAS Team

Industrial Revolution

What is Industrial revolution? What are the impacts it had on society? Read further to know more.

The “first industrial revolution” refers to the changes in the industry and the economy that occurred in Britain during the 1780s and 1850s.

Later, similar changes occurred in European countries and in the USA. These were anticipated to have a significant effect on both the economies and societies of those countries as well as the rest of the world.

This phase of industrial development in Britain is strongly associated with new machinery and technologies. Compared to the handcraft and handloom industries, these allowed for the mass production of items.

Table of Contents

Britain, First Country to Experience Modern Industrialisation

Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialization.

Wages and Salaries

By the end of the 17th century, money was widely used as a medium of exchange and a large section of the people received their income in the form of wages and salaries rather than in goods. As a result, people had more options for how to spend their money, and the market for goods increased.

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Growing Population and Increase in Number of Towns

From the eighteenth century, many towns in Europe were growing in area and in population, nearly doubling between 1750 and 1800. The largest of them was London, which served as the hub of the country’s markets, with the next largest ones located close to it.

By the eighteenth century, the center of global trade had shifted from the Mediterranean ports of Italy and France to the Atlantic ports of Holland and Britain.

Network of Transportation

In England, the movement of goods between markets was helped by a good network of rivers, and an indented coastline with sheltered bays. Until the spread of railways, transport by waterways was cheaper and faster than by land.

Strong Financial System

The Bank of England served as the central focus of the country’s financial system (founded in 1694). In England, there were over a hundred provincial banks by 1784; over the following ten years, their numbers tripled. These banks provided the capital necessary to start and support large industrial enterprises.

Rich Source of Staple Materials for Mechanisation

The availability of coal, iron ore, and other industrial minerals like lead, copper, and tin made England fortunate because these elements were essential for mechanization. By 1848, Britain was smelting more iron than the rest of the world put together.

Technological Inventions for Cotton Spinning and Weaving

From the seventeenth century, the country had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at great cost. As the East India Company’s political control of parts of India was established, it began to import, along with cloth, raw cotton, which could be spun and woven into cloth in England.

A series of technological inventions successfully closed the gap between the speed of spinning raw cotton into yarn or thread, and of weaving the yarn into fabric.

To make it even more efficient, production gradually shifted from the homes of spinners and weavers to factories.

Raw cotton had to be entirely imported and a large part of the finished cloth was exported. This sustained the process of colonization so that Britain could retain control over the sources of raw cotton as well as the markets.

Steam Power

The ability of steam to provide enormous amounts of power was a key factor in large-scale industrialization. In 1840, British steam engines were generating more than 70 percent of all European horsepower.

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Emergence of Railway

Railways emerged as a new means of transportation that was available throughout the year, both cheap and fast, to carry passengers and goods. The invention of the railways took the entire process of industrialization to a second stage.

First Industrial Revolution: 1765

The mechanization of the textile industry in Britain in the late 18th century marked the start of the first industrial revolution. Mass coal mining and the development of the steam engine ushered in a brand-new form of energy that accelerated every process.

Second Industrial Revolution: 1870

New technological developments at the end of the 19th century sparked the growth of electricity, gas, and oil as new sources of energy. As a result, the combustion engine was created with the goal of making the most efficient use of these new resources.

The development of the telegraph and the telephone revolutionized ways of communication, while the development of the automobile (and Ford’s mass production techniques) and the airplane at the beginning of the 20th century transformed methods of transportation.

Third Industrial Revolution: 1969

Nearly a century later, in the second half of the 20th century, a third industrial revolution appeared with the introduction of electronics and information technology. This revolution gave rise to the era of high-level automation in production with two major inventions: automatons (programmable logic controllers) and robots.

Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0): Present

A fourth industrial revolution, known as Industry 4.0, which is based on a recent technological development called digitalization, is set to take place in the world due to tremendous advancements in the sectors of hardware and information technology.

While Industry 3.0 focuses on the automation of single machines and processes, Industry 4.0 concentrates on the end-to-end digitization of all physical assets and their integration into digital ecosystems with value chain partners.

Driven by the power of big data, high computing capacity, artificial intelligence, and analytics, Industry 4.0 aims to completely digitize the manufacturing sector.

Industry 4.0 is the next phase in bringing together conventional and modern technologies in manufacturing to create “smart factories”.

Industry 4.0 and India

A huge number of MSMEs have just started to enter the automation phase. To achieve the ambitious target of making India a global hub for manufacturing, design, and innovation, and augmenting the share of manufacturing in GDP from the current 16% to 25% by 2025, the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies becomes imperative to increase competitiveness and build efficient value chains. In its pursuit to foster best-in-class manufacturing infrastructure in India, the “ Make in India ” initiative is spearheading wider adoption of ‘Industry 4.0’.

India has a robust ecosystem that has the potential to use emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI) , Machine Learning (ML), Internet of Things (IoT) , Blockchain, and Big Data, and it can catapult India’s development to new heights by creating millions of new opportunities of employment.

India has already developed a national strategy to prepare for the development of an AI research-based robbers ecosystem in India.

Following the vision of inclusive growth “sabkasath, sabkavikas”, the government has now given a call for “Artificial Intelligence for all”.

India not only sees this as a change in the industrial scenario but as a catalyst to change its social fabric. While Industry is a platform, production is a process and technology is a tool, its ultimate goal is to benefit and transform the marginalized and the outliers of society.

Related article: Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth

Article Written By: Priti Raj

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution, otherwise known as the First Industrial Revolution, was a series of innovations in manufacturing processes that transformed rural, agrarian European and American societies into industrialised and urban ones.

This article will give further details about the industrial revolution within the context of the IAS Exam

Some important topics w.r.t World History which is an important segment of UPSC Mains General Studies-I are linked below:

Where did the Industrial Revolution Begin?

essay on industrial revolution 4.0 upsc

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. Due to its cold damp climate, Britain was ideal for raising sheep which gave it a long history of producing textiles such as wool, linen, cotton etc. Before the industrial revolution, the textile industry was in every sense a ‘cottage industry’ as the work was performed in smaller workshops and homes by individual spinners, weavers and dyers

With the introduction of machines like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny and power loom, weaving cloth and spinning yarn was made much easier and faster, while at the same time  requiring less human labour

The efficient and mechanized means of production could now meet the growing demand for cloth both at home and abroad. Britain’s overseas colonies were also a captive market for the goods it produced now. Along with the textile industry, the iron industry adopted some innovations of its own as well.

One of these innovations was the method of smelting iron with coke, a material created by heating coal. This method was cheaper when compared to using charcoal that was traditionally used and produced high-quality material at the same time. The rapidly expanding steel and iron production fulfilled demands created by many wars that Britain fought overseas, such as the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) and it helped in the growth of the railway industry.

Read about Napolean Bonaparte from the linked article.

To know what are the important events in world history from 300o BC to 1950 AD , visit the linked article

What was the impact of Steam Power during the Industrial Revolution?

Nothing so vividly describes the impact of the industrial revolution as the invention of machines that harnessed the power of steam.

The first prototype of a modern steam engine was designed by Thomas Newcomen in the early 1700s. He named it as the “atmospheric steam engine” and was originally created for pumping out water from mines.

James Watt, an engineer from Scotland, worked on the steam engine created by Newcomen in the 1760s. By adding a water condenser to make it more efficient, James Watt invented a steam engine that would be far more efficient than any other models invented so far. Also, his innovation would be used by many industries such as paper and cotton mills, waterworks, canals, ironworks etc.

The demand for coal rose to astronomical heights during this period as most of the machines were powered by these cheap sources of energy. But these demands for coal were themselves met by the machines that helped workers to extract coal from the mines. 

Visit the linked article to get tips on how to study world history for UPSC Mains .

Innovations in Transportations During the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution led to an improvement in Britain’s road network, which was sub-standard before the advent of industrialisation. The arrival of new innovations such as steam-powered locomotives heralded a new era in transportation that saw an efficient movement of freights and people across Britain by 1815. These innovations also allowed to transport goods to overseas markets across the Atlantic Ocean and beyond.

Industrial Revolution: UPSC Notes – Download PDF Here

Communications and Banking During the Industrial Revolution.

The later period of the Industrial Revolution saw many advances in long-distance communication. The first telegraphy system was patented by inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone, while Samuel Morse worked on their version of the telegraph in the United States. The telegraph system created by Wheatstone and Cooke would be used for signalling in the railways as it required efficient means of communication due to the speed of the trains in question.

A new factory system that relied on owners and managers came to be during this time period. Along with the first stock exchanges in the 1770s and 1790s in Britain and the United States respectively. Adam Smith, regarded as the ‘father of modern economics’, published The Wealth of Nations where he advocated a system of free-market characterised by individual ownership of methods of production and little to no government interference.

Know the differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics , by visiting the linked article

Standard of Living during the Industrial Revolution

For all its technological marvels and breakthroughs, the Industrial Revolution came with a few faults of its own. The rapid industrialisation had led to rapid urbanisation, prompting many to leave the countryside to find work in the cities. This brought significant challenges as the cities now suffered from overcrowding, pollution, appalling levels of sanitation compounded by frequent shortages of clean drinking water.

Although the standard of living improved dramatically for the middle and upper classes, the poor and the working classes had no change in their lot in life. Although mechanization of factories had improved output and production overall, the working conditions had become tedious and at times fraught with danger. The wages paid to these workers were also low, fuelling violent opposition to changes in Britain’s industrial landscape.

Solve previous years history questions for UPSC Mains , visit the linked article.

Impact of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a watershed moment in human history as every aspect of daily life felt its impact in one way or another. The average income and the growth of the population, in general, saw unprecedented changes. Modern economists are of the opinion that the standard of living of the general population began to change considerably for the first time in history even though it did not see an overall improvement until the beginning of the 20th century.

The Industrial Revolution saw the emergence of modern capitalist economies around the world at this time as the GDP per capita saw an exponential rate of growth around this time. Economic historians regard the Industrial Revolutions as the most important moment in human history since the domestication of animals and plants.

FAQ about Industrial Revolution

How did the industrial revolution change economies, what do you mean by industrial revolution 4.0.

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  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Industrial Revolution Essay

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  4. Fourth Industrial Revolution Free Essay Example

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  6. positive effects of the industrial revolution essay

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  1. Summary of the industrial revolution p2

  2. EMPOWERING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0 USING KINETIC THEORY

  3. EMPOWERING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0 USING PHYSICS PRINCIPLES (HUYGENS’ PRINCIPLES)

  4. The Industrial Revolution and it’s consequences… #based

  5. Fourth Industrial Revolution

  6. Industrial Revolution 4.0 : researches in 2023

COMMENTS

  1. In Depth: Industrial Revolution 4.0

    01 Nov 2018 9 min read Tags: GS Paper - 3 Industrial Growth Industrial Revolution The Fourth Industrial Revolution is a term that describes present technological age. It is the fourth industrial era since the inception of the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century.

  2. Fourth Industrial Revolution

    The fourth industrial revolution, 4IR or Industry 4.0 embodies the rapid change in technology, industry, and society in the 21st century. Read here to understand the significance of this revolution. We are in the midst of a technological revolution that is fundamentally altering how we live, work and relate to the world.

  3. Industrial Revolution 4.0 Notes for UPSC Exam

    Introduction The concept of 'Industry 4.0' was initially formulated by the German government back in 2011. Industry 4.0 signifies a novel stage in the Industrial Revolution, concentrating mainly on intercommunication, automation, application of machine learning, and instantaneous data.

  4. Insights into Editorial: It's time for Industry 4.0

    Introduction: Industrial Revolution 4.0 refers to the fourth industrial revolution related to manufacturing and chain production. Industry 4.0 is a complex Cyber-Physical Systems which synergizes production with digital technologies, the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data & Analytics, Machine Learning and Cloud Computing.

  5. PDF In Depth: Industrial Revolution 4

    drishtiias.com/printpdf/in-depth:-industrial-revolution-4. Watch Video At: https://youtu.be/RO4GNVQMQnM The Fourth Industrial Revolution is a term that describes present technological age. It is the fourth industrial era since the inception of the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century.

  6. 'Industry 4.0'

    Industry 4.0 is a complex Cyber-Physical Systems which synergizes production with digital technologies, the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data & Analytics, Machine Learning and Cloud Computing. Background: There are four distinct industrial revolutions that the world either has experienced or continues to experience today.

  7. Industrial Revolution 4.0

    Industry 4.0 refers to a new phase in the Industrial Revolution that focuses heavily on interconnectivity, automation, machine learning, and real-time data. Industry 4.0, which encompasses IoTs and smart manufacturing, marries physical production and operations with smart digital technology, machine learning, and big data .

  8. 4th Industrial revolution and Robotics

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0) is a term that describes present technological age. It is the fourth industrial era since the inception of the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. The key elements of the fourth revolution are the fusion of technologies ranging from the physical, digital to biological spheres.

  9. Fourth Industrial Revolution; RTSV

    Fourth Industrial Revolution is the fusion of robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, biotechnology, block chain technology, drones technology and a host of others. It will change the way how we live, communicate, how we produce and how we consume.

  10. Industrial Revolution 4.0: challenges and way forward

    Recent Trends of Employment in India: Continued Presence of Informal Economy: Nearly 90% of India's workforce belongs to the informal sector. Contractualization of employment: The share of contract workers in total employment in India increased from 15.5% in 2000-01 to 27.9% in 2015-16.The share of directly hired workers fell from 61.2% to 50.4% over the same period.

  11. Challenges and opportunities of fourth Industrial revolution

    About What is 'Fourth Industrial Revolution'? The fourth industrial revolution is conceptualized as an upgrade on the third revolution and is marked by a fusion of technologies straddling the physical, digital and biological worlds.

  12. Fourth Industrial Revolution: Opportunities, Challenges, and Proposed

    In this paper, key elements about the Fourth Industrial Revolution are set under examination. Concerns, challenges, and opportunities related to the Industry 4.0 are analyzed, and specific policies to deal with the challenges and take advantage from the opportunities are proposed. Other issues that are set under consideration in this paper are the rate at which the human labor is threatened by ...

  13. Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Fourth Industrial Revolution 2419 views HOW IS THIS GOING TO VARY FROM THE 3RD REVOLUTION? FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: IMPACTS:

  14. The Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Graph depicting four Industrial Revolutions, in progression from the 18th century to the 21st. The Fourth Industrial Revolution heralds a series of social, political, cultural, and economic upheavals that will unfold over the 21st century. Building on the widespread availability of digital technologies that were the result of the Third ...

  15. What is Industrial Revolution 4.0? |ForumIAS

    Industrial Revolution 4.0. ... Industry 4.0. Low Job Creation: Job creation has not been sufficient to absorb the growth in the number of people seeking jobs. As of 2016, there were some 198 million jobless people globally who have been actively seeking employment ... [Answered] UPSC Mains Marathon I Daily Answer Writing I January 13th, 2024 ...

  16. Industry 4.0 and world order

    At the Partnership Summit 2017 in Visakhapatnam, the Secretary of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), has given special attention to Industrial Revolution 4.0 Conclusions: - Undoubtedly, Industrial Revolution 4.0 will play an extremely important role in changing the current world order.

  17. Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    The World Economic Forum (WEF) has launched a Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) in India. The centre would aim to bring together the government and business leaders to pilot emerging technology policies.; The centre would be based in Maharashtra. Drones, artificial intelligence and blockchain have been selected as the first three project areas.

  18. It's time for Industry 4.0

    Industry 4.0 or the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices, using modern smart technology. There is an increased importance in exploring how the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies can make MSMEs more efficient and competitive. Relevance:

  19. Full article: Towards a 4th industrial revolution

    Towards a 4th industrial revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution refers to the technological transformation society is undergoing in the 21st Century. This paper explores how technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT) and autonomous vehicles are increasingly merging with human lives and creating a radical ...

  20. Industry 4.0 :EMPOWER IAS

    Industry 4.0: The fourth Industrial Revolution describes the present technological age ongoing in 21st century that has come up since the first such revolution took place in the 18th century. It is a name given to the current trend of automation, inter-connectivity and data exchange in manufacturing technologies to increase productivity.

  21. Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Fourth Industrial Revolution", "4IR", or "Industry 4.0" is a buzzword and neologism describing rapid technological advancement in the 21st century. The term was popularised in 2016 by Klaus Schwab, the World Economic Forum founder and executive chairman, who says that the changes show a significant shift in industrial capitalism. A part of this ...

  22. Industrial Revolution

    Steam Power Emergence of Railway First Industrial Revolution: 1765 Second Industrial Revolution: 1870 Third Industrial Revolution: 1969 Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0): Present Industry 4.0 and India Conclusion Britain, First Country to Experience Modern Industrialisation

  23. Industrial Revolution [1760-1840]: Background, Innovations and Impact

    The Industrial Revolution, otherwise known as the First Industrial Revolution, was a series of innovations in manufacturing processes that transformed rural, agrarian European and American societies into industrialised and urban ones. This article will give further details about the industrial revolution within the context of the IAS Exam