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Chapter 13: Inferential Statistics

## Understanding Null Hypothesis Testing

Learning Objectives

- Explain the purpose of null hypothesis testing, including the role of sampling error.
- Describe the basic logic of null hypothesis testing.
- Describe the role of relationship strength and sample size in determining statistical significance and make reasonable judgments about statistical significance based on these two factors.

## The Purpose of Null Hypothesis Testing

As we have seen, psychological research typically involves measuring one or more variables for a sample and computing descriptive statistics for that sample. In general, however, the researcher’s goal is not to draw conclusions about that sample but to draw conclusions about the population that the sample was selected from. Thus researchers must use sample statistics to draw conclusions about the corresponding values in the population. These corresponding values in the population are called parameters . Imagine, for example, that a researcher measures the number of depressive symptoms exhibited by each of 50 clinically depressed adults and computes the mean number of symptoms. The researcher probably wants to use this sample statistic (the mean number of symptoms for the sample) to draw conclusions about the corresponding population parameter (the mean number of symptoms for clinically depressed adults).

Unfortunately, sample statistics are not perfect estimates of their corresponding population parameters. This is because there is a certain amount of random variability in any statistic from sample to sample. The mean number of depressive symptoms might be 8.73 in one sample of clinically depressed adults, 6.45 in a second sample, and 9.44 in a third—even though these samples are selected randomly from the same population. Similarly, the correlation (Pearson’s r ) between two variables might be +.24 in one sample, −.04 in a second sample, and +.15 in a third—again, even though these samples are selected randomly from the same population. This random variability in a statistic from sample to sample is called sampling error . (Note that the term error here refers to random variability and does not imply that anyone has made a mistake. No one “commits a sampling error.”)

One implication of this is that when there is a statistical relationship in a sample, it is not always clear that there is a statistical relationship in the population. A small difference between two group means in a sample might indicate that there is a small difference between the two group means in the population. But it could also be that there is no difference between the means in the population and that the difference in the sample is just a matter of sampling error. Similarly, a Pearson’s r value of −.29 in a sample might mean that there is a negative relationship in the population. But it could also be that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample is just a matter of sampling error.

In fact, any statistical relationship in a sample can be interpreted in two ways:

- There is a relationship in the population, and the relationship in the sample reflects this.
- There is no relationship in the population, and the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error.

The purpose of null hypothesis testing is simply to help researchers decide between these two interpretations.

## The Logic of Null Hypothesis Testing

Null hypothesis testing is a formal approach to deciding between two interpretations of a statistical relationship in a sample. One interpretation is called the null hypothesis (often symbolized H 0 and read as “H-naught”). This is the idea that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error. Informally, the null hypothesis is that the sample relationship “occurred by chance.” The other interpretation is called the alternative hypothesis (often symbolized as H 1 ). This is the idea that there is a relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects this relationship in the population.

Again, every statistical relationship in a sample can be interpreted in either of these two ways: It might have occurred by chance, or it might reflect a relationship in the population. So researchers need a way to decide between them. Although there are many specific null hypothesis testing techniques, they are all based on the same general logic. The steps are as follows:

- Assume for the moment that the null hypothesis is true. There is no relationship between the variables in the population.
- Determine how likely the sample relationship would be if the null hypothesis were true.
- If the sample relationship would be extremely unlikely, then reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative hypothesis. If it would not be extremely unlikely, then retain the null hypothesis .

Following this logic, we can begin to understand why Mehl and his colleagues concluded that there is no difference in talkativeness between women and men in the population. In essence, they asked the following question: “If there were no difference in the population, how likely is it that we would find a small difference of d = 0.06 in our sample?” Their answer to this question was that this sample relationship would be fairly likely if the null hypothesis were true. Therefore, they retained the null hypothesis—concluding that there is no evidence of a sex difference in the population. We can also see why Kanner and his colleagues concluded that there is a correlation between hassles and symptoms in the population. They asked, “If the null hypothesis were true, how likely is it that we would find a strong correlation of +.60 in our sample?” Their answer to this question was that this sample relationship would be fairly unlikely if the null hypothesis were true. Therefore, they rejected the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative hypothesis—concluding that there is a positive correlation between these variables in the population.

A crucial step in null hypothesis testing is finding the likelihood of the sample result if the null hypothesis were true. This probability is called the p value . A low p value means that the sample result would be unlikely if the null hypothesis were true and leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. A high p value means that the sample result would be likely if the null hypothesis were true and leads to the retention of the null hypothesis. But how low must the p value be before the sample result is considered unlikely enough to reject the null hypothesis? In null hypothesis testing, this criterion is called α (alpha) and is almost always set to .05. If there is less than a 5% chance of a result as extreme as the sample result if the null hypothesis were true, then the null hypothesis is rejected. When this happens, the result is said to be statistically significant . If there is greater than a 5% chance of a result as extreme as the sample result when the null hypothesis is true, then the null hypothesis is retained. This does not necessarily mean that the researcher accepts the null hypothesis as true—only that there is not currently enough evidence to conclude that it is true. Researchers often use the expression “fail to reject the null hypothesis” rather than “retain the null hypothesis,” but they never use the expression “accept the null hypothesis.”

The Misunderstood p Value

The p value is one of the most misunderstood quantities in psychological research (Cohen, 1994) [1] . Even professional researchers misinterpret it, and it is not unusual for such misinterpretations to appear in statistics textbooks!

The most common misinterpretation is that the p value is the probability that the null hypothesis is true—that the sample result occurred by chance. For example, a misguided researcher might say that because the p value is .02, there is only a 2% chance that the result is due to chance and a 98% chance that it reflects a real relationship in the population. But this is incorrect . The p value is really the probability of a result at least as extreme as the sample result if the null hypothesis were true. So a p value of .02 means that if the null hypothesis were true, a sample result this extreme would occur only 2% of the time.

You can avoid this misunderstanding by remembering that the p value is not the probability that any particular hypothesis is true or false. Instead, it is the probability of obtaining the sample result if the null hypothesis were true.

## Role of Sample Size and Relationship Strength

Recall that null hypothesis testing involves answering the question, “If the null hypothesis were true, what is the probability of a sample result as extreme as this one?” In other words, “What is the p value?” It can be helpful to see that the answer to this question depends on just two considerations: the strength of the relationship and the size of the sample. Specifically, the stronger the sample relationship and the larger the sample, the less likely the result would be if the null hypothesis were true. That is, the lower the p value. This should make sense. Imagine a study in which a sample of 500 women is compared with a sample of 500 men in terms of some psychological characteristic, and Cohen’s d is a strong 0.50. If there were really no sex difference in the population, then a result this strong based on such a large sample should seem highly unlikely. Now imagine a similar study in which a sample of three women is compared with a sample of three men, and Cohen’s d is a weak 0.10. If there were no sex difference in the population, then a relationship this weak based on such a small sample should seem likely. And this is precisely why the null hypothesis would be rejected in the first example and retained in the second.

Of course, sometimes the result can be weak and the sample large, or the result can be strong and the sample small. In these cases, the two considerations trade off against each other so that a weak result can be statistically significant if the sample is large enough and a strong relationship can be statistically significant even if the sample is small. Table 13.1 shows roughly how relationship strength and sample size combine to determine whether a sample result is statistically significant. The columns of the table represent the three levels of relationship strength: weak, medium, and strong. The rows represent four sample sizes that can be considered small, medium, large, and extra large in the context of psychological research. Thus each cell in the table represents a combination of relationship strength and sample size. If a cell contains the word Yes , then this combination would be statistically significant for both Cohen’s d and Pearson’s r . If it contains the word No , then it would not be statistically significant for either. There is one cell where the decision for d and r would be different and another where it might be different depending on some additional considerations, which are discussed in Section 13.2 “Some Basic Null Hypothesis Tests”

Although Table 13.1 provides only a rough guideline, it shows very clearly that weak relationships based on medium or small samples are never statistically significant and that strong relationships based on medium or larger samples are always statistically significant. If you keep this lesson in mind, you will often know whether a result is statistically significant based on the descriptive statistics alone. It is extremely useful to be able to develop this kind of intuitive judgment. One reason is that it allows you to develop expectations about how your formal null hypothesis tests are going to come out, which in turn allows you to detect problems in your analyses. For example, if your sample relationship is strong and your sample is medium, then you would expect to reject the null hypothesis. If for some reason your formal null hypothesis test indicates otherwise, then you need to double-check your computations and interpretations. A second reason is that the ability to make this kind of intuitive judgment is an indication that you understand the basic logic of this approach in addition to being able to do the computations.

## Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance

Table 13.1 illustrates another extremely important point. A statistically significant result is not necessarily a strong one. Even a very weak result can be statistically significant if it is based on a large enough sample. This is closely related to Janet Shibley Hyde’s argument about sex differences (Hyde, 2007) [2] . The differences between women and men in mathematical problem solving and leadership ability are statistically significant. But the word significant can cause people to interpret these differences as strong and important—perhaps even important enough to influence the college courses they take or even who they vote for. As we have seen, however, these statistically significant differences are actually quite weak—perhaps even “trivial.”

This is why it is important to distinguish between the statistical significance of a result and the practical significance of that result. Practical significance refers to the importance or usefulness of the result in some real-world context. Many sex differences are statistically significant—and may even be interesting for purely scientific reasons—but they are not practically significant. In clinical practice, this same concept is often referred to as “clinical significance.” For example, a study on a new treatment for social phobia might show that it produces a statistically significant positive effect. Yet this effect still might not be strong enough to justify the time, effort, and other costs of putting it into practice—especially if easier and cheaper treatments that work almost as well already exist. Although statistically significant, this result would be said to lack practical or clinical significance.

Key Takeaways

- Null hypothesis testing is a formal approach to deciding whether a statistical relationship in a sample reflects a real relationship in the population or is just due to chance.
- The logic of null hypothesis testing involves assuming that the null hypothesis is true, finding how likely the sample result would be if this assumption were correct, and then making a decision. If the sample result would be unlikely if the null hypothesis were true, then it is rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis. If it would not be unlikely, then the null hypothesis is retained.
- The probability of obtaining the sample result if the null hypothesis were true (the p value) is based on two considerations: relationship strength and sample size. Reasonable judgments about whether a sample relationship is statistically significant can often be made by quickly considering these two factors.
- Statistical significance is not the same as relationship strength or importance. Even weak relationships can be statistically significant if the sample size is large enough. It is important to consider relationship strength and the practical significance of a result in addition to its statistical significance.
- Discussion: Imagine a study showing that people who eat more broccoli tend to be happier. Explain for someone who knows nothing about statistics why the researchers would conduct a null hypothesis test.
- The correlation between two variables is r = −.78 based on a sample size of 137.
- The mean score on a psychological characteristic for women is 25 ( SD = 5) and the mean score for men is 24 ( SD = 5). There were 12 women and 10 men in this study.
- In a memory experiment, the mean number of items recalled by the 40 participants in Condition A was 0.50 standard deviations greater than the mean number recalled by the 40 participants in Condition B.
- In another memory experiment, the mean scores for participants in Condition A and Condition B came out exactly the same!
- A student finds a correlation of r = .04 between the number of units the students in his research methods class are taking and the students’ level of stress.

## Long Descriptions

“Null Hypothesis” long description: A comic depicting a man and a woman talking in the foreground. In the background is a child working at a desk. The man says to the woman, “I can’t believe schools are still teaching kids about the null hypothesis. I remember reading a big study that conclusively disproved it years ago.” [Return to “Null Hypothesis”]

“Conditional Risk” long description: A comic depicting two hikers beside a tree during a thunderstorm. A bolt of lightning goes “crack” in the dark sky as thunder booms. One of the hikers says, “Whoa! We should get inside!” The other hiker says, “It’s okay! Lightning only kills about 45 Americans a year, so the chances of dying are only one in 7,000,000. Let’s go on!” The comic’s caption says, “The annual death rate among people who know that statistic is one in six.” [Return to “Conditional Risk”]

## Media Attributions

- Null Hypothesis by XKCD CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial)
- Conditional Risk by XKCD CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial)
- Cohen, J. (1994). The world is round: p < .05. American Psychologist, 49 , 997–1003. ↵
- Hyde, J. S. (2007). New directions in the study of gender similarities and differences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16 , 259–263. ↵

Values in a population that correspond to variables measured in a study.

The random variability in a statistic from sample to sample.

A formal approach to deciding between two interpretations of a statistical relationship in a sample.

The idea that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error.

The idea that there is a relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects this relationship in the population.

When the relationship found in the sample would be extremely unlikely, the idea that the relationship occurred “by chance” is rejected.

When the relationship found in the sample is likely to have occurred by chance, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

The probability that, if the null hypothesis were true, the result found in the sample would occur.

How low the p value must be before the sample result is considered unlikely in null hypothesis testing.

When there is less than a 5% chance of a result as extreme as the sample result occurring and the null hypothesis is rejected.

Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition Copyright © 2015 by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

## Share This Book

## 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 , the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

H a —, the alternative hypothesis: a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are reject H 0 if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or do not reject H 0 or decline to reject H 0 if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30 H a : More than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 66
- H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take fewer than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 45
- H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

An article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third of the students pass. The same article stated that 6.6 percent of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4 percent pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40 percent pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40 percent pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p __ 0.40
- H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some internet articles. In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

6a.2 - steps for hypothesis tests, the logic of hypothesis testing section .

A hypothesis, in statistics, is a statement about a population parameter, where this statement typically is represented by some specific numerical value. In testing a hypothesis, we use a method where we gather data in an effort to gather evidence about the hypothesis.

How do we decide whether to reject the null hypothesis?

- If the sample data are consistent with the null hypothesis, then we do not reject it.
- If the sample data are inconsistent with the null hypothesis, but consistent with the alternative, then we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the alternative hypothesis is true.

## Six Steps for Hypothesis Tests Section

In hypothesis testing, there are certain steps one must follow. Below these are summarized into six such steps to conducting a test of a hypothesis.

- Set up the hypotheses and check conditions : Each hypothesis test includes two hypotheses about the population. One is the null hypothesis, notated as \(H_0 \), which is a statement of a particular parameter value. This hypothesis is assumed to be true until there is evidence to suggest otherwise. The second hypothesis is called the alternative, or research hypothesis, notated as \(H_a \). The alternative hypothesis is a statement of a range of alternative values in which the parameter may fall. One must also check that any conditions (assumptions) needed to run the test have been satisfied e.g. normality of data, independence, and number of success and failure outcomes.
- Decide on the significance level, \(\alpha \): This value is used as a probability cutoff for making decisions about the null hypothesis. This alpha value represents the probability we are willing to place on our test for making an incorrect decision in regards to rejecting the null hypothesis. The most common \(\alpha \) value is 0.05 or 5%. Other popular choices are 0.01 (1%) and 0.1 (10%).
- Calculate the test statistic: Gather sample data and calculate a test statistic where the sample statistic is compared to the parameter value. The test statistic is calculated under the assumption the null hypothesis is true and incorporates a measure of standard error and assumptions (conditions) related to the sampling distribution.
- Calculate probability value (p-value), or find the rejection region: A p-value is found by using the test statistic to calculate the probability of the sample data producing such a test statistic or one more extreme. The rejection region is found by using alpha to find a critical value; the rejection region is the area that is more extreme than the critical value. We discuss the p-value and rejection region in more detail in the next section.
- Make a decision about the null hypothesis: In this step, we decide to either reject the null hypothesis or decide to fail to reject the null hypothesis. Notice we do not make a decision where we will accept the null hypothesis.
- State an overall conclusion : Once we have found the p-value or rejection region, and made a statistical decision about the null hypothesis (i.e. we will reject the null or fail to reject the null), we then want to summarize our results into an overall conclusion for our test.

We will follow these six steps for the remainder of this Lesson. In the future Lessons, the steps will be followed but may not be explained explicitly.

Step 1 is a very important step to set up correctly. If your hypotheses are incorrect, your conclusion will be incorrect. In this next section, we practice with Step 1 for the one sample situations.

Statistics Made Easy

## Introduction to Hypothesis Testing

A statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter .

For example, we may assume that the mean height of a male in the U.S. is 70 inches.

The assumption about the height is the statistical hypothesis and the true mean height of a male in the U.S. is the population parameter .

A hypothesis test is a formal statistical test we use to reject or fail to reject a statistical hypothesis.

## The Two Types of Statistical Hypotheses

To test whether a statistical hypothesis about a population parameter is true, we obtain a random sample from the population and perform a hypothesis test on the sample data.

There are two types of statistical hypotheses:

The null hypothesis , denoted as H 0 , is the hypothesis that the sample data occurs purely from chance.

The alternative hypothesis , denoted as H 1 or H a , is the hypothesis that the sample data is influenced by some non-random cause.

## Hypothesis Tests

A hypothesis test consists of five steps:

1. State the hypotheses.

State the null and alternative hypotheses. These two hypotheses need to be mutually exclusive, so if one is true then the other must be false.

2. Determine a significance level to use for the hypothesis.

Decide on a significance level. Common choices are .01, .05, and .1.

3. Find the test statistic.

Find the test statistic and the corresponding p-value. Often we are analyzing a population mean or proportion and the general formula to find the test statistic is: (sample statistic – population parameter) / (standard deviation of statistic)

4. Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Using the test statistic or the p-value, determine if you can reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis based on the significance level.

The p-value tells us the strength of evidence in support of a null hypothesis. If the p-value is less than the significance level, we reject the null hypothesis.

5. Interpret the results.

Interpret the results of the hypothesis test in the context of the question being asked.

## The Two Types of Decision Errors

There are two types of decision errors that one can make when doing a hypothesis test:

Type I error: You reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true. The probability of committing a Type I error is equal to the significance level, often called alpha , and denoted as α.

Type II error: You fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false. The probability of committing a Type II error is called the Power of the test or Beta , denoted as β.

## One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests

A statistical hypothesis can be one-tailed or two-tailed.

A one-tailed hypothesis involves making a “greater than” or “less than ” statement.

For example, suppose we assume the mean height of a male in the U.S. is greater than or equal to 70 inches. The null hypothesis would be H0: µ ≥ 70 inches and the alternative hypothesis would be Ha: µ < 70 inches.

A two-tailed hypothesis involves making an “equal to” or “not equal to” statement.

For example, suppose we assume the mean height of a male in the U.S. is equal to 70 inches. The null hypothesis would be H0: µ = 70 inches and the alternative hypothesis would be Ha: µ ≠ 70 inches.

Note: The “equal” sign is always included in the null hypothesis, whether it is =, ≥, or ≤.

Related: What is a Directional Hypothesis?

## Types of Hypothesis Tests

There are many different types of hypothesis tests you can perform depending on the type of data you’re working with and the goal of your analysis.

The following tutorials provide an explanation of the most common types of hypothesis tests:

Introduction to the One Sample t-test Introduction to the Two Sample t-test Introduction to the Paired Samples t-test Introduction to the One Proportion Z-Test Introduction to the Two Proportion Z-Test

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## 13.1 Understanding Null Hypothesis Testing

Learning objectives.

- Explain the purpose of null hypothesis testing, including the role of sampling error.
- Describe the basic logic of null hypothesis testing.
- Describe the role of relationship strength and sample size in determining statistical significance and make reasonable judgments about statistical significance based on these two factors.

## The Purpose of Null Hypothesis Testing

As we have seen, psychological research typically involves measuring one or more variables in a sample and computing descriptive statistics for that sample. In general, however, the researcher’s goal is not to draw conclusions about that sample but to draw conclusions about the population that the sample was selected from. Thus researchers must use sample statistics to draw conclusions about the corresponding values in the population. These corresponding values in the population are called parameters . Imagine, for example, that a researcher measures the number of depressive symptoms exhibited by each of 50 adults with clinical depression and computes the mean number of symptoms. The researcher probably wants to use this sample statistic (the mean number of symptoms for the sample) to draw conclusions about the corresponding population parameter (the mean number of symptoms for adults with clinical depression).

Unfortunately, sample statistics are not perfect estimates of their corresponding population parameters. This is because there is a certain amount of random variability in any statistic from sample to sample. The mean number of depressive symptoms might be 8.73 in one sample of adults with clinical depression, 6.45 in a second sample, and 9.44 in a third—even though these samples are selected randomly from the same population. Similarly, the correlation (Pearson’s r ) between two variables might be +.24 in one sample, −.04 in a second sample, and +.15 in a third—again, even though these samples are selected randomly from the same population. This random variability in a statistic from sample to sample is called sampling error . (Note that the term error here refers to random variability and does not imply that anyone has made a mistake. No one “commits a sampling error.”)

One implication of this is that when there is a statistical relationship in a sample, it is not always clear that there is a statistical relationship in the population. A small difference between two group means in a sample might indicate that there is a small difference between the two group means in the population. But it could also be that there is no difference between the means in the population and that the difference in the sample is just a matter of sampling error. Similarly, a Pearson’s r value of −.29 in a sample might mean that there is a negative relationship in the population. But it could also be that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample is just a matter of sampling error.

In fact, any statistical relationship in a sample can be interpreted in two ways:

- There is a relationship in the population, and the relationship in the sample reflects this.
- There is no relationship in the population, and the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error.

The purpose of null hypothesis testing is simply to help researchers decide between these two interpretations.

## The Logic of Null Hypothesis Testing

Null hypothesis testing is a formal approach to deciding between two interpretations of a statistical relationship in a sample. One interpretation is called the null hypothesis (often symbolized H 0 and read as “H-naught”). This is the idea that there is no relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects only sampling error. Informally, the null hypothesis is that the sample relationship “occurred by chance.” The other interpretation is called the alternative hypothesis (often symbolized as H 1 ). This is the idea that there is a relationship in the population and that the relationship in the sample reflects this relationship in the population.

Again, every statistical relationship in a sample can be interpreted in either of these two ways: It might have occurred by chance, or it might reflect a relationship in the population. So researchers need a way to decide between them. Although there are many specific null hypothesis testing techniques, they are all based on the same general logic. The steps are as follows:

- Assume for the moment that the null hypothesis is true. There is no relationship between the variables in the population.
- Determine how likely the sample relationship would be if the null hypothesis were true.
- If the sample relationship would be extremely unlikely, then reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. If it would not be extremely unlikely, then retain the null hypothesis .

Following this logic, we can begin to understand why Mehl and his colleagues concluded that there is no difference in talkativeness between women and men in the population. In essence, they asked the following question: “If there were no difference in the population, how likely is it that we would find a small difference of d = 0.06 in our sample?” Their answer to this question was that this sample relationship would be fairly likely if the null hypothesis were true. Therefore, they retained the null hypothesis—concluding that there is no evidence of a sex difference in the population. We can also see why Kanner and his colleagues concluded that there is a correlation between hassles and symptoms in the population. They asked, “If the null hypothesis were true, how likely is it that we would find a strong correlation of +.60 in our sample?” Their answer to this question was that this sample relationship would be fairly unlikely if the null hypothesis were true. Therefore, they rejected the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis—concluding that there is a positive correlation between these variables in the population.

A crucial step in null hypothesis testing is finding the likelihood of the sample result if the null hypothesis were true. This probability is called the p value . A low p value means that the sample result would be unlikely if the null hypothesis were true and leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis. A p value that is not low means that the sample result would be likely if the null hypothesis were true and leads to the retention of the null hypothesis. But how low must the p value be before the sample result is considered unlikely enough to reject the null hypothesis? In null hypothesis testing, this criterion is called α (alpha) and is almost always set to .05. If there is a 5% chance or less of a result as extreme as the sample result if the null hypothesis were true, then the null hypothesis is rejected. When this happens, the result is said to be statistically significant . If there is greater than a 5% chance of a result as extreme as the sample result when the null hypothesis is true, then the null hypothesis is retained. This does not necessarily mean that the researcher accepts the null hypothesis as true—only that there is not currently enough evidence to reject it. Researchers often use the expression “fail to reject the null hypothesis” rather than “retain the null hypothesis,” but they never use the expression “accept the null hypothesis.”

## The Misunderstood p Value

The p value is one of the most misunderstood quantities in psychological research (Cohen, 1994) [1] . Even professional researchers misinterpret it, and it is not unusual for such misinterpretations to appear in statistics textbooks!

The most common misinterpretation is that the p value is the probability that the null hypothesis is true—that the sample result occurred by chance. For example, a misguided researcher might say that because the p value is .02, there is only a 2% chance that the result is due to chance and a 98% chance that it reflects a real relationship in the population. But this is incorrect . The p value is really the probability of a result at least as extreme as the sample result if the null hypothesis were true. So a p value of .02 means that if the null hypothesis were true, a sample result this extreme would occur only 2% of the time.

You can avoid this misunderstanding by remembering that the p value is not the probability that any particular hypothesis is true or false. Instead, it is the probability of obtaining the sample result if the null hypothesis were true.

“Null Hypothesis” retrieved from http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/null_hypothesis.png (CC-BY-NC 2.5)

## Role of Sample Size and Relationship Strength

Recall that null hypothesis testing involves answering the question, “If the null hypothesis were true, what is the probability of a sample result as extreme as this one?” In other words, “What is the p value?” It can be helpful to see that the answer to this question depends on just two considerations: the strength of the relationship and the size of the sample. Specifically, the stronger the sample relationship and the larger the sample, the less likely the result would be if the null hypothesis were true. That is, the lower the p value. This should make sense. Imagine a study in which a sample of 500 women is compared with a sample of 500 men in terms of some psychological characteristic, and Cohen’s d is a strong 0.50. If there were really no sex difference in the population, then a result this strong based on such a large sample should seem highly unlikely. Now imagine a similar study in which a sample of three women is compared with a sample of three men, and Cohen’s d is a weak 0.10. If there were no sex difference in the population, then a relationship this weak based on such a small sample should seem likely. And this is precisely why the null hypothesis would be rejected in the first example and retained in the second.

Of course, sometimes the result can be weak and the sample large, or the result can be strong and the sample small. In these cases, the two considerations trade off against each other so that a weak result can be statistically significant if the sample is large enough and a strong relationship can be statistically significant even if the sample is small. Table 13.1 shows roughly how relationship strength and sample size combine to determine whether a sample result is statistically significant. The columns of the table represent the three levels of relationship strength: weak, medium, and strong. The rows represent four sample sizes that can be considered small, medium, large, and extra large in the context of psychological research. Thus each cell in the table represents a combination of relationship strength and sample size. If a cell contains the word Yes , then this combination would be statistically significant for both Cohen’s d and Pearson’s r . If it contains the word No , then it would not be statistically significant for either. There is one cell where the decision for d and r would be different and another where it might be different depending on some additional considerations, which are discussed in Section 13.2 “Some Basic Null Hypothesis Tests”

Although Table 13.1 provides only a rough guideline, it shows very clearly that weak relationships based on medium or small samples are never statistically significant and that strong relationships based on medium or larger samples are always statistically significant. If you keep this lesson in mind, you will often know whether a result is statistically significant based on the descriptive statistics alone. It is extremely useful to be able to develop this kind of intuitive judgment. One reason is that it allows you to develop expectations about how your formal null hypothesis tests are going to come out, which in turn allows you to detect problems in your analyses. For example, if your sample relationship is strong and your sample is medium, then you would expect to reject the null hypothesis. If for some reason your formal null hypothesis test indicates otherwise, then you need to double-check your computations and interpretations. A second reason is that the ability to make this kind of intuitive judgment is an indication that you understand the basic logic of this approach in addition to being able to do the computations.

## Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance

Table 13.1 illustrates another extremely important point. A statistically significant result is not necessarily a strong one. Even a very weak result can be statistically significant if it is based on a large enough sample. This is closely related to Janet Shibley Hyde’s argument about sex differences (Hyde, 2007) [2] . The differences between women and men in mathematical problem solving and leadership ability are statistically significant. But the word significant can cause people to interpret these differences as strong and important—perhaps even important enough to influence the college courses they take or even who they vote for. As we have seen, however, these statistically significant differences are actually quite weak—perhaps even “trivial.”

This is why it is important to distinguish between the statistical significance of a result and the practical significance of that result. Practical significance refers to the importance or usefulness of the result in some real-world context. Many sex differences are statistically significant—and may even be interesting for purely scientific reasons—but they are not practically significant. In clinical practice, this same concept is often referred to as “clinical significance.” For example, a study on a new treatment for social phobia might show that it produces a statistically significant positive effect. Yet this effect still might not be strong enough to justify the time, effort, and other costs of putting it into practice—especially if easier and cheaper treatments that work almost as well already exist. Although statistically significant, this result would be said to lack practical or clinical significance.

“Conditional Risk” retrieved from http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/conditional_risk.png (CC-BY-NC 2.5)

## Key Takeaways

- Null hypothesis testing is a formal approach to deciding whether a statistical relationship in a sample reflects a real relationship in the population or is just due to chance.
- The logic of null hypothesis testing involves assuming that the null hypothesis is true, finding how likely the sample result would be if this assumption were correct, and then making a decision. If the sample result would be unlikely if the null hypothesis were true, then it is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. If it would not be unlikely, then the null hypothesis is retained.
- The probability of obtaining the sample result if the null hypothesis were true (the p value) is based on two considerations: relationship strength and sample size. Reasonable judgments about whether a sample relationship is statistically significant can often be made by quickly considering these two factors.
- Statistical significance is not the same as relationship strength or importance. Even weak relationships can be statistically significant if the sample size is large enough. It is important to consider relationship strength and the practical significance of a result in addition to its statistical significance.
- Discussion: Imagine a study showing that people who eat more broccoli tend to be happier. Explain for someone who knows nothing about statistics why the researchers would conduct a null hypothesis test.
- The correlation between two variables is r = −.78 based on a sample size of 137.
- The mean score on a psychological characteristic for women is 25 ( SD = 5) and the mean score for men is 24 ( SD = 5). There were 12 women and 10 men in this study.
- In a memory experiment, the mean number of items recalled by the 40 participants in Condition A was 0.50 standard deviations greater than the mean number recalled by the 40 participants in Condition B.
- In another memory experiment, the mean scores for participants in Condition A and Condition B came out exactly the same!
- A student finds a correlation of r = .04 between the number of units the students in his research methods class are taking and the students’ level of stress.
- Cohen, J. (1994). The world is round: p < .05. American Psychologist, 49 , 997–1003. ↵
- Hyde, J. S. (2007). New directions in the study of gender similarities and differences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16 , 259–263. ↵

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## What is The Null Hypothesis & When Do You Reject The Null Hypothesis

Julia Simkus

Editor at Simply Psychology

BA (Hons) Psychology, Princeton University

Julia Simkus is a graduate of Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology. She is currently studying for a Master's Degree in Counseling for Mental Health and Wellness in September 2023. Julia's research has been published in peer reviewed journals.

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A null hypothesis is a statistical concept suggesting no significant difference or relationship between measured variables. It’s the default assumption unless empirical evidence proves otherwise.

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (i.e., one variable does not affect the other).

The null hypothesis is the statement that a researcher or an investigator wants to disprove.

Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effects of manipulating the dependent variable or due to random chance.

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis

Null hypotheses (H0) start as research questions that the investigator rephrases as statements indicating no effect or relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

It is a default position that your research aims to challenge or confirm.

## For example, if studying the impact of exercise on weight loss, your null hypothesis might be:

There is no significant difference in weight loss between individuals who exercise daily and those who do not.

## Examples of Null Hypotheses

When do we reject the null hypothesis .

We reject the null hypothesis when the data provide strong enough evidence to conclude that it is likely incorrect. This often occurs when the p-value (probability of observing the data given the null hypothesis is true) is below a predetermined significance level.

If the collected data does not meet the expectation of the null hypothesis, a researcher can conclude that the data lacks sufficient evidence to back up the null hypothesis, and thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

Rejecting the null hypothesis means that a relationship does exist between a set of variables and the effect is statistically significant ( p > 0.05).

If the data collected from the random sample is not statistically significance , then the null hypothesis will be accepted, and the researchers can conclude that there is no relationship between the variables.

You need to perform a statistical test on your data in order to evaluate how consistent it is with the null hypothesis. A p-value is one statistical measurement used to validate a hypothesis against observed data.

Calculating the p-value is a critical part of null-hypothesis significance testing because it quantifies how strongly the sample data contradicts the null hypothesis.

The level of statistical significance is often expressed as a p -value between 0 and 1. The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis.

Usually, a researcher uses a confidence level of 95% or 99% (p-value of 0.05 or 0.01) as general guidelines to decide if you should reject or keep the null.

When your p-value is less than or equal to your significance level, you reject the null hypothesis.

In other words, smaller p-values are taken as stronger evidence against the null hypothesis. Conversely, when the p-value is greater than your significance level, you fail to reject the null hypothesis.

In this case, the sample data provides insufficient data to conclude that the effect exists in the population.

Because you can never know with complete certainty whether there is an effect in the population, your inferences about a population will sometimes be incorrect.

When you incorrectly reject the null hypothesis, it’s called a type I error. When you incorrectly fail to reject it, it’s called a type II error.

## Why Do We Never Accept The Null Hypothesis?

The reason we do not say “accept the null” is because we are always assuming the null hypothesis is true and then conducting a study to see if there is evidence against it. And, even if we don’t find evidence against it, a null hypothesis is not accepted.

A lack of evidence only means that you haven’t proven that something exists. It does not prove that something doesn’t exist.

It is risky to conclude that the null hypothesis is true merely because we did not find evidence to reject it. It is always possible that researchers elsewhere have disproved the null hypothesis, so we cannot accept it as true, but instead, we state that we failed to reject the null.

One can either reject the null hypothesis, or fail to reject it, but can never accept it.

## Why Do We Use The Null Hypothesis?

We can never prove with 100% certainty that a hypothesis is true; We can only collect evidence that supports a theory. However, testing a hypothesis can set the stage for rejecting or accepting this hypothesis within a certain confidence level.

The null hypothesis is useful because it can tell us whether the results of our study are due to random chance or the manipulation of a variable (with a certain level of confidence).

A null hypothesis is rejected if the measured data is significantly unlikely to have occurred and a null hypothesis is accepted if the observed outcome is consistent with the position held by the null hypothesis.

Rejecting the null hypothesis sets the stage for further experimentation to see if a relationship between two variables exists.

Hypothesis testing is a critical part of the scientific method as it helps decide whether the results of a research study support a particular theory about a given population. Hypothesis testing is a systematic way of backing up researchers’ predictions with statistical analysis.

It helps provide sufficient statistical evidence that either favors or rejects a certain hypothesis about the population parameter.

## Purpose of a Null Hypothesis

- The primary purpose of the null hypothesis is to disprove an assumption.
- Whether rejected or accepted, the null hypothesis can help further progress a theory in many scientific cases.
- A null hypothesis can be used to ascertain how consistent the outcomes of multiple studies are.

## Do you always need both a Null Hypothesis and an Alternative Hypothesis?

The null (H0) and alternative (Ha or H1) hypotheses are two competing claims that describe the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. They are mutually exclusive, which means that only one of the two hypotheses can be true.

While the null hypothesis states that there is no effect in the population, an alternative hypothesis states that there is statistical significance between two variables.

The goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample. In order to undertake hypothesis testing, you must express your research hypothesis as a null and alternative hypothesis. Both hypotheses are required to cover every possible outcome of the study.

## What is the difference between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis?

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis claims that there is an effect or relationship in the population.

It is the claim that you expect or hope will be true. The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are always mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

## What are some problems with the null hypothesis?

One major problem with the null hypothesis is that researchers typically will assume that accepting the null is a failure of the experiment. However, accepting or rejecting any hypothesis is a positive result. Even if the null is not refuted, the researchers will still learn something new.

## Why can a null hypothesis not be accepted?

We can either reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis, but never accept it. If your test fails to detect an effect, this is not proof that the effect doesn’t exist. It just means that your sample did not have enough evidence to conclude that it exists.

We can’t accept a null hypothesis because a lack of evidence does not prove something that does not exist. Instead, we fail to reject it.

Failing to reject the null indicates that the sample did not provide sufficient enough evidence to conclude that an effect exists.

If the p-value is greater than the significance level, then you fail to reject the null hypothesis.

## Is a null hypothesis directional or non-directional?

A hypothesis test can either contain an alternative directional hypothesis or a non-directional alternative hypothesis. A directional hypothesis is one that contains the less than (“<“) or greater than (“>”) sign.

A nondirectional hypothesis contains the not equal sign (“≠”). However, a null hypothesis is neither directional nor non-directional.

A null hypothesis is a prediction that there will be no change, relationship, or difference between two variables.

The directional hypothesis or nondirectional hypothesis would then be considered alternative hypotheses to the null hypothesis.

Gill, J. (1999). The insignificance of null hypothesis significance testing. Political research quarterly , 52 (3), 647-674.

Krueger, J. (2001). Null hypothesis significance testing: On the survival of a flawed method. American Psychologist , 56 (1), 16.

Masson, M. E. (2011). A tutorial on a practical Bayesian alternative to null-hypothesis significance testing. Behavior research methods , 43 , 679-690.

Nickerson, R. S. (2000). Null hypothesis significance testing: a review of an old and continuing controversy. Psychological methods , 5 (2), 241.

Rozeboom, W. W. (1960). The fallacy of the null-hypothesis significance test. Psychological bulletin , 57 (5), 416.

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## Null hypothesis significance testing: a short tutorial

Cyril pernet.

1 Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences (CCBS), Neuroimaging Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

## Version Changes

Revised. amendments from version 2.

This v3 includes minor changes that reflect the 3rd reviewers' comments - in particular the theoretical vs. practical difference between Fisher and Neyman-Pearson. Additional information and reference is also included regarding the interpretation of p-value for low powered studies.

## Peer Review Summary

Although thoroughly criticized, null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) remains the statistical method of choice used to provide evidence for an effect, in biological, biomedical and social sciences. In this short tutorial, I first summarize the concepts behind the method, distinguishing test of significance (Fisher) and test of acceptance (Newman-Pearson) and point to common interpretation errors regarding the p-value. I then present the related concepts of confidence intervals and again point to common interpretation errors. Finally, I discuss what should be reported in which context. The goal is to clarify concepts to avoid interpretation errors and propose reporting practices.

## The Null Hypothesis Significance Testing framework

NHST is a method of statistical inference by which an experimental factor is tested against a hypothesis of no effect or no relationship based on a given observation. The method is a combination of the concepts of significance testing developed by Fisher in 1925 and of acceptance based on critical rejection regions developed by Neyman & Pearson in 1928 . In the following I am first presenting each approach, highlighting the key differences and common misconceptions that result from their combination into the NHST framework (for a more mathematical comparison, along with the Bayesian method, see Christensen, 2005 ). I next present the related concept of confidence intervals. I finish by discussing practical aspects in using NHST and reporting practice.

## Fisher, significance testing, and the p-value

The method developed by ( Fisher, 1934 ; Fisher, 1955 ; Fisher, 1959 ) allows to compute the probability of observing a result at least as extreme as a test statistic (e.g. t value), assuming the null hypothesis of no effect is true. This probability or p-value reflects (1) the conditional probability of achieving the observed outcome or larger: p(Obs≥t|H0), and (2) is therefore a cumulative probability rather than a point estimate. It is equal to the area under the null probability distribution curve from the observed test statistic to the tail of the null distribution ( Turkheimer et al. , 2004 ). The approach proposed is of ‘proof by contradiction’ ( Christensen, 2005 ), we pose the null model and test if data conform to it.

In practice, it is recommended to set a level of significance (a theoretical p-value) that acts as a reference point to identify significant results, that is to identify results that differ from the null-hypothesis of no effect. Fisher recommended using p=0.05 to judge whether an effect is significant or not as it is roughly two standard deviations away from the mean for the normal distribution ( Fisher, 1934 page 45: ‘The value for which p=.05, or 1 in 20, is 1.96 or nearly 2; it is convenient to take this point as a limit in judging whether a deviation is to be considered significant or not’). A key aspect of Fishers’ theory is that only the null-hypothesis is tested, and therefore p-values are meant to be used in a graded manner to decide whether the evidence is worth additional investigation and/or replication ( Fisher, 1971 page 13: ‘it is open to the experimenter to be more or less exacting in respect of the smallness of the probability he would require […]’ and ‘no isolated experiment, however significant in itself, can suffice for the experimental demonstration of any natural phenomenon’). How small the level of significance is, is thus left to researchers.

## What is not a p-value? Common mistakes

The p-value is not an indication of the strength or magnitude of an effect . Any interpretation of the p-value in relation to the effect under study (strength, reliability, probability) is wrong, since p-values are conditioned on H0. In addition, while p-values are randomly distributed (if all the assumptions of the test are met) when there is no effect, their distribution depends of both the population effect size and the number of participants, making impossible to infer strength of effect from them.

Similarly, 1-p is not the probability to replicate an effect . Often, a small value of p is considered to mean a strong likelihood of getting the same results on another try, but again this cannot be obtained because the p-value is not informative on the effect itself ( Miller, 2009 ). Because the p-value depends on the number of subjects, it can only be used in high powered studies to interpret results. In low powered studies (typically small number of subjects), the p-value has a large variance across repeated samples, making it unreliable to estimate replication ( Halsey et al. , 2015 ).

A (small) p-value is not an indication favouring a given hypothesis . Because a low p-value only indicates a misfit of the null hypothesis to the data, it cannot be taken as evidence in favour of a specific alternative hypothesis more than any other possible alternatives such as measurement error and selection bias ( Gelman, 2013 ). Some authors have even argued that the more (a priori) implausible the alternative hypothesis, the greater the chance that a finding is a false alarm ( Krzywinski & Altman, 2013 ; Nuzzo, 2014 ).

The p-value is not the probability of the null hypothesis p(H0), of being true, ( Krzywinski & Altman, 2013 ). This common misconception arises from a confusion between the probability of an observation given the null p(Obs≥t|H0) and the probability of the null given an observation p(H0|Obs≥t) that is then taken as an indication for p(H0) (see Nickerson, 2000 ).

## Neyman-Pearson, hypothesis testing, and the α-value

Neyman & Pearson (1933) proposed a framework of statistical inference for applied decision making and quality control. In such framework, two hypotheses are proposed: the null hypothesis of no effect and the alternative hypothesis of an effect, along with a control of the long run probabilities of making errors. The first key concept in this approach, is the establishment of an alternative hypothesis along with an a priori effect size. This differs markedly from Fisher who proposed a general approach for scientific inference conditioned on the null hypothesis only. The second key concept is the control of error rates . Neyman & Pearson (1928) introduced the notion of critical intervals, therefore dichotomizing the space of possible observations into correct vs. incorrect zones. This dichotomization allows distinguishing correct results (rejecting H0 when there is an effect and not rejecting H0 when there is no effect) from errors (rejecting H0 when there is no effect, the type I error, and not rejecting H0 when there is an effect, the type II error). In this context, alpha is the probability of committing a Type I error in the long run. Alternatively, Beta is the probability of committing a Type II error in the long run.

The (theoretical) difference in terms of hypothesis testing between Fisher and Neyman-Pearson is illustrated on Figure 1 . In the 1 st case, we choose a level of significance for observed data of 5%, and compute the p-value. If the p-value is below the level of significance, it is used to reject H0. In the 2 nd case, we set a critical interval based on the a priori effect size and error rates. If an observed statistic value is below and above the critical values (the bounds of the confidence region), it is deemed significantly different from H0. In the NHST framework, the level of significance is (in practice) assimilated to the alpha level, which appears as a simple decision rule: if the p-value is less or equal to alpha, the null is rejected. It is however a common mistake to assimilate these two concepts. The level of significance set for a given sample is not the same as the frequency of acceptance alpha found on repeated sampling because alpha (a point estimate) is meant to reflect the long run probability whilst the p-value (a cumulative estimate) reflects the current probability ( Fisher, 1955 ; Hubbard & Bayarri, 2003 ).

The figure was prepared with G-power for a one-sided one-sample t-test, with a sample size of 32 subjects, an effect size of 0.45, and error rates alpha=0.049 and beta=0.80. In Fisher’s procedure, only the nil-hypothesis is posed, and the observed p-value is compared to an a priori level of significance. If the observed p-value is below this level (here p=0.05), one rejects H0. In Neyman-Pearson’s procedure, the null and alternative hypotheses are specified along with an a priori level of acceptance. If the observed statistical value is outside the critical region (here [-∞ +1.69]), one rejects H0.

## Acceptance or rejection of H0?

The acceptance level α can also be viewed as the maximum probability that a test statistic falls into the rejection region when the null hypothesis is true ( Johnson, 2013 ). Therefore, one can only reject the null hypothesis if the test statistics falls into the critical region(s), or fail to reject this hypothesis. In the latter case, all we can say is that no significant effect was observed, but one cannot conclude that the null hypothesis is true. This is another common mistake in using NHST: there is a profound difference between accepting the null hypothesis and simply failing to reject it ( Killeen, 2005 ). By failing to reject, we simply continue to assume that H0 is true, which implies that one cannot argue against a theory from a non-significant result (absence of evidence is not evidence of absence). To accept the null hypothesis, tests of equivalence ( Walker & Nowacki, 2011 ) or Bayesian approaches ( Dienes, 2014 ; Kruschke, 2011 ) must be used.

## Confidence intervals

Confidence intervals (CI) are builds that fail to cover the true value at a rate of alpha, the Type I error rate ( Morey & Rouder, 2011 ) and therefore indicate if observed values can be rejected by a (two tailed) test with a given alpha. CI have been advocated as alternatives to p-values because (i) they allow judging the statistical significance and (ii) provide estimates of effect size. Assuming the CI (a)symmetry and width are correct (but see Wilcox, 2012 ), they also give some indication about the likelihood that a similar value can be observed in future studies. For future studies of the same sample size, 95% CI give about 83% chance of replication success ( Cumming & Maillardet, 2006 ). If sample sizes however differ between studies, CI do not however warranty any a priori coverage.

Although CI provide more information, they are not less subject to interpretation errors (see Savalei & Dunn, 2015 for a review). The most common mistake is to interpret CI as the probability that a parameter (e.g. the population mean) will fall in that interval X% of the time. The correct interpretation is that, for repeated measurements with the same sample sizes, taken from the same population, X% of times the CI obtained will contain the true parameter value ( Tan & Tan, 2010 ). The alpha value has the same interpretation as testing against H0, i.e. we accept that 1-alpha CI are wrong in alpha percent of the times in the long run. This implies that CI do not allow to make strong statements about the parameter of interest (e.g. the mean difference) or about H1 ( Hoekstra et al. , 2014 ). To make a statement about the probability of a parameter of interest (e.g. the probability of the mean), Bayesian intervals must be used.

## The (correct) use of NHST

NHST has always been criticized, and yet is still used every day in scientific reports ( Nickerson, 2000 ). One question to ask oneself is what is the goal of a scientific experiment at hand? If the goal is to establish a discrepancy with the null hypothesis and/or establish a pattern of order, because both requires ruling out equivalence, then NHST is a good tool ( Frick, 1996 ; Walker & Nowacki, 2011 ). If the goal is to test the presence of an effect and/or establish some quantitative values related to an effect, then NHST is not the method of choice since testing is conditioned on H0.

While a Bayesian analysis is suited to estimate that the probability that a hypothesis is correct, like NHST, it does not prove a theory on itself, but adds its plausibility ( Lindley, 2000 ). No matter what testing procedure is used and how strong results are, ( Fisher, 1959 p13) reminds us that ‘ […] no isolated experiment, however significant in itself, can suffice for the experimental demonstration of any natural phenomenon'. Similarly, the recent statement of the American Statistical Association ( Wasserstein & Lazar, 2016 ) makes it clear that conclusions should be based on the researchers understanding of the problem in context, along with all summary data and tests, and that no single value (being p-values, Bayesian factor or else) can be used support or invalidate a theory.

## What to report and how?

Considering that quantitative reports will always have more information content than binary (significant or not) reports, we can always argue that raw and/or normalized effect size, confidence intervals, or Bayes factor must be reported. Reporting everything can however hinder the communication of the main result(s), and we should aim at giving only the information needed, at least in the core of a manuscript. Here I propose to adopt optimal reporting in the result section to keep the message clear, but have detailed supplementary material. When the hypothesis is about the presence/absence or order of an effect, and providing that a study has sufficient power, NHST is appropriate and it is sufficient to report in the text the actual p-value since it conveys the information needed to rule out equivalence. When the hypothesis and/or the discussion involve some quantitative value, and because p-values do not inform on the effect, it is essential to report on effect sizes ( Lakens, 2013 ), preferably accompanied with confidence or credible intervals. The reasoning is simply that one cannot predict and/or discuss quantities without accounting for variability. For the reader to understand and fully appreciate the results, nothing else is needed.

Because science progress is obtained by cumulating evidence ( Rosenthal, 1991 ), scientists should also consider the secondary use of the data. With today’s electronic articles, there are no reasons for not including all of derived data: mean, standard deviations, effect size, CI, Bayes factor should always be included as supplementary tables (or even better also share raw data). It is also essential to report the context in which tests were performed – that is to report all of the tests performed (all t, F, p values) because of the increase type one error rate due to selective reporting (multiple comparisons and p-hacking problems - Ioannidis, 2005 ). Providing all of this information allows (i) other researchers to directly and effectively compare their results in quantitative terms (replication of effects beyond significance, Open Science Collaboration, 2015 ), (ii) to compute power to future studies ( Lakens & Evers, 2014 ), and (iii) to aggregate results for meta-analyses whilst minimizing publication bias ( van Assen et al. , 2014 ).

[version 3; referees: 1 approved

## Funding Statement

The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.

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## Referee response for version 3

Dorothy vera margaret bishop.

1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

I can see from the history of this paper that the author has already been very responsive to reviewer comments, and that the process of revising has now been quite protracted.

That makes me reluctant to suggest much more, but I do see potential here for making the paper more impactful. So my overall view is that, once a few typos are fixed (see below), this could be published as is, but I think there is an issue with the potential readership and that further revision could overcome this.

I suspect my take on this is rather different from other reviewers, as I do not regard myself as a statistics expert, though I am on the more quantitative end of the continuum of psychologists and I try to keep up to date. I think I am quite close to the target readership , insofar as I am someone who was taught about statistics ages ago and uses stats a lot, but never got adequate training in the kinds of topic covered by this paper. The fact that I am aware of controversies around the interpretation of confidence intervals etc is simply because I follow some discussions of this on social media. I am therefore very interested to have a clear account of these issues.

This paper contains helpful information for someone in this position, but it is not always clear, and I felt the relevance of some of the content was uncertain. So here are some recommendations:

- As one previous reviewer noted, it’s questionable that there is a need for a tutorial introduction, and the limited length of this article does not lend itself to a full explanation. So it might be better to just focus on explaining as clearly as possible the problems people have had in interpreting key concepts. I think a title that made it clear this was the content would be more appealing than the current one.
- P 3, col 1, para 3, last sentence. Although statisticians always emphasise the arbitrary nature of p < .05, we all know that in practice authors who use other values are likely to have their analyses queried. I wondered whether it would be useful here to note that in some disciplines different cutoffs are traditional, e.g. particle physics. Or you could cite David Colquhoun’s paper in which he recommends using p < .001 ( http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/1/3/140216) - just to be clear that the traditional p < .05 has been challenged.

What I can’t work out is how you would explain the alpha from Neyman-Pearson in the same way (though I can see from Figure 1 that with N-P you could test an alternative hypothesis, such as the idea that the coin would be heads 75% of the time).

‘By failing to reject, we simply continue to assume that H0 is true, which implies that one cannot….’ have ‘In failing to reject, we do not assume that H0 is true; one cannot argue against a theory from a non-significant result.’

I felt most readers would be interested to read about tests of equivalence and Bayesian approaches, but many would be unfamiliar with these and might like to see an example of how they work in practice – if space permitted.

- Confidence intervals: I simply could not understand the first sentence – I wondered what was meant by ‘builds’ here. I understand about difficulties in comparing CI across studies when sample sizes differ, but I did not find the last sentence on p 4 easy to understand.
- P 5: The sentence starting: ‘The alpha value has the same interpretation’ was also hard to understand, especially the term ‘1-alpha CI’. Here too I felt some concrete illustration might be helpful to the reader. And again, I also found the reference to Bayesian intervals tantalising – I think many readers won’t know how to compute these and something like a figure comparing a traditional CI with a Bayesian interval and giving a source for those who want to read on would be very helpful. The reference to ‘credible intervals’ in the penultimate paragraph is very unclear and needs a supporting reference – most readers will not be familiar with this concept.

P 3, col 1, para 2, line 2; “allows us to compute”

P 3, col 2, para 2, ‘probability of replicating’

P 3, col 2, para 2, line 4 ‘informative about’

P 3, col 2, para 4, line 2 delete ‘of’

P 3, col 2, para 5, line 9 – ‘conditioned’ is either wrong or too technical here: would ‘based’ be acceptable as alternative wording

P 3, col 2, para 5, line 13 ‘This dichotomisation allows one to distinguish’

P 3, col 2, para 5, last sentence, delete ‘Alternatively’.

P 3, col 2, last para line 2 ‘first’

P 4, col 2, para 2, last sentence is hard to understand; not sure if this is better: ‘If sample sizes differ between studies, the distribution of CIs cannot be specified a priori’

P 5, col 1, para 2, ‘a pattern of order’ – I did not understand what was meant by this

P 5, col 1, para 2, last sentence unclear: possible rewording: “If the goal is to test the size of an effect then NHST is not the method of choice, since testing can only reject the null hypothesis.’ (??)

P 5, col 1, para 3, line 1 delete ‘that’

P 5, col 1, para 3, line 3 ‘on’ -> ‘by’

P 5, col 2, para 1, line 4 , rather than ‘Here I propose to adopt’ I suggest ‘I recommend adopting’

P 5, col 2, para 1, line 13 ‘with’ -> ‘by’

P 5, col 2, para 1 – recommend deleting last sentence

P 5, col 2, para 2, line 2 ‘consider’ -> ‘anticipate’

P 5, col 2, para 2, delete ‘should always be included’

P 5, col 2, para 2, ‘type one’ -> ‘Type I’

I have read this submission. I believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to confirm that it is of an acceptable scientific standard, however I have significant reservations, as outlined above.

The University of Edinburgh, UK

I wondered about changing the focus slightly and modifying the title to reflect this to say something like: Null hypothesis significance testing: a guide to commonly misunderstood concepts and recommendations for good practice

Thank you for the suggestion – you indeed saw the intention behind the ‘tutorial’ style of the paper.

- P 3, col 1, para 3, last sentence. Although statisticians always emphasise the arbitrary nature of p < .05, we all know that in practice authors who use other values are likely to have their analyses queried. I wondered whether it would be useful here to note that in some disciplines different cutoffs are traditional, e.g. particle physics. Or you could cite David Colquhoun’s paper in which he recommends using p < .001 ( http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/1/3/140216) - just to be clear that the traditional p < .05 has been challenged.

I have added a sentence on this citing Colquhoun 2014 and the new Benjamin 2017 on using .005.

I agree that this point is always hard to appreciate, especially because it seems like in practice it makes little difference. I added a paragraph but using reaction times rather than a coin toss – thanks for the suggestion.

Added an example based on new table 1, following figure 1 – giving CI, equivalence tests and Bayes Factor (with refs to easy to use tools)

Changed builds to constructs (this simply means they are something we build) and added that the implication that probability coverage is not warranty when sample size change, is that we cannot compare CI.

I changed ‘ i.e. we accept that 1-alpha CI are wrong in alpha percent of the times in the long run’ to ‘, ‘e.g. a 95% CI is wrong in 5% of the times in the long run (i.e. if we repeat the experiment many times).’ – for Bayesian intervals I simply re-cited Morey & Rouder, 2011.

It is not the CI cannot be specified, it’s that the interval is not predictive of anything anymore! I changed it to ‘If sample sizes, however, differ between studies, there is no warranty that a CI from one study will be true at the rate alpha in a different study, which implies that CI cannot be compared across studies at this is rarely the same sample sizes’

I added (i.e. establish that A > B) – we test that conditions are ordered, but without further specification of the probability of that effect nor its size

Yes it works – thx

P 5, col 2, para 2, ‘type one’ -> ‘Type I’

Typos fixed, and suggestions accepted – thanks for that.

## Stephen J. Senn

1 Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, L-1445, Luxembourg

The revisions are OK for me, and I have changed my status to Approved.

I have read this submission. I believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to confirm that it is of an acceptable scientific standard.

## Referee response for version 2

On the whole I think that this article is reasonable, my main reservation being that I have my doubts on whether the literature needs yet another tutorial on this subject.

A further reservation I have is that the author, following others, stresses what in my mind is a relatively unimportant distinction between the Fisherian and Neyman-Pearson (NP) approaches. The distinction stressed by many is that the NP approach leads to a dichotomy accept/reject based on probabilities established in advance, whereas the Fisherian approach uses tail area probabilities calculated from the observed statistic. I see this as being unimportant and not even true. Unless one considers that the person carrying out a hypothesis test (original tester) is mandated to come to a conclusion on behalf of all scientific posterity, then one must accept that any remote scientist can come to his or her conclusion depending on the personal type I error favoured. To operate the results of an NP test carried out by the original tester, the remote scientist then needs to know the p-value. The type I error rate is then compared to this to come to a personal accept or reject decision (1). In fact Lehmann (2), who was an important developer of and proponent of the NP system, describes exactly this approach as being good practice. (See Testing Statistical Hypotheses, 2nd edition P70). Thus using tail-area probabilities calculated from the observed statistics does not constitute an operational difference between the two systems.

A more important distinction between the Fisherian and NP systems is that the former does not use alternative hypotheses(3). Fisher's opinion was that the null hypothesis was more primitive than the test statistic but that the test statistic was more primitive than the alternative hypothesis. Thus, alternative hypotheses could not be used to justify choice of test statistic. Only experience could do that.

Further distinctions between the NP and Fisherian approach are to do with conditioning and whether a null hypothesis can ever be accepted.

I have one minor quibble about terminology. As far as I can see, the author uses the usual term 'null hypothesis' and the eccentric term 'nil hypothesis' interchangeably. It would be simpler if the latter were abandoned.

## Referee response for version 1

Marcel alm van assen.

1 Department of Methodology and Statistics, Tilburgh University, Tilburg, Netherlands

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is a difficult topic, with misunderstandings arising easily. Many texts, including basic statistics books, deal with the topic, and attempt to explain it to students and anyone else interested. I would refer to a good basic text book, for a detailed explanation of NHST, or to a specialized article when wishing an explaining the background of NHST. So, what is the added value of a new text on NHST? In any case, the added value should be described at the start of this text. Moreover, the topic is so delicate and difficult that errors, misinterpretations, and disagreements are easy. I attempted to show this by giving comments to many sentences in the text.

Abstract: “null hypothesis significance testing is the statistical method of choice in biological, biomedical and social sciences to investigate if an effect is likely”. No, NHST is the method to test the hypothesis of no effect.

Intro: “Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is a method of statistical inference by which an observation is tested against a hypothesis of no effect or no relationship.” What is an ‘observation’? NHST is difficult to describe in one sentence, particularly here. I would skip this sentence entirely, here.

Section on Fisher; also explain the one-tailed test.

Section on Fisher; p(Obs|H0) does not reflect the verbal definition (the ‘or more extreme’ part).

Section on Fisher; use a reference and citation to Fisher’s interpretation of the p-value

Section on Fisher; “This was however only intended to be used as an indication that there is something in the data that deserves further investigation. The reason for this is that only H0 is tested whilst the effect under study is not itself being investigated.” First sentence, can you give a reference? Many people say a lot about Fisher’s intentions, but the good man is dead and cannot reply… Second sentence is a bit awkward, because the effect is investigated in a way, by testing the H0.

Section on p-value; Layout and structure can be improved greatly, by first again stating what the p-value is, and then statement by statement, what it is not, using separate lines for each statement. Consider adding that the p-value is randomly distributed under H0 (if all the assumptions of the test are met), and that under H1 the p-value is a function of population effect size and N; the larger each is, the smaller the p-value generally is.

Skip the sentence “If there is no effect, we should replicate the absence of effect with a probability equal to 1-p”. Not insightful, and you did not discuss the concept ‘replicate’ (and do not need to).

Skip the sentence “The total probability of false positives can also be obtained by aggregating results ( Ioannidis, 2005 ).” Not strongly related to p-values, and introduces unnecessary concepts ‘false positives’ (perhaps later useful) and ‘aggregation’.

Consider deleting; “If there is an effect however, the probability to replicate is a function of the (unknown) population effect size with no good way to know this from a single experiment ( Killeen, 2005 ).”

The following sentence; “ Finally, a (small) p-value is not an indication favouring a hypothesis . A low p-value indicates a misfit of the null hypothesis to the data and cannot be taken as evidence in favour of a specific alternative hypothesis more than any other possible alternatives such as measurement error and selection bias ( Gelman, 2013 ).” is surely not mainstream thinking about NHST; I would surely delete that sentence. In NHST, a p-value is used for testing the H0. Why did you not yet discuss significance level? Yes, before discussing what is not a p-value, I would explain NHST (i.e., what it is and how it is used).

Also the next sentence “The more (a priori) implausible the alternative hypothesis, the greater the chance that a finding is a false alarm ( Krzywinski & Altman, 2013 ; Nuzzo, 2014 ).“ is not fully clear to me. This is a Bayesian statement. In NHST, no likelihoods are attributed to hypotheses; the reasoning is “IF H0 is true, then…”.

Last sentence: “As Nickerson (2000) puts it ‘theory corroboration requires the testing of multiple predictions because the chance of getting statistically significant results for the wrong reasons in any given case is high’.” What is relation of this sentence to the contents of this section, precisely?

Next section: “For instance, we can estimate that the probability of a given F value to be in the critical interval [+2 +∞] is less than 5%” This depends on the degrees of freedom.

“When there is no effect (H0 is true), the erroneous rejection of H0 is known as type I error and is equal to the p-value.” Strange sentence. The Type I error is the probability of erroneously rejecting the H0 (so, when it is true). The p-value is … well, you explained it before; it surely does not equal the Type I error.

Consider adding a figure explaining the distinction between Fisher’s logic and that of Neyman and Pearson.

“When the test statistics falls outside the critical region(s)” What is outside?

“There is a profound difference between accepting the null hypothesis and simply failing to reject it ( Killeen, 2005 )” I agree with you, but perhaps you may add that some statisticians simply define “accept H0’” as obtaining a p-value larger than the significance level. Did you already discuss the significance level, and it’s mostly used values?

“To accept or reject equally the null hypothesis, Bayesian approaches ( Dienes, 2014 ; Kruschke, 2011 ) or confidence intervals must be used.” Is ‘reject equally’ appropriate English? Also using Cis, one cannot accept the H0.

Do you start discussing alpha only in the context of Cis?

“CI also indicates the precision of the estimate of effect size, but unless using a percentile bootstrap approach, they require assumptions about distributions which can lead to serious biases in particular regarding the symmetry and width of the intervals ( Wilcox, 2012 ).” Too difficult, using new concepts. Consider deleting.

“Assuming the CI (a)symmetry and width are correct, this gives some indication about the likelihood that a similar value can be observed in future studies, with 95% CI giving about 83% chance of replication success ( Lakens & Evers, 2014 ).” This statement is, in general, completely false. It very much depends on the sample sizes of both studies. If the replication study has a much, much, much larger N, then the probability that the original CI will contain the effect size of the replication approaches (1-alpha)*100%. If the original study has a much, much, much larger N, then the probability that the original Ci will contain the effect size of the replication study approaches 0%.

“Finally, contrary to p-values, CI can be used to accept H0. Typically, if a CI includes 0, we cannot reject H0. If a critical null region is specified rather than a single point estimate, for instance [-2 +2] and the CI is included within the critical null region, then H0 can be accepted. Importantly, the critical region must be specified a priori and cannot be determined from the data themselves.” No. H0 cannot be accepted with Cis.

“The (posterior) probability of an effect can however not be obtained using a frequentist framework.” Frequentist framework? You did not discuss that, yet.

“X% of times the CI obtained will contain the same parameter value”. The same? True, you mean?

“e.g. X% of the times the CI contains the same mean” I do not understand; which mean?

“The alpha value has the same interpretation as when using H0, i.e. we accept that 1-alpha CI are wrong in alpha percent of the times. “ What do you mean, CI are wrong? Consider rephrasing.

“To make a statement about the probability of a parameter of interest, likelihood intervals (maximum likelihood) and credibility intervals (Bayes) are better suited.” ML gives the likelihood of the data given the parameter, not the other way around.

“Many of the disagreements are not on the method itself but on its use.” Bayesians may disagree.

“If the goal is to establish the likelihood of an effect and/or establish a pattern of order, because both requires ruling out equivalence, then NHST is a good tool ( Frick, 1996 )” NHST does not provide evidence on the likelihood of an effect.

“If the goal is to establish some quantitative values, then NHST is not the method of choice.” P-values are also quantitative… this is not a precise sentence. And NHST may be used in combination with effect size estimation (this is even recommended by, e.g., the American Psychological Association (APA)).

“Because results are conditioned on H0, NHST cannot be used to establish beliefs.” It can reinforce some beliefs, e.g., if H0 or any other hypothesis, is true.

“To estimate the probability of a hypothesis, a Bayesian analysis is a better alternative.” It is the only alternative?

“Note however that even when a specific quantitative prediction from a hypothesis is shown to be true (typically testing H1 using Bayes), it does not prove the hypothesis itself, it only adds to its plausibility.” How can we show something is true?

I do not agree on the contents of the last section on ‘minimal reporting’. I prefer ‘optimal reporting’ instead, i.e., the reporting the information that is essential to the interpretation of the result, to any ready, which may have other goals than the writer of the article. This reporting includes, for sure, an estimate of effect size, and preferably a confidence interval, which is in line with recommendations of the APA.

I have read this submission. I believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to state that I do not consider it to be of an acceptable scientific standard, for reasons outlined above.

The idea of this short review was to point to common interpretation errors (stressing again and again that we are under H0) being in using p-values or CI, and also proposing reporting practices to avoid bias. This is now stated at the end of abstract.

Regarding text books, it is clear that many fail to clearly distinguish Fisher/Pearson/NHST, see Glinet et al (2012) J. Exp Education 71, 83-92. If you have 1 or 2 in mind that you know to be good, I’m happy to include them.

I agree – yet people use it to investigate (not test) if an effect is likely. The issue here is wording. What about adding this distinction at the end of the sentence?: ‘null hypothesis significance testing is the statistical method of choice in biological, biomedical and social sciences used to investigate if an effect is likely, even though it actually tests for the hypothesis of no effect’.

I think a definition is needed, as it offers a starting point. What about the following: ‘NHST is a method of statistical inference by which an experimental factor is tested against a hypothesis of no effect or no relationship based on a given observation’

The section on Fisher has been modified (more or less) as suggested: (1) avoiding talking about one or two tailed tests (2) updating for p(Obs≥t|H0) and (3) referring to Fisher more explicitly (ie pages from articles and book) ; I cannot tell his intentions but these quotes leave little space to alternative interpretations.

The reasoning here is as you state yourself, part 1: ‘a p-value is used for testing the H0; and part 2: ‘no likelihoods are attributed to hypotheses’ it follows we cannot favour a hypothesis. It might seems contentious but this is the case that all we can is to reject the null – how could we favour a specific alternative hypothesis from there? This is explored further down the manuscript (and I now point to that) – note that we do not need to be Bayesian to favour a specific H1, all I’m saying is this cannot be attained with a p-value.

The point was to emphasise that a p value is not there to tell us a given H1 is true and can only be achieved through multiple predictions and experiments. I deleted it for clarity.

This sentence has been removed

Indeed, you are right and I have modified the text accordingly. When there is no effect (H0 is true), the erroneous rejection of H0 is known as type 1 error. Importantly, the type 1 error rate, or alpha value is determined a priori. It is a common mistake but the level of significance (for a given sample) is not the same as the frequency of acceptance alpha found on repeated sampling (Fisher, 1955).

A figure is now presented – with levels of acceptance, critical region, level of significance and p-value.

I should have clarified further here – as I was having in mind tests of equivalence. To clarify, I simply states now: ‘To accept the null hypothesis, tests of equivalence or Bayesian approaches must be used.’

It is now presented in the paragraph before.

Yes, you are right, I completely overlooked this problem. The corrected sentence (with more accurate ref) is now “Assuming the CI (a)symmetry and width are correct, this gives some indication about the likelihood that a similar value can be observed in future studies. For future studies of the same sample size, 95% CI giving about 83% chance of replication success (Cumming and Mallardet, 2006). If sample sizes differ between studies, CI do not however warranty any a priori coverage”.

Again, I had in mind equivalence testing, but in both cases you are right we can only reject and I therefore removed that sentence.

Yes, p-values must be interpreted in context with effect size, but this is not what people do. The point here is to be pragmatic, does and don’t. The sentence was changed.

Not for testing, but for probability, I am not aware of anything else.

Cumulative evidence is, in my opinion, the only way to show it. Even in hard science like physics multiple experiments. In the recent CERN study on finding Higgs bosons, 2 different and complementary experiments ran in parallel – and the cumulative evidence was taken as a proof of the true existence of Higgs bosons.

## Daniel Lakens

1 School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands

I appreciate the author's attempt to write a short tutorial on NHST. Many people don't know how to use it, so attempts to educate people are always worthwhile. However, I don't think the current article reaches it's aim. For one, I think it might be practically impossible to explain a lot in such an ultra short paper - every section would require more than 2 pages to explain, and there are many sections. Furthermore, there are some excellent overviews, which, although more extensive, are also much clearer (e.g., Nickerson, 2000 ). Finally, I found many statements to be unclear, and perhaps even incorrect (noted below). Because there is nothing worse than creating more confusion on such a topic, I have extremely high standards before I think such a short primer should be indexed. I note some examples of unclear or incorrect statements below. I'm sorry I can't make a more positive recommendation.

“investigate if an effect is likely” – ambiguous statement. I think you mean, whether the observed DATA is probable, assuming there is no effect?

The Fisher (1959) reference is not correct – Fischer developed his method much earlier.

“This p-value thus reflects the conditional probability of achieving the observed outcome or larger, p(Obs|H0)” – please add 'assuming the null-hypothesis is true'.

“p(Obs|H0)” – explain this notation for novices.

“Following Fisher, the smaller the p-value, the greater the likelihood that the null hypothesis is false.” This is wrong, and any statement about this needs to be much more precise. I would suggest direct quotes.

“there is something in the data that deserves further investigation” –unclear sentence.

“The reason for this” – unclear what ‘this’ refers to.

“ not the probability of the null hypothesis of being true, p(H0)” – second of can be removed?

“Any interpretation of the p-value in relation to the effect under study (strength, reliability, probability) is indeed

wrong, since the p-value is conditioned on H0” - incorrect. A big problem is that it depends on the sample size, and that the probability of a theory depends on the prior.

“If there is no effect, we should replicate the absence of effect with a probability equal to 1-p.” I don’t understand this, but I think it is incorrect.

“The total probability of false positives can also be obtained by aggregating results (Ioannidis, 2005).” Unclear, and probably incorrect.

“By failing to reject, we simply continue to assume that H0 is true, which implies that one cannot, from a nonsignificant result, argue against a theory” – according to which theory? From a NP perspective, you can ACT as if the theory is false.

“(Lakens & Evers, 2014”) – we are not the original source, which should be cited instead.

“ Typically, if a CI includes 0, we cannot reject H0.” - when would this not be the case? This assumes a CI of 1-alpha.

“If a critical null region is specified rather than a single point estimate, for instance [-2 +2] and the CI is included within the critical null region, then H0 can be accepted.” – you mean practically, or formally? I’m pretty sure only the former.

The section on ‘The (correct) use of NHST’ seems to conclude only Bayesian statistics should be used. I don’t really agree.

“ we can always argue that effect size, power, etc. must be reported.” – which power? Post-hoc power? Surely not? Other types are unknown. So what do you mean?

The recommendation on what to report remains vague, and it is unclear why what should be reported.

This sentence was changed, following as well the other reviewer, to ‘null hypothesis significance testing is the statistical method of choice in biological, biomedical and social sciences to investigate if an effect is likely, even though it actually tests whether the observed data are probable, assuming there is no effect’

Changed, refers to Fisher 1925

I changed a little the sentence structure, which should make explicit that this is the condition probability.

This has been changed to ‘[…] to decide whether the evidence is worth additional investigation and/or replication (Fisher, 1971 p13)’

my mistake – the sentence structure is now ‘ not the probability of the null hypothesis p(H0), of being true,’ ; hope this makes more sense (and this way refers back to p(Obs>t|H0)

Fair enough – my point was to stress the fact that p value and effect size or H1 have very little in common, but yes that the part in common has to do with sample size. I left the conditioning on H0 but also point out the dependency on sample size.

The whole paragraph was changed to reflect a more philosophical take on scientific induction/reasoning. I hope this is clearer.

Changed to refer to equivalence testing

I rewrote this, as to show frequentist analysis can be used - I’m trying to sell Bayes more than any other approach.

I’m arguing we should report it all, that’s why there is no exhausting list – I can if needed.

## Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a tool for making statistical inferences about the population data. It is an analysis tool that tests assumptions and determines how likely something is within a given standard of accuracy. Hypothesis testing provides a way to verify whether the results of an experiment are valid.

A null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis are set up before performing the hypothesis testing. This helps to arrive at a conclusion regarding the sample obtained from the population. In this article, we will learn more about hypothesis testing, its types, steps to perform the testing, and associated examples.

## What is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?

Hypothesis testing uses sample data from the population to draw useful conclusions regarding the population probability distribution . It tests an assumption made about the data using different types of hypothesis testing methodologies. The hypothesis testing results in either rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.

## Hypothesis Testing Definition

Hypothesis testing can be defined as a statistical tool that is used to identify if the results of an experiment are meaningful or not. It involves setting up a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. These two hypotheses will always be mutually exclusive. This means that if the null hypothesis is true then the alternative hypothesis is false and vice versa. An example of hypothesis testing is setting up a test to check if a new medicine works on a disease in a more efficient manner.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a concise mathematical statement that is used to indicate that there is no difference between two possibilities. In other words, there is no difference between certain characteristics of data. This hypothesis assumes that the outcomes of an experiment are based on chance alone. It is denoted as \(H_{0}\). Hypothesis testing is used to conclude if the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. Suppose an experiment is conducted to check if girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5. The null hypothesis will say that they are the same height.

## Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is an alternative to the null hypothesis. It is used to show that the observations of an experiment are due to some real effect. It indicates that there is a statistical significance between two possible outcomes and can be denoted as \(H_{1}\) or \(H_{a}\). For the above-mentioned example, the alternative hypothesis would be that girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5.

## Hypothesis Testing P Value

In hypothesis testing, the p value is used to indicate whether the results obtained after conducting a test are statistically significant or not. It also indicates the probability of making an error in rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.This value is always a number between 0 and 1. The p value is compared to an alpha level, \(\alpha\) or significance level. The alpha level can be defined as the acceptable risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. The alpha level is usually chosen between 1% to 5%.

## Hypothesis Testing Critical region

All sets of values that lead to rejecting the null hypothesis lie in the critical region. Furthermore, the value that separates the critical region from the non-critical region is known as the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Formula

Depending upon the type of data available and the size, different types of hypothesis testing are used to determine whether the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. The hypothesis testing formula for some important test statistics are given below:

- z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\). \(\overline{x}\) is the sample mean, \(\mu\) is the population mean, \(\sigma\) is the population standard deviation and n is the size of the sample.
- t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\). s is the sample standard deviation.
- \(\chi ^{2} = \sum \frac{(O_{i}-E_{i})^{2}}{E_{i}}\). \(O_{i}\) is the observed value and \(E_{i}\) is the expected value.

We will learn more about these test statistics in the upcoming section.

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

Selecting the correct test for performing hypothesis testing can be confusing. These tests are used to determine a test statistic on the basis of which the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected. Some of the important tests used for hypothesis testing are given below.

## Hypothesis Testing Z Test

A z test is a way of hypothesis testing that is used for a large sample size (n ≥ 30). It is used to determine whether there is a difference between the population mean and the sample mean when the population standard deviation is known. It can also be used to compare the mean of two samples. It is used to compute the z test statistic. The formulas are given as follows:

- One sample: z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing t Test

The t test is another method of hypothesis testing that is used for a small sample size (n < 30). It is also used to compare the sample mean and population mean. However, the population standard deviation is not known. Instead, the sample standard deviation is known. The mean of two samples can also be compared using the t test.

- One sample: t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: t = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{s_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{s_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing Chi Square

The Chi square test is a hypothesis testing method that is used to check whether the variables in a population are independent or not. It is used when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed.

## One Tailed Hypothesis Testing

One tailed hypothesis testing is done when the rejection region is only in one direction. It can also be known as directional hypothesis testing because the effects can be tested in one direction only. This type of testing is further classified into the right tailed test and left tailed test.

Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The right tail test is also known as the upper tail test. This test is used to check whether the population parameter is greater than some value. The null and alternative hypotheses for this test are given as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≤ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is > some value.

If the test statistic has a greater value than the critical value then the null hypothesis is rejected

Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The left tail test is also known as the lower tail test. It is used to check whether the population parameter is less than some value. The hypotheses for this hypothesis testing can be written as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≥ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is < some value.

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value lesser than the critical value.

## Two Tailed Hypothesis Testing

In this hypothesis testing method, the critical region lies on both sides of the sampling distribution. It is also known as a non - directional hypothesis testing method. The two-tailed test is used when it needs to be determined if the population parameter is assumed to be different than some value. The hypotheses can be set up as follows:

\(H_{0}\): the population parameter = some value

\(H_{1}\): the population parameter ≠ some value

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value that is not equal to the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Steps

Hypothesis testing can be easily performed in five simple steps. The most important step is to correctly set up the hypotheses and identify the right method for hypothesis testing. The basic steps to perform hypothesis testing are as follows:

- Step 1: Set up the null hypothesis by correctly identifying whether it is the left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed hypothesis testing.
- Step 2: Set up the alternative hypothesis.
- Step 3: Choose the correct significance level, \(\alpha\), and find the critical value.
- Step 4: Calculate the correct test statistic (z, t or \(\chi\)) and p-value.
- Step 5: Compare the test statistic with the critical value or compare the p-value with \(\alpha\) to arrive at a conclusion. In other words, decide if the null hypothesis is to be rejected or not.

## Hypothesis Testing Example

The best way to solve a problem on hypothesis testing is by applying the 5 steps mentioned in the previous section. Suppose a researcher claims that the mean average weight of men is greater than 100kgs with a standard deviation of 15kgs. 30 men are chosen with an average weight of 112.5 Kgs. Using hypothesis testing, check if there is enough evidence to support the researcher's claim. The confidence interval is given as 95%.

Step 1: This is an example of a right-tailed test. Set up the null hypothesis as \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 100.

Step 2: The alternative hypothesis is given by \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 100.

Step 3: As this is a one-tailed test, \(\alpha\) = 100% - 95% = 5%. This can be used to determine the critical value.

1 - \(\alpha\) = 1 - 0.05 = 0.95

0.95 gives the required area under the curve. Now using a normal distribution table, the area 0.95 is at z = 1.645. A similar process can be followed for a t-test. The only additional requirement is to calculate the degrees of freedom given by n - 1.

Step 4: Calculate the z test statistic. This is because the sample size is 30. Furthermore, the sample and population means are known along with the standard deviation.

z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).

\(\mu\) = 100, \(\overline{x}\) = 112.5, n = 30, \(\sigma\) = 15

z = \(\frac{112.5-100}{\frac{15}{\sqrt{30}}}\) = 4.56

Step 5: Conclusion. As 4.56 > 1.645 thus, the null hypothesis can be rejected.

## Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Confidence intervals form an important part of hypothesis testing. This is because the alpha level can be determined from a given confidence interval. Suppose a confidence interval is given as 95%. Subtract the confidence interval from 100%. This gives 100 - 95 = 5% or 0.05. This is the alpha value of a one-tailed hypothesis testing. To obtain the alpha value for a two-tailed hypothesis testing, divide this value by 2. This gives 0.05 / 2 = 0.025.

Related Articles:

- Probability and Statistics
- Data Handling

Important Notes on Hypothesis Testing

- Hypothesis testing is a technique that is used to verify whether the results of an experiment are statistically significant.
- It involves the setting up of a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis.
- There are three types of tests that can be conducted under hypothesis testing - z test, t test, and chi square test.
- Hypothesis testing can be classified as right tail, left tail, and two tail tests.

## Examples on Hypothesis Testing

- Example 1: The average weight of a dumbbell in a gym is 90lbs. However, a physical trainer believes that the average weight might be higher. A random sample of 5 dumbbells with an average weight of 110lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. Using hypothesis testing check if the physical trainer's claim can be supported for a 95% confidence level. Solution: As the sample size is lesser than 30, the t-test is used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 5, s = 18. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 Using the t-distribution table, the critical value is 2.132 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = 2.484 As 2.484 > 2.132, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: The average weight of the dumbbells may be greater than 90lbs
- Example 2: The average score on a test is 80 with a standard deviation of 10. With a new teaching curriculum introduced it is believed that this score will change. On random testing, the score of 38 students, the mean was found to be 88. With a 0.05 significance level, is there any evidence to support this claim? Solution: This is an example of two-tail hypothesis testing. The z test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 80, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) ≠ 80 \(\overline{x}\) = 88, \(\mu\) = 80, n = 36, \(\sigma\) = 10. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 / 2 = 0.025 The critical value using the normal distribution table is 1.96 z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) z = \(\frac{88-80}{\frac{10}{\sqrt{36}}}\) = 4.8 As 4.8 > 1.96, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: There is a difference in the scores after the new curriculum was introduced.
- Example 3: The average score of a class is 90. However, a teacher believes that the average score might be lower. The scores of 6 students were randomly measured. The mean was 82 with a standard deviation of 18. With a 0.05 significance level use hypothesis testing to check if this claim is true. Solution: The t test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) < 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 6, s = 18 The critical value from the t table is -2.015 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = \(\frac{82-90}{\frac{18}{\sqrt{6}}}\) t = -1.088 As -1.088 > -2.015, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Answer: There is not enough evidence to support the claim.

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## FAQs on Hypothesis Testing

What is hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis testing in statistics is a tool that is used to make inferences about the population data. It is also used to check if the results of an experiment are valid.

## What is the z Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The z test in hypothesis testing is used to find the z test statistic for normally distributed data . The z test is used when the standard deviation of the population is known and the sample size is greater than or equal to 30.

## What is the t Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The t test in hypothesis testing is used when the data follows a student t distribution . It is used when the sample size is less than 30 and standard deviation of the population is not known.

## What is the formula for z test in Hypothesis Testing?

The formula for a one sample z test in hypothesis testing is z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) and for two samples is z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## What is the p Value in Hypothesis Testing?

The p value helps to determine if the test results are statistically significant or not. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected based on the comparison between the p value and the alpha level.

## What is One Tail Hypothesis Testing?

When the rejection region is only on one side of the distribution curve then it is known as one tail hypothesis testing. The right tail test and the left tail test are two types of directional hypothesis testing.

## What is the Alpha Level in Two Tail Hypothesis Testing?

To get the alpha level in a two tail hypothesis testing divide \(\alpha\) by 2. This is done as there are two rejection regions in the curve.

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## 1.2: The 7-Step Process of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

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We will cover the seven steps one by one.

## Step 1: State the Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis can be thought of as the opposite of the "guess" the researchers made: in this example, the biologist thinks the plant height will be different for the fertilizers. So the null would be that there will be no difference among the groups of plants. Specifically, in more statistical language the null for an ANOVA is that the means are the same. We state the null hypothesis as: \[H_{0}: \ \mu_{1} = \mu_{2} = \ldots = \mu_{T}\] for \(T\) levels of an experimental treatment.

Why do we do this? Why not simply test the working hypothesis directly? The answer lies in the Popperian Principle of Falsification. Karl Popper (a philosopher) discovered that we can't conclusively confirm a hypothesis, but we can conclusively negate one. So we set up a null hypothesis which is effectively the opposite of the working hypothesis. The hope is that based on the strength of the data, we will be able to negate or reject the null hypothesis and accept an alternative hypothesis. In other words, we usually see the working hypothesis in \(H_{A}\).

## Step 2: State the Alternative Hypothesis

\[H_{A}: \ \text{treatment level means not all equal}\]

The reason we state the alternative hypothesis this way is that if the null is rejected, there are many possibilities.

For example, \(\mu_{1} \neq \mu_{2} = \ldots = \mu_{T}\) is one possibility, as is \(\mu_{1} = \mu_{2} \neq \mu_{3} = \ldots = \mu_{T}\). Many people make the mistake of stating the alternative hypothesis as \(mu_{1} \neq mu_{2} \neq \ldots \neq \mu_{T}\), which says that every mean differs from every other mean. This is a possibility, but only one of many possibilities. To cover all alternative outcomes, we resort to a verbal statement of "not all equal" and then follow up with mean comparisons to find out where differences among means exist. In our example, this means that fertilizer 1 may result in plants that are really tall, but fertilizers 2, 3, and the plants with no fertilizers don't differ from one another. A simpler way of thinking about this is that at least one mean is different from all others.

## Step 3: Set \(\alpha\)

If we look at what can happen in a hypothesis test, we can construct the following contingency table:

You should be familiar with type I and type II errors from your introductory course. It is important to note that we want to set \(\alpha\) before the experiment ( a priori ) because the Type I error is the more grievous error to make. The typical value of \(\alpha\) is 0.05, establishing a 95% confidence level. For this course, we will assume \(\alpha\) =0.05, unless stated otherwise.

## Step 4: Collect Data

Remember the importance of recognizing whether data is collected through an experimental design or observational study.

## Step 5: Calculate a test statistic

For categorical treatment level means, we use an \(F\) statistic, named after R.A. Fisher. We will explore the mechanics of computing the \(F\) statistic beginning in Chapter 2. The \(F\) value we get from the data is labeled \(F_{\text{calculated}}\).

## Step 6: Construct Acceptance / Rejection regions

As with all other test statistics, a threshold (critical) value of \(F\) is established. This \(F\) value can be obtained from statistical tables or software and is referred to as \(F_{\text{critical}}\) or \(F_{\alpha}\). As a reminder, this critical value is the minimum value for the test statistic (in this case the F test) for us to be able to reject the null.

The \(F\) distribution, \(F_{\alpha}\), and the location of acceptance and rejection regions are shown in the graph below:

## Step 7: Based on steps 5 and 6, draw a conclusion about H0

If the \(F_{\text{\calculated}}\) from the data is larger than the \(F_{\alpha}\), then you are in the rejection region and you can reject the null hypothesis with \((1 - \alpha)\) level of confidence.

Note that modern statistical software condenses steps 6 and 7 by providing a \(p\)-value. The \(p\)-value here is the probability of getting an \(F_{\text{calculated}}\) even greater than what you observe assuming the null hypothesis is true. If by chance, the \(F_{\text{calculated}} = F_{\alpha}\), then the \(p\)-value would exactly equal \(\alpha\). With larger \(F_{\text{calculated}}\) values, we move further into the rejection region and the \(p\) - value becomes less than \(\alpha\). So the decision rule is as follows:

If the \(p\) - value obtained from the ANOVA is less than \(\alpha\), then reject \(H_{0}\) and accept \(H_{A}\).

If you are not familiar with this material, we suggest that you review course materials from your basic statistics course.

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## What Is a Null Hypothesis?

Null hypothesis example, the alternative hypothesis.

- Additional Examples
- Null Hypothesis and Investments

## The Bottom Line

- Corporate Finance
- Financial Ratios

## Null Hypothesis: What Is It, and How Is It Used in Investing?

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

A null hypothesis is a type of statistical hypothesis that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations. Hypothesis testing is used to assess the credibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. Sometimes referred to simply as the “null,” it is represented as H 0 .

The null hypothesis, also known as the conjecture, is used in quantitative analysis to test theories about markets, investing strategies, or economies to decide if an idea is true or false.

## Key Takeaways

- A null hypothesis is a type of conjecture in statistics that proposes that there is no difference between certain characteristics of a population or data-generating process.
- The alternative hypothesis proposes that there is a difference.
- Hypothesis testing provides a method to reject a null hypothesis within a certain confidence level.
- If you can reject the null hypothesis, it provides support for the alternative hypothesis.
- Null hypothesis testing is the basis of the principle of falsification in science.

Alex Dos Diaz / Investopedia

For example, a gambler may be interested in whether a game of chance is fair. If it is fair, then the expected earnings per play come to zero for both players. If the game is not fair, then the expected earnings are positive for one player and negative for the other.

To test whether the game is fair, the gambler collects earnings data from many repetitions of the game, calculates the average earnings from these data, then tests the null hypothesis that the expected earnings are not different from zero.

If the average earnings from the sample data are sufficiently far from zero, then the gambler will reject the null hypothesis and conclude the alternative hypothesis—namely, that the expected earnings per play are different from zero. If the average earnings from the sample data are near zero, then the gambler will not reject the null hypothesis, concluding instead that the difference between the average from the data and zero is explainable by chance alone.

The null hypothesis assumes that any kind of difference between the chosen characteristics that you see in a set of data is due to chance. For example, if the expected earnings for the gambling game are truly equal to zero, then any difference between the average earnings in the data and zero is due to chance.

Analysts look to reject the null hypothesis because doing so is a strong conclusion. This requires strong evidence in the form of an observed difference that is too large to be explained solely by chance. Failing to reject the null hypothesis—that the results are explainable by chance alone—is a weak conclusion because it allows that factors other than chance may be at work, but may not be strong enough for the statistical test to detect them.

A null hypothesis can only be rejected, not proven.

An important point to note is that we are testing the null hypothesis because there is an element of doubt about its validity. Whatever information that is against the stated null hypothesis is captured in the alternative (alternate) hypothesis (H1).

For the examples below, the alternative hypothesis would be:

- Students score an average that is not equal to seven.
- The mean annual return of a mutual fund is not equal to 8% per year.

In other words, the alternative hypothesis is a direct contradiction of the null hypothesis.

## More Null Hypothesis Examples

Here is a simple example: A school principal claims that students in her school score an average of seven out of 10 in exams. The null hypothesis is that the population mean is 7.0. To test this null hypothesis, we record marks of, say, 30 students ( sample ) from the entire student population of the school (say, 300) and calculate the mean of that sample.

We can then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (hypothesized) population mean of 7.0 and attempt to reject the null hypothesis. (The null hypothesis here—that the population mean is 7.0—cannot be proved using the sample data. It can only be rejected.)

Take another example: The annual return of a particular mutual fund is claimed to be 8%. Assume that a mutual fund has been in existence for 20 years. The null hypothesis is that the mean return is 8% for the mutual fund. We take a random sample of annual returns of the mutual fund for, say, five years (sample) and calculate the sample mean. We then compare the (calculated) sample mean to the (claimed) population mean (8%) to test the null hypothesis.

For the above examples, null hypotheses are:

- Example A : Students in the school score an average of seven out of 10 in exams.
- Example B : The mean annual return of the mutual fund is 8% per year.

For the purposes of determining whether to reject the null hypothesis, the null hypothesis (abbreviated H 0 ) is assumed, for the sake of argument, to be true. Then the likely range of possible values of the calculated statistic (e.g., the average score on 30 students’ tests) is determined under this presumption (e.g., the range of plausible averages might range from 6.2 to 7.8 if the population mean is 7.0). Then, if the sample average is outside of this range, the null hypothesis is rejected. Otherwise, the difference is said to be “explainable by chance alone,” being within the range that is determined by chance alone.

## How Null Hypothesis Testing Is Used in Investments

As an example related to financial markets, assume Alice sees that her investment strategy produces higher average returns than simply buying and holding a stock . The null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the two average returns, and Alice is inclined to believe this until she can conclude contradictory results.

Refuting the null hypothesis would require showing statistical significance, which can be found by a variety of tests. The alternative hypothesis would state that the investment strategy has a higher average return than a traditional buy-and-hold strategy.

One tool that can determine the statistical significance of the results is the p-value. A p-value represents the probability that a difference as large or larger than the observed difference between the two average returns could occur solely by chance.

A p-value that is less than or equal to 0.05 often indicates whether there is evidence against the null hypothesis. If Alice conducts one of these tests, such as a test using the normal model, resulting in a significant difference between her returns and the buy-and-hold returns (the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05), she can then reject the null hypothesis and conclude the alternative hypothesis.

## How Is the Null Hypothesis Identified?

The analyst or researcher establishes a null hypothesis based on the research question or problem that they are trying to answer. Depending on the question, the null may be identified differently. For example, if the question is simply whether an effect exists (e.g., does X influence Y?) the null hypothesis could be H 0 : X = 0. If the question is instead, is X the same as Y, the H0 would be X = Y. If it is that the effect of X on Y is positive, H0 would be X > 0. If the resulting analysis shows an effect that is statistically significantly different from zero, the null can be rejected.

## How Is Null Hypothesis Used in Finance?

In finance , a null hypothesis is used in quantitative analysis. A null hypothesis tests the premise of an investing strategy, the markets, or an economy to determine if it is true or false.

For instance, an analyst may want to see if two stocks, ABC and XYZ, are closely correlated. The null hypothesis would be ABC ≠ XYZ.

## How Are Statistical Hypotheses Tested?

Statistical hypotheses are tested by a four-step process . The first step is for the analyst to state the two hypotheses so that only one can be right. The next step is to formulate an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated. The third step is to carry out the plan and physically analyze the sample data. The fourth and final step is to analyze the results and either reject the null hypothesis or claim that the observed differences are explainable by chance alone.

## What Is an Alternative Hypothesis?

An alternative hypothesis is a direct contradiction of a null hypothesis. This means that if one of the two hypotheses is true, the other is false.

A null hypothesis is a type of statistical hypothesis. It proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations.

Also known as the conjecture, the null hypothesis is used in quantitative analysis to test theories about economies, investing strategies, or markets to decide if an idea is true or false. Hypothesis testing assesses the credibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. It is represented as H0 and is sometimes simply known as the “null.”

Sage Publishing. “ Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ,” Page 4.

Sage Publishing. “ Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ,” Pages 4–7.

Sage Publishing. “ Chapter 8: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing ,” Page 7.

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Hypothesis testing involves formulating assumptions about population parameters based on sample statistics and rigorously evaluating these assumptions against empirical evidence. This article sheds light on the significance of hypothesis testing and the critical steps involved in the process.

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method that is used to make a statistical decision using experimental data. Hypothesis testing is basically an assumption that we make about a population parameter. It evaluates two mutually exclusive statements about a population to determine which statement is best supported by the sample data.

Example: You say an average height in the class is 30 or a boy is taller than a girl. All of these is an assumption that we are assuming, and we need some statistical way to prove these. We need some mathematical conclusion whatever we are assuming is true.

## Defining Hypotheses

## Key Terms of Hypothesis Testing

- P-value: The P value , or calculated probability, is the probability of finding the observed/extreme results when the null hypothesis(H0) of a study-given problem is true. If your P-value is less than the chosen significance level then you reject the null hypothesis i.e. accept that your sample claims to support the alternative hypothesis.
- Test Statistic: The test statistic is a numerical value calculated from sample data during a hypothesis test, used to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis. It is compared to a critical value or p-value to make decisions about the statistical significance of the observed results.
- Critical value : The critical value in statistics is a threshold or cutoff point used to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis in a hypothesis test.
- Degrees of freedom: Degrees of freedom are associated with the variability or freedom one has in estimating a parameter. The degrees of freedom are related to the sample size and determine the shape.

## Why do we use Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is an important procedure in statistics. Hypothesis testing evaluates two mutually exclusive population statements to determine which statement is most supported by sample data. When we say that the findings are statistically significant, thanks to hypothesis testing.

## One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test

One tailed test focuses on one direction, either greater than or less than a specified value. We use a one-tailed test when there is a clear directional expectation based on prior knowledge or theory. The critical region is located on only one side of the distribution curve. If the sample falls into this critical region, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

## One-Tailed Test

There are two types of one-tailed test:

## Two-Tailed Test

A two-tailed test considers both directions, greater than and less than a specified value.We use a two-tailed test when there is no specific directional expectation, and want to detect any significant difference.

## What are Type 1 and Type 2 errors in Hypothesis Testing?

In hypothesis testing, Type I and Type II errors are two possible errors that researchers can make when drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample of data. These errors are associated with the decisions made regarding the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

## How does Hypothesis Testing work?

Step 1: define null and alternative hypothesis.

We first identify the problem about which we want to make an assumption keeping in mind that our assumption should be contradictory to one another, assuming Normally distributed data.

## Step 2 – Choose significance level

## Step 3 – Collect and Analyze data.

Gather relevant data through observation or experimentation. Analyze the data using appropriate statistical methods to obtain a test statistic.

## Step 4-Calculate Test Statistic

The data for the tests are evaluated in this step we look for various scores based on the characteristics of data. The choice of the test statistic depends on the type of hypothesis test being conducted.

There are various hypothesis tests, each appropriate for various goal to calculate our test. This could be a Z-test , Chi-square , T-test , and so on.

- Z-test : If population means and standard deviations are known. Z-statistic is commonly used.
- t-test : If population standard deviations are unknown. and sample size is small than t-test statistic is more appropriate.
- Chi-square test : Chi-square test is used for categorical data or for testing independence in contingency tables
- F-test : F-test is often used in analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare variances or test the equality of means across multiple groups.

We have a smaller dataset, So, T-test is more appropriate to test our hypothesis.

T-statistic is a measure of the difference between the means of two groups relative to the variability within each group. It is calculated as the difference between the sample means divided by the standard error of the difference. It is also known as the t-value or t-score.

## Step 5 – Comparing Test Statistic:

In this stage, we decide where we should accept the null hypothesis or reject the null hypothesis. There are two ways to decide where we should accept or reject the null hypothesis.

## Method A: Using Crtical values

Comparing the test statistic and tabulated critical value we have,

- If Test Statistic>Critical Value: Reject the null hypothesis.
- If Test Statistic≤Critical Value: Fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Note: Critical values are predetermined threshold values that are used to make a decision in hypothesis testing. To determine critical values for hypothesis testing, we typically refer to a statistical distribution table , such as the normal distribution or t-distribution tables based on.

## Method B: Using P-values

We can also come to an conclusion using the p-value,

Note : The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme as, or more extreme than, the one observed in the sample, assuming the null hypothesis is true. To determine p-value for hypothesis testing, we typically refer to a statistical distribution table , such as the normal distribution or t-distribution tables based on.

## Step 7- Interpret the Results

At last, we can conclude our experiment using method A or B.

## Calculating test statistic

To validate our hypothesis about a population parameter we use statistical functions . We use the z-score, p-value, and level of significance(alpha) to make evidence for our hypothesis for normally distributed data .

## 1. Z-statistics:

When population means and standard deviations are known.

- μ represents the population mean,
- σ is the standard deviation
- and n is the size of the sample.

## 2. T-Statistics

T test is used when n<30,

t-statistic calculation is given by:

- t = t-score,
- x̄ = sample mean
- μ = population mean,
- s = standard deviation of the sample,
- n = sample size

## 3. Chi-Square Test

Chi-Square Test for Independence categorical Data (Non-normally distributed) using:

- i,j are the rows and columns index respectively.

## Real life Hypothesis Testing example

Let’s examine hypothesis testing using two real life situations,

## Case A: D oes a New Drug Affect Blood Pressure?

Imagine a pharmaceutical company has developed a new drug that they believe can effectively lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Before bringing the drug to market, they need to conduct a study to assess its impact on blood pressure.

- Before Treatment: 120, 122, 118, 130, 125, 128, 115, 121, 123, 119
- After Treatment: 115, 120, 112, 128, 122, 125, 110, 117, 119, 114

## Step 1 : Define the Hypothesis

- Null Hypothesis : (H 0 )The new drug has no effect on blood pressure.
- Alternate Hypothesis : (H 1 )The new drug has an effect on blood pressure.

## Step 2: Define the Significance level

Let’s consider the Significance level at 0.05, indicating rejection of the null hypothesis.

If the evidence suggests less than a 5% chance of observing the results due to random variation.

## Step 3 : Compute the test statistic

Using paired T-test analyze the data to obtain a test statistic and a p-value.

The test statistic (e.g., T-statistic) is calculated based on the differences between blood pressure measurements before and after treatment.

t = m/(s/√n)

- m = mean of the difference i.e X after, X before
- s = standard deviation of the difference (d) i.e d i = X after, i − X before,
- n = sample size,

then, m= -3.9, s= 1.8 and n= 10

we, calculate the , T-statistic = -9 based on the formula for paired t test

## Step 4: Find the p-value

The calculated t-statistic is -9 and degrees of freedom df = 9, you can find the p-value using statistical software or a t-distribution table.

thus, p-value = 8.538051223166285e-06

Step 5: Result

- If the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05, the researchers reject the null hypothesis.
- If the p-value is greater than 0.05, they fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Conclusion: Since the p-value (8.538051223166285e-06) is less than the significance level (0.05), the researchers reject the null hypothesis. There is statistically significant evidence that the average blood pressure before and after treatment with the new drug is different.

## Python Implementation of Hypothesis Testing

Let’s create hypothesis testing with python, where we are testing whether a new drug affects blood pressure. For this example, we will use a paired T-test. We’ll use the scipy.stats library for the T-test.

Scipy is a mathematical library in Python that is mostly used for mathematical equations and computations.

We will implement our first real life problem via python,

In the above example, given the T-statistic of approximately -9 and an extremely small p-value, the results indicate a strong case to reject the null hypothesis at a significance level of 0.05.

- The results suggest that the new drug, treatment, or intervention has a significant effect on lowering blood pressure.
- The negative T-statistic indicates that the mean blood pressure after treatment is significantly lower than the assumed population mean before treatment.

## Case B : Cholesterol level in a population

Data: A sample of 25 individuals is taken, and their cholesterol levels are measured.

Cholesterol Levels (mg/dL): 205, 198, 210, 190, 215, 205, 200, 192, 198, 205, 198, 202, 208, 200, 205, 198, 205, 210, 192, 205, 198, 205, 210, 192, 205.

Populations Mean = 200

Population Standard Deviation (σ): 5 mg/dL(given for this problem)

## Step 1: Define the Hypothesis

- Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The average cholesterol level in a population is 200 mg/dL.
- Alternate Hypothesis (H 1 ): The average cholesterol level in a population is different from 200 mg/dL.

As the direction of deviation is not given , we assume a two-tailed test, and based on a normal distribution table, the critical values for a significance level of 0.05 (two-tailed) can be calculated through the z-table and are approximately -1.96 and 1.96.

Step 4: Result

Since the absolute value of the test statistic (2.04) is greater than the critical value (1.96), we reject the null hypothesis. And conclude that, there is statistically significant evidence that the average cholesterol level in the population is different from 200 mg/dL

## Limitations of Hypothesis Testing

- Although a useful technique, hypothesis testing does not offer a comprehensive grasp of the topic being studied. Without fully reflecting the intricacy or whole context of the phenomena, it concentrates on certain hypotheses and statistical significance.
- The accuracy of hypothesis testing results is contingent on the quality of available data and the appropriateness of statistical methods used. Inaccurate data or poorly formulated hypotheses can lead to incorrect conclusions.
- Relying solely on hypothesis testing may cause analysts to overlook significant patterns or relationships in the data that are not captured by the specific hypotheses being tested. This limitation underscores the importance of complimenting hypothesis testing with other analytical approaches.

Hypothesis testing stands as a cornerstone in statistical analysis, enabling data scientists to navigate uncertainties and draw credible inferences from sample data. By systematically defining null and alternative hypotheses, choosing significance levels, and leveraging statistical tests, researchers can assess the validity of their assumptions. The article also elucidates the critical distinction between Type I and Type II errors, providing a comprehensive understanding of the nuanced decision-making process inherent in hypothesis testing. The real-life example of testing a new drug’s effect on blood pressure using a paired T-test showcases the practical application of these principles, underscoring the importance of statistical rigor in data-driven decision-making.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what are the 3 types of hypothesis test.

There are three types of hypothesis tests: right-tailed, left-tailed, and two-tailed. Right-tailed tests assess if a parameter is greater, left-tailed if lesser. Two-tailed tests check for non-directional differences, greater or lesser.

## 2.What are the 4 components of hypothesis testing?

Null Hypothesis ( ): No effect or difference exists. Alternative Hypothesis ( ): An effect or difference exists. Significance Level ( ): Risk of rejecting null hypothesis when it’s true (Type I error). Test Statistic: Numerical value representing observed evidence against null hypothesis.

## 3.What is hypothesis testing in ML?

Statistical method to evaluate the performance and validity of machine learning models. Tests specific hypotheses about model behavior, like whether features influence predictions or if a model generalizes well to unseen data.

## 4.What is the difference between Pytest and hypothesis in Python?

Pytest purposes general testing framework for Python code while Hypothesis is a Property-based testing framework for Python, focusing on generating test cases based on specified properties of the code.

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