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Writing a rationale

How to write a rationale.

What is a rationale?

A rationale is when you are asked to give the reasoning or justification for an action or a choice you make.

There is a focus on the ‘ why ’ in a rationale: why you chose to do something, study or focus on something. It is a set of statements of purpose and significance and often addresses a gap or a need.

A rationale in Australian academic writing is rarely a whole task by itself.  It is often a part of a bigger task. For example, a part of a lesson plan might be to provide a rationale for why you chose to teach particular content or use a certain resource or activity, or you may be asked to provide a rationale as to why you chose a particular theory to apply or a concept to support.

You may be called upon to provide a rationale:

prior to an action or decision; why you plan to do something and how, or

  • after you have acted or decided something; reflecting, looking back, why you did something and how it worked or not.

You can use language to signal you are clearly providing a rationale in your writing. You can link your rationale to learning outcomes or aims for a lesson, activity or assessment task.

A model: problem-solution-rationale

A rationale can be provided by offering longer essay-based support for why it is important to do something in a certain way – in that sense, a whole paper can be a rationale.

However, a more specific or focused way of thinking about a rationale is how we can overtly show we are justifying our choices with the language we use.

One way of doing this is to consider the problem or issue requiring attention, the solution and then the rationale or justification for the solution (the ‘why’). This sets the rationale (the reason) within a context.

A diagnostic assessment determined that the students required more attention to addition and subtraction of mixed fractions. This activity intends to address this problem by having the children engage with the task with blocks before it is done with figures. The reason I chose to do this is because students have higher comprehension levels when presented with visual or tangible representations of abstract problems (Benson, 2016). I also did this as I wanted to allow the children to ‘play’ with maths, to see that it can be a fun activity and in doing so, to breakdown some of the ‘anti-mathematics prejudices’ that Gaines (2017, p. 4) talks about.

The important thing here is the language used to signal the rationale , in this case:

The reason I chose to do this is because … and I also did this as …

Another problem / solution / rationale example:

Scaffolding is the support provided by the teacher or a significant other, such as a classmate, which helps students in learning (Gibbons, 2015). Some students were having difficulty with the language at entry while others, particularly those who had completed the pre-tasks, had few problems. Therefore, in order to address this disparity in level and understanding, mixed-ability pairs were created where the more competent student helped the other. On reflection, this was an effective way to run the activity for two reasons : it allowed peer-to-peer teaching which solidified both students’ understanding; and it scaffolded the support in a way that allowed me to roam the room lending advice to pairs as needed.

The language used to signal our rationale in this example:

in order to and for two reasons …

Language to signal rationale

in order to

the reason this was done/chosen …

for the following reason(s) …

for two/three reasons …

Language for further justification - showing importance

This was important / significant because …

This meant that I could…

This enabled me to …

… which enabled / allowed me to…

… which pointed to / highlighted that / showed me that …

The key thing to remember about rationale writing is to stand back from the writing, look at it in a big picture sense and ask yourself, ‘ Have I explained why? ’ If that is clearly articulated, you have provided a rationale.

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How to Write the Rationale of the Study in Research (Examples)

rationale essay sample

What is the Rationale of the Study?

The rationale of the study is the justification for taking on a given study. It explains the reason the study was conducted or should be conducted. This means the study rationale should explain to the reader or examiner why the study is/was necessary. It is also sometimes called the “purpose” or “justification” of a study. While this is not difficult to grasp in itself, you might wonder how the rationale of the study is different from your research question or from the statement of the problem of your study, and how it fits into the rest of your thesis or research paper. 

The rationale of the study links the background of the study to your specific research question and justifies the need for the latter on the basis of the former. In brief, you first provide and discuss existing data on the topic, and then you tell the reader, based on the background evidence you just presented, where you identified gaps or issues and why you think it is important to address those. The problem statement, lastly, is the formulation of the specific research question you choose to investigate, following logically from your rationale, and the approach you are planning to use to do that.

Table of Contents:

How to write a rationale for a research paper , how do you justify the need for a research study.

  • Study Rationale Example: Where Does It Go In Your Paper?

The basis for writing a research rationale is preliminary data or a clear description of an observation. If you are doing basic/theoretical research, then a literature review will help you identify gaps in current knowledge. In applied/practical research, you base your rationale on an existing issue with a certain process (e.g., vaccine proof registration) or practice (e.g., patient treatment) that is well documented and needs to be addressed. By presenting the reader with earlier evidence or observations, you can (and have to) convince them that you are not just repeating what other people have already done or said and that your ideas are not coming out of thin air. 

Once you have explained where you are coming from, you should justify the need for doing additional research–this is essentially the rationale of your study. Finally, when you have convinced the reader of the purpose of your work, you can end your introduction section with the statement of the problem of your research that contains clear aims and objectives and also briefly describes (and justifies) your methodological approach. 

When is the Rationale for Research Written?

The author can present the study rationale both before and after the research is conducted. 

  • Before conducting research : The study rationale is a central component of the research proposal . It represents the plan of your work, constructed before the study is actually executed.
  • Once research has been conducted : After the study is completed, the rationale is presented in a research article or  PhD dissertation  to explain why you focused on this specific research question. When writing the study rationale for this purpose, the author should link the rationale of the research to the aims and outcomes of the study.

What to Include in the Study Rationale

Although every study rationale is different and discusses different specific elements of a study’s method or approach, there are some elements that should be included to write a good rationale. Make sure to touch on the following:

  • A summary of conclusions from your review of the relevant literature
  • What is currently unknown (gaps in knowledge)
  • Inconclusive or contested results  from previous studies on the same or similar topic
  • The necessity to improve or build on previous research, such as to improve methodology or utilize newer techniques and/or technologies

There are different types of limitations that you can use to justify the need for your study. In applied/practical research, the justification for investigating something is always that an existing process/practice has a problem or is not satisfactory. Let’s say, for example, that people in a certain country/city/community commonly complain about hospital care on weekends (not enough staff, not enough attention, no decisions being made), but you looked into it and realized that nobody ever investigated whether these perceived problems are actually based on objective shortages/non-availabilities of care or whether the lower numbers of patients who are treated during weekends are commensurate with the provided services.

In this case, “lack of data” is your justification for digging deeper into the problem. Or, if it is obvious that there is a shortage of staff and provided services on weekends, you could decide to investigate which of the usual procedures are skipped during weekends as a result and what the negative consequences are. 

In basic/theoretical research, lack of knowledge is of course a common and accepted justification for additional research—but make sure that it is not your only motivation. “Nobody has ever done this” is only a convincing reason for a study if you explain to the reader why you think we should know more about this specific phenomenon. If there is earlier research but you think it has limitations, then those can usually be classified into “methodological”, “contextual”, and “conceptual” limitations. To identify such limitations, you can ask specific questions and let those questions guide you when you explain to the reader why your study was necessary:

Methodological limitations

  • Did earlier studies try but failed to measure/identify a specific phenomenon?
  • Was earlier research based on incorrect conceptualizations of variables?
  • Were earlier studies based on questionable operationalizations of key concepts?
  • Did earlier studies use questionable or inappropriate research designs?

Contextual limitations

  • Have recent changes in the studied problem made previous studies irrelevant?
  • Are you studying a new/particular context that previous findings do not apply to?

Conceptual limitations

  • Do previous findings only make sense within a specific framework or ideology?

Study Rationale Examples

Let’s look at an example from one of our earlier articles on the statement of the problem to clarify how your rationale fits into your introduction section. This is a very short introduction for a practical research study on the challenges of online learning. Your introduction might be much longer (especially the context/background section), and this example does not contain any sources (which you will have to provide for all claims you make and all earlier studies you cite)—but please pay attention to how the background presentation , rationale, and problem statement blend into each other in a logical way so that the reader can follow and has no reason to question your motivation or the foundation of your research.

Background presentation

Since the beginning of the Covid pandemic, most educational institutions around the world have transitioned to a fully online study model, at least during peak times of infections and social distancing measures. This transition has not been easy and even two years into the pandemic, problems with online teaching and studying persist (reference needed) . 

While the increasing gap between those with access to technology and equipment and those without access has been determined to be one of the main challenges (reference needed) , others claim that online learning offers more opportunities for many students by breaking down barriers of location and distance (reference needed) .  

Rationale of the study

Since teachers and students cannot wait for circumstances to go back to normal, the measures that schools and universities have implemented during the last two years, their advantages and disadvantages, and the impact of those measures on students’ progress, satisfaction, and well-being need to be understood so that improvements can be made and demographics that have been left behind can receive the support they need as soon as possible.

Statement of the problem

To identify what changes in the learning environment were considered the most challenging and how those changes relate to a variety of student outcome measures, we conducted surveys and interviews among teachers and students at ten institutions of higher education in four different major cities, two in the US (New York and Chicago), one in South Korea (Seoul), and one in the UK (London). Responses were analyzed with a focus on different student demographics and how they might have been affected differently by the current situation.

How long is a study rationale?

In a research article bound for journal publication, your rationale should not be longer than a few sentences (no longer than one brief paragraph). A  dissertation or thesis  usually allows for a longer description; depending on the length and nature of your document, this could be up to a couple of paragraphs in length. A completely novel or unconventional approach might warrant a longer and more detailed justification than an approach that slightly deviates from well-established methods and approaches.

Consider Using Professional Academic Editing Services

Now that you know how to write the rationale of the study for a research proposal or paper, you should make use of our free AI grammar checker , Wordvice AI, or receive professional academic proofreading services from Wordvice, including research paper editing services and manuscript editing services to polish your submitted research documents.

You can also find many more articles, for example on writing the other parts of your research paper , on choosing a title , or on making sure you understand and adhere to the author instructions before you submit to a journal, on the Wordvice academic resources pages.

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How to Write a Study Rationale

Last Updated: May 19, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Jake Adams and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 52,379 times.

A study rationale explains the reason for a study and the importance of its findings for a particular field. Commonly, you'll need to write a study rationale as part of a university course of study, although you may also need to write one as a professional researcher to apply for funding or other support. As a student, your study rationale also justifies how it fulfills the requirements for your degree program or course of study. Do research before you write your study rationale so that you can discuss the previous work your study builds on and explain its significance to your field. Thorough research is also important in the professional context because your rationale will likely become part of the contract if funding or support is approved. [1] X Research source

Describing What You Hope to Accomplish

Step 1 Define the problem that your study will address.

  • For example, suppose you want to study how working the night shift affects the academic performance of college students who are taking classes during the day. A narrow question would measure a specific impact based on a specific amount of hours worked.

Step 2 Discuss the methodology for your study.

  • Justify the methodology you're using. If there's another methodology that might accomplish the same result, describe it and explain why your methodology is superior — perhaps because it's more efficient, takes less time, or uses fewer resources. For example, you might get more information out of personal interviews, but creating an online questionnaire is more cost-effective.
  • Particularly if you're seeking funding or support, this section of your rationale will also include details about the cost of your study and the facilities or resources you'll need. [3] X Research source

Tip: A methodology that is more complex, difficult, or expensive requires more justification than one that is straightforward and simple.

Step 3 Predict the results of your study.

  • For example, if you're studying the effect of working the night shift on academic performance, you might hypothesize that working 4 or more nights a week lowers students' grade point averages by more than 1 point.

Step 4 Explain what you hope your study will accomplish.

  • Use action words, such as "quantify" or "establish," when writing your goals. For example, you might write that one goal of your study is to "quantify the degree to which working at night inhibits the academic performance of college students."
  • If you are a professional researcher, your objectives may need to be more specific and concrete. The organization you submit your rationale to will have details about the requirements to apply for funding and other support. [5] X Research source

Explaining Your Study's Significance

Step 1 Discuss the previous work that your study will build on.

  • Going into extensive detail usually isn't necessary. Instead, highlight the findings of the most significant work in the field that addressed a similar question.
  • Provide references so that your readers can examine the previous studies for themselves and compare them to your proposed study.

Step 2 Describe the shortcomings of the previous work.

  • Methodological limitations: Previous studies failed to measure the variables appropriately or used a research design that had problems or biases
  • Contextual limitations: Previous studies aren't relevant because circumstances have changed regarding the variables measured
  • Conceptual limitations: Previous studies are too tied up in a specific ideology or framework

Step 3 Identify the ways your study will correct those shortcomings.

  • For example, if a previous study had been conducted to support a university's policy that full-time students were not permitted to work, you might argue that it was too tied up in that specific ideology and that this biased the results. You could then point out that your study is not intended to advance any particular policy.

Tip: If you have to defend or present your rationale to an advisor or team, try to anticipate the questions they might ask you and include the answers to as many of those questions as possible.

Including Academic Proposal Information

Step 1 Provide your credentials or experience as a student or researcher.

  • As a student, you might emphasize your major and specific classes you've taken that give you particular knowledge about the subject of your study. If you've served as a research assistant on a study with a similar methodology or covering a similar research question, you might mention that as well.
  • If you're a professional researcher, focus on the experience you have in a particular field as well as the studies you've done in the past. If you have done studies with a similar methodology that were important in your field, you might mention those as well.

Tip: If you don't have any particular credentials or experience that are relevant to your study, tell the readers of your rationale what drew you to this particular topic and how you became interested in it.

Step 2 State any guidelines required by your degree program or field.

  • For example, if you are planning to conduct the study as fulfillment of the research requirement for your degree program, you might discuss any specific guidelines for that research requirement and list how your study meets those criteria.

Step 3 List the credits you intend your study to fulfill.

  • In most programs, there will be specific wording for you to include in your rationale if you're submitting it for a certain number of credits. Your instructor or advisor can help make sure you've worded this appropriately.

Study Rationale Outline and Example

rationale essay sample

Expert Q&A

  • This article presents an overview of how to write a study rationale. Check with your instructor or advisor for any specific requirements that apply to your particular project. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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  • ↑ https://research.com/research/how-to-write-research-methodology
  • ↑ https://ris.leeds.ac.uk/applying-for-funding/developing-your-proposal/resources-and-tips/key-questions-for-researchers/
  • ↑ https://www.cwauthors.com/article/how-to-write-the-rationale-for-your-research
  • ↑ http://www.writingcentre.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/167/Rationale.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.niaid.nih.gov/grants-contracts/write-research-plan
  • ↑ https://www.esc.edu/degree-planning-academic-review/degree-program/student-degree-planning-guide/rationale-essay-writing/writing-tips/

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Rationale, Essay Example

Pages: 2

Words: 647

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You are free to use it as an inspiration or a source for your own work.

Goal: to develop a program to tackle obesity in the ABC Elementary school.


  • During the program design, change agents will detect the key contributors to the spread of obesity among ABC Elementary School’s children
  • Upon the implementation of the anti-obesity program, pupils of the ABC Elementary school will be able to increase their awareness about healthy lifestyle, and will manage their weight much more proactively.

The problem of obesity has become the global public health concern within the past few decades. The report of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2012) indicated that “approximately 68 percent of adults are overweight or obese, with 75 million adult Americans considered obese”.  Moreover, the problem of children’s obesity is intensifying – within the past three decades, the number of children diagnosed with obesity between the age of 2 and 5 has doubled, and among children from 6 to 11 years old – has tripled (Why Obesity is a Health Problem, 2012).

The major threat of obesity is nowadays posed on children whose decision-making is not independent and informed enough to adopt healthy lifestyles and deter from obesity-causing behaviors. Hence, the attendees of elementary and primary schools are now the most vulnerable groups of population susceptible to obesity. The ABC Elementary School research indicated that the problem of obesity is quite acute in this establishment; hence, there is an urgent need to generate a comprehensive and balanced intervention to combat this public health issue.

There are a number of solutions to the problem of obesity in children; however, the majority thereof stems from their own decision to involve in responsible eating behaviors, and to adopt an active lifestyle. Hence, any intervention should start with an educational program – once children are educated on the key fundamentals of obesity, and find out the disastrous long-term consequences of this disorder, they are more likely to make decisions against unhealthy eating. The present rationale for the behavior change is connected with the TRA – Theory of Reasoned Action; the present theory states that once individuals form intent to do something, their future behavior will be conditioned by this intent. Hence, creating an awareness of the contributors to the obesity problem, as well as clarifying the ways to avoid it, is obviously a path to bringing a feasible change in attitudes and behaviors of ABC Elementary School’s attendees, which is further likely to bring about the mitigation of the obesity problem.

The information and enlightenment program intended for tackling obesity in the ABCD Elementary School possesses numerous benefits for the school, and for all stakeholders, i.e., educators, parents, students, and the school administration. The information will be delivered during scheduled sessions to all students, not only those diagnosed with obesity, which will help avoid the bias and stereotyping regarding obese children. Moreover, group workshops and informational sessions are likely to increase the TRA incentives for learners – the human behavior is conditioned by what other people they care about think about them, and how they treat their certain habits and behaviors. Hence, learners may be united by their inspiration to lead a healthy way of life, and to educate their peers, parents, and friends about what they found out at the anti-obesity classes.

The program promises to be successful, since it will delineate the best solutions for children on the way to avoiding obesity, but at the same time it will not compromise their regular lifestyle. Children will be taught to eat, drink, and have fun, but will be offered less fatty and healthier alternatives that will not make them refuse from their favorite dishes and activities. Moreover, learners will be offered variants for eating out, cooking food with parents, spending time outdoors with friends and family, which will increase their interest to the program, and will help them implement the recommendations in the real-life settings.

Why Obesity is a Health Problem (2012). National Heart Lung and Blood Institute . Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/wecan/healthy-weight-basics/obesity.htm

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How to Write the Rationale for a Research Paper

  • Research Process
  • Peer Review

A research rationale answers the big SO WHAT? that every adviser, peer reviewer, and editor has in mind when they critique your work. A compelling research rationale increases the chances of your paper being published or your grant proposal being funded. In this article, we look at the purpose of a research rationale, its components and key characteristics, and how to create an effective research rationale.

Updated on September 19, 2022

a researcher writing the rationale for a research paper

The rationale for your research is the reason why you decided to conduct the study in the first place. The motivation for asking the question. The knowledge gap. This is often the most significant part of your publication. It justifies the study's purpose, novelty, and significance for science or society. It's a critical part of standard research articles as well as funding proposals.

Essentially, the research rationale answers the big SO WHAT? that every (good) adviser, peer reviewer, and editor has in mind when they critique your work.

A compelling research rationale increases the chances of your paper being published or your grant proposal being funded. In this article, we look at:

  • the purpose of a research rationale
  • its components and key characteristics
  • how to create an effective research rationale

What is a research rationale?

Think of a research rationale as a set of reasons that explain why a study is necessary and important based on its background. It's also known as the justification of the study, rationale, or thesis statement.

Essentially, you want to convince your reader that you're not reciting what other people have already said and that your opinion hasn't appeared out of thin air. You've done the background reading and identified a knowledge gap that this rationale now explains.

A research rationale is usually written toward the end of the introduction. You'll see this section clearly in high-impact-factor international journals like Nature and Science. At the end of the introduction there's always a phrase that begins with something like, "here we show..." or "in this paper we show..." This text is part of a logical sequence of information, typically (but not necessarily) provided in this order:

the order of the introduction to a research paper

Here's an example from a study by Cataldo et al. (2021) on the impact of social media on teenagers' lives.

an example of an introduction to a research paper

Note how the research background, gap, rationale, and objectives logically blend into each other.

The authors chose to put the research aims before the rationale. This is not a problem though. They still achieve a logical sequence. This helps the reader follow their thinking and convinces them about their research's foundation.

Elements of a research rationale

We saw that the research rationale follows logically from the research background and literature review/observation and leads into your study's aims and objectives.

This might sound somewhat abstract. A helpful way to formulate a research rationale is to answer the question, “Why is this study necessary and important?”

Generally, that something has never been done before should not be your only motivation. Use it only If you can give the reader valid evidence why we should learn more about this specific phenomenon.

A well-written introduction covers three key elements:

  • What's the background to the research?
  • What has been done before (information relevant to this particular study, but NOT a literature review)?
  • Research rationale

Now, let's see how you might answer the question.

1. This study complements scientific knowledge and understanding

Discuss the shortcomings of previous studies and explain how'll correct them. Your short review can identify:

  • Methodological limitations . The methodology (research design, research approach or sampling) employed in previous works is somewhat flawed.

Example : Here , the authors claim that previous studies have failed to explore the role of apathy “as a predictor of functional decline in healthy older adults” (Burhan et al., 2021). At the same time, we know a lot about other age-related neuropsychiatric disorders, like depression.

Their study is necessary, then, “to increase our understanding of the cognitive, clinical, and neural correlates of apathy and deconstruct its underlying mechanisms.” (Burhan et al., 2021).

  • Contextual limitations . External factors have changed and this has minimized or removed the relevance of previous research.

Example : You want to do an empirical study to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of tourists visiting Sicily. Previous studies might have measured tourism determinants in Sicily, but they preceded COVID-19.

  • Conceptual limitations . Previous studies are too bound to a specific ideology or a theoretical framework.

Example : The work of English novelist E. M. Forster has been extensively researched for its social, political, and aesthetic dimensions. After the 1990s, younger scholars wanted to read his novels as an example of gay fiction. They justified the need to do so based on previous studies' reliance on homophobic ideology.

This kind of rationale is most common in basic/theoretical research.

2. This study can help solve a specific problem

Here, you base your rationale on a process that has a problem or is not satisfactory.

For example, patients complain about low-quality hospital care on weekends (staff shortages, inadequate attention, etc.). No one has looked into this (there is a lack of data). So, you explore if the reported problems are true and what can be done to address them. This is a knowledge gap.

Or you set out to explore a specific practice. You might want to study the pros and cons of several entry strategies into the Japanese food market.

It's vital to explain the problem in detail and stress the practical benefits of its solution. In the first example, the practical implications are recommendations to improve healthcare provision.

In the second example, the impact of your research is to inform the decision-making of businesses wanting to enter the Japanese food market.

This kind of rationale is more common in applied/practical research.

3. You're the best person to conduct this study

It's a bonus if you can show that you're uniquely positioned to deliver this study, especially if you're writing a funding proposal .

For an anthropologist wanting to explore gender norms in Ethiopia, this could be that they speak Amharic (Ethiopia's official language) and have already lived in the country for a few years (ethnographic experience).

Or if you want to conduct an interdisciplinary research project, consider partnering up with collaborators whose expertise complements your own. Scientists from different fields might bring different skills and a fresh perspective or have access to the latest tech and equipment. Teaming up with reputable collaborators justifies the need for a study by increasing its credibility and likely impact.

When is the research rationale written?

You can write your research rationale before, or after, conducting the study.

In the first case, when you might have a new research idea, and you're applying for funding to implement it.

Or you're preparing a call for papers for a journal special issue or a conference. Here , for instance, the authors seek to collect studies on the impact of apathy on age-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

In the second case, you have completed the study and are writing a research paper for publication. Looking back, you explain why you did the study in question and how it worked out.

Although the research rationale is part of the introduction, it's best to write it at the end. Stand back from your study and look at it in the big picture. At this point, it's easier to convince your reader why your study was both necessary and important.

How long should a research rationale be?

The length of the research rationale is not fixed. Ideally, this will be determined by the guidelines (of your journal, sponsor etc.).

The prestigious journal Nature , for instance, calls for articles to be no more than 6 or 8 pages, depending on the content. The introduction should be around 200 words, and, as mentioned, two to three sentences serve as a brief account of the background and rationale of the study, and come at the end of the introduction.

If you're not provided guidelines, consider these factors:

  • Research document : In a thesis or book-length study, the research rationale will be longer than in a journal article. For example, the background and rationale of this book exploring the collective memory of World War I cover more than ten pages.
  • Research question : Research into a new sub-field may call for a longer or more detailed justification than a study that plugs a gap in literature.

Which verb tenses to use in the research rationale?

It's best to use the present tense. Though in a research proposal, the research rationale is likely written in the future tense, as you're describing the intended or expected outcomes of the research project (the gaps it will fill, the problems it will solve).

Example of a research rationale

Research question : What are the teachers' perceptions of how a sense of European identity is developed and what underlies such perceptions?

an example of a research rationale

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3(2), 77-101.

Burhan, A.M., Yang, J., & Inagawa, T. (2021). Impact of apathy on aging and age-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Research Topic. Frontiers in Psychiatry

Cataldo, I., Lepri, B., Neoh, M. J. Y., & Esposito, G. (2021). Social media usage and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence: A review. Frontiers in Psychiatry , 11.

CiCe Jean Monnet Network (2017). Guidelines for citizenship education in school: Identities and European citizenship children's identity and citizenship in Europe.

Cohen, l, Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research methods in education . Eighth edition. London: Routledge.

de Prat, R. C. (2013). Euroscepticism, Europhobia and Eurocriticism: The radical parties of the right and left “vis-à-vis” the European Union P.I.E-Peter Lang S.A., Éditions Scientifiques Internationales.

European Commission. (2017). Eurydice Brief: Citizenship education at school in Europe.

Polyakova, A., & Fligstein, N. (2016). Is European integration causing Europe to become more nationalist? Evidence from the 2007–9 financial crisis. Journal of European Public Policy , 23(1), 60-83.

Winter, J. (2014). Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Example Of Essay On Rationale

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Business , Education , Students , Profession , Knowledge , Wedding , Services papers , Counseling

Published: 01/22/2020


My chosen profession is that of a correctional officer and based on my research – through information from the Internet, friends, and acquaintances -- I have learned that I can advance in this profession if I can obtain a bachelor’s degree. In this regard, I plan to pursue a course in the Community and Human Services area of study at the Empire State College. In particular, I am interested in completing a Bachelor of Science degree with a concentration in criminal justice services. I believe that the curricula included in this degree will enable me to develop the wide range of knowledge and skills necessary to advance in my profession. These include a knowledge in providing counseling and supervision or assistance to individuals, as well as knowledge on firearms, self-defense, interpersonal relations and legal restrictions. Moreover, a correctional officer needs to gain knowledge on custody and security procedures, as well as on institutional operations, regulations, and policies. As well, a correctional officer must have the capability of making good judgment and thinking and acting quickly. To accomplish these, I will take the related courses at Empire State College and complete the trainings provided by agencies or by correctional institutions. The career path for a correctional officer includes advancement to administrative and supervisory positions up to the position of a warden. It is also possible for a correctional officer to move to related jobs such as those of a correctional treatment specialist, a parole officer, or a probation officer. In addition, correctional officers may be assigned to specialty assignments that are involved in correctional counseling, correctional health, and correctional industries. With a bachelor’s degree added to my credentials, I will be able to gain the qualifications that will enable all of these opportunities to become available to me in the future.


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Guest Essay

This Prophetic Academic Now Foresees the West’s Defeat

A photograph of Emmanuel Todd

By Christopher Caldwell

Mr. Caldwell is a contributing Opinion writer and the author of “The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties.”

“If anybody in this room thinks Putin will stop at Ukraine, I assure you, he will not,” President Biden said during his State of the Union address on Thursday night. Europe is “at risk,” he added, as he welcomed Ulf Kristersson, the prime minister of Sweden, the newest member of NATO.

But Mr. Biden also said he remains “determined” that American soldiers will not be necessary to defend Europe. As a White House spokesman put it last week, it is “crystal clear” that the use of ground troops is off the table.

Mr. Kristersson’s head must have been spinning. The prospect of further Russian incursions was the strongest argument that the United States relied on to draw NATO into the war, and to draw new members, like Sweden, into NATO. But if such incursions were a genuine concern, then ground troops would be an option for the United States and its allies almost by definition.

The rationale for NATO participation in the Russo-Ukrainian war is getting fuzzier at the very moment when one would expect it to be getting clearer.

This is a problem. Europeans, like Americans, are tiring of the war. They are increasingly skeptical that Ukraine can win it. But perhaps most important, they distrust the United States, which has done little in this war to dispel skepticism about its motives and its competence that arose during the Iraq war two decades ago. Unique though Americans sometimes believe their polarization to be, all Western societies have a version of it. As Europe’s “elites” see it, NATO is fighting a war to beat back a Russian invasion. But as “populists” see it, American elites are leading a war to beat back a challenge to their own hegemony — no matter what the collateral damage.

American leadership is failing: That is the argument of an eccentric new book that since January has stood near the top of France’s best-seller lists. It is called “La Défaite de l’Occident” (“The Defeat of the West”). Its author, Emmanuel Todd, is a celebrated historian and anthropologist who in 1976, in a book called “The Final Fall,” used infant-mortality statistics to predict that the Soviet Union was headed for collapse.

Since then, what Mr. Todd writes about current events has tended to be received in Europe as prophecy. His book “After the Empire,” predicting the “breakdown of the American order,” came out in 2002, in the flush of post-9/11 national cohesion and before the debacle of the Iraq war, to which Mr. Todd was fiercely opposed. Anglophone (his doctorate is from Cambridge) and Anglophile (at least at the start of his career), he has grown steadily disillusioned with the United States, even anti-American.

Mr. Todd is a critic of American involvement in Ukraine, but his argument is not the now-familiar historical one made by the dissident political scientist John Mearsheimer. Like Mr. Mearsheimer, Mr. Todd questions the zealous expansion of NATO under Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, the neoconservative ideology of democracy promotion and the official demonization of Russia. But his skepticism of U.S. involvement in Ukraine goes deeper. He believes American imperialism has not only endangered the rest of the world but also corroded American character.

In interviews over the past year, Mr. Todd has argued that Westerners focus too much on one surprise of the war: Ukraine’s ability to defy Russia’s far larger army. But there is a second surprise that has been underappreciated: Russia’s ability to defy the sanctions and seizures through which the United States sought to destroy the Russian economy. Even with its Western European allies in tow, the United States lacked the leverage to keep the world’s big, new economic actors in line. India took advantage of fire-sale prices for Russian energy. China provided Russia with sanctioned goods and electronic components.

And then the manufacturing base of the United States and its European allies proved inadequate to supply Ukraine with the matériel (particularly artillery) needed to stabilize, let alone win, the war. The United States no longer has the means to deliver on its foreign-policy promises.

People have been awaiting this moment for quite some time, not all of them as far from the corridors of power as Mr. Todd. Mr. Biden mentioned in his 2017 memoir that President Barack Obama used to warn him about “overpromising to the Ukrainian government.” Now we see why.

Mr. Todd contends that Americans’ heedless plunge into the global economy was a mistake. Parts of his case will be familiar from other authors: The United States produces fewer cars than it did in the 1980s; it produces less wheat. But parts of his case involve deeper, long-term cultural shifts perennially associated with prosperity. We used to call them decadence.

In an advanced, highly educated society like ours, Mr. Todd argues, too many people aspire to the work of running things and bossing people around. They want to be politicians, artists, managers. This doesn’t always require learning intellectually complex stuff . “In the long run, educational progress has brought educational decline,” he writes, “because it has led to the disappearance of those values that favor education.”

Mr. Todd calculates that the United States produces fewer engineers than Russia does, not just per capita but in absolute numbers. It is experiencing an “internal brain drain,” as its young people drift from demanding, high-skill, high-value-added occupations to law, finance and various occupations that merely transfer value around the economy and in some cases may even destroy it. (He asks us to consider the ravages of the opioid industry, for instance.)

As Mr. Todd sees it, the West’s decision to outsource its industrial base is more than bad policy; it is also evidence of a project to exploit the rest of the world. But ringing up profits is not the only thing America does in the world — it also spreads a system of liberal values, which are often described as universal human rights. A specialist in the anthropology of families, Mr. Todd warns that a lot of the values Americans are currently spreading are less universal than Americans think.

Anglo-American family structures, for example, have traditionally been less patriarchal than those almost anyplace else in the world. As it has modernized, the United States has come to espouse a model of sex and gender that conjugates poorly with those of traditional cultures (such as India’s) and more patriarchal modern ones (such as Russia’s).

Mr. Todd is not a moralizer. But he insists that traditional cultures have a lot to fear from the West’s various progressive leanings and may resist allying themselves on foreign policy with those who espouse them. In a similar way, during the Cold War, the Soviet Union’s official atheism was a deal-breaker for many people who might otherwise have been well disposed toward Communism.

Mr. Todd does believe that certain of our values are “deeply negative.” He presents evidence that the West does not value the lives of its young. Infant mortality, the telltale metric that led him to predict the Soviet collapse half a century ago, is higher in Mr. Biden’s America (5.4 per thousand) than in Mr. Putin’s Russia — and three times higher than in the Japan of Prime Minister Fumio Kishida.

While Mr. Todd is, again, not judgmental on sexual matters, he is judgmental on intellectual ones. The inability to distinguish facts from wishes astounds him at every turn of the Ukraine war. The American hope early in the war that China might cooperate in a sanctions regime against Russia, thereby helping the United States refine a weapon that would one day be aimed at China itself, is, for Mr. Todd, a “delirium.”

For students of the Vietnam War, there is much in Mr. Todd’s book that recalls the historian Loren Baritz’s classic 1985 book, “Backfire,” which drew on popular culture, patriotic mythology and management theory to explain what had led the United States astray in Vietnam. Mr. Baritz concluded, “We are what went wrong in Vietnam.” Had Lyndon Johnson managed to impose his will on the Vietnamese, Mr. Baritz reflected, “an entire culture would have been utterly destroyed out of the goodness of the American heart.”

One is constantly reading in the papers that Vladimir Putin is a threat to the Western order. Maybe. But the larger threat to the Western order is the hubris of those who run it.

Fighting a war based on values requires good values. At a bare minimum it requires an agreement on the values being spread, and the United States is further from such agreement than it has ever been in its history — further, even, than it was on the eve of the Civil War. At times it seems there are no national principles, only partisan ones, with each side convinced that the other is trying not just to run the government but also to capture the state.

Until some new consensus emerges, President Biden is misrepresenting his country in presenting it as stable and unified enough to commit to anything . Ukrainians are learning this at a steep cost.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow the New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Instagram , TikTok , X and Threads .

Christopher Caldwell is a contributing Opinion writer for The Times and a contributing editor at The Claremont Review of Books. He is the author of “Reflections on the Revolution in Europe: Immigration, Islam and the West” and “The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties.”

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Tips for the Rationale Essay for Human Services Students

The rationale essay is the student’s explanation of the purposes, design and significance of her/his individual degree plan (from Policy statements, below). As listed below, there are several parts to the essay. Tips on how to include each of them in your essay are listed below:

  • Outline your educational and professional experience, as well as explain what your goals are in earning a degree.  
  • For example, where did you attend school before, what type of work did you do before coming to SUNY Empire, or why do you want your degree now?
  • Students have discussed how they need a degree for a promotion, career change, to keep their current job, to serve as a role model for their children, or to fulfill a lifelong goal for themselves.
  • Discuss how your proposed degree plan reflects your background.  
  • For example, how does your degree meet your personal or professional needs?
  • Students have discussed how and why this degree meets the requirements in their field.  For example, a student has worked at an organization for 10 years and wishes to become a supervisor, but needs a bachelor’s in human services to do so.
  • For students who are changing careers or new to the workforce, many have looked at job postings and have noted that they needed a degree for the position. 
  • Discuss how your degree plan reflects the educational expectations of the college (i.e., SUNY general educational requirements, level and breadth of learning and integration and progression of learning).
  • Students need to discuss how they meet the general education requirements with the courses that they have taken.
  • Many students mention how they earned credits toward general education requirements through their associate’s degree, as well as complete the remainder of the requirements at SUNY Empire.
  • For breadth of learning, students have discussed how courses outside of human services benefit their learning. For example, how do courses in human development, the humanities, and/or sociology influence your learning?
  • Discuss how your learning reflects the Empire State University area of study and concentration guidelines for the degree.
  • For human service students, this means you will need to discuss how you meet each of the area of study guidelines in human services. These include: knowledge of human behavior, knowledge of service delivery, skills, ethics, diversity, and application and integration.
  • Make sure to consult the university's area of study guidelines . Together with your mentor, you will decide which courses meet your interests and each of the guidelines. 
  • What courses/prior learning do you have that meet knowledge of human behavior?  Students should briefly discuss how and why the course/prior learning meets the guideline.
  • Some may find it helpful, when talking about how a course meets a guideline, to briefly discuss how it helps to expand their knowledge in working with a certain population or age group. 
  • Reflect on your awareness of external professional expectations.
  • Students have researched expectations for a job that they are interested in, entry requirements into graduate school, job prospects in their field, or consult professional membership organizations.

Further Tips

  • You will work with your mentor to develop your rationale essay. Like any piece of good writing, you may need to do several drafts/revisions.
  • The rationale essay accompanies your degree plan. The degree plan cannot be submitted for approval without the rationale essay. 
  • The rationale essay is an important piece of writing and needs to meet university-level writing expectations in terms of substance, presentation and academic integrity. Since this is an essay, you should write a short conclusion to the rationale.
  • The rationale is not an autobiography, nor is it a listing of degree components or courses.
  • Rationale essays tend to vary in length depending on the complexity of the degree program.
  • You may submit one rationale for an associate and a bachelor’s degree program designed at the same time as long as the essay discusses both degrees.
  • If you have difficulty writing the rationale essay, meeting with a learning coach or seeking writing support is beneficial. The university's website has many academic resources that can also be helpful to you in this process.


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Anjeanette Emeka [email protected] 518-587-2100 ext. 2387

David Puskas [email protected] 585-224-3200 ext. 3234

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Rationale Essay

Writing about academic expectations.

The discussion of how you’re addressing ESC Area of Study Guidelines and other academic expectations is one of the most important in the rationale essay, as it presents your evidence, backed up by research, to show that your individually-designed degree is academically valid. Above all, think of this section as your logical argument for the validity of your degree choices. Provide enough specific evidence so that your readers (members of an academic review committee) will be convinced that you’ve

  • done your research,
  • understood your research, and
  • addressed Empire State College and overall academic expectations thoughtfully and thoroughly.

As you start writing about academic expectations, make sure to name your area of study and concentration (if you have a degree with a concentration) so that there’s a clear relationship between the focus of your degree and your discussion of ESC guidelines.

Writing about Guidelines

decorative image

  • Name of your area of study and concentration (if you have a degree with a concentration).
  • Include a summary or paraphrase, or even a list of the appropriate Empire State College Area of Study guidelines, to show that you understand the college’s general academic expectations for your type of degree.  If you are using a guideline that has both a general discussion of expected skills and knowledge areas, plus a specific discussion of expected skills and knowledge for a specific concentration, you need to include a discussion of both the general and specific guidelines.
  • Document by citing the pages.
  • Analyze the contents of your own degree/concentration by explaining courses, PLA areas, and/or experience that you have (but did not pursue for PLA) that address the college-level knowledge expectation for each of the main items in the guideline/s.

Business, Management, and Economics

One of the ESC general guidelines for Business, Management, and Economics states this college-level knowledge expectation:

Ethical and social responsibility : demonstration of an understanding of and appreciation for ethical and social issues facing organizations and their environments

You may be planning to pursue credit through prior learning assessment in human resource management, and a good portion of your learning may have been about ethical issues within organizations, so you explain this briefly in this section of your rationale essay.  Or you may plan to address this guideline by taking a course in Business Ethics.  Or you may be doing a business degree focused on information technology, and plan on doing a course in Social and Ethical Issues in IT.  There’s no one way to address this particular guideline; you just need to analyze the knowledge you already have or intend to gain through a course, in order to address this guideline and prove that you have this type of knowledge, in some way.

Community and Human Services

One of the ESC general guidelines for degrees in Community and Human Services states this college-level knowledge expectation:

Knowledge of human behavior:  Students should identify and demonstrate an understanding of human behavior within the context of various social, developmental, global, economic, political, biological and/or environmental systems. These studies should cover theory, historical and developmental perspectives.

For example, studies could include human development, fire-related human behavior, child development, deviant behavior, stress in families, or cognitive psychology.

This guideline provides some ideas for courses or PLA areas; there are others as well, such as Introduction to Psychology, Child Development, and more.  There is no one way to address this guideline.

Cultural Studies

One of the ESC specific concentration guidelines for a concentration in Communications states this college-level knowledge expectation:

History:  a knowledge of the history and associated politics of media institutions/industries in a culture; knowledge of the role of media in culture/society, democracy and the development of digital identity

You may be planning to show that you have some historical knowledge of communications through a course in History and Theory of New Media, The American Cinema, The Decline of Journalism, or any of many other possibilities. Again, there is no one way to address this guideline.

Writing about General Education Requirements

Writing about general education requirements can be quite brief; a paragraph can suffice.  SUNY requires at least 30 credits in 7 of 10 general education areas. (Two required general education areas are math and basic communication; the other 5 are your choice).  Explain the areas you’ve included and give one example of a course that fulfills general education fully for each area.

Writing about Additional Academic Expectations

Did you summarize your research into other colleges (if needed) to show that you understand the general academic expectations for your type of degree?  Have you found through your research that most degrees in your field include a course in X, even though the ESC guidelines do not explicitly state that area?  Include a summary of your research into other colleges, as appropriate, if you needed to look at multiple programs to get a better sense of how to structure your own, and explain how your research translated into coursework for your degree.

Writing about Concentration Design (as appropriate)

In addition to your discussion of guidelines, your writing about academic or educational expectations may explain the overall pattern of your degree. Do you have courses that link with one another and fit into an overall framework? If appropriate, explain how you designed your concentration to move from introductory- to advanced-level studies, to include supportive studies that the guidelines do not mention but that are important to your individual goals, and/or to address the reasons why you designed your concentration in a particular, unique way.  Some degrees do not need full, or any, explanation of concentration design, particularly if they follow a traditional, disciplinary route.  Other degrees, such as degrees in the Interdisciplinary Area of Study, always need explanation of concentration design, because they allow so much flexibility.  Academic review committee members need to understand why these degrees have been designed in certain ways, to include certain courses in certain patterns and sequences.

Answer the following questions to help address degree structure and design in your rationale essay:

  • Does learning, especially in your concentration, show progression from introductory to advanced (in a bachelor’s degree concentration)?
  • Do you have certain groups of courses that link with each other, for a particular purpose?
  • Do you have certain courses that support and/or enhance one another (e.g., do some pieces of the general learning relate to and enhance studies in the concentration)?
  • Writing about Academic Expectations. Authored by : Susan Oaks. Project : Educational Planning. License : CC BY-NC: Attribution-NonCommercial
  • image of open book with letters flying from it. Authored by : Mediamodifier. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : https://pixabay.com/en/literature-book-page-clean-3033196/ . License : CC0: No Rights Reserved


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  1. Rationale Essay Samples

    Each sample is comprised of a degree program plan and the associated rationale essay. The essays are annotated with comments. One-column Associate Degree. One-column associate degree program plan. One-column annotated rationale essay.

  2. Writing a rationale

    A rationale can be provided by offering longer essay-based support for why it is important to do something in a certain way - in that sense, a whole paper can be a rationale. However, a more specific or focused way of thinking about a rationale is how we can overtly show we are justifying our choices with the language we use.

  3. Rationale Essay Worksheet

    Using the Worksheet. The following worksheet can help you to understand better what is expected in a rationale essay. It will also help you to incorporate your personal and professional information in a meaningful way. When completed, the worksheet can serve as an outline for your rationale. However, please be aware that this is a worksheet ...

  4. BS Essay Sample |BS Essay

    B.S. Degree Annotated Rationale Essay SAMPLE Introduction. I completed my associate degree three years ago, and as I am getting closer to the completion of my bachelors degree, my outlook now is that there is a light at the end of the tunnel. The process has been very long, and at times I became frustrated with myself, but I've prevailed.

  5. Sample Rationale Essays

    Sample Rationale Essays. Read a few of the sample rationale essays provided here to see how other students have woven together the various expectations and requirements with their own experiences and interests. Associate in Science (A.S.): Interdisciplinary Studies. Bachelor of Arts (B.A.): Literary Studies.

  6. Sample DP & Rationale Essay Draft for Analysis

    These samples are drafts only; they are not in final form. There may be some issues in the dp and rationale that need to be addressed. In order to understand the context of this student's (Jerry's) dp and rationale essay, you will need to read: the Undergraduate Area of Study Guidelines for the Interdisciplinary area of study. SUNY General ...

  7. Rationale Essay Overview

    The rationale essay is the student's explanation of the purposes, design and significance of her/his individual degree plan. It is likely that most students will develop their rationale early in their degree studies. Therefore, the rationale should be perceived as a planning (or prospective) document. In the rationale, each student:

  8. PDF How to Write a Rationale

    A rationale is the articulation of the reasons for using a particular literary work, film, or teaching method. Minimally, a rationale should include: a bibliographic citation and the intended audience. a brief summary of the work and its educational significance. the purposes of using the work and how it will be used.

  9. How to Write the Rationale of the Study in Research (Examples)

    The rationale of the study is the justification for taking on a given study. It explains the reason the study was conducted or should be conducted. This means the study rationale should explain to the reader or examiner why the study is/was necessary. It is also sometimes called the "purpose" or "justification" of a study.

  10. Easy Ways to Write a Study Rationale: 10 Steps (with Pictures)

    3. Identify the ways your study will correct those shortcomings. Carefully explain the ways in which your study will answer the research question in a way that the previous studies failed to do so. Be persuasive to convince your readers that your study will contribute something both useful and necessary to the field.

  11. Rationale Essay Samples & Resources

    You can read Jerry's dp and rationale essay drafts here. In order to understand this sample, you also need to read: ESC Area of Study Guidelines for Interdisciplinary Degrees. SUNY General Education Requirements. IMPORTANT NOTE: THIS IS A DRAFT - IT'S NOT A PERFECT SAMPLE. There may be errors and issues that Jerry still needs to address.

  12. Rationale, Essay Example

    High School. Disaster Preparedness, Essay Example. Essay. Roman Polanski's Chinatown, Movie Review Example. Movie Review. Essays.io ️ Rationale, Essay Example from students accepted to Harvard, Stanford, and other elite schools.

  13. Drafting Your Rationale Essay/Worksheet

    Then add to these sections as appropriate, referring to your degree plan in DP Planner. There needs to be careful correspondence between what you discuss in your rationale essay and what's in your degree plan. For example, review the page on Degree Structure and Design. If you are planning a degree that is more uniquely yours than traditional ...

  14. How to Write the Rationale for a Research Paper

    This kind of rationale is most common in basic/theoretical research. 2. This study can help solve a specific problem. Here, you base your rationale on a process that has a problem or is not satisfactory. For example, patients complain about low-quality hospital care on weekends (staff shortages, inadequate attention, etc.).

  15. Rationale Essay Writing

    Rationale Essay Writing Resources. annotated rationale essays with associated degree program plan. Rationale Essay Writing Quick Guide. Writing Tips for the Rationale Essay. rationale essay worksheet. rationale essay content checklist. rationale essay style and format checklist.

  16. One-column Associate Degree Annotated Rationale Essay

    One-column Associate Degree Annotated Rationale Essay SAMPLE. I'd always had a passion for arts and humanities, in particular visual and theater arts as well as psychology, sociology, and the overall human condition. It's fascinating to marry the arts and social sciences, especially in fields such as social theater. I didn't actually ...

  17. Rationale Essay

    Topics in this section: Rationale Essay Overview. Writing about Goals. Writing about Academic Expectations. Writing about Professional Expectations. Drafting Your Rationale Essay/Worksheet. Finalizing Your Rationale Essay. Sample Rationale Essays. Student Voices 4.

  18. 6 Examples of a Rationale

    A design rationale documents the reasons for design decisions. This explains why a design was selected from alternatives and how it achieves design goals. For example, the architect for a public school that creates a rationale based on the project's requirements and constraints. The dense urban location of the school and small size of its land ...

  19. Writing Tips for the Rationale

    Your mentor is not only your primary academic advisor, she or he is also the primary reader for your rationale. Before you write your rationale, you need to speak to your mentor. Treat the rationale as any writing assignment. Before you being to write, ask your primary mentor for guidance on the essay length and format.

  20. Rationale Essay Examples

    Example Of Essay On Rationale. My chosen profession is that of a correctional officer and based on my research - through information from the Internet, friends, and acquaintances -- I have learned that I can advance in this profession if I can obtain a bachelor's degree. In this regard, I plan to pursue a course in the Community and Human ...

  21. This Prophetic Academic Now Foresees the West's Defeat

    The rationale for NATO participation in the Russo-Ukrainian war is getting fuzzier at the very moment when one would expect it to be getting clearer. This is a problem. Europeans, like Americans ...

  22. Tips for Rationale Essay

    The rationale essay is the student's explanation of the purposes, design and significance of her/his individual degree plan (from Policy statements, below). As listed below, there are several parts to the essay. ... For example, a student has worked at an organization for 10 years and wishes to become a supervisor, but needs a bachelor's in ...

  23. Finalizing Your Rationale Essay

    Then finalize and submit your rationale essay by putting the pieces together. To review, you should include discussion of: your goals and the contexts in which you're pursuing your degree. SUNY general learning requirements and how you've addressed them. other academic expectations (e.g., research into other colleges, discussion of degree ...

  24. Writing about Academic Expectations

    understood your research, and. addressed Empire State College and overall academic expectations thoughtfully and thoroughly. As you start writing about academic expectations, make sure to name your area of study and concentration (if you have a degree with a concentration) so that there's a clear relationship between the focus of your degree ...