Vitamins and Minerals

Preparing a dinner plate with tomatoes cherries grapefruit eggs avocado chicken apples and lettuce

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients required by the body to carry out a range of normal functions. However, these micronutrients are not produced in our bodies and must be derived from the food we eat.

Vitamins are organic substances that are generally classified as either fat soluble or water soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins ( vitamin A , vitamin D , vitamin E , and vitamin K ) dissolve in fat and tend to accumulate in the body. Water-soluble vitamins ( vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins , such as vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , and folate ) must dissolve in water before they can be absorbed by the body, and therefore cannot be stored. Any water-soluble vitamins unused by the body is primarily lost through urine.

Minerals are inorganic elements present in soil and water, which are absorbed by plants or consumed by animals. While you’re likely familiar with calcium , sodium , and potassium , there is a range of other minerals, including trace minerals (e.g. copper , iodine , and zinc ) needed in very small amounts.

In the U.S., the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) develops nutrient reference values called the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for vitamins and minerals. [1] These are intended as a guide for good nutrition and as a scientific basis for the development of food guidelines in both the U.S. and Canada. The DRIs are specific to age, gender, and life stages, and cover more than 40 nutrient substances. The guidelines are based on available reports of deficiency and toxicity of each nutrient. Learn more about vitamins and minerals and their recommended intakes in the table below.

(preformed = retinol; beta-carotene can be converted to Vitamin A) 700 micrograms (2,333 IU) 900 micrograms (3,000 IU) 3,000 micrograms (about 10,000 IU)
(vitamin B1) 1.1 milligrams 1.2 milligrams Not known
(vitamin B2) 1.1 milligrams 1.3 milligrams Not known
(vitamin B3; nicotinic acid) 14 milligrams 16 milligrams 35 milligrams
(vitamin B5) 5 milligrams* 5 milligrams* Not known
(pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine) Ages 19-50: 1.3 milligrams

Ages 51+: 1.5 milligrams

Ages 19-50: 1.3 milligrams

Ages 51+: 1.7 milligrams

100 milligrams
(vitamin B7) 30 micrograms* 30 micrograms* Not known
(Folic acid; vitamin B9) 400 micrograms 400 micrograms 1,000 micrograms
2.4 micrograms 2.4 micrograms Not known
75 milligrams*

(Smokers add 35 milligrams)

90 milligrams*

(Smokers add 35 milligrams)

2,000 milligrams
425 milligrams* 550 milligrams* 3,500 milligrams
(calciferol) Ages 19-50: 15 micrograms (600 IU)

Ages 51-70: 15 micrograms (600 IU)

Ages 71+: 20 micrograms (800 IU)

Ages 19-50: 15 micrograms (600 IU)

Ages 51-70: 15 micrograms (600 IU)

Ages 71+: 20 micrograms (800 IU)

100 micrograms (4,000 IU)
(alpha-tocopherol) 15 milligrams 15 milligrams 1,000 milligrams
(phylloquinone, menadione) 90 micrograms* 120 micrograms* Not known
Ages 31-50: 1,000 milligrams

Ages 51+: 1,200 milligrams

Ages 31-50: 1,000 milligrams

Ages 51+: 1,200 milligrams

2,500 milligrams
Ages 19-50: 2.3 grams*

Ages 51-70: 2.0 grams*

Ages 71+: 1.8 grams*

Ages 19-50: 2.3 grams*

Ages 51-70: 2.0 grams*

Ages 71+: 1.8 grams*

Not known
Ages 31-50: 25 micrograms*

Ages 51+: 20 micrograms*

Ages 31-50: 35 micrograms*

Ages 51+: 30 micrograms*

Not known
900 micrograms 900 micrograms 10,000 micrograms
3 milligrams 4 milligrams 10 milligrams
150 micrograms 150 micrograms 1,100 micrograms
Ages 31-50: 18 milligrams

Ages 51+: 8 milligrams

Ages 31-50: 8 milligrams

Ages 51+: 8 milligrams

45 milligrams
Ages 19-30: 310 milligrams

Ages 31-70+: 320 milligrams

Ages 19-30: 400 milligrams

Ages 31-70+: 420 milligrams

350 milligrams (from supplements)
1.8 milligrams* 2.3 milligrams* 11 milligrams
45 micrograms 45 micrograms 2,000 micrograms
N/A** N/A** N/A**
700 milligrams 700 milligrams Ages 31-70: 4,000 milligrams

Ages 71+: 3,000 milligrams

Ages 14-18: 2,300 milligrams*

Ages 19+: 2,600 milligrams*

Ages 14-18: 3,000 milligrams*

Ages 19+: 3,400 milligrams*

Not known
55 micrograms 55 micrograms 400 micrograms
1,500 milligrams* 1,500 milligrams* Not determined; however a chronic disease risk reduction intake
8 milligrams 11 milligrams 40 milligrams
* **

What about multivitamins?

A diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables , whole grains , good protein packages , and healthful fats should provide most of the nutrients needed for good health. But not everyone manages to eat a healthful diet. Multivitamins can play an important role when nutritional requirements are not met through diet alone. Learn more about vitamin supplementation .

Did you know? 

Vitamins and their precise requirements have been controversial since their discovery in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It was the combined efforts of epidemiologists, physicians, chemists, and physiologists that led to our modern day understanding of vitamins and minerals. After years of observation, experiments, and trial and error, they were able to distinguish that some diseases were not caused by infections or toxins—a common belief at the time—but by vitamin deficiencies. [2] Chemists worked to identify a vitamin’s chemical structure so it could be replicated. Soon after, researchers determined specific amounts of vitamins needed to avoid diseases of deficiency.

In 1912, biochemist Casimir Funk was the first to coin the term “vitamin” in a research publication that was accepted by the medical community, derived from “vita” meaning life, and “amine” referring to a nitrogenous substance essential for life. [3] Funk is considered the father of vitamin therapy, as he identified nutritional components that were missing in diseases of deficiency like scurvy (too little vitamin C ), beri-beri (too little vitamin B1 ), pellagra (too little vitamin B3 ), and rickets (too little vitamin D ). The discovery of all vitamins occurred by 1948.

Vitamins were obtained only from food until the 1930s when commercially made supplements of certain vitamins became available. The U.S government also began fortifying foods with specific nutrients to prevent deficiencies common at the time, such as adding iodine to salt to prevent goiter, and adding folic acid to grain products to reduce birth defects during pregnancy. In the 1950s, most vitamins and multivitamins were available for sale to the general public to prevent deficiencies, some receiving a good amount of marketing in popular magazines such as promoting cod liver oil containing vitamin D as bottled sunshine.

  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011) . These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu .
  • Semba RD. The discovery of the vitamins. Int J Vitam Nutr Res . 2012 Oct 1;82(5):310-5.
  • Piro A, Tagarelli G, Lagonia P, Tagarelli A, Quattrone A. Casimir Funk: his discovery of the vitamins and their deficiency disorders. Ann Nutr Metab . 2010;57(2):85-8.

Last reviewed March 2023

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High school biology (DEPRECATED)

Course: high school biology (deprecated)   >   unit 1.

  • Elements and atoms
  • Introduction to carbohydrates
  • Introduction to proteins and amino acids
  • Introduction to lipids
  • Introduction to nucleic acids and nucleotides

Introduction to vitamins and minerals

  • Biological macromolecules review
  • Biological macromolecules

presentation of vitamins

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Incredible Answer

Video transcript

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10.1 – Introduction to Vitamins

Learning objectives.

  • Define the term vitamin.
  • Compare and contrast fat-and water-soluble vitamins and identify vitamins that fit in each category.

An image of a fruit, the plantains.

To combat this issue the Island Food Community of Pohnpei has been instrumental in promoting the citizens of Pohnpei to increase local karat banana consumption. The karat banana is rich in beta-carotene (a source of vitamin A) and increasing consumption among the locals will decrease the prevalence of vitamin A deficiencies in Pohnpei. For further information on this issue visit the Island Food Community of Pohnpei’s website and watch this video .

Vitamins are organic compounds that are traditionally assigned to two groups fat-soluble(hydrophobic) or water-soluble (hydrophilic). This classification determines where they act in the body. Water-soluble vitamins act in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood; fat-soluble vitamins are largely responsible for protecting cell membranes from free radical damage. The body can synthesize some vitamins, but others must be obtained from the diet.

A flow chart of water soluble and fat soluble nutrients and what they get broken down into from vitamins.

One major difference between fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins is the way they are absorbed in the body. Vitamins are absorbed primarily in the small intestine and their bioavailability is dependent on the quality of the diet. Including a small amount of fat or oils in your meal enhances fat-soluble vitamin absorption.  Once fat-soluble vitamins have been absorbed in the small intestine, they are packaged and incorporated into chylomicrons along with other fatty acids and transported in the lymphatic system to the liver. Water-soluble vitamins, on the other hand, are absorbed in the small intestine but are transported to the liver through blood vessels. (Figure 10.1.3 ).

presentation of vitamins

1 Yamamura CM, Sullivan KM. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency among preschool-aged children in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia . J Trop Pediatr. 2004; 50(1),16-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14984164. Accessed May 23, 2019.

key Takeaways

  • Vitamins are organic compounds that are traditionally assigned to two groups fat-soluble(hydrophobic) or water-soluble (hydrophilic).
  • Water-soluble vitamins act in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood; fat-soluble vitamins are largely responsible for protecting cell membranes from free radical damage. The body can synthesize some vitamins, but others must be obtained from the diet.
  • The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, K. The water-soluble vitamins include the B vitamins and vitamin C.

Contributors

University of Hawai’i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program: Allison Calabrese, Cheryl Gibby, Billy Meinke, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla, and Alan Titchenal

Nutrition 100 Nutritional Applications for a Healthy Lifestyle Copyright © by Lynn Klees and Alison Borkowska is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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presentation of vitamins

Overview of Vitamins

Vitamins are a vital part of a healthy diet. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA)—the amount most healthy people need each day to remain healthy—has been determined for most vitamins. A safe upper limit (tolerable upper intake level) has been determined for some vitamins. Intake above this limit increases the risk of a harmful effect (toxicity).

Did You Know...

is common among certain groups of people (such as older people) even if they eat a variety of foods. For other vitamins, a deficiency can develop if people follow a restrictive diet that does not contain enough of a particular vitamin. For example, vegans, who consume no animal products, may become deficient in vitamin B12 bariatric surgery , are on hemodialysis , or have alcohol use disorder ) may benefit from a daily multivitamin.

Consuming large amounts (megadoses) of certain vitamins (usually as supplements) without medical supervision may also have harmful effects.

Vitamins are called essential micronutrients because the body requires them but only in small amounts.

The body does not store most vitamins. Deficiencies of these vitamins usually develop in weeks to months. Therefore, people must consume them regularly.

Vitamins A, B12, and D are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver. Vitamins A and D are also stored in fat cells. Deficiencies of these vitamins take more than a year to develop.

Because many people eat irregularly or do not eat a variety of foods, they may not get enough of some vitamins from foods alone. If they do not get enough, the risk of certain cancers or other disorders may be increased. People may then take a multivitamin. However, for most people, taking multivitamins does not appear to reduce risk of developing cancer or heart or blood vessel (cardiovascular) disorders.

Some vitamins are fat soluble. Other vitamins are water soluble. The difference between fat and water soluble affects nutrition in several ways.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats (lipids) and include

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and in fatty tissues. If too much of the fat-soluble vitamins A or D is consumed, they can accumulate and may have harmful effects.

Because fats in foods help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, a low-fat diet may result in a deficiency. Some disorders, called malabsorption disorders

Cooking does not destroy fat-soluble vitamins.

Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and include

Water-soluble vitamins are eliminated in urine and tend to be eliminated from the body more quickly than fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are more likely to be destroyed when food is stored and prepared. The following can help prevent the loss of these vitamins:

Refrigerating fresh produce

Storing milk and grains out of strong light

Using the cooking water from vegetables to prepare soups

Disorders that impair the intestine’s absorption of food (called malabsorption disorders ) can cause vitamin deficiencies.

Some disorders impair the absorption of fats. These disorders can reduce the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins—A, D, E, and K—and increase the risk of a deficiency. Such disorders include chronic diarrhea , Crohn disease , cystic fibrosis , certain pancreatic disorders, and blockage of the bile ducts .

Some types of weight-loss (bariatric) surgery can also interfere with absorption of vitamins.

Liver disorders and alcohol use disorder can interfere with the processing (metabolism) or storage of vitamins.

In a few people, hereditary disorders impair the way the body handles vitamins and thus cause a deficiency.

If people must be fed intravenously for a long time or if the formula used lacks the needed nutrients, people may develop a vitamin (or mineral) deficiency.

Drugs can also contribute to deficiency of a vitamin. They may interfere with absorption, metabolism, or storage of a vitamin.

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Chapter 8: Vitamins and Minerals

Define the Following Terms:

  • 1. antioxidants—substances that protect body cells and the immune system from damage by harmful chemicals in air and foods.
  • 2. electrolyte minerals—sodium, chloride, and potassium, which control and balance fluid flow in and out of cells.
  • 3. fat-soluble vitamins—vitamins absorbed and transported by fat.
  • 4. free-radicals—harmful by-product excreted when cells burn oxygen to produce energy.
  • 5. hypertension—high-blood pressure linked to high salt intake.
  • 6. iron-deficiency anemia—lack of enough iron in the body, resulting in fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
  • 7. major minerals—macrominerals with special duties in the body; calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and potassium.
  • 8. osteomalacia—a disease caused by a lack of vitamin D in adults.
  • 9. osteoporosis—condition caused by calcium deficiency; bones become porous, weak, fragile.
  • 10. pica—Condition linked to iron deficiency; causes unusual appetite for ice, clay, and other nonfood items.
  • 11. toxicity—excessive amount of substance that reacts as poison in the body.
  • 12. trace minerals—minerals needed in only small amounts but serving vital body functions.
  • 13. water-soluble vitamins—vitamins dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream during digestion.

Answer the following questions:�

  • 1. Why are vitamins and minerals called micronutrients?
  • They are needed in smaller amounts than other nutrients.

2. Why are some vitamins considered to be antioxidants?

  • They protect body cells and the immune system by either transforming harmful free radicals into less damaging compounds or repairing damaged cells.

3. Compare water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and are carried in the bloodstream; they are not stored, and excess amounts are eliminated with waste products. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed and transported by fat; excess amounts are stored by the body for later use.

4. What does vitamin C do for you?

  • Helps maintain healthy capillaries, bones, skin, and teeth. Helps your body heal wounds and resist infections. Aids in the absorption of iron and works as an antioxidant. Plays a role in caring for collagen that gives structure to bones, cartilage, muscle, and blood vessels.

5. One family stored milk in small, clear containers. What do you think of this practice?

  • Not good because light through the containers will destroy riboflavin in the milk.

6. What function in the body do riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin B5, and biotin have in common?

  • They are all involved in using carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

7. Why is folate a very important vitamin?

  • It helps the body use proteins, builds red blood cells, and forms genetic material. It prevents birth defects that damage the brain and spinal cord.

8. What can occur with vitamin A deficiency?

  • Rough, scaly skin and infections in the respiratory tract and other areas of the body; causes night blindness and total blindness in many children in developing countries.

9. What is toxicity?�

  • An excessive amount of a substance that is poisonous in the body.

� 10. What are two ways to get vitamin D?

  • Through exposure to sunlight and in fortified milk.

11. Why do cooks need to pay particular attention to the ways that foods are prepared?

  • Some cooking techniques can destroy certain vitamins.

12. Compare major and trace minerals.

  • The amount of trace minerals the body needs is much smaller than the amount of major minerals needed.

13. Why do teens need to think about osteoporosis?

  • Bone mass builds u p during childhood, the teen years, and young adulthood, so care taken to consume calcium during early life can prevent the disease from developing later.

14. Why are sodium, chloride, and potassium called electrolyte minerals?

  • They form chemical particles called electrolytes, which attract fluids. Cells move electrolytes through cell walls as needed to balance fluids and keep cells from collapsing or bursting.

15. What can help reduce hypertension?

  • Lowering intake of table salt.

16. What are some signs of iron-deficiency anemia?

  • Being tired, weak, short of breath, pale, and cold.

17. One teen chewed on ice to the point that her friends noticed and commented on the frequency. What might be wrong?

  • She might have pica, an unusual appetite for ice, clay, or other nonfood items, indicating an iron deficiency.

18. Why is fluoride needed in the diet?

  • To prevent tooth decay and strengthen bones.

19. What do you think about the trend to fortify many food products with vitamins and minerals?

  • Might help some people, but also has the potential to cause toxic excesses

How does your diet rate?

Balanced Diet = Good Health

  • Biology Article
  • Vitamins Types Sources

Vitamins - Types, Sources and its Significance

presentation of vitamins

What are Vitamins?

The vitamins are natural and essential nutrients, required in small quantities and play a major role in growth and development, repair and healing wounds, maintaining healthy bones and tissues, for the proper functioning of an immune system, and other biological functions. These essential organic compounds have diverse biochemical functions.

There are thirteen different types of vitamins and all are required for the metabolic processes. The discovery of the vitamins was begun in the year 1912 by a Polish American biochemist Casimir Funk. Based on his research and discoveries on vitamins, their sources, functions and deficiency disorders, he is considered as the father of vitamins and vitamin therapy.

Similar to minerals, vitamins cannot be synthesized by our body. Therefore, we need to get them from the food we consume or in extreme cases supplements to keep ourselves healthy.

Also refer: Vitamins and Minerals

Types of Vitamins

Based on the solubility, Vitamins have been classified into two different groups:

  • Fat-Soluble Vitamins.
  • Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamin

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fat cells and as the name suggests, these vitamins require fat in order to be absorbed. Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat-soluble vitamins.

Water-soluble vitamin

Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in our body as its excess gets excrete through the urine. Therefore, these vitamins need to be replenished constantly. Vitamin B and C are water-soluble vitamins.

Also Read:  Difference between Vitamins and Minerals

Sources of Vitamins

The human body is so designed that it takes what it needs from the food we eat and then it passes out waste as excreta.

These organic substances are abundantly found in both plants and animals source and play a vital role in both growth and development and optimal health.

Listed below are the different types of vitamins along with their sources.

The best sources of fat-soluble vitamins include:

  • Vitamin A : Found in potato, carrots, pumpkins, spinach, beef and eggs.
  • Vitamin D : Found in fortified milk and other dairy products.
  • Vitamin E : Found in fortified cereals, leafy green vegetables, seeds, and nuts.
  • Vitamin K : Found in dark green leafy vegetables and in turnip or beet green.

Also Read: Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms

vitamin C are abundantly found in all citrus fruits. Other sources of Vitamin B and C include:

  • Vitamin B1 or Thiamin : Found in pork chops, ham, enriched grains and seeds.
  • Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin : Found in whole grains, enriched grains and dairy products.
  • Vitamin B3 or Niacin : Found in mushrooms, fish, poultry, and whole grains.
  • Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid: Found in chicken, broccoli, legumes and whole grains.
  • Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine : Found in fortified cereals and soy products.
  • Vitamin B7 or Biotin : Found in many fruits like fruits and meats.
  • Vitamin B9 or Folic Acid : Found in leafy vegetables.
  • Vitamin B12 : Found in fish, poultry, meat and dairy products.
  • Vitamin C:  Found in citrus fruits and juices, such as oranges and grapefruits.

Also read: Vitamin B-12 Deficiency

Learn more in detail about the Vitamins, different types of Vitamins, its sources, deficiency and other related topics at  BYJU’S Biology.

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Vitamins: Biochemical Roles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

presentation of vitamins

Vitamins: Biochemical Roles

Biochemistry 3070 vitamins: biochemical roles vitamins vitamins are necessary components of healthy diets and play important roles in cellular metabolism. – powerpoint ppt presentation.

  • Vitamins are necessary components of healthy diets and play important roles in cellular metabolism.
  • Vitamins are considered micronutrients.
  • Although these substances occur in only very small amounts within cells, they are critically important. Their absence is usually manifested as some deficiency disease.
  • What are vitamins?
  • Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts for the normal growth and function of humans and some animals.
  • The term vitamin was first used to describe the vital amine, thiamine, which is needed to prevent beriberi (once a common disease amoung people who depended upon white rice for their main source of food.)
  • Vitamin as a generalized name survived.
  • Vitamins are relatively small molecules that function most often as coenzymes.
  • Humans must consume at least 12 vitamins in their diet, because we lack the ability to synthesize them.
  • A well-balanced diet from a variety of food sources usually provides all these vitamins. However, many people supplement their diet with extra vitamins.
  • Most vitamins are chemically altered in some way so they can function in the body.
  • Some vitamins are measured in I.U.s (International Units), which is a measure of biological activity.
  • This measuring system is needed because these vitamins have several natural forms that have different activities on an equal weight basis.
  • Other vitamins are measured on the basis of weight (mg or µg).
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets Daily Reference Intakes, which are the highest amounts of daily vitamins that are needed by 95 of the population.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)The DRIs are actually a set of four reference values Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, (UL) that have replaced the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
  • http//www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/etext/000105.html
  • Researchers identified newly discovered vitamins by letters because the exact chemical structures were unknown. Later, what was thought to be one single vitamin often turned out to be many, and they added numerical subscripts to idenitify each different member of the group.
  • Consider the B-vitamins
  • B1, B2, B3, B6, B12
  • Some confusion also arose as to which vitamins were really necessary, resulting in gaps between numerical subscripts.
  • For example,
  • B8 (adenylic acid),
  • B13 (orotic acid), and
  • B15 (parigamic acid)
  • were removed from the list of essential vitamins.
  • Other vitamins, originally designated as different, were later found to be the same compound. Vitamins H, M, S, W, and X were all eventually shown to be biotin.
  • Vitamin G became B2 (riboflavin).
  • Vitamin Y became B6 (pyridoxine).
  • At one time, vitamin M seems to have been used for three different vitamins folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin.
  • Today, chemical names are used to help prevent confusion.
  • Vitamins are categorized into two groups
  • Water soluble
  • The B-vitamins
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Fat-soluble Vitamins
  • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • Vitamin B12 is the most complex vitamin (with respect to its structure.)
  • A colbalt ion is chelated at the center of this vitamin.
  • Only 6µg/day for an average adult helps prevent pernicious anemia. (One gram can supply 166,000 people!)
  • The current cost for this vitamin runs approximately 6,500 per kg.
  • Ascorbic acid helps prevent scurvy, hence its name as the anti-scurvy or a-scorbic vitamin.
  • Scurvy is characterized by swollen and bleeding gums and subdermal hemorrhages.
  • Connective tissue contains collagen protein. Collagen is a triple polypeptide helix that is strengthened by a significant quantity of 4-hydroxyproline.
  • Vitamin C is required to synthesize this important amino acid. Without it, connective tissues weaken, a condition often manifested as bleeding gums and other hemorrhagic tissues.
  • During this reaction, the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase is assisted by an Fe2 cofactor, which is converted to the oxidized Fe3 form during the reaction.
  • The Fe3 is reduced back to Fe2 by ascorbic acid, which acts as the reducing agent and is converted into dehydroascorbic acid during the process.
  • Hence, ascorbic acid is an antioxidant.
  • Scurvy on the St. Lawrence River
  • Some did lose all their strength, and could not stand on their feet Others also had all their skins spotted with spots of blood of a purple colour then did it ascend up to their ankles, knees, thighs, shoulders, arms, and necks. Their mouths became stinking, their gums so rotten, that all the flesh did fall off, even to the roots of the teeth, which did also almost all fall out.
  • - Jacques Cartier, 1536
  • James Lind, a Scottish physician published a paper in 1747 that clearly linked the prevention of scurvy to the consumption of citrus fruits in the diet.
  • Following his suggestions, The Royal Navy issued lime rations to sailors, resulting in their nickname, limeys.
  • Seven years earlier, a British task force of six ships lost almost 1,000 sailors to scurvy during an extended sea voyage.
  • Vitamin A helps with our vision.
  • Too much Vitamin A can cause serious side effects, hence larger doses of this pure vitamin are controlled by prescription.
  • An excellent natural source of vitamin A is the pigment, ß-carotene. The body splits this molecule into two molecules of vitamin A. A person can consume so much ß-carotene that their skin turns orange, but the body only converts enough of it into vitamin A to meet its needs, hence avoiding an excess of this vitamin and its deleterious effects.
  • Note Eating carrots can actually help some low-light night vision problems by supplying vitamin A in the form of ß-carotene .
  • After conversion to the appropriate form (11-cis retinal), Vitamin A acts as a visual pigment in our eyes, by absorbing photons.
  • To function, it is connected to the protein opsin via a Shiffs base. Together, the protein-pigment complex is called rhodopsin.
  • The 11-cis double bond absorbs light, resulting in a conversion of the 11-cis to the 11-trans form. The light reaction takes only a few picoseconds and it starts a complex signal transduction pathway that leads to light being perceived in the brain.
  • Color Vision is possible because of three rhodopsin binding to three different opsin proteins in three different types of cone cells.
  • Each protein has a slightly different amino acid composition, changing the environment of the 11-cis-retinal pigment.
  • This change shifts the absorption spectrum of these three proteins to the blue, green, and red regions. Signals from each of these three different types of cells are the basis for our color perception.
  • The genes for the color-shifted opsin proteins lie adjacent to each other on the human X chromosome and share a high degree of similarity.
  • Slight changes in the base sequences of these genes result in spectral shifts for light absorption, leading to perceptual differences in the color of light we see.
  • Human X chromosomes carry various numbers of color pigments genes. In the general population, the X-chromosome gene content varies significantly
  • 2 - 1 color pigment gene
  • 20 - 2 color pigment genes
  • 50 - 3 color pigment genes
  • 20 - 4 color pigment genes
  • 5 - 5 color pigment genes
  • Due to the loci of these genes on the X chromomsome, most colorblindness is sex-linked, with predominant expression in males.
  • 5 of males lack the green pigment gene. The resulting hybrid gene absorbs light between red and green, making differentiation of these two colors difficult.
  • Vitamin D is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin. This is due to its unique biosynthetic route that requires UV light to complete its synthesis.
  • By law, milk sold in the USA must be fortified with Vitamin D. It is obtained primarily from irradiated yeast extracts.
  • Fish oils are also a good source of vitamin D.
  • You can synthesize your own vitamin D by simply exposing your skin to UV light. (This is always a good excuse to get some sunshine.)
  • Russian children in the artic tundra were often afflicted with rickets, due to lack of sunshine and/or adequate dietary sources (e.g., availability of fish oils).
  • Years ago, (and still today?) the Russian government sent UV lights to the elementary schools in this region and required students to absorb UV light from these lamps to help synthesize vitamin D and reduce the occurence of rickets.
  • (A National Geographic story a few years ago showed a picture of the students getting their daily dose of UV light.)
  • Vitamin E helps promote male virility in rats and enhances birth rates. Hence, many believe it must therefore be important for humans
  • Its role in humans is not completely understood, hence it is difficult to determine a minimum recommended daily intake.
  • However, premature infants fed on formulas low in vitamin E often develop a form of hemolytic anemia that can be corrected by vitamin E supplementation. Most manufacturers of infant formulas fortify their preparations with this vitamin.
  • Vitamin E is an excellent antioxidant. Therefore its primary use is in helping to promote shelf life of commercially important oils like cooking oils, lotions, etc.
  • Much more Vitamin E is sold as a preservative than for use in vitamin supplements.
  • End of Lecture Slides
  • Credits Many of the diagrams used in these slides were taken from Stryer, et.al, Biochemistry, 5th Ed., Freeman Press (in our course textbook) and from prior editions of this text.

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June 25, 2024

What Vitamins and Minerals Really Do in Your Body

Humans need around 30 vitamins and minerals to keep our bodies functioning

By Clara Moskowitz , Jen Christiansen & Miriam Quick

Detail of a graphic shows what human body parts different vitamins and minerals are associated with, alongside a recommended and maximum daily dose chart.

Jen Christiansen

Food gives us energy, but just as important, it delivers vitamins and minerals. There is essentially no bodily function that doesn’t depend on at least one of these compounds, roughly 30 of which are considered crucial. They help our hearts beat and our lungs breathe. They enable our bodies to build new muscle, skin and bone cells. They allow nerves to send signals to the brain and the immune system to fight invaders. We literally can’t live without them.

The difference between vitamins and minerals is that the former are organic—made by a plant or animal—and the latter are not. We absorb vitamins directly from the plants and animals we eat. We get minerals, which come from rocks, dirt or water, sometimes from the environment and sometimes from living things we eat that absorbed them before they died.

“Vitamins and minerals work in wild and wondrous ways, some of which we understand, many of which we’re still trying to understand,” says Howard Sesso, associate director of the division of preventive medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and medical editor of the Making Sense of Vitamins and Minerals report from Harvard Medical School. “And there’s tremendous variation in how we all consume, digest, absorb and utilize the nutrients in a particular food we’re eating.”

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Key Functions • Listed here are the main known uses of different nutrients, although scientists suspect there are many that are undiscovered. Furthermore, vitamins and minerals often interact with one another and help to promote the reactions of other nutrients.

CATEGORY: Water-Soluble Vitamins

These vitamins can dissolve in water.

Vitamin B 1 (thiamin) • Helps to turn food into energy. Promotes skin, hair, muscle and brain health. Critical for nerve function. • Rich Food Sources: Pork, brown rice, soy milk, watermelon, acorn squash

Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) • Helps to turn food into energy. Boosts skin, hair, blood and brain health. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, milk, eggs, yogurt, cheese, green leafy vegetables

Vitamin B 3 (niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide) • Helps to turn food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain and nervous system. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, mushrooms, potatoes, peanut butter

Vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid) • Helps to turn food into energy. Helps to produce lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and hemoglobin. • Rich Food Sources: Chicken, egg yolk, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms, avocados

Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine) • Metabolizes amino acids and helps cells replicate. Helps to produce red blood cells and neurotransmitters essential for brain function. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, fish, poultry, legumes, tofu, potatoes, bananas, watermelon

Vitamin B 7 (biotin) • Helps to convert food into energy and make glucose. Helps to build and break down some fatty acids. Promotes bone and hair health. • Rich Food Sources: Whole grains, organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, fish

Vitamin B 9 (folate, folic acid, folacin) • Metabolizes amino acids and helps cells multiply. Vital for new cell creation. Helps to prevent brain and spine birth defects when taken early in pregnancy. • Rich Food Sources: Asparagus, okra, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, legumes, orange juice, tomato juice

Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, cyanocobalamin) • Metabolizes amino acids and helps cells multiply. Protects nerves and encourages their growth. Helps to build red blood cells and DNA. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) • Makes collagen, as well as the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Works as an antioxidant. Boosts the immune system. • Rich Food Sources: Fruits (especially citrus), potatoes, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, brussels sprouts

CATEGORY: Water-Soluble Nutrient

Choline is organic and water-soluble, but it’s not classified as either a vitamin or a mineral. It’s somewhat similar to B vitamins.

Choline (formerly called vitamin B 4 ) • Helps to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Aids in metabolizing and transporting fats. • Rich Food Sources: Milk, eggs, liver, salmon, peanuts

CATEGORY: Fat-Soluble Vitamin

These organic nutrients dissolve in fats and oils and are mostly found in fat tissue and the liver.

Vitamin A (retinoids—preformed vitamin A, beta carotene—converts to vitamin A) • Important for vision, cell health, bone formation and immune system function. • Rich Food Sources: Liver, fish, eggs, sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens

Vitamin D (calciferol, cholecalciferol—vitamin D 3 , ergocalciferol—vitamin D 2 ) • Helps to keep calcium and phosphorus at normal levels in the blood. Assists in forming teeth and bones. • Rich Food Sources: Fortified milk or margarine, fortified cereals, fatty fish (Your body also uses sunlight to make vitamin D.)

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) • Acts as an antioxidant, aids the immune system and supports vascular health. • Rich Food Sources: Vegetable oils, wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts

Vitamin K (phylloquinone—vitamin K 1 , menaquinones—vitamin K 2 ) • Aids in bone formation. Activates proteins and calcium essential for blood clotting. • Rich Food Sources: Cabbage, liver, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, kale, collards, other green vegetables

CATEGORY: Major Mineral

The body needs relatively large amounts of these minerals, although too much of one can sometimes block the absorption of another.

Calcium • Helps to build and protect teeth and bones. Aids with muscle function, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, hormone secretion and enzyme activation. • Rich Food Sources: Yogurt, cheese, milk, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, broccoli, kale

Chloride • Balances fluids in the body and forms part of the stomach acid, which helps to digest food. • Rich Food Sources: Salt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, processed foods

Magnesium • Necessary for chemical reactions in the body. Aids in muscle contraction, blood clotting and regulation of blood pressure. Helps to build bones and teeth. • Rich Food Sources: Spinach, broccoli, legumes, cashews, sunflower and other seeds, halibut, whole wheat bread, milk

Phosphorus • Builds and protects bones and teeth. Forms a part of DNA and RNA. Helps to convert food into energy. Helps to move nutrients into and out of cells. • Rich Food Sources: Milk and dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, liver, green peas, broccoli, potatoes, almonds

Potassium • Helps to balance fluids in the body. Helps to maintain a steady heartbeat and send nerve impulses. Required for muscle contractions. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes

Sodium • Helps to balance fluids in the body. Helps to send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. Impacts blood pressure. • Rich Food Sources: Salt, soy sauce, processed foods, vegetables

Sulfur • Helps to shape and stabilize protein structures. Necessary for healthy hair, skin and nails. • Rich Food Sources: Protein-rich foods, such as meat, fish, poultry, nuts, legumes

CATEGORY: Trace Mineral

Only small quantities of these are necessary for the body, but they are as essential as the major minerals.

Chromium • Boosts insulin activity, helps to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is required to free energy from glucose. • Rich Food Sources: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, potatoes, some cereals, nuts, cheese, brewer’s yeast

Copper • Important for iron metabolism and the immune system. Helps to make red blood cells. • Rich Food Sources: Liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes, cocoa, black pepper

Fluoride • Strengthens bones and stimulates new bone formation. Prevents tooth decay. • Rich Food Sources: Fluoridated water, toothpaste with fluoride, marine fish, teas

Iodine • Necessary for synthesizing thyroid hormones, which help to maintain body temperature and influence nerve and muscle function. • Rich Food Sources: Iodized salt, processed foods, seafood

Iron • Helps to transport oxygen through the body. Required for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters and hormones. • Rich Food Sources: Red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread and grain products

Manganese • Helps to form bones and metabolize amino acids, cholesterol and carbohydrates. • Rich Food Sources: Fish, nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea

Molybdenum • Forms part of several enzymes, including one that protects against potentially deadly neurological damage in infants. • Rich Food Sources: Legumes, nuts, grain products, milk

Selenium • Acts as an antioxidant and helps to regulate thyroid hormone activity. • Rich Food Sources: Organ meats, seafood, walnuts, sometimes plants (depends on soil content), grain products

Zinc • Helps to form enzymes and proteins and to build new cells. Frees vitamin A from storage in the liver. Vital for the immune system, taste, smell and wound healing. • Rich Food Sources: Red meat, poultry, oysters and some other seafood, fortified cereals, beans, nuts

Delicate Balance

When we eat too much of one vitamin or mineral, it can cause the loss of another. For instance, an excess of sodium will deplete calcium because these nutrients bind together, causing the body to excrete them both when it flushes out the sodium.

Getting Enough

In the U.S., nutrition deficiencies are relatively rare, although malnutrition is increasing, especially among older age groups. The most common deficiencies are of vitamin B 6 , iron and vitamin D. Of all the vitamins and minerals, Americans are least likely to be deficient in vitamin A, vitamin E and folate (B 9 ).

Beneficial combinations

Some nutrients work best as a team. Vitamin D helps us absorb calcium, for instance, and potassium encourages the excretion of excess sodium. Folate (B 9 ) is best absorbed if B 12 is around, and the two work together to help cells divide and multiply.

The recommended daily intake depends on age, sex, and many other factors. Dosage icons here are purposefully large to show the big-picture variation between different nutrients.

Graphic shows recommended and maximum daily intake of vitamins and minerals for adults. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins have a wide range of recommended doses. Major mineral recommendations are relatively high: Trace mineral recommendations are lower.

For more information: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets, National Institutes of Health; Making Sense of Vitamins and Minerals, a special health report by the editors at Harvard Health Publishing in consultation with Howard D. Sesso, 2022.

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Vitamins. Brought to you by the Flintstones. C.5.1 Define the term vitamin. So, what exactly is a vitamin?. Here’s the technical definition: An organic molecule that is required in only trace amounts and can only be obtained through the diet since it cannot be synthesized.

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Presentation Transcript

Vitamins Brought to you by the Flintstones

C.5.1 Define the term vitamin.

So, what exactly is a vitamin? • Here’s the technical definition: An organic molecule that is required in only trace amounts and can only be obtained through the diet since it cannot be synthesized.

In other words… • Vitamins are “Vital amines” that we need to survive, but can’t make ourselves. • Most vitamins are coenzymes or are precursors to coenzymes, and many are antioxidants. • Your body can’t differentiate between synthetic and natural vitamins. • Fun Fact: 1g of B12 is enough for 500,000 people! Crazy right??

C.5.2 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure.

Water Soluble Vitamins • There are nine total water soluble vitamins. and are found in aqueous environments inside cells, where most are needed as components of coenzymes. • Excess of these vitamins is excreted by urine, so it needs to be constantly replenished in small amounts. • These are carried by the blood-stream.

How do you recognize them? • Water soluble vitamins all have –OH, -COOH or other polar groups to make them water soluble. (more on this later…) • Example: Vitamin C and Vitamin B

Fun Fact • Ever wondered where the names B and C came from? They are the names of the test tubes where the vitamins were first recognized. Scientists later realized that test tube contained more than one type of vitamin, which resulted in vitamins B1, B6, B12 etc.

Fat Soluble Vitamins • These are stored in the body’s fat deposits and cell membranes. • Because they are not continuously excreted by the body, excess of fat soluble vitamins is more hazardous than water soluble since they can accumulate in body fats. • None has been identified as a coenzyme.

What do they look like? • The structures of fat soluble vitamins are more hydrocarbon-like and have less functional groups. • Nonpolar • Examples: Vitamins A, D, E & K

C.5.3 Describe the structures and major functions of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Retinol/Vitamin A • Fat Soluble • It has 3 active forms: retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid • It is produced by cleavage of (b) carotene (this is the molecule that gives carrots their orange color), so it is required for the synthesis of visual pigments • It is an antioxidant! How does it work? • Hint: Look at the functional groups at the end of each hydrocarbon chain...more to come!

What is Vitamin A used for? • It is essential for night vision (particularly rhodopsin), healthy eyes, normal development of epithelial tissues, formation of bone, reproduction and more! • Required for the production of rhodopsin (light-sensitive material in the rods of the retina). • Rhodopsin: a pigment of the retina that is responsible for both the formation of the photoreceptor cells and the first events in the perception of light.

Forms of Vitamin A http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/misc_topics/vitamina.gif

Vitamin A Deficiency • Deficiency can cause night blindness and xerophthalmia. • Xerophthalmia: is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears; it may be caused due to a lack of vitamin A • Macular degeneration: a medical condition in which the light sensing cells in the macula (part of the retina) malfunction and, over time, cease to work (blindness).

Xerophthalmia http://www.milesresearch.com/eerf/images/xerophthalmia1.jpg http://www.milesresearch.com/eerf/images/bitot-step0.jpg

Calciferol/Vitamin D • Fat Soluble • It is related in structure to cholesterol. • It is synthesized when UV light from the sun strikes a cholesterol derivative in the skin. • In your kidney, vitamin D is converted to a hormone which regulates calcium absorption and bone formation.

Vitamin D Structure

Function and Deficiency of Vitamin D • Required for the uptake of calcium from food. Deficiency can cause weak bones (rickets). • Rickets: softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity; results from severe malnutrition and is predominant in developing countries • Osteomalacia is used to describe a similar condition occurring in adults. • Sufficient vitamin D levels can also be achieved through dietary supplementation. • Most dermatologists recommend vitamin D supplementation as an alternative to unprotected UV exposure due to the increased risk of skin cancer associated with sun exposure.

Rickets http://www.dinf.ne.jp/doc/english/global/david/dwe002/dwe002g/dwe00215g01.gif http://www.e-radiography.net/radpath/r/Rickets_wrist_healing.jpg

Ascorbic Acid/Vitamin C • Water Soluble • It is biologically active without any change in structure from the form it has in food. • It has been proven to be a valuable anti-oxidant (you will get to see this for yourself today!) • We are one of the few species that obtain it from our diet, most others synthesize it from glucose.

Structure of Vitamin C

Function of Vitamin C • Its most characteristic role is to function as a co-substrate in the formation of structural collagen • It makes up much of skin, ligaments, tendons, and also serves as matrix on which bone and teeth are formed.

What is Collagen? • Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue in animals and the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% of the total protein content. • Fibrous structural protein • Bundles of collagen are called collagen fibers • Support most tissues • Gives cells structure inside and out • Main component of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone, teeth • Responsible for skin strength and elasticity

Collagen http://www.3dchem.com/imagesofmolecules/Collagen2.jpg

Deficiency of Vitamin C • Deficiency can cause scorbutus (scurvy). • Scurvy leads to the formation of liver spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes.

Scurvy http://www.med.uc.edu/departme/cellbiol/Image7.gif http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/images/nwaz_02_img0214.jpg

Antioxidants and Preservatives • A substance that prevents oxidation by reacting w/ an oxidizing agent and gets oxidized itself. • Many foods get spoiled because they get oxidized, so they are protected by “phenolic” additives. • A naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant is vitamin E.

Antioxidants Continued… • Rancidity: it is when fats and oils develop an odor/flavor upon exposure to moist air, which is the result of the oxidation of the carbon-carbon double bonds in the fatty acid chains in the tri-glycerols. • So, antioxidants prevent rancidity in foods by preventing them from getting oxidized, by getting oxidized themselves. • Our principal dietary antioxidants are vitamins C, E, B, and selenium. These work by defusing the potentially harmful free radicals in the body

C.5.4 Describe the effects of food processing on the vitamin content of food.

Effects of Cooking on Vitamin Contents • Vitamins containing carbon-carbon double bonds and hydroxyl groups are easily oxidized and thus can be destroyed by prolonged cooking and high temperatures (which speeds up oxidation).

Vitamin C • Vitamin C is water soluble and readily oxidized. So boiling vegetables can deplete a lot of Vitamin C content. • Scurvy, from lack of vitamin C, was common in sailors because they spent long periods without fresh foods. • Solutions: • Keeping food refrigerated can slow the oxidation process. • Steaming foods instead of boiling

Vitamin C Oxidation http://online.redwoods.cc.ca.us/depts/science/chem/chem1A/Labs/VitaminC/VitaminC.gif

Other Vitamins • Vitamin D can be destroyed through oxidation by some bleaching agents used in manufacturing purified flour. • Vitamin A is not readily broken down by cooking.

Genetic Modification • Does not lower nutrition value/destroy vitamins • Increases food productivity • Food more resistant to disease/toxins • Better flavor texture, nutritional value and shelf life • May contaminate DNA or increase risk of a disease- long term effects are unknown

Genetically Modified Tomato

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Media Advisory

Wednesday, June 26, 2024

For healthy adults, taking multivitamins daily is not associated with a lower risk of death

Findings come from an NIH analysis of more than two decades of dietary data from 390,124 U.S. adults.

Image of multivitamins in a person’s hand

A large analysis of data from nearly 400,000 healthy U.S. adults followed for more than 20 years has found no association between regular multivitamin use and lower risk of death. The study, led by researchers at the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute, was published June 26, 2024, in JAMA Network Open .

Many adults in the United States take multivitamins with the hope of improving their health. However, the benefits and harms of regular multivitamin use remain unclear. Previous studies of multivitamin use and mortality have yielded mixed results and been limited by short follow-up times.

To more deeply explore the relationship between long-term regular multivitamin use and overall mortality and death from cardiovascular disease and cancer, the researchers analyzed data from three large, geographically diverse prospective studies involving a total of 390,124 U.S. adults who were followed for more than 20 years. The participants included in this analysis were generally healthy, with no history of cancer or other chronic diseases.

Because the study population was so large and included lengthy follow-up and extensive information on demographics and lifestyle factors, the researchers were able to mitigate the effects of possible biases that may have influenced the findings of other studies. For example, people who use multivitamins may have healthier lifestyles in general, and sicker patients may be more likely to increase their use of multivitamins.

The analysis showed that people who took daily multivitamins did not have a lower risk of death from any cause than people who took no multivitamins. There were also no differences in mortality from cancer, heart disease, or cerebrovascular diseases. The results were adjusted for factors such as race and ethnicity, education, and diet quality. 

The researchers noted that it is important to evaluate multivitamin use and risk of death among different kinds of populations, such as those with documented nutritional deficiencies, as well as the potential impact of regular multivitamin use on other health conditions associated with aging.

Erikka Loftfield, Ph.D., M.P.H., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute

  “Multivitamin Use and Mortality Risk in 3 Prospective US Cohorts” appears June 26, 2024, in JAMA Network Open .

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Daily Multivitamin Use In Healthy Adults Doesn’t Decrease Risk Of Death, Study Suggests: What To Know About Pros And Cons Of Multivitamins

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Researchers suggest Americans get their nutrients from food rather than supplements after a new study found daily multivitamin use doesn’t decrease the risk of death, which is the newest research in the long debated topic about the benefits of multivitamins.

a handful of vitamins.

The researchers used the health records of over 390,000 participants with a median age of 61.5 years who were generally healthy, had no history of chronic disease and were followed for over 20 years, according to the study published Wednesday in JAMA Network Open.

People with healthier lifestyles and those who are sick may have an increased chance of taking multivitamins, so the researchers mitigated these effects so they didn’t have an impact on the study’s results.

The group of participants who took daily multivitamins had lower BMIs and better sleep quality than the participants who didn’t use daily multivitamins, and were slightly more likely to be college educated.

However, the study found those who took daily multivitamins had 4% higher mortality risk for all causes, though there were no differences in mortality risks from cancer, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases like stroke, aneurysms.

Since the study’s population consisted of generally healthy adults, the researchers noted further research must be done to include other groups like people with nutrient deficiencies, and to evaluate the potential impact of regular multivitamin use on other health conditions associated with aging.

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Crucial Quote

“Refocusing nutrition interventions on food, rather than supplements, may provide the mortality benefits that multivitamins cannot deliver,” researchers with the National Cancer Institute wrote as part of a commentary on the JAMA study. “Vegetables, fruits, legumes and cereal grains are staples in areas of remarkable longevity.”

Is There Any Evidence Multivitamins Work?

Though the benefits of multivitamins have been a long debated topic, over 31% of Americans 19 years and older take multivitamins . Men who take daily multivitamins may have an 8% lower cancer risk and a lower risk of developing cataracts, according to a previous JAMA study . Several studies have found multivitamins can improve memory in older adults. Multivitamins may also offer benefits for those with mood disorders. Older male participants who took multivitamins over an eight-week period had significant reductions in depression and anxiety compared to the placebo group, according to research published in Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental.

What Vitamins May Actually Work?

Taking standalone vitamins may provide some benefits. Doctors recommend patients with vitamin deficiencies like vitamin D take supplements, especially those with lactose intolerance, milk allergies, fat absorption issues and people with darker skin tones and more melanin, according to Yale Medicine. Vitamins are also useful during pregnancy: Pregnant women can benefit from taking prenatal vitamins containing vitamin D and calcium to help the baby’s teeth and bones grow, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Are Multivitamins Regulated By The Fda?

Multivitamins, herbs, minerals and other dietary supplements are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration, though the FDA regulates them. However, most of the regulation happens after they hit the shelves, and many companies manufacture and sell multivitamins without notifying the FDA.

$177.5 billion. That’s how much the global dietary supplement industry was worth in 2023, according to market research firm Grand View Research. This number is expected to grow by 9% between 2024 and 2030.

Key Background

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded in 2022 there was “little to no benefit” in taking vitamins and mineral supplements, and recommended against the use of beta carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. Multivitamin use did not reduce the risk of cancer or heart disease in participants in a 2021 study by the USPSTF. Researchers also found taking iron supplements—which is added to many multivitamins—can lead to iron overload and increase the risk of diabetes, dementia and heart disease.

Arianna Johnson

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IMAGES

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    presentation of vitamins

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    presentation of vitamins

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    presentation of vitamins

  4. VITAMINS

    presentation of vitamins

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    presentation of vitamins

  6. Vitamins

    presentation of vitamins

VIDEO

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COMMENTS

  1. VITAMINS

    This presentation provides an overview of vitamins, including their classification, functions, sources, and mechanisms of action. It discusses both water soluble vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) and fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Key points include: - Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for growth, cell ...

  2. Vitamins, types, and functions

    This presentation provides an overview of vitamins, including their classification, functions, sources, and mechanisms of action. It discusses both water soluble vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) and fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). Key points include: - Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for growth, cell ...

  3. Vitamins and Minerals

    Vitamins and Minerals. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients required by the body to carry out a range of normal functions. However, these micronutrients are not produced in our bodies and must be derived from the food we eat. Vitamins are organic substances that are generally classified as either fat soluble or water soluble.

  4. Introduction to vitamins and minerals (video)

    Introduction to vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients our bodies need but can't produce. Vitamins, organic compounds, aid in cell functions and reactions. Minerals, inorganic elements, are found in everything from DNA to muscle contractions. Foods like carrots and milk provide both vitamins and minerals.

  5. Vitamins: What are they, and what do they do?

    Vitamin B2. Chemical name: riboflavin. It is water-soluble. Function: It is essential for the growth and development of body cells and helps metabolize food. Deficiency: Symptoms include ...

  6. VITAMINS.ppt

    Function of Vitamins. Individual vitamins serve different functions. As a group vitamins assist in 5 things: Nutrient metabolism. Ability to break up & use nutrients. Energy Production & release. Take energy from energy nutrients. Vitamins have no calories therefore they give no energy. Tissue Maintenance.

  7. 7.1: Vitamins: Basic Concepts

    What are vitamins and why do we need them? In this chapter, you will learn about the basic concepts of vitamins, their functions, sources, and deficiencies. You will also explore the differences between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, and how they are absorbed and stored in the body. This is a reference for NUTRI 303, a general nutrition course at American River College.

  8. 10.1

    1. Food is broken down into small particles in the mouth by 2. Digestion o food in the stomach releases vitamins. 3. The gallbladder releases bile, which emulsifies fat and helps in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. 4. The Pancreas releases digestive enzymes that help to release vitamins from food. 5.

  9. Overview of Vitamins

    Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats (lipids) and include . Vitamin K. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and in fatty tissues. If too much of the fat-soluble vitamins A or D is consumed, they can accumulate and may have harmful effects. Because fats in foods help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, a low-fat diet may result in a ...

  10. 7.1: Introduction to Vitamins

    Water-soluble vitamins act in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood; fat-soluble vitamins are largely responsible for protecting cell membranes from free radical damage. The body can synthesize some vitamins, but others must be obtained from the diet. Figure 7.1.1 7.1. 1 The Vitamins. Image by Allison Calabrese / CC BY 4.0.

  11. Chapter-8Vitamins,-minerals.ppt

    Define the Following Terms: 1. antioxidants—substances that protect body cells and the immune system from damage by harmful chemicals in air and foods. 2. electrolyte minerals—sodium, chloride, and potassium, which control and balance fluid flow in and out of cells. 3. fat-soluble vitamins—vitamins absorbed and transported by fat.

  12. Vitamins and minerals

    Minerals are inorganic elements that are classified as major or trace minerals needed for processes like bone and tissue formation. The document provides details on the functions, sources, and deficiency effects of important vitamins like A, D, C and B vitamins and minerals like calcium, iron, and iodine. Fortification of foods can help address ...

  13. Vitamins- Definition, Types and Sources of Vitamins

    The best sources of fat-soluble vitamins include: Vitamin A: Found in potato, carrots, pumpkins, spinach, beef and eggs. Vitamin D: Found in fortified milk and other dairy products. Vitamin E: Found in fortified cereals, leafy green vegetables, seeds, and nuts. Vitamin K: Found in dark green leafy vegetables and in turnip or beet green.

  14. PPT Slide 1

    Slide 1. Biochemistry 3070. Vitamins: Biochemical Roles. Vitamins Vitamins are necessary components of healthy diets and play important roles in cellular metabolism. Vitamins are considered "micronutrients.". Although these substances occur in only very small amounts within cells, they are critically important.

  15. Vitamins: Biochemical Roles

    Vitamins H, M, S, W, and X were all. eventually shown to be biotin. Vitamin G became B2 (riboflavin). Vitamin Y became B6 (pyridoxine). At one time, vitamin M seems to have been used. for three different vitamins folic acid, pantothenic acid, and biotin. Today, chemical names are used to help prevent.

  16. PPT

    Water-soluble vitamins Common features: 1.Water soluble 2.Easy to be discharged through urine. Rarely accumulated to the toxic concentrations. 3.Their storage is limit. Must be provided regularly. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

  17. What Vitamins and Minerals Really Do in Your Body

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  18. VITAMINS AND MINERALS PowerPoint Presentation

    Slide 8-. Vitamin b12 Helps keep the body's nerve and blood cells healthy. Helps make DNA Helps prevent megaloblastic anemia. Vitamin B12 can be found in: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and other dairy products. Slide 9-. Vitamin D Vitamin D is needed for health and to maintain strong bones.

  19. PDF Clinical Pharmacology of Vitamins, Macro- and Microelements

    Vitamin В1 (thyamin, antineuritic) Consists of two rings - pyrimidine and thiazole Is phosphorylated in liver to ТМP, ТPP and ТТP. ТМP, ТPP and ТТP are coenzymes of: -pyruvate- and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase -transketolase. In the thiamin deficiency ketoacids that are toxic for nervous system are accumulated. Acidosis.

  20. Introduction to-vitamins

    Introduction to-vitamins. The document discusses various B vitamins, including their chemistry, food sources, roles in the body, and deficiency diseases. It provides information on vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), and B9 (folic acid). The key points made are that B ...

  21. PPT

    Water Soluble Vitamins • There are nine total water soluble vitamins. and are found in aqueous environments inside cells, where most are needed as components of coenzymes. • Excess of these vitamins is excreted by urine, so it needs to be constantly replenished in small amounts. • These are carried by the blood-stream.

  22. For healthy adults, taking multivitamins daily is not associated with a

    Media Advisory. Wednesday, June 26, 2024. For healthy adults, taking multivitamins daily is not associated with a lower risk of death. Findings come from an NIH analysis of more than two decades of dietary data from 390,124 U.S. adults.

  23. VITAMIN D

    VITAMIN D. 1. Vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin by exposure to sunlight and is converted to calcitriol, the biologically active form, in the kidney. 2. Calcitriol acts on the intestine, bone, and kidney to regulate calcium levels by increasing calcium absorption from the intestine, mobilizing calcium from bone, and enhancing calcium ...

  24. Pros And Cons Of Multivitamins: Daily Multivitamins Won't ...

    The daily multivitamin group had a 4% higher chance of all-cause mortality, though there weren't any significant differences between death from cancer, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases.