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What is the difference between project and thesis?

How project and thesis differs in terms of creativity ?

which one is original ? project or thesis ? any formal definition for project and thesis ?

Ellen Spertus's user avatar

  • You have probably two accounts (maybe three? ): you can merge them in a single one. See the I accidentally created two accounts; how do I merge them? . –  Massimo Ortolano Commented Nov 27, 2016 at 22:08

It differs by school. Technically, a thesis is a claim that can be proven or disproven, but, in practice, the term "thesis" is often used for a project (for undergraduate or Master's degrees). On the other hand, a PhD thesis is not just a project; it should advance the state of knowledge in a field in a way that can only be done by someone knowledgeable in the field.

My department is considering renaming our Master's thesis requirement to Master's project, to acknowledge that it need not be a research contribution.

Of course, even a project can entail publishable work or advance the state of the art, but it need not.

  • thanks, is there any difference in terms of novelty ? i know that a phd thesis or masters thesis needs to be original but does the project needs to be original ? –  Rashida Hasan Rupa Commented Nov 27, 2016 at 21:20
  • @RashidaHasanRupa Technically, all projects are original, since nobody has solved exactly the same problem. –  Ellen Spertus Commented Jul 13, 2017 at 17:30

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Writing Project Proposals

Some applications will ask for an essay outlining a proposed project, including details of the design and plan for carrying it out. Remember that your essay is essentially an exercise in expository writing, but with a twist—it also needs to be persuasive.

As you get ready to write, think about the following questions:

How will you demonstrate the match between yourself and a particular project?

  • What inspired or motivated you for this project?
  • Language proficiency? Coursework? Contacts? Organizational affiliation? Experience traveling alone?
  • Why there? Why now? How is it important or meaningful?

What makes you a strong fit for a particular opportunity?

  • Does the project benefit from specific skillsets, values, experiences, or accomplishments?
  • How can you concisely share an anecdote(s) from your life that directly demonstrates why you are a good fit for this opportunity?

How will you demonstrate the feasibility of your project?

  • Can your project be completed within the timeframe allowed?
  • Have you laid the appropriate groundwork (e.g., made connections with local scholars; introduced yourself and your project to the archivist; learned specific software or equipment; getting IRB approval; and more) to convince the committee that you are ready to start (and ideally complete) your project on time?
  • Consider your audience. Selection committees typically are comprised of faculty from a broad range of academic disciplines, so write for an intelligent reader, but someone who’s probably not an expert your specific field.

How will you craft your essay to be persuasive in text and tone?

  • How will this project/experience impact your future goals/pursuits?
  • What will the impact of this project be—on both you as the applicant as well as on the field/community/target audience?
  • What about your project is timely, so that the committee understands that your project needs to be completed now and could not be similiarly accomplished in a couple years’ time? Are we on the cusp of something important in your field, something pressing within a group of people, or at an important part of history or policy, for example? What is the urgency surrounding your project?

Selection committees want to learn about you . Be sure to connect the opportunity at hand to your past experiences—compelling moments in your personal and/or academic life, interesting anecdotes, something that shaped your outlook or motivated you. Make sure you focus on relevant experiences, though. Your essay should not be a narrative version of your resume nor a cover letter. Tell the committee who you are, what you value, what makes you "tick," what you want to do, how you plan to do it, and why it’s important—and do so in an honest voice.

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  • Project management essays

Our project management essays cover a range of topics in this field, including PRINCE2 and Agile methodologies, organisation, communication, negotiation, risk management, leadership and more. We also have separate sections for leadership essays and business essays .

Breaking the barriers of conventional project management concepts and fostering innovative environments

Abstract Innovative products or services are not fruit of randomness. The highly creative world, where start-ups are disrupting and defying established companies with new technologies, is product of efforts to create clusters and promote investment in research and development (R&D). The implementation of different methodologies or approaches has also played an important role to stimulate … Read more

Strategies for Conflict Resolution, Collaboration & Change Management

Strategies for Conflict Resolution (LO4) Conflict could affect the delivery of our project considerably, and can destabilise the whole delivery process, poor decision making, damaged relationships, delays, poor publicity, reputational damage and additional costs. This list can continue if not managed well, and the impact can increase through all phases of works. With any dispute … Read more

Project management

Project management can be defined as the knowledge, skills, methods required to perform a set of tasks which are carried out by a group of individuals working towards a common objective. Project management highlights risks, cost, scope, time and quality in a project. According to me, Project management plays a vital role in today’s professional … Read more

Project management methodologies and tools – strengths and weaknesses

Agile Agile can be defined as the ability to create and respond to change to profit in a business environment with turbulence and the balancing of flexibility and stability (Highsmith 2012) The publication of the manifesto for agile software development formalised Agile. EXPAND The principles for Agile approach were; Individuals and interactions over processes and … Read more

Critical analysis of the impact of loss aversion & availability error on human decision-making in projects

Literature Review For a critical analysis of the impact of loss aversion and availability error on human decision-making in projects, it is necessary to clarify some fundamental concepts for a better understanding of the research topic; these are discussed below; 2.1 Project Project is a vague word defined differently by many researchers (Maylor, 2010). The … Read more

When is SCRUM Appropriate? Scrum is meant for those kinds of work which people have found unmanageable using existing (defined) processes like uncertain requirements combined with unpredictable technology implementation risks. While deciding whether to apply Scrum in any organization, as opposed to plan-driven approaches, one should always consider whether the underlying mechanisms are well-understood or … Read more

Effect of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) over the phases of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) executions

Introduction The paper portrays the effect of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) over the phases of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) executions utilizing the reactions from associations that finished or are finishing an ERP usage. Our outcomes give counsel to management on how best to use their constrained assets to pick those CSFs that are destined to … Read more

Influence of Project Management in IT advancement

The world is evolving quick. A wide scope of patterns and difficulties have an immediate bearing on the eventual fate of IT industry. Its achievement lies in finishing ventures inside time and spending requirements. Advancement and imagination are the key segments of significant worth creation, while representative desires and working societies are changing constantly. We … Read more

Agile implementation with challenges and solutions

Abstract Software engineering is one of the most spontaneous industry which requires swiftness in response and flexibility at every phase of development. Agile methodologies provide cutting-edge products and ingenious experiences, while keeping the product in coordination with the industry approaches and customer’s unpredictable requirements. Agile makes working processes facile giving efficient outputs. This research paper … Read more

The importance of culture for project success

Research has shown that an organisation’s culture directly impacts its bottom-line (Kotter & Haskett 1992 cited by Cooper, 2000). In projectised organisations, where the bottom-line is determined via the delivery of successful projects, this phenomenon can be a blessing or a curse (Ikeda, 2006), depending on whether the organisational culture is supportive of project management, … Read more

Prioritization Process

In simple terms, the process of prioritizing projects is an activity undertaken to determine the sequence of projects to be undertaken in a portfolio. It is done in an attempt to make the portfolio more efficient and more effective. Here’s a broader definition: Project Prioritization Process is a structured and consistent activity that aims to … Read more

Importance of time management – Burj Khalifa project

Time management Time management should not be wasted in any given time. Time is the most valuable resource in a project. Time is key in project management because it’s not only the time but it’s the time management of the project team as a whole. Scheduling is one the simplest ways of managing a project … Read more

Relationship between project management and organizational performance

Our aim is to understand the relationship between project management and organizational performance and Project management contributions towards the company performance. Every organization is under pressure to amend its performance to achieve sustained prosperity in today’s ecumenical emporium. It signifies being responsive to circumstances change. By the final of the 1950s and in the first … Read more

Agile project management development methodology

Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 – Overview and scope Baker (2017) determines that agility – more than ever – is the driver of organizational experience. Throughout the 21st century, technology has become a fundamental success factor for organisations who can implement and exploit its capabilities. More specifically, the use of up-to-date, game-changing software is a key … Read more

Qatar Hamad International Airport project

This Vision that the sponsor has, has resulted in a positive outcome for Qatar, not just in the local area but in the global markets. As Qatar have one of the best airports in the world as well as one of the best airlines. Over the past 8 year, collectively, Hamad International Airport and Qatar … Read more

Writing project management essays

Here are some key areas for discussion when writing an essay about project management:

Project Planning: The process of defining project objectives, creating a project plan, and developing project schedules and budgets.

Risk Management: The identification, assessment, and management of project risks, including strategies for risk mitigation and contingency planning.

Project Execution: The process of implementing the project plan and managing project resources, including project team members, stakeholders, and external vendors.

Project Monitoring and Control: The process of tracking project progress, monitoring project performance, and taking corrective action when necessary.

Project Closure: The process of completing the project and ensuring that project objectives have been achieved, including finalizing project deliverables, evaluating project performance, and conducting a post-project review.

Project Leadership: The role of project managers as leaders who must motivate and inspire project team members, communicate project goals and objectives, and resolve conflicts and challenges.

Agile Project Management: An iterative and flexible approach to project management that emphasizes collaboration, customer feedback, and rapid prototyping.

Project Portfolio Management: The process of managing multiple projects within an organization to ensure alignment with organizational goals and objectives.

Human Resource Management: The process of identifying, hiring, and developing project team members, including strategies for team building, motivation, and performance management.

Communication Management: The process of planning, executing, and controlling project communication, including communication plans, status reports, and stakeholder engagement strategies.

These are just a few examples of the many possible areas that could be discussed in an essay about project management. Depending on the specific focus and scope of the essay, other topics and areas of discussion could also be explored.

Sample project management essay titles

Stuck for an essay title or idea? Here are some to inspire you:

  • Agile Project Management: Strategies for Flexibility and Success
  • The Importance of Risk Management in Project Planning and Execution
  • Effective Communication: A Key to Successful Project Management
  • Project Leadership: Navigating Challenges and Motivating Teams
  • The Human Side of Project Management: Strategies for Building and Managing Teams
  • Closing the Gap: Aligning Project Management with Organizational Goals and Objectives
  • Beyond Waterfall: Exploring Innovative Approaches to Project Management
  • The Role of Technology in Modern Project Management
  • Quality Management in Project Execution: Strategies for Ensuring Excellence
  • Lessons Learned: The Value of Post-Project Reviews and Continuous Improvement.

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Project Management Essay

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
  • As a source of information (ensure proper referencing)
  • As a template for you assignment

Why study project management? This essay gives an answer to the question. It explains the importance and benefits of planning as a business process and a research topic. Write an A+ essay on product management with this example!


Project management phases.

  • Strategic Management

Project management is a discipline of planning, controlling, securing and organizing resources to attain specific objectives. A project can be perceived as an impermanent endeavour with a defined starting and end, undertaken to convene unique objectives and goals, normally to bring about useful change.

The impermanent nature of projects differs from business to business. In some cases it can be permanent, or semi permanent, repetitive functional actions to produce services or products. “A project is a unique endeavour to produce a set of deliverables within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints” (Westland 2).

All projects can be thought of as a series of phases that have specific beginnings and defined endpoints. Project management life cycle has mostly four phases namely project initiation, project planning, project execution and project closure. All of the phases of the project life cycle have lot of activities to play. These are described in the following segment.

Project Initiation:

This is the initial phase of the project life cycle, which, in turn, has a group of activities which are to be carried out prior to the planning stage. In this phase, the scope and purpose for initiating it and the solution to be found are described.

Project Planning:

In the project planning step, all the project management planning tasks, which are required to complete the project on time and within budget are explained.

Project Execution:

The next phase of project life cycle is project execution. In this phase, the physical deliverables are presented for the consumer. It is the most significant phase in the project life cycle and it utilizes a set of energy and resources.

Project Closure:

Project closure is the final phase of the project life cycle, which properly concludes the project and reports the whole achievement in terms of pre-defined objectives.

The job of the Project Manager is to prepare, execute and decide projects according to the given parameters and within financial plan. This includes obtaining resources and managing the plans of group and third-party consultants so as to distribute projects according to the plan.

The Project Manager will also describe the project’s aim and manage quality control all through its life cycle. McGraw-Hill and Irwin, in their book, “Project Management: The Managerial Process,” claim that “Project Management strikes a balance between the technical and human aspects of managing projects. It is suitable for a course in project management and for professionals who seek a project management handbook” (Gray & Larson).

The Role of Strategic Management in a Project

Strategic Management method contains the process of selecting, directing and calculating project outcomes to ensure best value for a business. Every project undertaken by a business has to meet certain criteria set up by the company’s management. This is intended to ensure alignment with the planned vision of the business.

The four important Strategic Management Processes are: ensure that every project is strategically associated, make a Project Management centred culture, apply Strategic Project Management best practices and to evolve a strategic project measurement scheme.

Project Scope Management, on the other hand, contains the procedures necessary to ensure that the project encompasses all the work required, but only the works necessary to complete the project effectively. Managing the project scope mainly concerns with controlling and defining what is and is not contained in the project.

Project management must be viewed as a technique that enables the organisations to successfully execute selected projects efficiently and effectively. However, the use of this technique alone does not automatically guarantee project achievement.

Gray, Clifford F. & Larson, Erik W. Project Management . McGraw-Hill Publishing Limited. 2000. Web.

Westland, Jason. The Project Management Life Cycle: A Complete Step-by-Step Methodology for Initiating, Planning, Executing & Closing a Project Successfully . Kogan Page Limited. 2006. Web.

Project Management Essay FAQ

  • Why is project management important? Project management aims to plan and lead a project to successfully complete it. It involves several phases, each of which brings direction to a project, be it in the sphere of business, charity, or art.
  • Why study project management? Project management is an exciting job that might lead to a fulfilling career in many spheres. Project management skills that imply the ability to successfully lead a project from its beginning to the conclusion, are always in demand in any company.
  • What is scope in project management? Project scope means a common understanding between the project stakeholders about its boundaries, goals, and essential milestones. It is crucial to define the project scope and its key elements before you start working.
  • What is crashing in project management? Crashing is a method in project management used to speed up the project’s timeline without changing its overall scope. Project crashing implies adding more resources to reach the highest possible efficiency level.
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IvyPanda. (2018, October 31). Project Management Essay.

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7 Types of Projects that Foster Powerful Learning

2. information-data organizing projects, 3. major investigation projects, 4. design projects, 5. problem solving/decision making projects, 6. “argumentation” projects, 7. real world, authentic projects, some final thoughts.

7 Types of Projects that Foster Powerful Learning (thumbnail)

1. Reading/Writing Projects

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CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS - JULY 08: A view of Harvard Yard on the campus of Harvard University on ... [+] July 08, 2020 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have sued the Trump administration for its decision to strip international college students of their visas if all of their courses are held online. (Photo by Maddie Meyer/Getty Images)

The college essay is a pivotal piece of the college application showcasing your individuality and differentiated outlook to admissions officers. What makes an essay truly shine? Let’s dive into the words behind three standout essays highlighted by university websites and a school newspaper's brand studio so you can get into the right mindset for crafting your own narrative.

Embracing Differences: Finding Strength In Uniqueness

Essay Excerpt: ‘Bra Shopping ’ (Harvard)

Featured by the Harvard Crimson Brand Studio , Orlee's essay recounts a student's humorous and insightful experience of bra shopping with her grandmother, weaving in her unique family dynamics and challenges at her prestigious school.

What Works:

  • Humor and Honesty: The student's humor makes the essay enjoyable to read, while her honesty about her challenges adds depth.
  • Self-Awareness: She demonstrates a strong sense of self-awareness, embracing her uniqueness rather than trying to fit in.
  • Resilience: Her narrative highlights resilience and the ability to find strength in differences.

For Your Essay : To write an essay that embraces your uniqueness, start by identifying a quirky or challenging experience that reflects who a key insight into your experience. Think about how this experience has shaped your perspective and character. Use humor and honesty to bring your story to life, and focus on how you have embraced your differences to become stronger and more resilient.

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Essay: ‘Brood X Cicadas ’ (Hamilton College)

As an example on Hamilton's admissions website, Nicholas writes about the cicadas swarming his hometown every 17 years and draws a parallel between their emergence and his own transition to college life. He uses humor and self-reflection to create a relatable and engaging narrative.

  • Humor: Nicholas uses humor to make his essay entertaining and memorable. His witty comparisons between himself and cicadas add a unique twist.
  • Self-Reflection: By comparing his life to the cicadas’, he reflects on his own growth and readiness for change.
  • Relatability: His narrative about facing new experiences and challenges resonates with readers who have undergone similar transitions.

For Your Essay: To infuse humor and self-reflection into your essay, start by identifying an ordinary experience or object and think about how it relates to your life. Write down funny or insightful observations about this connection. Use humor to make your essay more engaging, but ensure it still conveys meaningful self-reflection. This balance can make your essay both entertaining and profound.

Persistence and Multicultural Identity: Life Lessons From Tortilla Making

Essay: ‘ Facing The Hot Griddle ’ (Johns Hopkins University)

In this essay published by Hopkins Insider, Rocio uses the process of making tortillas to explore her multicultural identity and the challenges she has faced. Her story beautifully weaves together her Guatemalan heritage and her experiences growing up in the United States.

  • Metaphor and Symbolism: The process of making tortillas becomes a powerful metaphor for the student’s journey and struggles. The symbolism of the masa harina and water mixing parallels her blending of cultural identities.
  • Personal Growth: The essay highlights her perseverance and adaptability, qualities that are crucial for success in college.
  • Cultural Insight: She provides a rich, personal insight into her multicultural background, making her story unique and compelling.

For Your Essay: To write an essay that explores your identity through a metaphor, start by thinking about an activity or tradition that holds significant meaning for you. Consider how this activity relates to your life experiences and personal growth. Use detailed descriptions to bring the activity to life and draw connections between the process and your own journey. Reflect on the lessons you've learned and how they've shaped your identity.

A winning college essay isn’t simply about parading your best accomplishment or dramatizing your challenges. It’s not a contest for which student is the most original or entertaining. Rather, the essay is a chance for you to showcase your authenticity, passion, resilience, social awareness, and intellectual vitality . By sharing genuine stories and insights, you can create an essay that resonates with admissions committees and highlights your unique qualities.

For you to have the best possible essay, mindset is key. Here’s how to get into the zone:

  • Reflect Deeply: Spend time thinking about your experiences, challenges, and passions. Journaling can help you uncover deep insights.
  • Discuss and Share: Talking about your stories with friends, family, or mentors can provide new perspectives and emotional clarity.
  • Immerse Yourself: Engage in activities that you are passionate about to reignite the feelings and memories associated with them.
  • Draft Freely: Don’t worry about perfection on the first try. Write freely and honestly, then refine your narrative.

The secret to a standout college essay lies in its authenticity, depth, and emotional resonance. By learning from these successful examples and getting into the right mindset, you can craft an essay that not only stands out but also provides a meaningful insight into who you are. Remember, your essay is your story—make it a piece of writing that you will always be proud of.

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  • How to write an argumentative essay | Examples & tips

How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

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Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  • Don’t just list all the effects you can think of.
  • Do develop a focused argument about the overall effect and why it matters, backed up by evidence from sources.
  • Don’t just provide a selection of data on the measures’ effectiveness.
  • Do build up your own argument about which kinds of measures have been most or least effective, and why.
  • Don’t just analyze a random selection of doppelgänger characters.
  • Do form an argument about specific texts, comparing and contrasting how they express their thematic concerns through doppelgänger characters.

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An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

  • Make a claim
  • Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim
  • Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim)
  • Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

  • Claim that unconscious bias training does not have the desired results, and resources would be better spent on other approaches
  • Cite data to support your claim
  • Explain how the data indicates that the method is ineffective
  • Anticipate objections to your claim based on other data, indicating whether these objections are valid, and if not, why not.

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

  • Discuss what the opposing position gets right and why people might hold this position
  • Highlight the problems with this position
  • Present your own position , showing how it addresses these problems
  • Suggest a possible compromise —what elements of your position would proponents of the opposing position benefit from adopting?

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

  • Acknowledge that students rely too much on websites like Wikipedia
  • Argue that teachers view Wikipedia as more unreliable than it really is
  • Suggest that Wikipedia’s system of citations can actually teach students about referencing
  • Suggest critical engagement with Wikipedia as a possible assignment for teachers who are skeptical of its usefulness.

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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Guest Essay

Democrats: Stop Panicking

A person watching Donald Trump and Joe Biden on a television screen.

By Stuart Stevens

Mr. Stevens is a former Republican political consultant who is an adviser to the Lincoln Project.

As a former Republican who spent decades pointing out flaws in the Democratic Party, I watch the current Democratic panic over President Biden’s debate performance with a mix of bafflement and nostalgia.

It’s baffling that so many Democrats are failing to rally around a wildly successful president after one bad night. But it does remind me of why Republicans defeated Democrats in so many races Republicans should have lost.

Donald Trump has won one presidential election. He did so with about 46 percent of the popular vote. (Mitt Romney lost with about 47 percent.) The Republican Party lost its mind and decided that this one victory negated everything we know about politics. But it didn’t.

One debate does not change the structure of this presidential campaign. For all the talk of Mr. Biden’s off night, what is lost is that Mr. Trump missed a great opportunity to reset his candidacy and greatly strengthen his position.

Mr. Trump lost the popular vote by a margin of seven million and needs new customers. He could have laid out a positive economic plan to appeal to middle-class voters feeling economic pressure. Instead, he celebrated his tax cuts for billionaires.

He could have reassured voters who are horrified, in the wake of Roe v. Wade’s demise, by the stories of young girls who become pregnant by rape and then must endure extremist politicians eager to criminalize what was a constitutional right for two generations. But Mr. Trump bizarrely asserted that a majority pro-abortion-rights country hated Roe v. Wade and celebrated his role in replacing individual choice with the heavy hand of government.

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