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This is a List of Freedom Fighters in Karnataka who took leadership roles during India’s freedom struggle against the British and fight for Karnataka.

It is important to remember that at the time of the freedom of India (in 1947), there was no Karnataka as we know it today. Instead, it dispersed into 20 different administrative blocks, kingdoms, and administrations.

At this moment I want to remember and share with you the great personalities who sacrificed their entire life for the Freedom of India and Unite Karnataka .

Many Karnataka leaders who are directly or indirectly involved in the freedom movement, I try to gather all the information and present it to you, this list will not be static, I will keep updating it again and again when it is researched.

I wanted to highlight these freedom fighters because, when we ask someone they will say a few important persons such as Mahatma Gandhi , Subhash Chandra Bose , etc. but when it comes to local region people don’t remember much of them, so to educate the students and researchers this article will be helpful.

We did not obtain freedom only through the effort of one or two people, millions of people contributed to the struggle. So I am proud to be able to name some Karnataka freedom fighters today.

List of Freedom Fighters in Karnataka

1. kittur rani chennamma.

Kittur Rani Chennamma, Women Freedom Fighter, Indian Freedom Fighter, Freedom Fighter in Karnataka

  • Born – 23 October 1778, Belgaum
  • Spouce – Raja Mallasarja (m. 1793–1816)
  • Children – Shivalingappa
  • Died – 2 February 1829, Bailhongal

Kittur Rani Chennamma was the first female activist for the Independence of India who fought against the British Empire. Chennamma could not beat them but she inspired many women to rise against British rule in the country. She was the Queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka.

Just by hearing a false news Rani Chennamma died, do you know what it is?

2. Sangolli Rayanna

Sangolli Rayanna, Freedom Fighter of India, Freedom Fighter From Karnataka, Lieutenant in Kittur Rani Chennamma’s Army

  • Born – 15 August 1798, Sangolli
  • Parents – Dodda Baramappa Balappa Rogannavar
  • Died – 26 January 1831, Belagavi
  • Burial place – Nandagad,TQ: Khanapur (Beedi) Dist:Belagavi (Dharawad)

Sangolli Rayanna was the leading the Army of the Kingdom of Kittur, which was ruled by Rani Chennamma and fought against the British East India Company in 1824. He kept on fighting even after the queen was imprisoned, but at last, he was caught and hanged in 1932. We remember for his braveness and loyalty towards his kingdom.

3. Umabai Kundapur

Umabai Kundapur, Women Freedom Fighter, Karnataka Freedom Fighter

  • Born – 1892 in Kundapura, Karnataka
  • Parents – Golikeri Krishna Rao and Jungabai
  • Spouce – Sanjiv Rao Kundapur
  • Died – 1992

Umabai Kundapur was the lady of Hubli district who organized large volunteers at the time of freedom struggle, encouraged local women who were not stepped out of their home. During her childhood, she moved to Mumbai with her family. Jallianwalla Bagh’s incidents made changed her route of life and joined the freedom movement with great revolutionaries.

4. Karnad Sadashiva Rao

Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Freedom Fighter, India

  • Born: 1881, Mangalore
  • Education: Presidency college(autonomous)
  • Parent(s): Ramachandra Rao (father); Radhabai (mother)
  • Died: 9 January 1937, Mumbai

Karnad Sadashiva Rao is a freedom fighter from the state of Karnataka. He was also from a wealthy Mangalorean family born in 1881. He was involved in the Indian Independence Movement and with his wife Shantabai’s support, he founded Mahila Sabha to help poor women and widows. He was a true follower of Mahatma Gandhi.

5. Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan, Freedom Fighter, India, Karnataka Freedom Fighters

  • Born: 20 November 1750, Devanahalli
  • Full name: Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu
  • Parent(s): Hyder Ali, Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa
  • Died: 4 May 1799, Srirangapatna

Tipu Sultan , also known as the Mysore Tiger, ruled the Mysore Kingdom from 1782 to 1799. He was also a scholar, soldier, and poet. Tipu was the first son of Hyder Ali of Mysore and his wife Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa. He was born to a Muslim family. He fought many battles with the British and took French support initially.

6. Onake Obavva

Onake Obavva, Freedom Fighter, Karnataka Freedom Fighter, India

  • Born: 18 th Century
  • Husband: Kahale Mudda Hanuma
  • Fought against: Hyder Ali Army
  • Died: 1779, Chitradurga

Onake Obavva is a heroic woman who showed her braveness to the world and respect towards her husband when an army attacked the Chitradurga empire, she alone fought till her husband noticed and she died while in the process. Today we remember her for the great step she took.

7. N.S. Hardikar

Dr. Narayan Subbarao Hardikar, Freedom Fighter, India

  • Full Name: Narayan Subbarao Hardikar
  • Date of birth‎: ‎7 May 1889
  • Place of birth‎: ‎Dharwad
  • Date of death‎: ‎26 August 1975

Dr. N.S. Hardikar was closely associated with Lala Lajpatrai and involved in the freedom struggle not in the front face but by lecturing and selling books promoting the sentiments. He took many responsibilities over the year in Congress and he was the president of the Hindustan Association of America.

8. Yashodhara Dasappa

Yashodhara Dasappa, Women Freedom Fighter, Karnataka Freedom Fighter, India

  • Born: 28 May 1905, Bengaluru
  • Awards: Padma Bhushan
  • Children: Tulasidas Dasappa

Yashodhara Dasappa was a Gandhian and a freedom fighter. She was politically aligned with the National Congress of India and served as a minister in the Karnataka state governments led by S. R. Kanthi and S. Nijalingappa.

9. V.N. O’key

V.N. O'key, Freedom Fighters of India, Karnataka Freedom Fighter

  • Parents: T. Narasimha Shenoy and Sundaribai of Mulki
  • Profession: humanitarian, artistic, and a social activist
  • His Motto: Service before Self

V.N. O’key is a person who got a talent for illustrating arts and the one supported the Quit India Movement by helping Yusuf Meher Ali a freedom fighter. Even his paintings at the time of Emergency in India got global attention as well.

10. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

Kamaladevi Chattopadhaya, Freedom Fighters of India, Karnataka Freedom Fighter, Women Freedom Fighter

  • Born: 3 April 1903, Mangalore
  • Died: 29 October 1988, Mumbai
  • Spouse: Harindranath Chattopadhyay (m. 1923–1955), Krishna Rao (m. 1917–1919)

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was a great women freedom activist who involved mainly in Salt Satyagraha, she is known for uplifting many women in the society such as handicrafts, handlooms, etc. in the post-independence.

Know more freedom fighters on next page…

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Top 10 unsung freedom fighters of karnataka .

freedom fighters of Karnataka

The freedom fighters who gave up their hopes and families and dedicated their lives to freeing the country and bringing Karnataka together as a state are the freedom warriors of Karnataka. These freedom fighters of Karnataka actively participated in India’s independence movement. They gave their lives in a noble battle to free India.

10 Freedom Fighters of Karnataka 

1. karnad sadashiva rao.

As a young lawyer he engaged in social activity in 1911 in the advancement of women. He formed the Mahila Sabha and, with his wife Shantabai, was able to motivate women to come out of their homes. 

He was also one of the first volunteers from Karnataka to join Gandhi’s Satyagraha movement. His role in the Congress Party’s growth in Karnataka made him one of its most influential members. He was the driving force behind the Non-Cooperation Movement in South Kanara District. For the 1937 Provincial elections, Sadashiva Rao was also a candidate under consideration.

 Karnad Sadashiva Rao

2. Aluru Venkata Rao 

The way that Karnataka appears on the Indian map now is because of this man, thanks to Aluru Venkata Rao. He was in charge of the Karnataka Ekikarana (unification) movement and an awardee of the title of Kannada Kula Purohita (High Priest). At the Karnataka Sahitya Parishat, he was the first to introduce a resolution calling for the fusion of people from all regions. He also had a leading role in uniting people.

freedom fighters of Karnataka

3. Kamala Devi Chattopadhaya

A notable leader in India’s quest for independence, Kamala Devi was a champion of the Indian Renaissance. To collect volunteers for Satyagrahas nationwide, she became a prominent organizer for Gandhi’s Congress’ women’s and youth section.

Kamala Devi Chattopadhaya

4. Umabai Kundapur

Umabai was one of Karnataka’s courageous women freedom fighters who voluntarily offered her life as a sacrifice for the Swadeshi movement and Satyagraha. Many underground workers from the Quit India campaign showed up at her Hubli home during that time, asking for food and financial support. Umabai risked her life helping everyone on her own while hiding behind the curtain.

5. Onake Obavva – One of the Fearless Freedom Fighters of Karnataka 

A Karnataka Hindu fighter who, using an onake (pestle), battled Hyder Ali’s troops in the Karnataka kingdom of Chitradurga. Her spouse worked as a watchtower guard in the Chitradurga fort. She was a member of the Holayas (Chalavadi). One of Karnataka’s freedom fighters, she represents Kannada female pride. 

freedom fighters of Karnataka

6. Nittur Srinivasa Rau

A supporter of Gandhi, who took part in the fight for Indian freedom. He served as the first chairman of India’s Central Vigilance Commission in addition to being Chief Justice of the High Court of Mysore State (now Karnataka). [2] He was the first to translate Mahatma Gandhi’s autobiography into Kannada and was appointed as the state of Mysore’s acting governor. 

7. V. N. O’key 

O’key, who was born Vasudev, possessed the uncommon trinity of humanism, creative excellence, and humility. He collaborated with Sane Guruji and contributed significantly to the documentation of the tribal Indians through his artwork and graphics. Before dying in a senior citizens’ home in Panvel, he fought secretly during gloomy emergencies.

8. Kittur Rani Chennamma – The Queen of Kittur

The queen of the former princely state of Kittur in modern-day Karnataka. In violation of the Paramountcy, she organized an armed uprising against the British East India Company in 1824 to keep hold of her realm. In the first insurrection, she overthrew the Company, but in the second rebellion, she perished as a prisoner of war. She is still a folk hero in Karnataka and a key figure in the Indian independence movement since she was one of the first and few women freedom fighters of Karnataka to command rebel forces against British colonial control.

Kittur Rani Chennamma

9. Sangolli Rayanna 

Indian rebel, military commander (Shetsanadi), and fighter in the Kittur princely kingdom, in the modern Indian state of Karnataka, in the nineteenth century. Sangolli Rayanna took part in the 1824 revolt and was captured by the British; they eventually released him. He persisted in his battle against the British and sought to appoint Shivalingappa, the adopted son of King Mallasarja and Rani Chennamma, as the king of Kittur. He organized the locals and launched a guerilla battle against the British.

freedom fighters of Karnataka

10. K.G Gokhale 

A renowned journalist noted for his political work, Mr. Gokhale. His provocative articles had a significant impact on motivating readers to join the liberation cause. He oversaw the chamar schools, worked as a bhangi (janitor) in the Harijan quarters, and traveled across the Belgaum District as the Harijan Sangha’s Secretary. 

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Rani Kittur Chennamma: India’s Valiant Freedom Fighter | #IndianWomenInHistory

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Kittur Chennamma, the Queen of Kittur, was one of the  first Indian rulers to lead an armed rebellion against the British East India Company in 1824, against the implementation of the Doctrine of Lapse . She was born in 1778, 56 years before the 1857 revolt led by Rani Lakshmi Bai, thus becoming the one of the first women freedom fighters to have fought against the British rule in India.

Her rebellion against the British ended with her imprisonment, however, she became a celebrated freedom fighter in the state of Karnataka and a symbol of the independence movement in India. Since 1824, ‘ Kittur Utsava ’ has been organised every year in the month of October to celebrate the heroic rebellion of Rani Kittur Chennamma. 

Also Read:  Accamma Cherian: The Jhansi Rani Of Travancore | #IndianWomenInHistory

[Image Courtesy: Journeys Across Karnataka]

She was married to Mallasarja Desai, the king of Kittur, at the age of 15 and became the queen of Kittur. She had one son from the marriage, who after the death of her husband in 1816, also died in 1824. As the queen of Kittur, Kittur Chennamma adopted Shivalingappa after the death of her only son with the aim of making him the heir to the throne of Kittur.

Defiance of British Rule

The British East India Company did not take lightly to Chennamma’s act and ordered Shivalingappa’s exile from the kingdom. This was done under the pretext of the Doctrine of Lapse, according to which adoptive children of native rulers were not allowed to be named their successor and if the native rulers did not have children of their own, their kingdom would become a territory of the British Empire. The Doctrine of Lapse was officially codified between 1848 to 1856 by Lord Dalhousie.

Kittur Chennamma, however, defied the British order to expel Shivalingappa from the throne. She sent a letter to the Governor of Bombay to plead the cause of Kittur but Lord Elphinstone turned down Chennamma’s request. The state of Kittur came under the administration of Dharwad collectorate in charge of Mr. Thackeray, and Mr. Chaplin was the commissioner. Both men did not recognise Chennamma as the regent and Shivalingappa as the ruler and apprised Rani Chennamma to surrender her kingdom, but she again defied the British order. This led to the breakout of a war.

Also Read:  Begum Samru: Nautch Girl Turned Queen Of Sardhana | #IndianWomenInHistory

War against the British

The British attempted to pillage Kittur’s treasures and jewels, which valued around 15 lakh rupees, but were unsuccessful. They had attacked Kittur with a force of 20,000 men and 400 guns, which came mainly from the third troop of the Madras Native Horse Artillery.

To avoid further destruction and war, Rani Chennamma negotiated with the British Commissioner Mr. Chaplin and the Governor of Bombay, under whose regime Kittur fell. She released the hostages owing to the British promise that the war would no longer be continued. However, the promise turned out to be only an act of deception. Humiliated by their first defeat at the hands of a small Indian ruler, Mr. Chaplin treacherously returned with much larger forces from Mysore and Sholapur to attack Kittur once again.

[Image Courtesy: Journeys Across Karnataka]

Ultimately, Kittur Chennamma and her forces were outnumbered by the large strength of the British forces. Rani Chennamma was defeated in her last battle and captured by the British, who imprisoned her at the Bailhongal Fort for life.

Her loyal lieutenant Sangoli Rayanna continued the guerrilla war even in her absence up to 1829, but in vain. He wished to install Shivalingappa, Chennamma’s adopted son, as the ruler of Kittur, but he was captured and hanged by the British. Shivalingappa was also arrested by the British forces.

Also Read:  Razia Sultan: The First and Last Woman Ruler of Delhi Sultanate | #IndianWomenInHistory

Imprisonment and Death

[Image Courtesy: Hindu History]

Rani Chennamma’s samadhi (burial place) is in Bailhongal taluk, under the care of Government agencies. However, sadly, the burial place of this valiant queen lies neglected , in a state of poor maintenance. The only time the place is looked after is during the ‘ Kittur Utsava ’ and ‘ Kannada Rajyotsava ‘.

Commemorations

Kittur Rani Chennamma is still remembered for her valour. Even though she couldn’t win the war against the British, she became an inspiration for India’s freedom fighters and a lesson for the British government that Indian rulers will not accept their enforced laws without a good fight.

During the freedom movement, her brave resistance against the British forces became the theme of several inspirational plays, folk songs ( Lavani ) and stories. Rani Chennamma’s first victory against the British forces is still honoured annually in October during the ‘Kittur Utsava’, held in Kittur.

[Image Courtesy: Wikipedia]

On September 11, 2007, Rani Chennamma’s statue was unveiled at the Indian Parliament complex in New Delhi by the first woman President of India, Smt. Pratibha Patil. The statue was donated by the Kittur Rani Chennamma Memorial Committee and was sculpted by Vijay Gaur . Two other statues of Rani Chennamma were also installed at Bangalore and Kittur.

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Shagun Gupta is a fiction enthusiast and an amateur photographer, currently embarking on a writing career after having recently earned her post-graduate degree in Mass Communication.

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“She was born in 1778, 56 years before the 1857 revolt led by Rani Lakshmi Bai”…. the difference is 79 years.

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Karnataka connect with freedom struggle

As India celebrates her 74th Independence Day, The New Indian Express takes a look at Karnataka’s contribution to the fight for Independence. We also peep into the minds of people, to see what freedom and independence means to them in 2020...

Premier institute of learning The brainchild of businessman and philanthropist Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata, the Indian Institute of Science was conceived in the late 1800s. He set up a provisional committee under the leadership of Burjorji Padshah, an educationist, to come up with a blueprint. He also endowed a substantial part of his personal wealth for this project. Unfortunately, Tata died in 1904, well before the institute came into existence. It was eventually established, through a vesting order passed May 27, 1909 by the British Indian Government in Bengaluru on land donated by the Mysore Durbar. The Institute, which started with just two departments – General and Applied Chemistry and Electrical Technology – today has over 40 departments. It also has a new campus at Challakere in Chitradurga district.

B’luru home to DRDO labs Not just the PSUs, Bengaluru is home to number of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) laboratories, mostly working in defence aeronautics, radar, engine and related technologies. While Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) which works on military radars and related technologies was among the first DRDO laboratories to be set up in Bengaluru in 1958, a number of other DRDO laboratories have been subsequently established in the city. Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Gas Turbine Research Centre (GTRC) and Centre for Airborne Systems (CABS), Defence Avionics and Research Establishment (DARE) are some of them.

Reaching for the skies Much before Information Technology put Bengaluru on the global map, defence PSU Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) had propelled the city and the country on the global aviation map. Among the few big institutions founded before Independence, the defence and aviation bellwether continues to play pivotal role in the country’s defence preparedness. In 1940, Seth Walchand Hirachand founded Hindustan Aircraft Limited, supported by Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV. From the first indigenous designed and developed trainer aircraft Hindustan Trainer-2 that was used by the Indian Air Force for several decades to manufacturing the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), the PSU grew to keep pace with the requirement of the Armed Forces.

Ringing in the change Indian Telephone Industries (ITI) Ltd was the first Public Sector Undertaking established after Independence. The PSU in telecommunications technology segment, established as a departmental factory in 1948, was manufacturing a diverse range of information and communication products. ITI, HAL and other PSUs were among the major sources of employment in Bengaluru for many decades before information technology, textiles and other sectors grew tremendously in the last few decades. It had over 19,000 employees in Bengaluru — and over 35,000 across India — on its rolls during its hey days in the 1980s. Unable to withstand competition from foreign firms post liberalisation, it became sick in 2004. However, after being in red for over 16 years, it is now on revival mode.

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Swadeshi Movement in Karnataka

The determined freedom fighters of various provinces of Karnataka were contributing wholeheartedly to the Swadeshi Movement propagated by Lokmanya Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. This wave also reached the district of Mysore.

The princely state of Mysore ruled by Wadiyars already had the Representative Assembly and the Legislative Council. However, despite having political representation, the political waves of the partition of Bengal and the calls for Swadeshi, Swaraj and the need for an unequivocal national unity entered Mysore too. M. Venkatkrishnaiah was the pioneering leader of the district who spread nationalistic ideas and events through newspapers.

Further, Tagaduru Ramachandra Rao, also known as the “father of political unrest in Mysore” also played a crucial role in the movement. A social reformist, Ramachandra Rao used to be a seller of foreign merchandise. Inspired by an ongoing emotion of nationalism he made a bonfire of foreign goods as a response to Gandhiji’s call for Swadeshi and promoted the use of Charkha. He also got arrested. The spirit of Swadeshi remained high in the subsequent period as well, and after Mahatma Gandhi’s tour of the Mysore district in 1927 a manufacturing unit of Khadi fabrics was also opened in Badanavalu.

The wholehearted commitment shown by the people of Mysore to the ideal of swadeshi shows us the deep roots of nationalism in India, and resistance to British domination in all its different forms.

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Newspaper Announcement for Bonfire of Foreign Clothes in the Bombay Chronicle, July 30, 1921

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Unsung Heroes | History Corner | Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, Ministry of Culture, Government of India

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Kamaladevi chattopadhyay.

Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka

November 11, 2021 to December 30, 2021

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Born in Mangalore, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was the first woman to run for a legislative seat in India, in the Madras provincial elections. As a social reformer, she played a crucial role in bringing back handicrafts, theatre and handlooms to help in uplifting the socio-economic status of the Indian women.

Many of the iconic cultural institutions in India today exist because of her vision, these include the National School of Drama, Sangeet Natak Akademi, Central Cottage Industries Emporium, and the Crafts Council of India. Chattopadhyay stressed the significant role which handicrafts and cooperative grassroot movements play in the social and economic upliftment of the Indian people.

Kamaladevi played a prominent role in political reforms and India’s freedom struggle. She joined Indian National Congress in 1927 and was elected to the All-India Congress Committee within a year. During the Salt March to Dandi, she convinced Gandhi to give women equal opportunity to be in the forefront of the March. Later, she joined Seva Dal and trained women activists.

On 3 April 2018, on what would have been her 115th birthday, Google honoured her with a Doodle on their homepage.

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13 Powerful Women Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

Women Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

Mahatma Gandhi led India’s struggle for freedom from 1920 to 1947. People from various backgrounds were drawn to his leadership. One big contribution in this struggle was of the women freedom fighters of Karnataka.

The proclamation by Gandhiji was prescient, when he expressed: “When the history of India’s fight for independence comes to be written, the sacrifice made by the women of India will occupy the foremost place”.

The backbone of India’s liberation was the commitment of women. They gave up their time to volunteer, advocate, protest, fast, and donate to the objective of freedom. These women should be acknowledged to understand how they played an active role in the freedom of India.

Here’s to the brave women freedom fighters of Karnataka who took up arms to fight for the nation’s freedom.

13 Women Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

1. kittur rani chennamma, 2. umabai kundapur, 3. yashodhara dasappa, 4. nagamma patil, 5. kamaladevi chattopadhyay, 6. rani abbakka chowta, 7. bellari siddamma, 8. keladi chennamma, 9. belawadi mallamma, 10. padmavati bidari, 11. shakuntala kurtakoti, 12. t. sunandamma, 13. sarojini mahishi, faqs on women freedom fighters of karnataka, who is the first female freedom fighter from karnataka, what was the role of kittur rani chennamma in the freedom struggle of india, what was the contribution of abbakka rani in the fight against the portuguese in karnataka.

  • What was Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay's contribution to the freedom struggle of India?

What was the contribution of Sarojini Mahishi in the empowerment of women in Karnataka?

Karnataka’s female satyagrahis sacrificed everything for the cause of freedom. Women played a very important part in the liberation struggle. Women played a very active role and made great sacrifices for the cause of their homeland both before and during the time of Gandhi.

Around the year 1920, the independence movement in Karnataka entered the Gandhian era. Read along to know about the 13 powerful women freedom fighters of Karnataka.

Kittur Chenamma

Rani Chennamma was a legendary queen and a freedom fighter from the princely state of Kittur in present-day Karnataka, India. She was born on October 23, 1778, and lived during the time of Colonial India . Chennamma became the queen of Kittur at the age of 15, following the death of her husband Mallasarja Desai.

She is remembered for her bravery and leadership during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 , also known as the First War of Indian Independence. In 1824, when the British East India Company attempted to annex the princely state of Kittur, she led an armed rebellion against them.

She formed an army of 2000 soldiers, which included women warriors, and fought against the British forces. Despite being heavily outnumbered and outgunned, her army managed to repel the first British attack.

The British, however, were determined to capture Kittur and launched a second attack on the kingdom. In 1829, after a long and grueling battle, she was captured and taken prisoner along with her adopted son Shivalingappa. She was imprisoned in the Bailhongal Fort, where she died on February 21, 1829.

She is regarded as one of the earliest female freedom fighters in India and a symbol of resistance against British imperialism. Her bravery and leadership inspired many other freedom fighters, and she continues to be an icon of courage and patriotism in India.

To honor her contributions to the Indian freedom struggle, the Government of India issued a stamp in her name in 2007. Today, she is remembered as a legendary queen, a freedom fighter, and a symbol of women’s empowerment in India.

You might also like to read our article on Women Freedom Fighters of India .

Umabai Kundapur

Umabai Kundapur, also known as Umabai Dabade, was from Kundapur, a small town in present-day Udupi district of Karnataka. She was born in 1923 in a rural farmer family, where she witnessed the sufferings of the common people under the British colonialists.

She was deeply influenced by the Indian independence movement and the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi. She joined the Indian National Congress and actively participated in the Quit India Movement of 1942.

She organized meetings, processions, and rallies, and encouraged more people to join. She also raised awareness about the importance of self-reliance and self-sufficiency. She promoted the use of Khadi clothes and Swadeshi products.

In 1944, Umabai Kundapur was arrested by the British authorities and imprisoned in the Bellary jail. She was subjected to inhuman treatment and torture, but she refused to be intimidated or broken. She continued to inspire her fellow inmates and became a symbol of resistance against British imperialism.

After India gained independence in 1947, Umabai Kundapur dedicated her life to social and political causes. She promoted the welfare of women, children, and marginalized communities. She was elected as the first woman member of the Kundapur Panchayat in 1954 and later served as a member of the Karnataka Legislative Council.

Umabai Kundapur passed away in 1997, leaving behind a legacy of courage, patriotism, and social justice. She is remembered as a symbol of women’s empowerment and a pioneer of the Indian freedom struggle. Several institutions in Karnataka have been named after her.

Related Article: South Indian Women Freedom Fighters .

Yashodhara Dasappa

Yashodhara Dasappa was a prominent freedom fighter and social reformer from Karnataka, India. She was born on October 27, 1905, in a wealthy family in Dharwad, in a privileged background. She was deeply influenced by the Indian freedom movement and the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi.

She participated in various protests, processions, and rallies. She also worked to promote women’s rights and was a vocal advocate of women’s education and empowerment. She laid the foundation of the Karnataka Mahila Seva Samaja in 1947, which focused on improving the lives of women and children in the state.

After India gained independence in 1947, she continued to work for social and political causes. She served as the first woman Minister in the Karnataka government, holding the portfolio of Social Welfare and Labor. She led the establishment of the Karnataka State Women’s Development Corporation. It aimed at promoting socio-economic empowerment of women.

She believed in the power of education and worked to promote access to education for all, particularly women and marginalized communities. She also laid the establishment of the Karnataka Lingayat Education Society .

She passed away on October 2, 1976, but her legacy continues to inspire generations of people in Karnataka and beyond.

Also read our article on Unknown Female Freedom Fighters of India .

Nagamma Patil

Amidst India’s independence struggle, Patil became a symbol of the Gandhian movement in Karnataka. After India achieved its freedom, she devoted herself to educating children. Born on December 16, 1905, she was married to veteran freedom fighter Padma Shri Sardar Veeranagouda Patil.

In 1924, when Mahatma Gandhi visited Belgaum, it made a deep impression her & she became an ardent follower of Gandhi. During the 1930s, she joined Sardar Veeranagouda and established Hubli’s Harijan Balika Ashram.

Both Nagamma and her husband joined the freedom fight in 1938 after hearing Mahatma Gandhi’s call to arms for the cause. She was detained and held in Hindalaga Prison in Belgaum for three months that same year. In 1942, she was likewise detained and held in the Yerawada Central for 13 months.

Read also: Famous Slogans of Female Freedom Fighters .

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

Born in Mangalore in 1903, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was a free-thinking feminist & freedom fighter. Her mother, a liberal Saraswat Brahmin, was her main inspiration.

Her parents made friends with a number of notable thinkers and independence fighters, including Mahadev Govind Ranade and Gopal Krishna Gokhale , as well as women’s rights activists Ramabai Ranade and Annie Besant . Due to this, young Kamaladevi became a swadeshi nationalist movement devotee at a young age.

She was in London when she learn about Mahatma Gandhi’s call for the Non-Cooperation movement . She returned to India and joined the Seva Dal. She was made in charge of the women’s section of the Seva Dal. She was a founding member of the All India Women’s Conference(AIWC) . She was the first organizing secretary of the AIWC.

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya was also a part of the Salt Satyagraha . She remained committed to feminism throughout her life, and she never shied away from opposing men who infringed on women’s rights. Her work was so successful that she was the first woman in India to run for a legislative position.

She received the Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan from the Indian government.

Read about the First Women Freedom Fighter of India .

Abbakka Chowta

In the later half of the 16th century, Abbakka Rani was the first Tuluva queen of Ullal to engage in battle against the Portuguese. She was one of the first women to resist against colonialism and foreign invaders.

Her deeds helped the Indian freedom struggle get off the ground. Rani Abbakka earned the name Abhaya Rani (fearless queen) for her bravery.

Considering Ullal’s vital location, the Portuguese attempted many attempts to take it. For over four decades, Abbakka successfully repelled each of their assaults. Rani Abbakka gained the respect of her people, accomplished her dream of a free kingdom, and is still adored in her hometown of Ullal today.

You might also like to read about: Female Freedom Fighters of Tamil Nadu .

Bellary Siddamma

Bellari Siddamma was born in 1903 to a traditional family in the Dundasi Village of the present-day Haveri District. Her father was actively engaged in the struggle for liberation. He used to bring magazines and newspapers for Siddamma. Her nationalist beliefs grew as a result of this.

She found it simple to engage in the independence struggle because she was married to Murugappa, another freedom warrior. She had participated in the Shivapura Congress party in 1938.

She participated in the Aranya Sathyagraha in Chitradurga state in 1939, the “Mysuru Chalo” or “Aranmane Sathyagraha” & the Quit India Movement. In opposition to forest laws, the Aranya Satyagraha or Forest Satyagraha was organized. People engaged in civil disobedience by grazing cattle in the woodlands and cutting down valuable trees.

She is the first woman in the state of Mysuru to hoist the national flag & she served a one-month sentence in jail. She was arrested and sentenced to jail time due to the fact that she cut down wild date trees in the Davangere forests of Mayakowda and Anagond.

Later, she was elected as Davangere’s MLA & suggested the women start weaving and spinning. To ensure better health among rural women, she created “Mathrumandir.”

Her association with other important freedom fighters, including Sardar Veeranagouda Patil, S. Nijalingappa , and T. Siddalingaiah , made her a powerful leader and a key figure in the state’s history. She was honored with a copper plaque by the state government. She contributed to the fight for freedom and uplifting women in general.

Read also: Female Freedom Fighters of Maharashtra .

Keladi Chennamma edited

Keladi Chennamma was a prominent queen and warrior of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom in Karnataka, India. She was born in 1671 in the Keladi Kingdom, in present-day Shimoga district, and was married to Somashekara Nayaka, the King of Keladi.

Her husband, Somashekara Nayaka, died in 1704, leaving their young son, Shivappa Nayaka, as the heir to the throne. During her son’s minority, she served as the regent of the Keladi Kingdom and played a key role in the administration of the state.

In 1734, the Maratha Empire , led by the Peshwa Baji Rao , launched an invasion of the Keladi Kingdom, seeking to annex it to their empire. Chennamma, then in her 60s, led the defense against the Maratha army, and successfully repelled their invasion.

Her bravery and military skills were instrumental in the Keladi Kingdom’s defense. The Keladi Kingdom continued to prosper under her rule, and she played a crucial role in promoting the welfare of the people.

She passed away in 1750, but her legacy continues to inspire generations of people in Karnataka and beyond.

Also read our article on Female Freedom Fighters of Goa .

Belawadi Mallamma

Belawadi Mallamma was a brave freedom fighter and a social reformer who lived in the state of Karnataka, India. She was born in 1878 in a small village called Belawadi in the Hubli district of Karnataka. She came from a humble background and worked as a laborer in a cotton mill in Dharwad before becoming involved in the freedom struggle.

She played a crucial role in inspiring and mobilizing masses against British. She was a vocal critic of the social and economic injustices perpetuated by the British.

She was known for her acts of bravery and courage. In one famous incident, she led a group of women to storm a British army post in Dharwad. They successfully retrieved a cache of weapons that had been confiscated from the Indian freedom fighters.

Belawadi Mallamma also worked to promote social reforms and women’s rights. She advocated for the abolition of child marriage and dowry , and promoted the education and empowerment of women. She was an ardent supporter of Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance.

She passed away in 1941, but she is remembered as a pioneering figure in the Indian freedom movement.

You might also like to read: Female Freedom Fighters of Bengal .

Padmavati Bidari was a courageous freedom fighter and social reformer from Karnataka, India. She was born in 1915 in a small village called Hulikunte in the Belagavi district of Karnataka. She grew up in a family that was actively involved in the Indian freedom movement, and this influenced her to join the struggle at a young age.

She was known for her fierce determination and commitment to the cause of Indian independence. Her contributions to the Indian freedom movement were significant, and she was often subjected to harassment and arrest by the British colonial authorities.

She also worked to promote social reforms and women’s rights. She was a vocal critic of the social injustices perpetuated against women, particularly child marriage and dowry. She actively campaigned for the education and empowerment of women, and worked to promote gender equality.

After India gained independence in 1947, she continued to work for social and political causes. She actively promoted women’s education and empowerment, and was a vocal advocate of women’s rights. She served as a member of the Karnataka Legislative Council and worked to promote social and economic development in the state.

She passed away in 2002, but she is remembered as a pioneering figure in the Indian freedom movement.

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Shakuntala Kurtakoti was a brave freedom fighter and a social reformer. She was born in 1921 in the town of Dharwad in Karnataka, India. From a young age, Shakuntala was inspired by the Indian freedom struggle, and she joined the movement as a teenager.

She was a staunch advocate of women’s rights and was instrumental in organizing and mobilizing women against the British. Shakuntala was arrested and jailed several times by the British authorities. She was known for her courage and determination, and her commitment to the cause of Indian independence.

She organized and led several marches and protests against social injustices against women. She also raised awareness about the importance of education for women and worked to improve access to education for girls and women.

After India’s independence in 1947, she continued to work for social and political causes. She played a key role in the establishment of several women’s organizations and institutions in Karnataka.

She also served as a member of the Karnataka Legislative Council and worked to promote social and economic development in the state. She passed away in 2004, but her legacy continues to inspire generations of people in Karnataka and beyond.

Also read our article on Female Freedom Fighters of Telangana .

T. Sunandamma was a prominent freedom fighter and social activist from Karnataka, India. She was born in 1915 in the village of Haralayya in the Kolar district of Karnataka. She was deeply inspired by the Indian freedom struggle, and from a young age, she actively participated in the movement.

She joined the Indian National Congress and worked to mobilize and organize women to participate in the freedom struggle.

In addition, She was also a social activist and worked tirelessly to promote social reform and women’s rights. She was a vocal critic of the social injustices that women faced, particularly child marriage and dowry. She also campaigned for the education and empowerment of women and worked to promote gender equality.

She was often subjected to harassment and arrest by the British authorities. Despite the hardships, she remained committed to the cause and continued to work for the betterment of her fellow citizens.

After India gained independence in 1947, Sunandamma continued to work for social and political causes. She actively promoted women’s education and empowerment and was a vocal advocate of women’s rights. She served as a member of the Karnataka Legislative Council and worked to promote social and economic development in the state.

T. Sunandamma passed away in 1987, but her legacy continues to inspire generations of people in Karnataka and beyond.

You might also like to read: Women Freedom Fighters of Kerala .

SAROJINI MAHIShi

Sarojini Mahishi was a prominent social activist and freedom fighter from Karnataka, India. She was born in 1927 in Mysore, and from a young age, she was actively involved in social and political activities. She was deeply committed to social justice, and focused on empowering the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes .

She was a strong advocate for women’s rights and worked tirelessly to promote gender equality. She played a leading role in the formation of the Karnataka State Women’s Commission and worked to strengthen the rights of women in the state. She was also a champion of the rights of the working class and was actively involved in the trade union movement.

One of Sarojini’s most significant contributions was in the area of land reforms. She was appointed as the chairperson of the Karnataka Land Reforms Commission in 1974. Under her leadership, the commission proposed radical reforms to improve land ownership patterns.

These aimed to redistribute land to landless farmers and promote the welfare of agricultural laborers. The recommendations were eventually accepted by the state government.

Her contributions to the social and political life of Karnataka is respected for her activism and advocacy. Sarojini passed away in 2011, but her contributions to the betterment of society continue to be celebrated.

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Many women from Karnataka took up leadership roles in the Indian freedom struggle. Many have portraits and biographies on Kamat’s Potpourri website. At the time of independence, Karnataka was not a state but comprised of over twenty kingdoms and administrative blocks. As such, it is remarkable to note that women made up a significant part of the freedom struggle in Karnataka.

You might also like to read our articles on:

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Kittur Rani Chennamma is revered as the first female freedom fighter of Karnataka. She led an armed revolt against British Colonial rule.

Rani Chennamma was a queen of the princely state of Kittur in Karnataka. She fought against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. She led an armed rebellion against the British and became a symbol of resistance against British imperialism in India.

Abbakka Rani was a queen of the Ullal region in Karnataka who fought against the Portuguese colonialists in the 16th century. She was known for her bravery and strategic skills and successfully led several attacks against the Portuguese.

What was Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay’s contribution to the freedom struggle of India?

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was a social reformer and freedom fighter. She was one of the first women to join the Indian National Congress. She also joined several important moves, such as the Quit India movement and the Salt Satyagraha. She was also a champion of women’s rights and worked to promote handicrafts and traditional arts.

Sarojini Mahishi was a social activist and politician. She worked to promote the rights of women and marginalized communities in Karnataka. She was instrumental in the implementation of the Mahishi Report. This report recommended reservations for women in government jobs in the state. She also worked to promote education and employment opportunities for women and Dalits.

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Essay on Freedom Fighters for Students and Children

500+ words essay on freedom fighters.

Freedom fighters were people who sacrificed their lives selflessly for the freedom of their country. Every country has its fair share of freedom fighters . People look up to them in terms of patriotism and love for one’s country. They are considered the epitome of patriotic people.

Essay on Freedom Fighters

Freedom fighters made sacrifices which one cannot even imagine of doing for their loved ones, leave alone the country. The amount of pain, hardships, and opposite they have endured cannot be put into words. The generations after them will always be indebted to them for their selfless sacrifices and hard work .

Importance of Freedom Fighters

One cannot emphasize enough on the importance of freedom fighters. After all, they are the ones because of whom we celebrate Independence Day . No matter how small a role they played, they are very much significant today as they were in those times. Moreover, they revolted against the colonizers so as to stand up for the country and its people.

Furthermore, most of the freedom fighters even went to war to safeguard the freedom of their people. It did not matter that they had no training; they did it for the pure intention of making their country free. Most of the freedom fighters sacrificed their lives in the war for independence.

Most importantly, freedom fighters inspired and motivated others to fight injustice. They are the pillars behind the freedom movement. They made people aware of their rights and their power. It is all because of the freedom fighters that we prospered into a free country free from any kind of colonizers or injustice.

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My Favourite Freedom Fighters

essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

Secondly, Rani Lakshmi Bai was a great freedom fighter. I have learned so many things from this empowering woman. She fought for the country despite so many hardships. A mother never gave up her country because of her child, instead took him to the battlefield to fight against injustice. Moreover, she was so inspiring in numerous ways.

Next, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose comes in my list. He led the Indian National Army to show the power of India to the British. His famous line remains to be ‘give me your blood and I will give you freedom.’

Finally, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was also one of the greatest leaders. Despite being from a rich family, he gave up the easy life and fought for India’s freedom. He was imprisoned a number of times but that did not stop him from fighting against injustice. He was a great inspiration to many.

In short, freedom fighters are what made our country what it is today. However, we see nowadays people are fighting for everything they stood against. We must come together to not let communal hatred come between and live up to the Indian dream of these freedom fighters. Only then will we honor their sacrifices and memory.

FAQ on Freedom Fighters

Q.1 Why were freedom fighters important?

A.1 Freedom fighters made our country independent. They gave up their lives so we could have a bright future free from colonization.

Q.2 Name some of the Indian freedom fighters.

A.2 Some of the famous India freedom fighters were Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, and Jawaharlal Nehru.

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  • Freedom Fighters Essay

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Introduction

The freedom of a country depends on its citizens. Individuals who selflessly sacrifice their lives so that their country and countrymen can be free are identified as freedom fighters. Every country has a few brave hearts who willingly give up their lives for their countrymen. Freedom fighters did not only fight for their country but for everyone who suffered in silence, lost their family and freedom, and even their rights to live for themselves. People of the country look up to the freedom fighters with respect for their patriotism and the love they had for their motherland. These people provide examples by which other citizens aim to live by.

For ordinary people, sacrificing their lives is a big deal but freedom fighters selflessly make this unimaginable sacrifice for their country without thinking of any repercussion. The amount of pain and hardships that they have to endure to achieve their goal cannot be described in mere words. The entire country remains forever indebted to them for their struggles.

The Influence Left by the Freedom Fighters

One can't stress enough the importance of the deeds of the freedom fighters. On every Independence Day, the country remembers the thousands who once struggled so that their countrymen could be free. Their sacrifices are never forgotten by their countrymen. 

If we delve into history, we see most freedom fighters joined the freedom struggle without prior formal training in war or related fields. They went to wars and protests knowing very well that they may get killed by the opposite power. The freedom fighters were not just people who fought with arms against the tyrants but they were people who joined protests through literature, legal advocates, people who contributed money to the freedom struggle, and so on. Most of the brave hearts led the fight against foreign powers. They made their fellow people realize their rights and pointed out all the existing social injustice and crimes committed by the ones in power. 

The most important effect that the freedom fighters left on the people of the society are that they inspired others to understand their rights and stand up against the people in power. They inspired others to join their struggle. It was because of the freedom fighters that the countrymen united with a bond of Nationalism and patriotic feelings. 

Freedom fighters are considered to be the propelling force behind the success of the freedom struggle. They are the reason why we can now prosper in a free country.

Some Noteworthy Indian Freedom Fighters

India had been under British rule for 200 years approximately. There were a lot of brave hearts who laid down their lives for the freedom of India. Within the limited scope of this essay, we will discuss the contributions made by only a few freedom fighters.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi is known as the father of the nation. Mahatma Gandhi, the reason behind the Dandi march, led the path to freedom following the principles of ahimsa or non-violence. He prioritised ‘ swadeshi ’ and ‘non-cooperation’ to expedite the freedom movement. 

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was an excellent leader. He travelled to other countries to form alliances and formed Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj which eventually helped our nation prosper. He was successful in freeing a portion of the Indian Territory from British rule.

Bhagat Singh

The fearless patriot was hanged to death at a very young age after being convicted in several cases of dissent against the then British empire. He was indeed a true patriot and we still remember him as Shaheed Bhagat Sing. 

Conclusion  

Freedom fighters are the reason we live in a free country. We must honour their sacrifices and aim to live together in harmony and peace ensuring social justice. 

The motivation for today’s youth is alive in the stories of freedom fighters. The struggles of their lives show the difference in life and the dept of the value they believe in and fought for. We as a citizen of India should respect and honor the sacrifice by creating a peaceful environment in the country.

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FAQs on Freedom Fighters Essay

1. What is freedom means to the people living in a country?

Freedom means to live freely without any restrictions to their values. Freedom means people can live according to their opinions, people can work according to their capabilities, there won’t be any discrimination against them by any third party. Freedom means that no one is heading any individual, or controlling them according to their needs. It also means that people can freely live their lives in their own country without any disturbance from any third party.

2. How do freedom fighters affect the independence of our country?

Our country had a huge population at the time of British rule. But then also our country was under British rule for many years. The people of our country are huge in numbers so they need leaders who lead them. These leaders of that time are the freedom fighters, who lead people to come in the majority and revolt against the British empire. Freedom fighters played the most important role to give our people the causes for the revolt.

3. How freedom fighters were brought up to become leaders at that time?

Freedom fighters had their will and the passion to fight for the country. Looking back to the days when our country was under British rule, everybody who fought for the country was not trained professionally to be a freedom fighter. They fought and made us and our country the proudest country of all. Only freedom fighters are the reason behind the freedom struggle that our ancestors faced.

4. Describe the role of Mahatma Gandhi as a freedom fighter.

Mahatma Gandhi was the backbone of the freedom fighters. He was the leader who fought on his will without any hand war. His principle of non-violence helped this country from scratch.

He believed in himself and fought against the British empire. He also owned the honor of The Father of the Nation. The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi, was the reason behind the Dandi march and other struggles.

5. What was the agenda of being independent at the time of British rule?

The agenda of becoming independent at the time of British rule was to live freely in our country without any discrimination. Our people were tortured by the British empire to the max. Our children were not allowed to attain an education. Even we in our own country were not able to live the way we want.

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Essay on Freedom Fighters of India - 100, 200, 500 Words

India saw some brave and audacious freedom fighters who fought relentlessly to free their country from the British rule. India's freedom was largely attributed to the contributions of its heroes, Bhagat Singh, Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Laxmi Bai, Subhash Chandra Bose, to name some of them. Every freedom fighter contributed something unique to make India a lovely country to live in. Here are a few sample essays on ‘Indian Freedom Fighters’.

Essay on Freedom Fighters of India - 100, 200, 500 Words

100 Words Essay On Freedom Fighters

India attained independence on August 15, 1947, as a result of the valiant freedom struggle led by its great warriors. Our freedom fighters contributed to fighting a number of conflicts, movements, battles, and upheavals.

Significant contributions have been made by outstanding liberation fighters like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Dr Rajendra Prasad, Dr Lal Bahadur Shastri, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, and Mahatma Gandhi.

Freedom fighters not only battled to protect their country, but also for everyone who suffered in silence and lost their family, freedom, or even the right to live independently. The people of the country have a great deal of respect for the freedom fighters.

200 Words Essay On Freedom Fighters

India owes its freedom to its valiant freedom fighters. They are the reason why we can take the privilege of celebrating an Independence Day. They were revolutionaries, and some of them employed non-violence as a tool to combat the British. Because of the effort made by our freedom fighters to achieve independence, India finally attained independence on August 15, 1947.

My Favourite Freedom Fighters

Mahatma Gandhi, popularly known as the 'Father of the Nation', is someone I adore dearly and is one of my favourite freedom fighters. He chose the path of non-violence and achieved liberation using just the truth and peace, not any weapons.

Another great freedom fighter was Rani Lakshmi Bai, a strong woman who had a lot to teach by example. Despite facing so many challenges, she battled for the nation. The mother never abandoned her nation for the sake of her kid; rather, she took him to the front lines of the war against injustice.

After a century of revolution, bloodshed, and wars, we were able to take back our freedom from the British. We live in a democratic, independent country because of these outstanding leaders. Numerous freedom fighters struggled to defend the people from British injustice, exploitation, and cruelty. It was their sheer love and dedication for the country and its people that they took India back from the British.

500 Words Essay on Freedom Fighters

Freedom fighters are individuals who dedicate their lives to fighting for the freedom of their people. They are willing to put their own lives on the line in order to bring about change and to stand up for what is right.

Learnings From Freedom Fighters

One of the most important lessons that can be learned from freedom fighters is the importance of standing up for what you believe in. Freedom fighters are not afraid to speak out against injustice and oppression, even when it means putting themselves in harm's way. They show us that it is possible to make a difference in the world, even when the odds are against us.

Another important lesson is the power of perseverance. Freedom fighters are often fighting against powerful and entrenched systems of oppression, and they know that the road to freedom is long and difficult. But they do not give up. They continue to fight, even when the going gets tough, because they know that their cause is just and that freedom is worth fighting for.

Freedom fighters also teach us the importance of empathy and compassion. They understand the suffering of others and they are willing to put themselves in harm's way in order to alleviate that suffering. They show us that it is possible to be selfless and to work for the greater good, even in the face of adversity.

Lastly, freedom fighters remind us of the power of unity. They know that they cannot fight for freedom alone. They rely on the support and solidarity of others in order to achieve their goals. They remind us that when we come together and stand united, we are stronger and more effective in fighting for what is right.

My Experience

I was working as a journalist in a war-torn country when I met a freedom fighter named Ahmed. He was a young man who had dedicated his life to fighting for the freedom of his people. I was immediately drawn to his passion and conviction.

I spent time with Ahmed and his group, learning about their cause and the harsh realities of the war they were fighting. I saw firsthand the atrocities committed by the ruling regime, and the bravery and sacrifice of those who fought against it.

Through Ahmed, I came to understand the true meaning of freedom and the importance of standing up for what is right, even in the face of overwhelming odds. His courage and selflessness inspired me to become more involved in the fight for freedom and to use my platform as a journalist to raise awareness about the struggle.

Meeting Ahmed changed my life in many ways. It opened my eyes to the suffering of others and taught me the power of empathy and compassion. It also made me realise the importance of taking action to make a difference in the world. I will always be grateful for the time I spent with Ahmed and his group, and I will continue to fight for freedom in their honour.

Also Read: Republic Day Speech in English for Students

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Essay on Freedom of Speech in English for Students

essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  • Updated on  
  • Jun 1, 2024

Essay on Freedom of Speech

Article 19 of the Indian Constitution grants freedom of speech and expression to every citizen. This freedom guarantees us to express our thoughts, and opinions and share experiences. This freedom is not only related to an individual but to the media, political parties, and government also. As a student, you must know all about your fundamental rights and how to exercise them. Today, we will discuss an essay on freedom of speech and how it can be exercised.

Short Essay on Freedom of Speech

Also Read: Press Freedom Essay in 500+ Words in English for Students

Long Essay on Freedom of Speech

Also Read: Essay on Freedom in 100, 200 and 300 Words

A.1 Freedom of speech is one of the constitutional rights of our democracy. The freedom of speech states, “All citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression.”

A.2 The concept of freedom of speech goes back to ancient times when many of our writers and artists displayed the freedom of their opinions and viewpoints through their writings or artworks.

A.3 Right to Speech faces several challenges in the modern world. One of the challenges is the misuse of this freedom. People associate this right with the freedom to say anything that comes to their mind. This gives rise to hate speech and the spreading of misinformation. The power of hate speech cannot be underestimated since it can instigate violence and undermine public trust.

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A photograph of a man surrounded by campaign flags and posters, looking toward a sunset.

Opinion Lydia Polgreen

South Africa Is Not a Metaphor

Credit... Lindokuhle Sobekwa for The New York Times

Supported by

Lydia Polgreen

By Lydia Polgreen

Ms. Polgreen is an Opinion columnist. She reported across South Africa for 10 days for this column.

  • June 1, 2024

If you want to understand why the party that liberated South Africa from white rule lost its parliamentary majority in the election this week, you need to look no further than Beauty Mzingeli’s living room. The first time she cast a ballot, she could hardly sleep the night before.

“We were queuing by 4 in the morning,” she told me at her home in Khayelitsha, a township in the flatlands outside Cape Town. “We couldn’t believe that we were free, that finally our voices were going to be heard.”

That was 30 years ago, in the election in which she was one of millions of South Africans who voted the African National Congress and its leader, Nelson Mandela, into power, ushering in a new, multiracial democracy.

Nelson Mandela holding up his fist to a crowd of supporters in 1994.

But at noon on Wednesday, Election Day, as I settled onto a sofa in her tidy bungalow, she confessed that she had not yet made up her mind about voting — she might, for the first time, she told me, cast a ballot for another party. Or maybe she might do the unthinkable and not vote at all.

“Politicians promise us everything,” she sighed. “But they don’t deliver. Why should I give them my vote?”

That a mighty party like the A.N.C., which delivered one of the most inspiring triumphs of the 20th century, could a few decades later be dismissed by a loyal voter as mere “politicians,” hardly worth a trek to the polls, may seem like a dispiriting outcome. The A.N.C. could be forced for the first time into an unwieldy coalition government with smaller parties that might not make for ideal allies.

This change of fortune naturally sparks fear and speculation: Has South Africa’s transition failed, and is the country headed for the kind of strife that has bedeviled most countries in the aftermath of liberation from colonization?

South Africa has long loomed large in the global imagination. It is a country that was born at a particularly potent time in human history, at the end of the Cold War, built in the aftermath of grave injustice and constituted under a set of egalitarian ideas. It was, and is, as a new democracy, a symbol of what a new future might look like.

It is natural that 30 years later, we might ask for a verdict on how it has all gone, especially living as we do now, with sprawling wars on at least four continents, democracy in retreat in many places across the globe and a new conflagration in Israel and Palestine, a place that resonates with South Africa’s story.

I returned to South Africa ahead of the election for my first reporting trip since I was a correspondent here for The Times more than a decade ago. It can be hard to separate the outsize expectations the rest of the world places on South Africa with the ordinary experiences of South Africans. Yet I could not help feeling a sense of relief and even optimism at the prospect of the A.N.C. being humbled at the polls and being forced to compete, openly and vigorously, for the votes of South Africans who have, for understandable reasons, given the party a very long rope.

In 2011, the year I moved to South Africa, people were evenly split on whether the country was going in the right direction, according to the Afrobarometer survey. Last month in the Afrobarometer survey, 85 percent agreed the country is headed in the wrong direction.

That’s for good reason. Economic growth has stalled, and a staggering 32.9 percent of the working population is jobless. The government can’t seem to keep the lights on . Political corruption is endemic and rapacious. Violent crime wracks many areas, especially in the townships and informal settlements where poor people live. The country’s roads, bridges and ports — once vaunted as the continent’s best — are crumbling. Inequality between Black and white people, an intentional feature of the apartheid state, has widened in recent decades, within the Black community itself as a new Black elite with close ties to the government and big business has mushroomed.

Mzingeli did not need this litany. She is living it. The first decade after the end of apartheid was a euphoric period: The global political and economic conditions favored the new South Africa, and her own prospects soared. After years of working as a housekeeper, she was able to go back to school 19 years ago to become a nurse, a lifelong dream.

But she has watched with dismay as her children’s prospects have crumbled. Two of her grown children have not been able to find jobs, and in a galling reversal of traditional norms in her Xhosa community, she was supporting them as she aged, not the other way around. The party that promised “a better life for all” was delivering even less to her children than she was able to build for herself.

Take housing. For decades she has lived in a small but tidy cement block bungalow in this sprawling township. Her daughter lives in a tin shack in an informal settlement nearby, one of the millions of people desperate for proper housing in this country. She worries constantly about crime, about the rising cost of living, about whether the electricity will be on.

“I just worry and worry, so many things are going wrong,” she said.

The question now is who will fix it. It might sound counterintuitive that the rejection of the party of Nelson Mandela is a good thing. There are times when the task at hand is so monumental that nothing but total unity will do the job, and a politics of ideological flexibility and ruthlessly enforced unity, the A.N.C.’s stock in trade, must prevail. Ending apartheid was one such moment.

But there are other times when conflict is a profoundly productive force. Competition and contention over ideas is absolutely critical now in South Africa. The country has long labored under the burden of this story, the tale of its exceptional birth. On this trip I wondered what sort of unexpected liberation giving up that story might offer, even at the risk of unleashing unpredictable and sometimes frightening forces like ethnic nationalism and deeply patriarchal traditionalism.

W hen I moved to South Africa, the shimmering afterglow of hosting the 2010 World Cup, a triumphant moment for a soccer-mad nation, had already begun to fade. Jacob Zuma, a divisive and mercurial political figure, was president, and the early signs of the wholesale looting of the South African state that would happen under his watch were just beginning to reveal themselves.

A critical turning point came in August 2012, when the police opened fire on platinum miners engaged in a wildcat strike in a town called Marikana, killing 34. It was the first time since the end of apartheid that the state had meted out such violence on Black people, and it stunned everyone, including me. I had been in Marikana that day, reporting on the strike, and saw the aftermath firsthand.

The day after I arrived in the country this month, the A.N.C. had planned an election rally just a few miles from Marikana, to fight for votes in the platinum belt, a dusty landscape where low-slung mountains dotted with scrubby brush compete for altitude with giant piles of mine waste. It seemed like a good place to take the political temperature.

When the A.N.C.’s current leader and South Africa’s president, Cyril Ramaphosa, finally arrived, he bounded onstage, energetic in his yellow polo shirt.

“We’re going to win the election on the 29th of May,” he declared, with remarkable confidence for a man whose party has been steadily losing support in the polls. “We are not making a coalition with anybody!”

He ran through a litany of promises: to create millions of jobs, to set up a national health care system, to tackle crime. It was the kind of ambitious agenda that might sound impressive had his party not been in power the past three decades.

Less than a mile away, a party called the Economic Freedom Fighters was holding its own event. In some ways, the party was born out of the Marikana massacre. It has emphasized a populist left-wing program of wealth redistribution, adopting the red beret as a kind of sartorial signifier. But the party is also a vehicle for the political ambitions of Julius Malema, a former A.N.C. youth leader who was expelled from the party amid allegations of brazen corruption. The E.F.F. had a big moment in 2019 when it got over 10 percent of the vote, but its momentum appears to have slowed.

Meanwhile, Zuma has formed his own party, uMkhonto weSizwe, or MK, after the former armed wing of the A.N.C. It’s another breakaway shard, this time with a strong dose of social conservatism and a hint of tribalism. These hardly represent new ideas.

The main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance, offers up a mix of laissez-faire capitalism and fealty to white wealth that limits its appeal in a deeply impoverished, mostly Black nation. Small parties have proliferated, some with bizarre or even frightening proposals, like mass deportation of undocumented immigrants and the reinstating of the death penalty to deal with crime.

As of Friday, with almost 90 percent of the results in, the A.N.C.’s share of the vote was at 41 percent, a shocking drop of more than 16 points since 2019. It will in all likelihood lead the next government, but will need to form a coalition with smaller parties. The Democratic Alliance was at almost 22 percent. Zuma’s MK showed surprising strength for a new party, at 13.6 percent, while the E.F.F.’s share dropped below 10 percent. One especially worrying sign was the strong showing of the Patriotic Alliance, a small party with a virulently xenophobic platform. In 2019 it failed to qualify for a single seat in the Parliament, but in the early counting it has had a strong showing.

It is clear that South Africa is entering a new period of uncertainty and profound change. Voters will be choosing among many paths, some of which may lead them away from the ideals enshrined in the country’s deeply aspirational but still inspiring Constitution, with its stirring preamble:

“We, the people of South Africa, recognize the injustices of our past; honor those who suffered for justice and freedom in our land; respect those who have worked to build and develop our country; and believe that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, united in our diversity.”

There are movements that tap deeply into this spirit, building on it and trying to reinvent it for a new era. A small new party called Rise Mzansi, led by a former businessman and journalist named Songezo Zibi, proposes a European-style social democracy, delivered with care and competence, under the slogans “2024 is our 1994” and “We need new leaders.” It faced long odds in this election, so far winning less than half a percentage point of the vote, but building new movements takes time.

“South Africa is moving on, and moving on is tough,” Zibi told me. “One of the reasons we got into politics is to try and provide intellectual and moral clarity in a time of change. We understand that it’s not the sort of thing that you do in one election cycle. You look at 10 to 15 years.”

One of South Africa’s most indefatigable activists, Zackie Achmat, is running for Parliament as one of the country’s first independent candidates . Achmat helped start one of the most effective post-apartheid movements, which forced the government, then run by Thabo Mbeki, an AIDS denialist, to offer free AIDS drugs to millions of South Africans struggling with the disease.

I caught up with him on Election Day in the township of Gugulethu, in the vast flatlands outside Cape Town, where he visited polling stations to thank volunteers for his long-shot campaign. His supporters sang freedom songs, ululating as they performed the toyi-toyi, the high-stepping, foot-stomping dance of the fight against apartheid.

“Parliament is a sewer,” he told me after he walked an older voter, unsteady on her feet, to a voting booth. “I’m going in as an independent who is part of a movement that organizes people living with disability, people who are poor, queer people, people who are hungry, people who are living in informal settlements.”

He told me that if he wins, he hopes to get a seat on the parliamentary committee that oversees the public accounts, and would be a clearinghouse for transparency and accountability. Achmat’s energy has always been infectious, but seeing him roam the townships with his band of volunteers, a mix of South Africans of every race, hinted at new possibilities and energies.

B ut the most powerful South African energy shows up these days not in the election, but on the global stage, where the country has used its history and moral authority to stand for justice beyond its borders. A group of formidable jurists representing South Africa appeared before the International Court of Justice in December to argue that Israel’s actions in Gaza amount to genocide. The court agreed in a decision in January that South Africa’s case was at least plausible and demanded that Israel take greater care to protect civilians and provide aid. This month the court went further, ordering Israel to stop its incursion into Rafah.

There is a special and complicated relationship between South Africa, Israel and Palestine. The apartheid government had longstanding ties to Israel, and the A.N.C. to the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was for much of the struggle against apartheid an important left-wing ally. Israeli partition and occupation of lands long inhabited by Palestinians have imposed a system of separation and oppression that to many South Africans exceeds the darkest days of their experience with apartheid, in which the races mixed to some degree, by necessity, as Black and brown labor was necessary to the white regime.

Palestinian activists, for their part, have taken inspiration from the South African divestment movement, and some dare to hope that someday, a peaceful one-state solution like the one that ended apartheid here could be possible, creating a truly democratic shared nation under a constitution that enshrines equality between Palestinians and Israelis under the law.

There are, of course, real limits to comparing South Africa’s transition with the possibilities for transformation in Israel and Palestine. They are different places with different histories, and these are different times. Still, the echoes are useful and are a source of inspiration to activists who have found themselves dispirited by what has become of the A.N.C.

Last week I met with Merle Favis, a Jewish South African activist who had been deeply involved in the struggle against apartheid. The movement for Palestine, she told me over tea in a Johannesburg cafe, harks back to the fights she was involved in back in the 1980s that led to the fall of apartheid. “What was really important was mass struggle, grass roots struggle,” she said. That spirit lives on in campus protests, and in Muslim and Jewish solidarity groups.

In his 2020 book “Neither Settler Nor Native,” the political theorist Mahmood Mamdani offered the idea that South Africa’s transition was possible because of an extraordinary act of creativity and imagination in which the holders of what were once seen as fixed, eternal and opposed identities — settler and native — mutually surrendered those identities and took on new ones, as fellow survivors of a brutal colonial project who would try to build something new from its ruins. It is hard to imagine such a project in Israel and Palestine in these dark days. But what was possible once can be possible again.

W hat does South Africa offer us today? I had been thinking of its history as a burden, but there is a different metaphor that might emerge from the story of this very special particular nation: It is a map. It’s not the kind of map that tells you the most efficient way to get from here to there, but one that identifies the mountain ranges to be climbed and the rivers to be crossed that you’ll face along the way. It sketches the terrain on which the battle for liberation must be waged, offering clues and inspiration, if not answers.

But it also reminds us that the ecstatic moment of freedom’s birth in South Africa 30 years ago was a beginning, not an end. We call birth a miracle not because we know how it’s going to turn out, but because of the limitless possibility that it contains. The birth of a nation is no different. The new South Africa is still at the beginning of its story. No country, no person, is only a symbol or a metaphor.

Indeed, there are no miracles here, and that is a good thing. Because miracles cannot be repeated. But what can be repeated is the hard, sometimes ugly, always unglamorous work of compromise and negotiation, and the working through of the inevitable consequences of those compromises. It is only through this process of improvisation and invention that true self-determination comes.

The business of ending apartheid as a form of government in South Africa is over. It is never coming back. But if this election tells us anything, it is that the work of building a true multiracial democracy has really just begun.

Mandela once said, “I am not a saint, unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying.”

He was speaking of himself, but he just as easily could have been speaking of the whole nation. South Africa could be born only at the end of history. But history had other ideas, raging forward as ever, surprising and disappointing us by turns, same as it ever was.

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  1. Freedom Fighters From Karnataka

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  2. Freedom Fighters of India from Karnataka

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  3. ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಪ್ರಬಂಧ

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  4. 75ನೇ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ದಿನಾಚರಣೆ: ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ 10 ಮಹಾನ್ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರರು

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  5. Female Freedom Fighters Of Karnataka

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

  6. Top 10 Unsung Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

    essay on freedom fighters of karnataka

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  1. ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ ಹೋರಾಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಿಳೆಯರ ಪಾತ್ರ

  2. Muslim Freedom Fighters

  3. FREEDOM

  4. Freedom. #kaliyugaa0#karnataka#kannadamemes

  5. Freedom fighters essay 5 lines || Short essay on Freedom fighters || About Freedom fighters

  6. My Favourite Freedom Fighter Essay

COMMENTS

  1. Freedom fighters from Karnataka

    Freedom fighters from Karnataka. Before the East India Company, it was the Portuguese who tried to infiltrate India through Goa. In the 1500s, Abbakka Chowta, the first woman freedom fighter ...

  2. Freedom Fighters In Karnataka With Images

    List of Freedom Fighters in Karnataka. 1. Kittur Rani Chennamma. Rani Chennamma. Born - 23 October 1778, Belgaum. Spouce - Raja Mallasarja (m. 1793-1816) Children - Shivalingappa. Died - 2 February 1829, Bailhongal. Kittur Rani Chennamma was the first female activist for the Independence of India who fought against the British Empire.

  3. Top 10 Unsung Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

    10 Freedom Fighters of Karnataka. 1. Karnad Sadashiva Rao. As a young lawyer he engaged in social activity in 1911 in the advancement of women. He formed the Mahila Sabha and, with his wife Shantabai, was able to motivate women to come out of their homes.

  4. Rani Kittur Chennamma: India's Valiant Freedom Fighter

    She was born in 1778, 56 years before the 1857 revolt led by Rani Lakshmi Bai, thus becoming the one of the first women freedom fighters to have fought against the British rule in India. Her rebellion against the British ended with her imprisonment, however, she became a celebrated freedom fighter in the state of Karnataka and a symbol of the ...

  5. PDF Untold Heroines: Women'S Contributions to Karnataka'S Struggle for

    Yashodhara Dasappa, a prominent freedom fighter and social reformer from Karnataka, played a significant role in the Indian freedom movement and contributed to the empowerment of women. Born on October 27, 1905, into a wealthy family in Dharwad, she grew up in a privileged background. However,

  6. Hardekar Manjappa

    Manjappa was a freedom fighter who became popularly known as the "Gandhi of Karnataka". He wrote more than 40 books including an autobiography. Manjappa died on 3 January 1947. Literary works. Hardekar Manjappa contributed to Kannada literature and a prolific writer. Some of his works are as follows Gandhi Charithre; Buddha Charithre

  7. k'taka connect with freedom struggle

    Karnataka connect with freedom struggle. As India celebrates her 74th Independence Day, The New Indian Express takes a look at Karnataka's contribution to the fight for Independence ...

  8. Swadeshi Movement in Karnataka

    Category: Events. District: Mysuru (Mysore) State: Karnataka. The determined freedom fighters of various provinces of Karnataka were contributing wholeheartedly to the Swadeshi Movement propagated by Lokmanya Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. This wave also reached the district of Mysore. The princely state of Mysore ruled by Wadiyars already had the ...

  9. Esuru's fight for independence

    Karnataka Esuru's fight for independence Published - August 15, 2018 12:56 am IST ... Learning of the imminent attack, all freedom fighters took shelter in a nearby forest, leaving the children ...

  10. Forgotten tales of the freedom struggle in North Karnataka

    Influenced by the freedom fighters led by Mahatma Gandhi, lakhs of people from even remote areas of the northern districts of Karnataka plunged into the freedom movement, with scores sacrificing ...

  11. PDF Struggle for Freedom in Karnataka: Role of Associations and ...

    Maharashtra as compared to the Indian context. Karnataka, though it divided in various divisions of administration On the eve of Swadeshi movement, it could produce some of the eminent freedom fighters of great calibre and dynamism, independent ideology and organising capacity like Gangadhar Rao Deshpande, Hanumanthrao

  12. Karnad Sadashiva Rao

    Karnad Sadashiva Rao. Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka. Born in 1881, the only son of Radhabai and Ramachandra Rao, Karnad Sadashiv Rao attended Presidency College, and later went to Bombay for Law. In 1909 he returned to Mangalore as a young lawyer and made a name for himself quickly. When he also got involved in social work in 1911, his main ...

  13. PDF The Unification of Karnataka a Review

    spirits for the cause. In the same venue, the Karnataka Unification Conference was held. Here emerged Karnataka Ekikarana Sabha, which later became famous as Karnataka Ekikarana Sangha. With the movement, an awareness about Kannada language and literature grew. A remarkable progress was witnessed both in the prose and style of the language.

  14. PDF Haveri District and the Indian freedom movement

    Karnataka has been a land of freedom fighters from the earliest times. When the British power slowly spread over the whole of India in the last part of the 18th century, the people of Karnataka could not tolerate this alien rule. So they decided to wage a revolt. Thus the revolution started, and we call it as 'Armed Insurrection' .

  15. Onake Obavva

    Onake Obavvana kindi inside Chitradurga Fort. Onake Obavva (Kannada: ಒನಕೆ ಓಬವ್ವ, 18th Century) was a Karnataka warrior who fought the forces of Hyder Ali single-handedly with a pestle (Onake) in the kingdom of Chitradurga of Karnataka, India. Her husband was a guard of a watchtower in the rocky fort of Chitradurga. In the state of Karnataka, she is celebrated along with ...

  16. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

    Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay. Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka. Born in Mangalore, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was the first woman to run for a legislative seat in India, in the Madras provincial elections. As a social reformer, she played a crucial role in bringing back handicrafts, theatre and handlooms to help in uplifting the socio-economic status of ...

  17. 13 Powerful Women Freedom Fighters of Karnataka

    Around the year 1920, the independence movement in Karnataka entered the Gandhian era. Read along to know about the 13 powerful women freedom fighters of Karnataka. 1. Kittur Rani Chennamma. Rani Chennamma was a legendary queen and a freedom fighter from the princely state of Kittur in present-day Karnataka, India.

  18. Unification of Karnataka

    The Unification of Karnataka or Karnataka Ekikarana refers to the formation of the Indian state of Karnataka ... Freedom fighters of Karnataka; Ekikarana awards list "Karnataka: a 50-year-old name, centuries of legacy". The Hindu. The Hindu. 1 November 2022 This page was last ...

  19. 75ನೇ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ದಿನಾಚರಣೆ: ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ 10 ಮಹಾನ್ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಹೋರಾಟಗಾರರು

    75th Independence Day: List of Freedom Fighters from Karnataka Here we talking about 75th Independence Day: List of Ten Freedom Fighters from Karnataka, read on ಕಾಯಿ-ಈರುಳ್ಳಿ ಹಾಕದೆ ಸಖತ್ ರುಚಿಯ ಚಟ್ನಿ ಮಾಡಿ..!

  20. Freedom Struggle in Karnataka: Role of Women Freedom Fighters

    Both in Pre-Gandhian period and during the Gandhian period, women participated very actively and sacrificed their lives for the cause of their motherland. The Gandhian era of freedom struggle in Karnataka began roughly from 1920. Gandhiji's visit to Belgaum in 1924 left everlasting impression upon the freedom fighters.

  21. Essay on Freedom Fighters for Students and Children

    A.1 Freedom fighters made our country independent. They gave up their lives so we could have a bright future free from colonization. Q.2 Name some of the Indian freedom fighters. A.2 Some of the famous India freedom fighters were Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, and Jawaharlal Nehru.

  22. Freedom Fighters Essay

    Introduction. The freedom of a country depends on its citizens. Individuals who selflessly sacrifice their lives so that their country and countrymen can be free are identified as freedom fighters. Every country has a few brave hearts who willingly give up their lives for their countrymen. Freedom fighters did not only fight for their country ...

  23. Essay on Freedom Fighters of India

    100 Words Essay On Freedom Fighters. India attained independence on August 15, 1947, as a result of the valiant freedom struggle led by its great warriors. Our freedom fighters contributed to fighting a number of conflicts, movements, battles, and upheavals. Significant contributions have been made by outstanding liberation fighters like Bal ...

  24. Essay on Freedom of Speech in English for Students

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental right under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution. This right is mandatory for an equal and free society where everyone has the freedom to express themselves. The freedom of speech states, ' All citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression.'. The concept of freedom of speech goes back ...

  25. Famine Looms in Sudan as Civil War Pushes Capital Toward Abyss

    A year of fighting has turned the once proud capital, Khartoum, into a charred battleground. Millions have fled. Now a famine threatens in one of Africa's biggest countries.

  26. Opinion

    When the A.N.C.'s current leader and South Africa's president, Cyril Ramaphosa, finally arrived, he bounded onstage, energetic in his yellow polo shirt. "We're going to win the election on ...