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Essay on Movies: Advantages and Disadvantages 

essay on disadvantages of watching movies

  • Updated on  
  • Dec 19, 2023

Essay on Movies

Essay on Movies:   Movies create a huge impact on human life. It can be positive as well as negative. People learn and implement new and innovative things from movies in real life. For example, learning new languages, getting inspiration, self-motivation, and gaining more insight and understanding are examples of the brighter side of movies. 

On the contrary, movies with a provoking message that disturbs peace and harmony, inappropriate content, and gender discrimination contribute to desensitization and normalizing harmful behaviors. 

Essay on Movies: Impact of Movies on Society

The motive for watching movies can differ from person to person. For some, it can just be a pastime, but for others, it can present a real-life context for learning. Therefore, it plays a vital role in shaping societal norms and influencing the culture.

Also, movies have the power to evoke emotions in the audience. Besides, it has the potential to raise awareness and promote social change by addressing important issues. Further, movies also serve as a form of entertainment and cultivate a sense of shared experience among the audience. 

Now, let us analyze the advantages and disadvantages of movies to evaluate their impact on society:

Advantages of Movies :

1. Source of Entertainment: Movies are the best mode of enjoyable and immersive entertainment. When one gets bored with the same routine work and needs relaxation, the cinematic experience, with its special effects, music, and storytelling techniques, helps provide a unique way of escaping reality. 

2. Form of Storytelling: Stories take us to a world where we can explore different stories, characters, and themes. Film directors, with the help of visuals and narrative methods, help convey a message and evoke emotions in the audience while developing a connection with the story being told.

3. Means of Social Bonding: Sitting in front of the television and watching a movie with family is fun on another level. It doesn’t matter whether it’s a night out at the cinema or a movie night at home; the experience of bonding among friends and family cannot be explained in words.

Also Read: Film Direction, Drama, and Theatre Archives 

Disadvantages of Movies:

Now, let us understand what adverse effects movies can have on the audience: 

  • Negative Influence: Movies with harmful content such as misogyny, celebration of communal violence, racism, and glorification of patriarchy create an adverse impact on the impressionable audience. Therefore, as viewers, it is important to understand the message conveyed very carefully and its potential consequences. 
  • Time-Consuming: Also, watching movies for long hours can interfere with work, studies, and other activities. It is, therefore, required to create a balance between leisure and responsibilities. However, this does not apply to present-day and future generations of filmmakers, actors, scriptwriters, cinematographers, camera operators, etc. 
  • Expensive: Watching movies is a costly undertaking. Whether tickets, streaming subscriptions, or home entertainment comes with a heavy expense. If one is a regular moviegoer, watching movies can lead to a potential drawback. 

Thus, it is essential to carefully analyze the messaging of movies. It is our responsibility to watch movies as a source of entertainment and not indulge in wrongdoings. Also, cinema is a beautiful art form and a great source of learning for technicians, writers, and filmmakers.

Also Read: Film Making Courses

Ans. Time consumption, social isolation, and distorted realities are the negative impacts of movies on society. 

Ans. Career opportunities, technological advancements, and emotional impacts are some of the positive impacts of movies on society. 

Ans. The movies aim to serve content suitability, so movies are served with different ratings. 

Ans. Movies serve as a source of entertainment, a means of relaxation, and a platform for imparting moral values.

Ans. Lumiere brothers, Auguste and Louis Lumiere are credited for inventing movies. 

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Deepika Joshi

Deepika Joshi is an experienced content writer with expertise in creating educational and informative content. She has a year of experience writing content for speeches, essays, NCERT, study abroad and EdTech SaaS. Her strengths lie in conducting thorough research and ananlysis to provide accurate and up-to-date information to readers. She enjoys staying updated on new skills and knowledge, particulary in education domain. In her free time, she loves to read articles, and blogs with related to her field to further expand her expertise. In personal life, she loves creative writing and aspire to connect with innovative people who have fresh ideas to offer.

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Impact of Films: Changes in Young People’s Attitudes after Watching a Movie

Nowadays films occupy a significant portion of the media products consumed by people. In Russia, cinema is being considered as a means of individual and social transformation, which makes a contribution to the formation of the Russian audience’s outlook, including their attitudes towards topical social issues. At the same time, the question of the effectiveness of films’ impact remains an open question in psychological science. According to the empirical orientation of our approach to the study of mass media influence, our goal was to obtain new data on the positive impact of films based on specific experimental research. The task was to identify changes in the attitudes of young people, as the most active viewers, towards topical social issues after watching a specifically selected film. Using a psychosemantic technique that included 25 scales designed to identify attitudes towards elderly people, respondents evaluated their various characteristics before and after watching the film. Using a number of characteristics related to the motivational, emotional and cognitive spheres, significant changes were revealed. At the same time, significant differences were found in assessments of the elderly between undergraduate students and postgraduate students. After watching the film, postgraduate students’ attitudes towards elderly people changed in a positive way, while undergraduate students’ negative assessments only worsened. The revealed opposite trends can be explained by individual differences of respondents, which include age, educational status as an indicator of individual psychological characteristics, the experience of interaction with elderly people and, as a result, attitudes towards elderly people at the time before watching the movie. The finding that previous attitudes mediate the impact of the film complements the ideas of the contribution of individual differences to media effects. Most of the changes detected immediately after watching the movie did not remain over time. A single movie viewing did not have a lasting effect on viewers’ attitudes, and it suggests the further task of identifying mechanisms of the sustainability of changes.

1. Introduction

With the development of information technology, a person’s immersion in the field of mass media is steadily increasing. A significant portion of consumed media products is occupied by cinema. According to sociological surveys, going to the cinema is the most popular way of spending leisure time in Russia today ( ); the audiences of cinemas are growing, the core of which are 18-24 years olds, as well as the frequency of visits—every tenth Russian goes to the cinema several times a month ( ; ; ), the opportunities and frequency of Internet viewings is expanding, while interest in TV shows is also increasing. The importance of the role that cinema plays in Russia is also confirmed by the close attention currently being paid to the development of the cinema industry: the priority topics of state financing are defined (e.g., “Law and order: the heroes of modern society in the fight against crime terror, extremism and corruption”, “On the continuity of military generations, on the successors of military traditions”, "Images, patterns of behavior and creative motivation of our contemporary—a man of labor, in the military or a scientist"), while state programs are being launched to open new cinema theatres in small towns. Сinema becomes a “tool for broadcasting state ideology to the masses” (according to S. Zizek [ 1 ]), and is also being considered as a “means of individual and social transformation” (according to T. Kashani [ 2 ]) [ 3 ]. As a result, films are expected to form beliefs, influence opinions and change attitudes, including towards topical social issues.

However, the question of the efficiency of films remains open in psychology. In general, this is a key issue for mass communication research: how much emotion, cognition and behavior are changed under the influence of mass media [ 4 , 5 ]. There are various concepts about this: from “theories of a minimal effect” to “theories of a strong effect” [ 6 ]. Thus, for example, cultivation theory considers that mass communication contributes to the assimilation of commonly accepted values, norms and forms of behavior [ 7 ]; and a meta-analysis of studies leads to the conclusion that there is a relationship between the broadcast mass media image of reality and people’s attitudes towards it [ 8 , 9 ]. Despite criticisms, cultivation theory is currently being developed [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. On the other hand, supporters of the opposite viewpoint point out the weak effects of mass communication, caused, for example, by the fact that people are becoming more and more subject of their mass media activity as a result of a wider variety of sources of information now and expanding their choices [ 14 , 15 ].

It seems difficult to identify a single mechanism of mass media impact on the human psyche and behavior and to obtain an unambiguous answer to the question about its efficiency [ 6 ]. This is due to the interconnection of various factors that mediate the influence of mass media (personal experience, realistic content, depth of identification with heroes, personality traits, etc.) [ 16 , 17 , 18 ], as well as those factors that constantly impact persons besides those in the media. Therefore, our thoughts and ideas about this issue are largely based on empirical research data, and are not limited to one theory [ 19 ].

When referring to research of cinema, we can find data on the diverse effects of film exposure. It should be noted that the effectiveness of the impact is determined by what it is directed at: it is more difficult to change human behavior than to influence opinions or attitudes [ 4 , 6 ]. In this regard, there is still a debatable problem on the influence of the media on the aggressive behavior of people [ 20 ]. This research focuses on the potential of pro-social, "humanistic" impact of films and their effectiveness in solving topical social issues. The studies reveal the influence of films on people’s beliefs and opinions, stereotypes and attitudes. Movies can have a significant impact on gender and ethnic stereotypes [ 21 , 22 ], change attitudes towards certain groups of people and cause newly formed opinions on various issues. For example, HIV films contributed to sympathy to people living with HIV [ 4 ], TV series with transgender characters contributed to positive attitudes towards transgender persons [ 23 ]; the portrayal of mental disorders in movies had an effect on people’s knowledge about and attitudes toward the mentally ill [ 24 , 25 ]. Also, viewing an empathy-arousing film about immigrants induced more positive attitudes toward them [ 26 ], and watching a movie offering a positive depiction of gay men reduced homophobia [ 27 ]. Other films influenced people’s attitude towards smoking and their intentions to quit [ 28 , 29 ], while a series with a positive donation message helped viewers to make decisions about their own donation [ 30 ]. It has been shown that emotional involvement in viewing, evaluated using surveys drawing on theories of social learning and social representations, increases the effectiveness of influence [ 30 ]; immersion in narrative, that correlates with the need for cognition, and is characterized by a shift of focus from the real world to the depicted one, explains the power of impact within the framework of transportation theory [ 31 , 32 ].

Cinema can change people’s opinions on specific issues without affecting more stable constructs: for example, the film “JFK” dedicated to the Kennedy assassination influenced judgments about the causes of this crime, but generally did not change the political beliefs of the audience [ 33 ]; at the same time, the movies “Argo” and “Zero Dark Thirty” changed viewers’ opinions about the U.S. government that reflected in an improvement in sentiments about this government and its institutions [ 34 ]. Movies create images of other countries and stimulate interest in them. For example, European films shaped young viewers’ ideas about other European countries—such results were obtained in a study of the role of films and series in the daily life of young Germans through interviews and focus groups [ 35 ]. Another study showed that whether the movies were violent, scary or happy, the more the viewers were immersed in the stories, the more favorable impressions they had of the places featured in them [ 36 ].

Various positive effects of films on children and adolescents were revealed. Dramatic films taught teenagers about social interaction with the opposite sex and adults [ 37 ], had a positive impact on their self-concept [ 38 ], and, as shown by experiments, increased ethnic tolerance [ 39 ]; humanistically oriented movies improved skills of children in communicating with peers, increased their desire to help and understand others [ 40 , 41 ].

One of the prime examples of positive impact is Cli-fi movies, which clearly show what we can expect in the near future, and offers ways to think about what can be done to avoid the darkest predictions. Thus, after watching the film “The Day After Tomorrow” (2004), viewers recognized their responsibility for the Earth’s ecology and the need to change consumer attitudes towards nature [ 42 ]. In general, the screening of films on climate issues increases the number of online requests and media discussions on these issues [ 43 ].

It should be noted that when analyzing the impact of films, conclusions about their effectiveness are the result of different methodological approaches, which have varying advantages and limitations. Content analysis reveals the images, attitudes, stereotypes broadcast by films (e.g., stereotypical portrayals of India [ 44 ], or images of scientists and current scientific ideas [ 45 ]) on large data sets; however, questions remain about effectiveness, strength and sustainability of the impact on the audience. The influence of films can be investigated through a survey of viewers; based on this, conclusions are drawn about the links between a person’s attitudes and his/her viewer experience, such as in the study of gender attitudes and their correlations with teen movie-viewing habits [ 21 ]. In experimental studies, exposure effects are detected using pre- and post-film questionnaires; however, the time interval between testing and a film screening, such as a few weeks before viewing the film or a several days after [ 26 , 27 , 29 ], can lead to distortion of the results that are caused by the influence on the viewers’ attitudes of other factors besides the film; moreover, usually it is not investigated whether new attitudes are retained over time. Often the effects of films are analyzed in experimental conditions where participants watch only short cut scenes from existing films [ 24 ], which limits the extrapolation of the results.

According to the empirical orientation of our approach, the goal was to obtain new data on the positive impact of films based on a specific experimental study. The task was to identify changes in young people’s attitudes towards topical social issues after watching a specifically selected film. Participants had to watch the full version of an existing fiction film. They were tested just before and immediately after watching the movie in order to avoid the influence of other variables on viewers’ attitudes. Repeated testing (two weeks after the first viewing) was intended to reveal the sustainability of the changes caused by the film.

In the process of developing the design of the work, it was specified what attitudes would be studied. The choice was determined, first of all, by the social relevance of the topic, but outside the focus of the media in order to reduce the impact of other media sources, and on the other hand, by the availability of a suitable film. Important topics as ethnic stereotypes, attitudes toward people with disabilities, etc. were considered. However, the choice of the topics had to be restricted for various reasons. For example, identifying attitudes toward certain professions (e.g., engineer), whose prestige has significantly declined in Russia in recent decades, was difficult due to the lack of relevant films popularizing them. At the same time, despite the availability of humanistically oriented films dedicated to people with disabilities, the identification of changes in attitudes to them was complicated by the need to take into account additional factors caused by increased attention to the topic and active discussion in various media, which could distort the influence of a film.

Given the limitations and opportunities for the implementation of research tasks, the subject of this study the attitudes towards elderly people. At present, attention to the topic concerning elderly people is growing in Russia, but there is still a prevalence of negative stereotypes [ 46 ]. A characteristic manifestation of age discrimination against the elderly—ageism—is a biased attitude towards them, especially among young people, as well as a low assessment of their intellectual abilities, activity and "usefulness" for society.

Studies show that the mass media have a significant impact on negative attitudes towards the elderly [ 47 ]: children have already demonstrated the same stereotypes of the elderly that were depicted in the media [ 48 ], while young people at large viewed the elderly in general as ineffective, dependent, lonely, poor, angry and disabled, which corresponded to the negative representations of elderly people in the most popular teen movies that cultivated their stereotypes [ 49 ]. Research of TV films from the 1980s–1990s revealed the stereotypes of elderly people as being social outsiders [ 50 ], but at the same time a display of positive prejudice contributed to an increase in tolerance towards them within society.

Improving the attitudes of young people towards elderly people is an important social and educational task, the solution of which involves the use of diverse opportunities. Various social projects can be implemented for this purpose, for example, "friendly visitor" types of programs in which young people visit the elderly [ 51 , 52 ], but also mass media, including films, which have a high potential for impact [ 53 , 54 ]. It was found that watching documentary films had a positive effect on both knowledge about aging and attitudes towards the elderly [ 55 ]; these films significantly improved empathy towards elderly people among university students [ 56 ].

We suggested that fiction movies, popular especially among young people, could contribute to changing existing biased attitudes towards elderly people. Based on this, the hypothesis states that there is a connection between watching a positive film about the elderly and changes in young people’s attitudes towards them in a positive way.

2.1. Participants

A total of 70 individuals participated in this study. Group one contained 40 students of The State Academic University for Humanities (25% male and 75% female). The average age was 19 (M = 19, standard deviation SD = 2.4). Group two consisted of 30 postgraduate students from Russian Academy of Sciences (47% male and 53 % female). The average age was 24 (M = 24, standard deviation SD = 1.6).

All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethics committee (Review Board).

2.2. Materials

2.2.1. film.

The film—“The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel” (2011), the main characters of which were elderly people, was chosen to be shown to the respondents ( ). Prior to this, a qualitative analysis of empirical material revealed the impact of this film on the attitudes towards elderly people among Russian viewers of different ages. Their reviews on the film, taken from Internet resources devoted to cinema, indicated cognitive effects, expressed in positive changes of ideas about the elderly; the film was perceived quite optimistically and gave hope [ 19 ]. It was supposed that the movie that humorously shows various situations happening to the elderly heroes would also affect the opinion of young people about elderly people, as it allowed to look at them from new viewpoints, to see that age is not an obstacle to having a full life, and even, conversely, open up new prospects.

2.2.2. Measures

To achieve the goal of the study, a psychosemantic approach is used, which is the most appropriate for studying a person’s attitudes towards various objects of reality by reconstructing individual meanings [ 57 ]. This approach allows us to determine the differences in evaluations of the same object (caused by mass media as well), made by different groups of respondents at different times. For example, changes in the stereotypes of viewers were revealed in relation to representatives of another nation (Russians about the Japanese) during viewing of a TV show [ 57 ]. In this work, the psychosemantic technique was used, developed specifically to identify attitudes towards the elderly (based on the Kelly’s Repertoire lattice method) [ 46 ]. The technique included 25 7-point scales, according to which respondents rated elderly people. For comparative analysis, the modern youth were evaluated by participants with the same scales.

The respondents also noted the frequency of watching movies ("every day"/"several times a week"/"several times a month"/"several times a year and less"), and evaluated the level of enjoying the film shown ("did not like"/"rather did not like than liked"/"rather liked than disliked"/"liked").

2.3. Procedure

The study was conducted in three stages: the respondents filled out the psychosemantic test before watching the film, then immediately after viewing and again in 2 weeks. During stage 3, only group one participated in the study.

The respondents did not see the film before participating in the study.

2.4. Statistical Methods

In accordance with the data characteristics, non-parametric comparative methods were used. To determine the differences in the assessments before and after watching the movie, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. To determine the differences in the assessments between different groups of respondents, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 statistical software package was used for data processing.

3. Results and Discussion

As a result of the preliminary data analysis of the group one (students), significant differences were obtained in the assessments given by them to the elderly before and immediately after watching the movie (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.05). However, the analysis of the combined sample (students and postgraduate students) did not reveal such significant differences. Therefore, it was decided to compare the assessments of these two groups of respondents. It appeared that the evaluation of elderly people differed among students and postgraduate students before the film was shown (18 of 25 scales, Mann—Whitney test, p < 0.05). This result could be explained by the individual differences of the participants (students and postgraduates), which led to the necessity to correct the hypothesis and form additional research tasks, including the comparison of groups. Further analysis was carried out separately for each group of respondents, but not for the united group.

Significant differences shown by respondents of the group one before and immediately after watching the film (students) were found in 12 out of the 25 scales ( Table 1 ).

Changes in assessments of the elderly people after watching the film (students).

Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Only the significant differences are represented: b—based on negative ranks, c—based on positive ranks. * inversive scales: a higher rating means a more negative attitude

The group of students revealed changes associated with ideas about activities. The respondents saw the elderly as having less initiative, and being purposeless and weak. Moreover, they defined elderly people’s way of life as more passive, having no desire for knowledge or for living a full life. The results immediately after watching the film demonstrated that the audience perceived the elderly as being those who strived less to learn new things and perceived them to be less positive and more limited in their interests. Also, the changes of assessments related to the emotional sphere were discovered. The elderly were characterized as even more unrestrained and conflict-prone with a tendency towards depression and showing no emotions.

Comparative analysis of assessments of elderly people before and after watching the film, given by respondents of the group two (postgraduate students), showed significant differences on 14 of the 25 scales ( Table 2 ). Postgraduate students evaluated the elderly, unlike students, more positively after watching the film. Changes on 9 common scales (purposeless - purposeful, cheerful - prone to depression, passive - initiative, conflict - peaceful, traditional - modern, etc.) for students and postgraduate students turned out to be of different directions. After watching the film, the elderly seemed to be more purposeful, active and successful, responsible and with a good sense of humor. There were changes in assessments of the emotional sphere (more cheerful, peaceful) and cognitive (more intelligent) in references to novelty and life in general (the strive to learn new things, the desire for a full life).

Changes in assessments of elderly people after watching the film (postgraduates).

Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The significant differences are only represented: b—based on positive ranks, c—based on negative ranks. * inversive scales: higher rating means more negative attitude.

Thus, the data revealed changes in attitude towards the elderly people after watching the film. According to a number of their characteristics related to motivational aspects—regulatory, emotional and cognitive spheres—significant changes were revealed, but the tendency of these changes was unexpected. After group one (students) watched the film, a tendency of worsening assessments was found. It was also determined that before the film, students described the elderly more negatively as being less intelligent and interesting, more conflict prone, angry and aggressive than young people (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.01). This generally negative attitude can be explained by a special view of quite young people on the "old age". But why, despite the attempt of the filmmakers to make the image of the elderly positive enough, did the film fail to change students’ attitude? Instead, it made the image of elderly persons even less attractive. Meanwhile, there was an opposite trend in group two (postgraduate students). Their assessments of elderly people after watching the film changed for the better. The postgraduate students, unlike undergraduate students, had already demonstrated a more "adequate" view on the elderly before watching the film. Despite a number of negative assessments, the elderly were seen by them as smart and striving for a full life, sociable and interesting.

Comparison of the two groups of respondents confirmed significant differences between students and postgraduate students in the evaluation of the elderly after watching the film ( Table 3 ). The assessments given by undergraduate students and postgraduates differed significantly on 21 out of 25 scales.

Comparison of groups of undergraduate students and postgraduates by assessments after watching the film.

Mann-Whitney U test. The significant differences are only represented.

The opposite tendencies found in assessments after watching the film could be explained by differences in individual characteristics of respondents, which were not initially considered in our study as factors mediating the impact of the film: age of respondents (more subtle differentiation), educational status, as an indicator of individual psychological characteristics and experiences of interactions with elderly people. The suggestion of differences between students and postgraduates by personality is consistent with the results of other studies [ 58 ], and is indirectly confirmed by the fact that only about 1 out of 40 students become postgraduate students (data for Russia). In our study, differences between students and postgraduate students already manifested in differences in their attitudes towards the elderly before watching the film.

Then the film, which showed some negative aspects of life for elderly people (loneliness, needlessness, diseases, fears, physical limitations “comic” behavior), despite the optimistic ending, could strengthen the negative attitudes of very young people (students) towards the elderly, whose images might not yet be fully formed. On the other hand, postgraduate students might have a more complex view on elderly people, because of age and more diverse interactions with the elderly, for example, in scientific work. In this case, their perceptions of the film could be focused on its positive ideas, strengthening their previously formed positive image of an elderly person. In addition, postgraduate students, who have chosen the scientific career path, most likely have a high level of analytical skills that contributed to more complex perceptions of the world and a deep assessment of the phenomena that could affect their attitudes towards the older generation and the interpretation of their images in the movies. At the same time, the characteristics of the film itself, as well as the cultural differences between its creators and viewers, might cause additional negative impacts on students’ perceptions. Comedy, as a genre, could have an opposite effect. Younger people perceived the desire of older characters to give their lives new meanings in their own way and they saw a futility in these attempts. Respondents with more experience could be more tolerant to the specifics of the genre, and their perception of the film was more complicated and implemented in a broader context.

Thus, comparison of the results of the analysis for both groups of respondents suggests that the different changes in viewers’ attitudes towards objects of reality that occur after watching a movie can be explained by differences in the attitudes before watching the film. This effect can also be explained by the degree of identification with the characters [ 31 , 59 , 60 ], which is influenced by the previous attitudes of the viewers. For example, a study of the impact of films on attitudes towards migrants showed that greater identification with the characters induced more positive attitudes toward immigration, but only when previous prejudice was low or moderate [ 26 ]. In this regard, the various effects of the film on students and postgraduate students could be caused by the different degrees of their identification with the characters of the film, despite the fact that a large difference in age with the characters could complicate this process for all participants in the study. The conclusion that previous attitudes mediate the impact of the film complements the ideas of the contribution of individual differences to media effects [ 61 ]. In addition, this conclusion has practical value: in order to achieve the desired impact of films, it is necessary to identify the viewers’ individual attitudes before a screening.

At the third stage of the study, it was examined whether changes remained over time. Two weeks after watching the movie, respondents (group one) re-took the test.

Significant differences were found only on 4 scales (strives to a full life - lost the meaning of life, craving for spirituality - limited interests, quickly tired – high in stamina, traditional - modern) ( Table 4 ). The continuing changes in the characteristics related to the inferiority and limitations of elderly people’s lives may indicate the most striking and memorable moments in the film that had the greatest impact on viewers. The assessments of the other characteristics did not differ significantly from those that were identified before watching the film. That leads to the conclusion that a single movie viewing, in general, did not have a lasting effect on the viewers’ attitudes toward the elderly. Most of the changes discovered immediately after watching the movie did not remain over time. Studying the mechanisms of the formation of sustainable changes is a task for future research. One of the directions of such research could be to investigate the influence of additional cognitive processing (e.g., discussion after watching the movie) on the viewers’ attitudes towards objects and the sustainability of changes over time.

Changes in assessments of the elderly people 2 weeks after watching the film (students).

Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Only the significant differences are represented: b—based on negative ranks, c—based on positive ranks. * inversive scales: a higher rating means a more negative attitude.

The correlation between the gender of the respondents and changes in attitudes after watching the film was determined by comparing the assessments separately for males and females in each group. As a result, in group one, women were found to have significant differences in ratings on 13 scales, and men in three, two of which were common (no desire to learn anything - the desire to learn new skills, traditional - modern, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.05). The data showed greater changes in the attitudes among women than among men after watching the film. At the same time, a comparison of the male and female participants in the group two did not reveal such results. The analysis found an equal number of significant differences in assessments (on 10 scales) before and after watching the film (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.05). Thus, it can be assumed that gender had a lower impact on changes in attitudes after watching a film than other individual characteristics of respondents.

The data on the frequency of watching movies was obtained: 56% of respondents watch movies several times a week and more often, 44%—several times a month and less often. However, there were no differences between these viewers in the assessments before and after watching the film (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). The degree of general interest in cinema did not affect the change of viewers’ attitudes after watching the film.

It was not possible to determine the connection between liking the film and the changes in attitudes, since the differentiation of respondents by this factor was not found. Only six young people noted they did not like the film, while the others gave it a positive evaluation.

The study has limitations caused due to an assumption of no significant differences between students and postgraduates in the effectiveness of the film’s impact on them. The revealed differences between undergraduate students and postgraduate students led to the initial sample of young people being divided into two samples with smaller sizes already used during the research. In addition, for the same reason, some variables that could more accurately demonstrate the differences between students and postgraduate students and explain the effects of the film were not considered. The respondents’ attitudes before watching the film were taken into account, as well as additional factors on the impact effectiveness, such as the degree of general interest in cinema and liking of the viewed film, which could presumably increase its impacts. But a deeper study, for example, of the processes of identifying viewers with the film characters, probably linked to the viewers’ attitudes before watching, could reinforce these findings.

4. Conclusions

As a result of the study, changes in the viewers’ attitudes after watching the film were identified. Young people changed their assessments of regulatory, cognitive and emotional characteristics of the elderly people after watching a film about the elderly. At the same time, significant differences were found between students and postgraduate students in their assessments of the elderly. After watching the film, students’ negative attitudes towards elderly people got worse, while postgraduate students’ assessments, on the contrary, changed for the better. The revealed opposite trends can be explained by individual differences between the respondents, which include age, educational status as an indicator of individual psychological characteristics, experience of interaction with elderly people and, as a result, attitudes towards elderly people at the time before watching the film. Most of the changes in the viewers’ attitudes detected immediately after watching the movie did not remain over time.

In general, the study confirms the potential for a positive impact, as in the case of improving the postgraduates’ attitudes, but at the same time demonstrates the need to take into account the individual differences of viewers to achieve desired results. In particular, differences in attitudes before watching a movie are probably causes of differences in the effectiveness of the film’s impact. The initially negative attitude towards elderly people among students could contribute to the negative influence of the film on them. The obtained results form the basis of further research and pose the important questions: clarifying the contribution of individual differences to the effectiveness of the impact, forecasting the positive influence of movies on different groups of people and determining the mechanisms of the sustainability of changes.


We would like to thank the engagement and involvement of the research participants.

The research was carried out within a state assignment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, project №0159-2019-0005.

Conflicts of Interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Essay on Impact of Cinema in Life for Students and Children

500 words essay on impact of cinema in life.

Cinema has been a part of the entertainment industry for a long time. It creates a massive impact on people all over the world. In other words, it helps them give a break from monotony. It has evolved greatly in recent years too. Cinema is a great escape from real life.

essay on impact of cinema in life

Furthermore, it helps in rejuvenating the mind of a person. It surely is beneficial in many ways, however, it is also creating a negative impact on people and society. We need to be able to identify the right from wrong and make decisions accordingly.

Advantages of Cinema

Cinema has a lot of advantages if we look at the positive side. It is said to be a reflection of the society only. So, it helps us come face to face with the actuality of what’s happening in our society. It portrays things as they are and helps in opening our eyes to issues we may have well ignored in the past.

Similarly, it helps people socialize better. It connects people and helps break the ice. People often discuss cinema to start a conversation or more. Moreover, it is also very interesting to talk about rather than politics and sports which is often divided.

Above all, it also enhances the imagination powers of people. Cinema is a way of showing the world from the perspective of the director, thus it inspires other people too to broaden their thinking and imagination.

Most importantly, cinema brings to us different cultures of the world. It introduces us to various art forms and helps us in gaining knowledge about how different people lead their lives.

In a way, it brings us closer and makes us more accepting of different art forms and cultures. Cinema also teaches us a thing or two about practical life. Incidents are shown in movies of emergencies like robbery, fire, kidnapping and more help us learn things which we can apply in real life to save ourselves. Thus, it makes us more aware and teaches us to improvise.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Disadvantages of Cinema

While cinema may be beneficial in many ways, it is also very damaging in various areas. Firstly, it stereotypes a lot of things including gender roles, religious practices, communities and more. This creates a false notion and a negative impact against that certain group of people.

People also consider it to be a waste of time and money as most of the movies nowadays are not showing or teaching anything valuable. It is just trash content with objectification and lies. Moreover, it also makes people addicts because you must have seen movie buffs flocking to the theatre every weekend to just watch the latest movie for the sake of it.

Most importantly, cinema shows pretty violent and sexual content. It contributes to the vulgarity and eve-teasing present in our society today. Thus, it harms the young minds of the world very gravely.

Q.1 How does cinema benefit us?

A.1 Cinema has a positive impact on society as it helps us in connecting to people of other cultures. It reflects the issues of society and makes us familiar with them. Moreover, it also makes us more aware and helps to improvise in emergency situations.

Q.2 What are the disadvantages of cinema?

A.2 Often cinema stereotypes various things and creates false notions of people and communities. It is also considered to be a waste of time and money as some movies are pure trash and don’t teach something valuable. Most importantly, it also demonstrates sexual and violent content which has a bad impact on young minds.

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11 Pros and Cons of Using Movies in Class

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Showing a film in class may engage students, but engagement cannot be the only reason for showing movies in the classroom. Teachers must understand that the planning for viewing a film is what makes it an effective learning experience for any grade level. Before planning, however, a teacher must first review the school's policy on the use of film in class.

School Policies

There are film ratings that schools may adopt for movies shown in class . Here are a general set of guidelines that could be used:

  • G-rated films: No signed permission form is necessary.
  • PG-rated films: A signed parental permission form is required for students under age 13. At the elementary school level, the principal will ask a committee to review the use of the film prior to granting permission.
  • PG-13-rated films: A signed parental permission form is required for students under age 14. No use of PG-13 films is typically allowed at an elementary school level. In a middle school, the principal will ask a committee to review the use of the film prior to granting permission. 
  • R-rated: A signed parental permission form is required for all students. The principal will ask a committee to review the film before granting permission. Film clips are preferred for R-rated films. No use of R-rated films is typically allowed in middle or elementary schools.

After checking on the film policy, teachers design the resources for the film to determine how it fits in a unit with other lesson plans . There may be a worksheet to be completed as the movie is being watched that also provides the students with specific information. There may be a plan to stop the film and discuss specific moments.

Film as Text

The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS) identify a film as a text, and there are standards specific to the use of film in order to compare and contrast texts. For example, one ELA standard for Grade 8 states:

"Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors." 

There is a similar ELA standard for grades 11-12

"Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist)."

The CCSS encourage the use of film for higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy including analysis or synthesis.

There are websites dedicated to helping teachers create effective lesson plans for use with film.

One major consideration is the use of film clips as opposed to an entire film. A well-chosen 10-minute clip from a film should be more than adequate to launch a meaningful discussion.

Pros of Using Movies in Class

  • Movies can extend the learning beyond the textbook. Sometimes, a movie can really help students get a feel for an era or an event. For example, if you are a STEM teacher, you might want to show a clip from the movie ​" Hidden Figures " that highlights the contributions of Black women to the space program of the 1960s.
  • Movies can be used as a pre-teaching or interest-building exercise. Adding a movie can build interest in a topic that is being learned while providing a small break from normal classroom activities.
  • Movies can be used to address additional learning styles. Presenting information in numerous ways can be the key to helping students understand topics. For example, having students watch the movie "Separate But Equal" can help them understand the reason behind the court case Brown v. Board of Education beyond what they can read in a textbook or hear in a lecture.
  • Movies can provide teachable moments. Sometimes, a movie can include moments that go beyond what you are teaching in a lesson and allow you to highlight other important topics. For example, the movie "Gandhi" provides information that can help students to discuss world religions, imperialism, non-violent protest, personal freedoms, rights and responsibilities, gender relations, India as a country, and so much more.
  • Movies can be scheduled on days when students could be unfocused. In day-to-day teaching, there will be days when students will be focused more on their homecoming dance and the big game that night, or on the holiday that starts the next day, rather than on the topic of the day. While there is no excuse to show a non-educational movie, this could be a good time to watch something that complements the topic you are teaching .

Cons of Using Movies in the Classroom

  •  Movies can sometimes be very long. A showing of a film such as ​"Schindler's List" with every 10th grade class (with their parent's permission, of course) will take an entire week of classroom time. Even a short movie can take up two to three days of classroom time. Further, it can be difficult if different classes have to start and stop at different points in a movie.
  • The educational part of the film may only be a small portion of the overall movie. There may be only a few parts of the movie that would be appropriate for the classroom setting and truly provide an educational benefit. In these cases, it is best to just show the clips if you feel that they truly add to the lesson you are teaching.
  • The movie may not be completely historically accurate. Movies often play with historical facts to make a better story. Therefore, it is important to point out the historical inaccuracies or students will believe that they are true. If done properly, pointing out the issues with a movie can provide good teachable moments for students.
  • Films do not teach themselves. Showing a movie such as "Glory," without putting it in the  historical context  of African-Americans and their role in the Civil War or providing feedback throughout the movie is little better than using the television as a babysitter for your children.
  • There is a perception that watching movies is a bad method of teaching. That is why it is key that if movies are part of a curriculum unit's resources that they are selected purposefully and that there are properly-created lessons that highlight the information the students are learning. You do not want to get a reputation as the teacher who shows full-length movies which serve little to no purpose, other than as a reward within the classroom setting.
  • Parents might object to specific content within a movie. Be upfront and list the films you will show during the school year. If there are any concerns at all about a movie, send home permission slips for students to return. Include the parents to talk about any concerns they might have before the showing. If a student is not allowed to watch the movie, there should be work to complete in the library while you are showing it to the rest of the class.

Movies can be an effective tool for teachers to use with students. The key to success is to choose wisely and create lesson plans that are effective in making the film a learning experience. 

"English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Literature » Grade 11-12 » 7." Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2019.

"English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Literature » Grade 8." Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2019.

"Hidden Figures – Curriculum & Discussion Guides." Journeys in Film, April 10, 2017.

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Using Movies in Academic Writing – Benefits and Advantages

Academic Writing Goes to the Movies: Getting Critical in Your Essays


Academic writing is an essential component of higher education , and it is crucial to master this skill for success in academic pursuits. However, many students find writing difficult, especially when it comes to critical analysis. One way to improve writing skills is by watching movies, which can provide valuable insights and improve critical thinking. This guide aims to explore the relationship between academic writing and movies and help students to develop critical thinking skills.

The Importance of Critical Thinking in Academic

Writing Critical thinking is a fundamental aspect of academic writing. It involves the ability to evaluate arguments and ideas, identify strengths and weaknesses, and form conclusions based on evidence. This skill is essential for developing high-quality academic writing. Movies can be an excellent tool for developing critical thinking skills because they often present complex issues and multiple perspectives. By analyzing and evaluating these perspectives, students can improve their critical thinking and develop more insightful academic writing.

The Benefits of Using Movies in Academic Writing

Movies offer several benefits for academic writing. They can provide vivid illustrations of complex concepts, help to engage students, and offer a different perspective on a subject. Furthermore, movies can be an excellent way to introduce students to new topics, as they often provide a more engaging and accessible introduction than academic texts. By using movies in academic writing, students can develop a deeper understanding of a subject and improve their writing skills.

How to Use Movies in Academic Writing

When using movies in academic writing, it is essential to approach them critically. Students should consider the context in which the movie was made, the intended audience , and the purpose of the film. Furthermore, students should analyze the plot, characters, themes, and message of the movie to gain a deeper understanding of the subject. By doing so, students can develop critical thinking skills and improve their academic writing.

The benefits and advantages of using movies in academic writing.

  • Enhances Understanding

Movies can help in conveying complex ideas in a simplified manner. If you are writing about a challenging topic, using a movie to explain your point can make it more accessible and understandable to your readers. You can break down complex themes and concepts into simpler terms by using movie scenes that relate to your ideas.

  • Engages the Reader

Movies have the power to evoke emotions, and academic writing can be dry and boring at times. By using movies, you can create a connection with your reader, grab their attention, and keep them engaged throughout your paper. Additionally, using a movie reference can pique your reader’s curiosity, motivating them to read further.

  • Provides Real-Life Examples

Movies can provide a broad range of real-life examples that can be used to illustrate your point. Whether you are writing about human behavior, culture, or societal issues, you can use a movie scene to exemplify your arguments. These examples can make your work more convincing and can help to bring your ideas to life.

  • Adds Creativity to Your Work

Incorporating movies into your academic writing allows you to showcase your creativity and originality. It shows that you have taken the time to think outside the box and find new and innovative ways to present your ideas. Using movies can also help you to differentiate your work from others in your field, making it stand out and memorable.

  • Enhances Critical Thinking

When you use movies in academic writing, you are required to critically analyze and interpret the scenes and themes to relate them to your work. This process can help to sharpen your critical thinking skills and can be applied to other areas of your academic work. By using movies, you are also able to view the topic from different perspectives, leading to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding.

  • Improves Writing Skills

Movies can provide a source of inspiration and help in developing creative writing skills. By using movies as a reference, you can learn how to structure your writing, use literary devices, and incorporate vivid imagery into your work. This can lead to better writing skills , which are transferable to other areas of academic work.

  • Diverse and Inclusive Content

Using movies in academic writing can also provide an opportunity to showcase diverse and inclusive content. Movies are a reflection of society, and by using them, you can promote different cultures, identities, and perspectives in your work. This can help to make your writing more inclusive and relatable to a broader audience.

In conclusion, academic writing is a crucial component of higher education, and critical thinking is essential for developing high-quality writing skills. Movies can be an excellent tool for developing critical thinking skills and improving academic writing. By using movies in academic writing, students can engage with complex issues, gain new perspectives, and develop a deeper understanding of a subject. We hope this guide has been helpful in understanding the relationship between academic writing and movies and how they can be used to improve writing skills.

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On enjoying watching movies in a theatre versus at home: a comparative analysis

  • Published: 02 October 2023
  • Volume 35 , pages 29–44, ( 2024 )

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essay on disadvantages of watching movies

  • Jason Yiu-chung Ho   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Jehoshua Eliashberg 2 ,
  • Charles B. Weinberg 3 &
  • Berend Wierenga 4  

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For most major movies, consumers have a choice to watch them in a theater or on home video. While each viewing channel has its own advantages and disadvantages, consumers are watching the same underlying product—a specific movie. An unanswered question is whether consumers enjoy watching a specific movie more in a theater or video setting. Using IMDb rating data, we find that for most wide-release movies, ratings are higher during the theater window than during the video window. The differences are particularly high for movies with relatively large production budgets and for sequels.

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Our key results remain if we change the length of both viewing windows to 1 month.

Our key results hold when we reduce the cutoff to at least 50 reviews per movie in each window.

We thank Aidan Lieberman for suggesting this analysis.

As a robustness check on our results, we also estimated a fixed effect (for each movie) model in which the variable VIDEO_RUN is included. The coefficient of VIDEO_RUN is negative and statistically significant. See the Online Appendix for these results.

To allow for the possibility that ratings may decline over time, in addition to the VIDEO_RUN variable, we added a variable to capture the decay rate in the theatre and video windows to models MLM1-5. We found that the decay rate for the theatre window was significant and negative, but that the coefficient of VIDEO_RUN was still negative and significant. See the Online Appendix.

Other papers, e.g., Godes and Silva ( 2012 ), treat product ratings as ordinal. As a robustness check, we follow Bauer and Sterba (2001) and run an estimation of multilevel cumulative logit model treating the ratings as ordinal for models MLM1–5 and find that the coefficient of VIDEO_RUN is negative and significant. The results for other independent variables are generally consistent. See the Online Appendix for these results.

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Opinion: The pros and cons of watching movies at home or at a movie theater


“Theater seats” by monsieurlam is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Mason Apking , Online Editor February 2, 2021 | 965 Views

In years past, moviegoers would gain a multitude of experiences at their local theaters, from the headache of parking on $5 Tuesdays to telling someone’s child to be quiet. I have always enjoyed watching brand new movies in comfortable seating while eating some irresistible buttery popcorn. Here in Lincoln, there are many places around the city for you to enjoy a movie, right now. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all entertainment venues have been closed, but have recently started to reopen.All Marcus Theaters, except the Edgewood location, are currently open and taking private bookings, as well as walk-ins, by following their social distancing and sanitation guidelines.

However, for some, staying home and watching a movie premiere from the comfort of their own couch is even better. When at home you can set your own start time, take up three seats, make popcorn your own way, bring your own drinks and best of all… feel free to fall into deep sleep. It is no secret that movies at home can be better, but for me, I usually prefer to go to the movie theater whenever I have the chance to.

Throughout the month of January, Marcus Theaters offered private screenings for only $99. They allowed up to 20 people in a cinema. While I did not have the chance to go see a movie at a private screening, I bet it was quite the experience for anyone who did. Moreover, I particularly would love to go see a movie right now. Yet, I can never find some free time in my busy schedule.

Since I don’t have time to visit a movie theater, I have started to watch a lot more entertainment from streaming services like Netflix, Hulu and Disney Plus. Some of my favorite movies and TV shows include the following.

  • A Teacher (Hulu)
  • In The Dark (Netflix)
  • Locke & Key (Netflix)
  • Lupin (Netflix)
  • Ozark (Netflix)
  • Prodigal Son (Hulu)
  • Ratched (Netflix)
  • Riverdale (Netflix)
  • Schitts Creek (Netflix)
  • Superstore (Hulu)
  • Sweet Magnolias (Netflix)
  • The Flash (Netflix)
  • The Good Place (Netflix)
  • The Haunting of Bly Manor (Netflix)
  • The Haunting of Hill House (Netflix)
  • The Queen’s Gambit (Netflix)
  • WandaVision (Disney Plus)
  • Zoey’s Extraordinary Playlist (Hulu)
  • A Wrinkle in Time (Disney Plus)
  • Happiest Season (Hulu)
  • Hidden Figures (Disney Plus)
  • Love, Simon (Hulu)
  • Maze Runner: The Death Cure (Hulu)
  • The Finest Hours (Disney Plus)
  • Where Hands Touch (Hulu)

There is no question that streaming services are becoming more popular than going to a movie theater. But movie theaters are dying, and could use more business right now. If you are willing to visit a theater right now, please do. With less business, theaters may be required to raise their ticket prices in order to survive, and with higher ticket prices, even less people will be able to visit theaters.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Cinema

Looking for advantages and disadvantages of Cinema?

We have collected some solid points that will help you understand the pros and cons of Cinema in detail.

But first, let’s understand the topic:

What is Cinema?

Cinema is a place where people go to watch movies on a big screen. It’s also the art of making films and telling stories through moving pictures and sounds.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Cinema

The following are the advantages and disadvantages of Cinema:

Advantages and disadvantages of Cinema

Advantages of Cinema

  • Big screen immersive experience – Watching a movie on a large screen surrounds you with the story, making you feel like you’re part of the action.
  • Social outing opportunity – Going to the movies is a fun way to spend time with friends and family, sharing the experience together.
  • Access to new releases – Cinemas show the latest movies right after they come out, so you can enjoy new stories before they’re available at home.
  • Enhanced sound and visuals – Theaters have powerful speakers and clear, high-quality pictures that make the movie look and sound amazing.
  • Escapism from daily life – Movies let you step into another world for a while, giving you a break from your everyday routine and worries.

Also check:

  • 10 Lines on Cinema
  • Essay on Cinema

Disadvantages of Cinema

  • Costly tickets and snacks – Going to the cinema can hit your wallet hard because you often pay a lot for the tickets and any food or drinks you buy there.
  • Limited movie selection – You might not find the movie you want to watch since cinemas only show a few films at a time.
  • Fixed showtimes – If you want to watch a movie at the cinema, you have to go at the specific times they decide to play it.
  • Crowded theaters – When a lot of people go to see a movie, the cinema can get really full, making it hard to find good seats and enjoy the film in peace.
  • No pause option – Unlike at home, you can’t stop the movie if you need a break or want to catch something you missed, so you have to sit through the whole thing without stopping.
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essay on disadvantages of watching movies

Watching Movies in Cinemas and at Home

Which one is better: watching movie in theatre or at home? Both options have their pros and cons. Read this “watching a movie at home vs. theater” essay to learn more!


Differences between watching movie in theater and at home, similarities between watching movie at home vs cinema, comparison between watching a movie at home and in theatres.

It does not matter whether a person likes action, drama, comedy, or another genre of films and movies. Almost everyone loves watching video materials. There are many reasons for people’s desire to watch video films and movies.

While most people watch videos to release stress or for recreation, others watch films for bonding and socializing. Movies can be watched either at home or in the available theaters. Therefore, one has to choose whether to stream movies alone at home or go to a movie theater with friends and family. Both types of places have differences and similarities that are tabulated below.

The activity is fun and compelling regardless of where one watches a movie. Both venues provide the stimulation and excitement that comes along with watching a movie. Many people tend to use the moment as the time for developing bonds with their relatives and friends.

It is achieved regardless of the venue chosen for watching the movie. Many people also like taking a snack like popcorn while watching movies. These items can be bought at the theaters. Similarly, one has the freedom to eat some snacks at home.

There are many differences between watching a movie at home and in theatres. The cost, for instance, is different. First, watching a film at a theatre requires a person to drive and pay for the ticket and any other facility or accompaniment. On the other hand, no cost is incurred when watching a film at home.

The quality of the video and sound is also a major aspect that shows significant differences between the two scenarios. Theatres have installed perfect sound systems and high-quality screens that create a perfect customer experience.

At home, one may have a good sound system, but it rarely matches those in theatres. Theater owners are aware that they are competing with affordable home theaters. Therefore, they include visual upgrades like IMAX and Real 3D. They increase the quality of experience at these facilities compared to the home-based systems.

One can sit on a couch, on the carpet, or watch a movie in any position to achieve comfort. Therefore, the comfort level when watching a movie at home is higher than in a theater. In fact, one needs to be aware of strangers sitting next to him or her. At home, there is a high degree of freedom of posture, style, music, and other aspects.

Convenience is also a significant aspect. For instance, people going to the theater are required to wait until their film choices are aired. In addition, they are required to make plans on how to get there. If one viewer wishes to leave the place for a moment due to any reason, an important scene is likely to be missed. These kinds of inconveniences are not experienced at home.

At home, a person can pause, rewind, or forward when necessary. In addition, one could watch a movie halfway, stop it and look for another if they do not like it. In theaters, viewers could leave the place for a while but miss some sections.

This means that watching movies at home is convenient. However, in theaters, one does not have to deal with commercial breaks between the movies, but a television telecast of the same movie is always full of frequent advertisements.

The issue of privacy is also a major aspect of this case. Noteworthy, theaters are shared facilities, while homes are privately owned properties. In particular, movies like “Titanic,” which invokes human emotions, are better watched at home. Few people like to show their emotions in public.

Another essential difference involves the desire to keep updated with the film market. For instance, watching a movie in theaters enables one to watch recent materials and movies in the industry. When watching them at home, one has to wait until they are released in a DVD format or aired on a television channel.

The environment in the two places is different. In theaters, viewers must adhere to the rules of the facility. For instance, one is not supposed to shout, but at home, one is free to shout.

On the other hand, watching some terrifying films is more exciting when a group is involved than when a viewer is alone. Thus, theaters are the best places to watch such films.

There are several differences between watching a movie at home and in a theater. The choice is based on personal tastes and preferences. Therefore, some people love watching movies in groups and choose theaters, while others like watching them alone and prefer watching the material at home.

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14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Streaming

In today’s digital age, what is streaming has become one of the most popular ways to consume entertainment. 

With just a stable internet connection and a few clicks, you can watch your favorite shows and movies anytime, anywhere. 

One of the best ways to engage your viewers and make more money on Twitch is with Blerp sound alerts .

However, like any other technology, streaming also comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. 

In this article, we will explore the pros and cons of streaming to help you make an informed decision about whether it is the right choice for you.

Advantages and disadvantages of streaming

  • Redaction Team
  • September 22, 2023
  • Digital Marketing , Social Media

Advantages of Streaming

  • Access to a wide range of content : One of the biggest advantages of streaming is that it allows you to access a vast library of movies, TV shows, and other forms of media. With streaming services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Prime Video, you can easily find and watch your favorite content without having to search through physical media or cable channels.
  • Convenience and flexibility : Streaming allows you to watch your favorite shows and movies on demand. You can pause, rewind, or fast forward through the content at your own pace. This gives you the freedom to watch what you want, when you want, without being tied to a specific schedule.
  • No need for physical media : With streaming, you no longer need to buy or rent physical copies of movies or TV shows. This not only saves you money but also eliminates the need for storage space and clutter in your home.
  • Improved viewing experience : Streaming platforms offer high-quality video and audio playback, providing a more immersive and enjoyable viewing experience. You can also adjust the streaming quality based on your internet connection, ensuring smooth playback without buffering.
  • Cost-effective : Streaming services offer a variety of subscription plans to suit different budgets. Compared to buying individual movies or subscribing to cable TV, streaming services are often more affordable, especially if you regularly watch a lot of content.
  • Variety of streaming platforms : There are numerous streaming platforms available, each catering to specific genres or interests. Whether you are into movies, TV shows, documentaries, or live streaming events, you can easily find a streaming service that suits your preferences.
  • Portability : Streaming allows you to watch your favorite content on multiple devices, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, and smart TVs. This means you can enjoy your favorite shows and movies on the go, during your daily commute, or while traveling.
  • Discoverability : Streaming services often recommend new content based on your viewing history, helping you discover movies and TV shows that you may not have otherwise come across. This can expose you to new genres, directors, and actors, broadening your horizons and enhancing your overall entertainment experience.

Disadvantages of Streaming

  • Dependence on internet connection : One of the primary disadvantages of streaming is its reliance on a stable internet connection. If your internet is slow or unreliable, you may experience buffering issues, which can disrupt your viewing experience.
  • Limited offline access : Unlike physical media, streaming requires an internet connection to access the content. This means that you cannot watch your favorite shows or movies if you are in an area with no internet or if you have limited data allowance.
  • Potential for buffering : Streaming video requires a certain amount of data to be buffered before it can be played. If you have a slow internet connection, you may experience frequent buffering, which can be frustrating and disrupt your enjoyment.
  • Content availability : While streaming platforms offer a wide range of content, there can still be limitations in terms of availability. Some movies or TV shows may not be available on certain streaming services, which can be disappointing if they are on your watchlist.
  • Subscription costs : Although streaming is often considered more cost-effective than traditional media, the costs can add up if you subscribe to multiple streaming services. This can become a significant expense, especially if you are planning to add streaming videos to your existing cable TV subscription.
  • Content rotation : Streaming services may periodically remove certain movies or TV shows from their catalog due to licensing agreements. This means that your favorite content may not always be available for you to watch, and you may have to wait until it is re-added or find an alternative source.
  • Limited control over video file : When streaming, you do not have direct access to the video file, as it is stored on the streaming service's servers. This means you cannot transfer the files to other devices or make backups, limiting your control over the content you have paid for.
  • Potential for account sharing : While it may seem like a benefit, the ability to share streaming service accounts with friends and family can lead to a loss in revenue for content creators and the streaming platforms themselves.

Conclusion of Advantages and Disadvantages of Streaming Services

In conclusion, streaming has revolutionized the way we consume media, offering convenience, a wide range of content, and flexibility. However, it also comes with its limitations, such as dependence on a stable internet connection and the potential for buffering. Before deciding whether to embrace streaming as your primary mode of entertainment, it’s important to consider both the advantages and disadvantages. Ultimately, the choice will depend on your personal preferences and viewing habits.

Streaming, whether it’s for music, movies, TV shows, or other forms of content, has become increasingly popular in recent years. Like any technology or service, streaming has its advantages and disadvantages.

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essay on disadvantages of watching movies

Stage and Cinema

Arts and Entertainment Reviews


by Aveline MacQuoid on June 7, 2022


Technological advancement and swift growth have raised the trend of watching movies. In the early days, there were national channels only. They used to show movies on the weekends, for people who loved watching at home. However, the world is changing, and so is the movie industry. Now with millions of streaming websites, viewers can watch movies at any time of the day. Also, with offers like Spectrum promotions , you can easily subscribe to cable TV to enjoy films on different movie channels.

With the influx of the internet, watching movies has become a much bigger concept than before. The trend is getting higher but has anyone ever realized if watching movies is good or not? Has anyone ever tried weighing the pros and cons? Let’s find them out!

5 Pros of Watching Movies

Here are the top 5 benefits of watching movies that will motivate you to stick with your hobby.

#1. Stirring Imagination Let’s be honest, there are the most bizarre and unbelievable things shown in movies. These movies bring life to unique characters. With the latest technologies and equipment, one can see unimaginable things on the screen. Such things ignite the power of imagination, helping in inspiring the audience, especially the young ones.

#2. Pure Source of Entertainment Movies are a great source of entertainment. And there is no doubt about that! They transform people into a whole new world. It helps people in forgetting their anxiousness and anxieties. Movies stimulate relaxation and prove as a better element in leisure hours. People from every age bracket can enjoy movies that bring the pure essence of entertainment.

#3. Education Astonishingly true! Movies to educate their viewers. They cover different aspects of history, science, culture, arts, and technology. They refrain the viewers from being blinded by false stories. And help in debunking myths and falsified statements. After all, a picture speaks thousands of words alone.

#4. Mirrors of The Society Movies educate the viewers by showing the real face of society. Films adopt the actual events and stories of daily lives. In such cases, they help in mirroring the good and bad of society. People of all ages watch films. It will educate all and show them the face of the era they live in.

#5. Employment and Revenue Movies create a lot of employment opportunities. It also brings tons of revenue to the treasury. Different peripheral devices, merchandising, and film training generate much revenue. From set designers to makeup artists, movies employ a lot of people. For the revenue, the treasury takes taxes. Whatever a movie collects from the box office, something goes into tax.

Cons of Watching Movies

Although watching movies has a lot of pros but what about the cons? Well, here are a few that may make you a bit more cautious about what you watch.

#1. Extreme Violence Movies have extreme violence in them. Many people love it, and therefore the directors make sure to add a ton of it. However, such violence can be disturbing for faint hearts. It can also promote violent acts among the kids, motivating them to do the same in the future.

#2. False Notions Many movies establish falsified ideas in the minds of their viewers. For instance, movies chose black people to show gangsters. Or a specific community of people is responsible for terrorism and bombs. It creates wrong ideas in the minds of younger people which is what spreads hate and anger.

#3. Spread of Adultery Countless movies show nudity, nakedness, and intimate scenes that are not for all. They promote the idea of sexual escapades, vulgarity, fantasies, and other objectionable items. Some movies are even promoting pornographic material. It is leading the generation towards the increase of adultery and infidelity. It is corrupting the minds of younger people, encouraging them to fulfill illegal intentions.

#4. Fabricated Role Models Many times, the actors in the movies become role models for the viewers. If the character’s good, there are no worries. However, if the actor’s role is an abuser, cheater, criminal, or assaulter, the audience will learn that only. They will try to replicate those characters in real life. Such fabricated role models and characters can demolish a society as a whole.

#5. Perception of Wrong Ideas When watching a movie, viewers can get the wrong idea of different circumstances. From taking advantage of a weak person to committing suicide after getting tired of bullying, these wrong ideas, messages, and concepts can demotivate society. It can increase the number of suicides and other self-harming activities in case of painful moments.

There are always two sides to a coin. Therefore, watching movies have both pros and cons. It’s up to the viewers to choose each movie smartly. Viewers should get educated before believing in any wrong idea. Also, they must restrain younger kids from watching movies with explicit content. One should always weigh the cons over pros before watching a movie. This will help you decide which film to enjoy in peace.

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The Harmful Effects of Too Much Screen Time for Kids

  • Negative Effects
  • Family Relationships
  • Establishing Rules

Today’s children have grown up with a vast array of electronic devices at their fingertips. They can't imagine a world without smartphones, tablets, and the internet. 

The advances in technology mean today's parents are the first generation who have to figure out how to limit screen time for children. While digital devices can provide endless hours of entertainment and they can offer educational content, unlimited screen time can be harmful.  

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends parents place a reasonable limit on entertainment media. Despite those recommendations, children between the ages of 8 and 18 average 7½ hours of entertainment media per day, according to a 2010 study by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. But it's not just kids who are getting too much screen time.

Many parents struggle to impose healthy limits on themselves too. The average adult spends over 11 hours per day behind a screen, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. 

It's important to understand how too much screen time could be harming everyone in the whole family. 

The Negative Effects of Too Much Screen Time

Whether you keep the TV on all the time or the whole family sits around staring at their smartphones, too much screen time could be harmful. Here's what some of the research says:

  • Behavior problems : Elementary school-age children who watch TV or use a computer more than 2 hours per day are more likely to have emotional, social, and attention problems.
  • Educational problems : Elementary school-age children who have televisions in their bedrooms do worse on academic testing.
  • Obesity : Too much time engaging in sedentary activity, such as watching TV and playing video games, can be a risk factor for becoming overweight.  
  • Sleep problems : Although many parents use TV to wind down before bed, screen time before bed can backfire. The light emitted from screens interferes with the sleep cycle in the brain and can lead to insomnia.  
  • Violence : Exposure to violent TV shows, movies, music, and video games can cause children to become desensitized to it. Eventually, they may use violence to solve problems and may imitate what they see on TV, according to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Digital Devices Can Harm Family Relationships

Most of the conversations about the dangers of screen time focus on children. But, it's important to recognize that adults may experience many of the same harmful effects as well, like obesity and sleep problems.

But even if you aren't experiencing any tangible health problems stemming from your digital device use, there's a good chance your electronics could be harming your relationship with your child.

In a 2015 survey by AVG Technologies , one-third of children reported feeling unimportant when their parents looked at their smartphones during meals or when playing together.

Even replying to a quick text message could be sending your child another message—that your phone is more important than he is. 

Giving your child interrupted care—by repeatedly checking your smartphone—could also affect his development and his mental health. A 2016 study suggests looking at your digital devices could increase your child's chances of developing mental health problems, like depression.

Establishing Family Rules With Electronics

Telling your child to turn off his video games while you're sitting in front of the TV won't do anyone any good. It's important for you to set healthy limits on your electronics use for your own sake, as well as your child's sake.

Here are a few household rules you might want to establish to curb screen time: 

  • No digital devices during family meals.
  • No electronics use during family fun nights.
  • No screen time in the car.
  • No screens allowed in bedrooms.

In addition, consider an occasional digital detox for the whole family. Create a screen-free night once a week or commit to unplugging one weekend a month. It could be good for everyone's physical and emotional health, as well as your family's relationships.

Stiglic N, Viner RM. Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: A systematic review of reviews . BMJ Open. 2019;9(1):e023191. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023191

Ostrin LA, Abbott KS, Queener HM. Attenuation of short wavelengths alters sleep and the ipRGC pupil response . Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2017;37(4):440-450. doi:10.1111/opo.12385

American Academy of Pediatrics. More TV Before Bedtime Linked to Later Sleep Onset in Children . January 2013.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Media and Children .

Molet J, Heins K, Zhuo X, et al. Fragmentation and high entropy of neonatal experience predict adolescent emotional outcome .  Translational Psychiatry . 2016;6(1). doi:10.1038/tp.2015.200

  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8 to 18 Year Olds . January 2013

By Amy Morin, LCSW Amy Morin, LCSW, is the Editor-in-Chief of Verywell Mind. She's also a psychotherapist, an international bestselling author of books on mental strength and host of The Verywell Mind Podcast. She delivered one of the most popular TEDx talks of all time.

  • Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Television

Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Television

500+ words essay on advantages and disadvantages of television.

In today’s world, communication is a crucial aspect of life. Technological advancements made communication more accessible and cheaper. Among all the communication devices such as smartphones, radios, and emails, television is the prominent and common medium for communication. We get to see television in every household. It is an integral part of our society that significantly impacts our social, educational, and cultural life. It reaches a mass audience and provides information about the daily happenings in the world. Furthermore, it is a common source of entertainment among family members.

John Logie Baird invented the television in the 1920s. The word “tele” means distance, and “vision” means to see, which means to watch it from a distance. When television was invented, it showed only pictures of low resolution. But, later on, televisions were modified with the latest technologies. Televisions that we purchase today come with multiple features. We can connect our phone, laptop, tab, and internet access various online apps, HD/UHD quality pictures, 4k-8k resolutions, etc.

We can also watch various educational channels on television. It also keeps us updated by providing news about the world through different news channels. Along with information, it also entertains us with movies, serials, dramas, reality shows, music channels, yoga channels, etc.

So, having a television at home seems to be a great advantage, but the disadvantages are also threatening. The time it consumes from our day-to-day life is more. You can see people going out of routine or postponing schedules if they become addicted to watching television.

Here, in the essay, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of watching television.

Advantages of Television

Television comes with enormous advantages. The most important is it gives us information about current affairs and events across the globe. This information is broadcasted through various news channels, which helps us to keep ourselves updated about recent happenings. It also shares information about multiple programmes or facilities launched by the government. The government also take the help of news channels to communicate with the mass.

We can watch daily soaps, reality shows, music channels, movies, etc. We can also watch food channels and try out recipes at home. During the morning time, if you switch on the television, you will get to watch telemarketing ads. Specific channels broadcast only ads for multiple products, and people can also buy them.

Children can watch various cartoons on the television. Some cartoons teach children about moral values and lessons. It also keeps us informed about the economic condition and the stock market. We also get to watch various fashion shows and keep updated about the latest trends on television.

Earlier, television was costly, but now it comes at an affordable price with multiple features. Now, we get the option to subscribe to our favourite channels and only need to pay for those channels. Educational programmes are also available on television. We can also watch live cricket shows and cheer for our country. Television also telecasts interviews of various political leaders, celebrities, influencers, famous personalities, etc. We can also gain knowledge by watching various quiz programmes.

Television provides opportunities to spend time with our family and friends. We can enjoy watching a movie together. Various channels telecast comedy shows that help us keep positivity in our lives. We also watch movies in different regional languages like Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, etc. It helps us connect with people from diverse backgrounds.

Nowadays, we can also play games on the television and watch agricultural programmes specially designed for the farmers. It promotes national integration.

Disadvantages of Television

There are advantages of watching television, but it also comes with disadvantages. Watching too much TV affects our mental and physical health. When we watch television continuously, it affects our eyes and makes us lazy. Even there are some programmes which are not suitable for kids. We even compromise our sleep to watch TV. Children lose their concentration on their studies by watching too much television. Children prefer to watch TV over reading books to spend their leisure time.

Conclusion of Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Television

There are advantages and disadvantages of television. If television is helpful, it is harmful too. One should not watch television excessively.

We hope you found this essay on the advantages and disadvantages of television helpful. Check BYJU’S for more such CBSE Essays on different topics. You can also find CBSE study materials and resources for Classes 1 to 12.

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REVIEW article

On the advantages and disadvantages of choice: future research directions in choice overload and its moderators.

Raffaella Misuraca

  • 1 Department of Political Science and International Relations (DEMS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
  • 2 Atkinson Graduate School of Management, Willamette University, Salem, OR, United States
  • 3 Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Researchers investigating the psychological effects of choice have provided extensive empirical evidence that having choice comes with many advantages, including better performance, more motivation, and greater life satisfaction and disadvantages, such as avoidance of decisions and regret. When the decision task difficulty exceeds the natural cognitive resources of human mind, the possibility to choose becomes more a source of unhappiness and dissatisfaction than an opportunity for a greater well-being, a phenomenon referred to as choice overload. More recently, internal and external moderators that impact when choice overload occurs have been identified. This paper reviews seminal research on the advantages and disadvantages of choice and provides a systematic qualitative review of the research examining moderators of choice overload, laying out multiple critical paths forward for needed research in this area. We organize this literature review using two categories of moderators: the choice environment or context of the decision as well as the decision-maker characteristics.


The current marketing orientation adopted by many organizations is to offer a wide range of options that differ in only minor ways. For example, in a common western grocery store contains 285 types of cookies, 120 different pasta sauces, 175 salad-dressing, and 275 types of cereal ( Botti and Iyengar, 2006 ). However, research in psychology and consumer behavior has demonstrated that when the number of alternatives to choose from becomes excessive (or superior to the decision-makers’ cognitive resources), choice is mostly a disadvantage to both the seller and the buyer. This phenomenon has been called choice overload and it refers to a variety of negative consequences stemming from having too many choices, including increased choice deferral, switching likelihood, or decision regret, as well as decreased choice satisfaction and confidence (e.g., Chernev et al., 2015 ). Choice overload has been replicated in numerous fields and laboratory settings, with different items (e.g., jellybeans, pens, coffee, chocolates, etc.), actions (reading, completing projects, and writing essays), and populations (e.g., Chernev, 2003 ; Iyengar et al., 2004 ; Schwartz, 2004 ; Shah and Wolford, 2007 ; Mogilner et al., 2008 ; Fasolo et al., 2009 ; Misuraca and Teuscher, 2013 ; Misuraca and Faraci, 2021 ; Misuraca et al., 2022 ; see also Misuraca, 2013 ). Over time, we have gained insight into numerous moderators of the choice overload phenomena, including aspects of the context or choice environment as well as the individual characteristics of the decision-maker (for a detailed review see Misuraca et al., 2020 ).

The goal of this review is to summarize important research findings that drive our current understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of choice, focusing on the growing body of research investigating moderators of choice overload. Following a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of choice, we review the existing empirical literature examining moderators of choice overload. We organize this literature review using two categories of moderators: the choice environment or context of the decision as well as the decision-maker characteristics. Finally, based on this systematic review of research, we propose a variety of future research directions for choice overload investigators, ranging from exploring underlying mechanisms of choice overload moderators to broadening the area of investigation to include a robust variety of decision-making scenarios.

Theoretical background

The advantages of choice.

Decades of research in psychology have demonstrated the many advantages of choice. Indeed, increased choice options are associated with increase intrinsic motivation ( Deci, 1975 ; Deci et al., 1981 ; Deci and Ryan, 1985 ), improved task performance ( Rotter, 1966 ), enhanced life satisfaction ( Langer and Rodin, 1976 ), and improved well-being ( Taylor and Brown, 1988 ). Increased choice options also have the potential to satisfy heterogeneous preferences and produce greater utility ( Lancaster, 1990 ). Likewise, economic research has demonstrated that larger assortments provide a higher chance to find an option that perfectly matches the individual preferences ( Baumol and Ide, 1956 ). In other words, with larger assortments it is easier to find what a decision-maker wants.

The impact of increased choice options extends into learning, internal motivation, and performance. Zuckerman et al. (1978) asked college students to solve puzzles. Half of the participants could choose the puzzle they would solve from six options. For the other half of participants, instead, the puzzle was imposed by the researchers. It was found that the group free to choose the puzzle was more motivated, more engaged and exhibited better performance than the group that could not choose the puzzle to solve. In similar research, Schraw et al. (1998) asked college students to read a book. Participants were assigned to either a choice condition or a non-choice condition. In the first one, they were free to choose the book to read, whereas in the second condition the books to read were externally imposed, according to a yoked procedure. Results demonstrated the group that was free to make decisions was more motivated to read, more engaged, and more satisfied compared to the group that was not allowed to choose the book to read ( Schraw et al., 1998 ).

These effects remain consistent with children and when choice options are constrained to incidental aspects of the learning context. In the study by Cordova and Lepper (1996) , elementary school children played a computer game designed to teach arithmetic and problem-solving skills. One group could make decisions about incidental aspects of the learning context, including which spaceship was used and its name, whereas another group could not make any choice (all the choices about the game’s features were externally imposed by the experimenters). The results demonstrated that the first group was more motivated to play the game, more engaged in the task, learned more of the arithmetical concepts involved in the game, and preferred to solve more difficult tasks compared to the second group.

Extending benefits of choice into health consequences, Langer and Rodin (1976) examined the impact that choice made in nursing home patients. In this context, it was observed that giving patients the possibility to make decisions about apparently irrelevant aspects of their life (e.g., at what time to watch a movie; how to dispose the furniture in their bedrooms, etc.), increased psychological and physiological well-being. The lack of choice resulted, instead, in a state of learned helplessness, as well as deterioration of physiological and psychological functions.

The above studies lead to the conclusion that choice has important advantages over no choice and, to some extent, limited choice options. It seems that providing more choice options is an improvement – it will be more motivating, more satisfying, and yield greater well-being. In line with this conclusion, the current orientation in marketing is to offer a huge variety of products that differ only in small details (e.g., Botti and Iyengar, 2006 ). However, research in psychology and consumer behavior demonstrated that when the number of alternatives to choose from exceeds the decision-makers’ cognitive resources, choice can become a disadvantage.

The disadvantages of choice

A famous field study conducted by Iyengar and Lepper (2000) in a Californian supermarket demonstrated that too much choice decreases customers’ motivation to buy as well as their post-choice satisfaction. Tasting booths were set up in two different areas of the supermarket, one of which displayed 6 different jars of jam while the other displayed 24 options, with customers free to taste any of the different flavors of jam. As expected, the larger assortment attracted more passers-by compared to the smaller assortment; Indeed, 60% of passers-by stopped at the table displaying 24 different options, whereas only 40% of the passers-by stopped at the table displaying the small variety of 6 jams. This finding was expected given that more choice options are appealing. However, out of the 60% of passers-by who stopped at the table with more choices, only 3% of them decided to buy jam. Conversely, 30% of the consumers who stopped at the table with only 6 jars of jam decided to purchase at least one jar. Additionally, these customers expressed a higher level of satisfaction with their choices, compared to those who purchased a jar of jam from the larger assortment. In other words, it seems that too much choice is at the beginning more appealing (attracts more customers), but it decreases the motivation to choose and the post-choice satisfaction.

This classic and seminal example of choice overload was quickly followed by many replications that expanded the findings from simple purchasing decisions into other realms of life. For example, Iyengar and Lepper (2000) , asked college students to write an essay. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following two experimental conditions: limited-choice condition, in which they could choose from a list of six topics for the essay, and extensive-choice condition, in which they could choose from a list of 30 different topics for the essay. Results showed that a higher percentage of college students (74%) turned in the essay in the first condition compared to the second condition (60%). Moreover, the essays written by the students in the limited-choice conditions were evaluated as being higher quality compared to the essays written by the students in the extensive choice condition. In a separate study, college students were asked to choose one chocolate from two randomly assigned choice conditions with either 6 or 30 different chocolates. Those participants in the limited choice condition reporting being more satisfied with their choice and more willing to purchase chocolates at the end of the experiment, compared to participants who chose from the larger assortment ( Iyengar and Lepper, 2000 ).

In the field of financial decision-making, Iyengar et al. (2004) analyzed 800,000 employees’ decisions about their participation in 401(k) plans that offered from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 59 different fund options. The researchers observed that as the fund options increased, the participation rate decreased. Specifically, plans offering less than 10 options had the highest participation rate, whereas plans offering 59 options had the lowest participation rate.

The negative consequences of having too much choice driven by cognitive limitations. Simon (1957) noted that decision-makers have a bounded rationality. In other words, the human mind cannot process an unlimited amount of information. Individuals’ working memory has a span of about 7 (plus or minus two) items ( Miller, 1956 ), which means that of all the options to choose from, individuals can mentally process only about 7 alternatives at a time. Because of these cognitive limitations, when the number of choices becomes too high, the comparison of all the available items becomes cognitively unmanageable and, consequently, decision-makers feel overwhelmed, confused, less motivated to choose and less satisfied (e.g., Iyengar and Lepper, 2000 ). However, a more recent meta-analytic work [ Chernev et al., 2015 : see also Misuraca et al. (2020) ] has shown that choice overload occurs only under certain conditions. Many moderators that mitigate the phenomenon have been identified by researchers in psychology and consumer behavior (e.g., Mogilner et al., 2008 ; Misuraca et al., 2016a ). In the next sections, we describe our review methodology and provide a detailed discussion of the main external and internal moderators of choice overload.

Literature search and inclusion criteria

Our investigation consisted of a literature review of peer-reviewed empirical research examining moderators of choice overload. We took several steps to locate and identify eligible studies. First, we sought to establish a list of moderators examined in the choice overload literature. For this, we referenced reviews conducted by Chernev et al. (2015) , McShane and Böckenholt (2017) , as well as Misuraca et al. (2020) and reviewed the references sections of the identified articles to locate additional studies. Using the list of moderators generated from this examination, we conducted a literature search using PsycInfo (Psychological Abstracts), EBSCO and Google Scholar. This search included such specific terms such as choice set complexity, visual preference heuristic, and choice preference uncertainty, as well as broad searches for ‘choice overload’ and ‘moderator’.

We used several inclusion criteria to select relevant articles. First, the article had to note that it was examining the choice overload phenomena. Studies examining other theories and/or related variables were excluded. Second, to ensure that we were including high-quality research methods that have been evaluated by scholars, only peer-reviewed journal articles were included. Third, the article had to include primary empirical data (qualitative or quantitative). Thus, studies that were conceptual in nature were excluded. This process yielded 49 articles for the subsequent review.

Moderators of choice overload

Choice environment and context.

Regarding external moderators of choice overload, several aspects about the choice environment become increasingly relevant. Specifically, these include the perceptual attributes of the information, complexity of the set of options, decision task difficulty, as well as the presence of brand names.

Perceptual characteristics

As Miller (1956) noted, humans have “channel capacity” for information processing and these differ for divergent stimuli: for taste, we have a capacity to accommodate four; for tones, the capacity increased to six; and for visual stimuli, we have the capacity for 10–15 items. Accordingly, perceptual attributes of choice options are an important moderator of choice overload, with visual presentation being one of the most important perceptual attributes ( Townsend and Kahn, 2014 ). The visual preference heuristic refers to the tendency to prefer a visual rather than verbal representation of choice options, regardless of assortment size ( Townsend and Kahn, 2014 ). However, despite this preference, visual presentations of large assortments lead to suboptimal decisions compared to verbal presentations, as visual presentations activate a less systematic decision-making approach ( Townsend and Kahn, 2014 ). Visual presentation of large choice sets is also associated with increased perceptions of complexity and likelihood of decisions deferral. Visual representations are particularly effective with small assortments, as they increase consumers’ perception of variety, improve the likelihood of making a choice, and reduce the time spent examining options ( Townsend and Kahn, 2014 ).

Choice set complexity

Choice set complexity refers to a wide range of aspects of a decision task that affect the value of the available choice options without influencing the structural characteristics of the decision problem ( Payne et al., 1993 ). Thus, choice set complexity does not influence aspects such as the number of options, number of attributes of each option, or format in which the information is presented. Rather, choice set complexity concerns factors such as the attractiveness of options, the presence of a dominant option, and the complementarity or alignability of the options.

Choice set complexity increases when the options include higher-quality, more attractive options ( Chernev and Hamilton, 2009 ). Indeed, when the variability in the relative attractiveness of the choice alternatives increases, the certainty about the choice and the satisfaction with the task increase ( Malhotra, 1982 ). Accordingly, when the number of attractive options increases, more choice options led to a decline in consumer satisfaction and likelihood of a decision being made, but satisfaction increases and decision deferral decreased when the number of unattractive options increases ( Dhar, 1997 ). This occurs when increased choice options make the weakness and strengths of attractive and unattractive options more salient ( Chan, 2015 ).

Similarly, the presence of a dominant option simplifies large choice sets and increased the preference for the chosen option; however, the opposite effect happens in small choice sets ( Chernev, 2003 ). Choice sets containing an ideal option have been associated with increased brain activity in the areas involved in reward and value processing as well as in the integration of costs and benefits (striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex; Reutskaja et al., 2018 ) which could explain why larger choice sets are not always associated with choice overload. As Misuraca et al. (2020 , p. 639) noted, “ the benefits of having an ideal item in the set might compensate for the costs of overwhelming set size in the bounded rational mind of humans . ”

Finally, choice set complexity is impacted by the alignability and complementarity of the attributes that differentiate the options ( Chernev et al., 2015 ). When unique attributes of options exist within a choice set, complexity and choice overload increase as the unique attributes make comparison more difficult and trade-offs more salient. Indeed, feature alignability and complementarity (meaning that the options have additive utility and need to be co-present to fully satisfy the decision-maker’s need) 1 have been associated with decision deferral ( Chernev, 2005 ; Gourville and Soman, 2005 ) and changes in satisfaction ( Griffin and Broniarczyk, 2010 ).

Decision task difficulty

Decision task difficulty refers to the structural characteristics of a decision problem; unlike choice set complexity, decision task difficulty does not influence the value of the choice options ( Payne et al., 1993 ). Decision task difficulty is influenced by the number of attributes used to describe available options, decision accountability, time constraints, and presentation format.

The number of attributes used to describe the available options within an assortment influences decision task difficulty and choice overload ( Hoch et al., 1999 ; Chernev, 2003 ; Greifeneder et al., 2010 ), such that choice overload increases with the number of dimensions upon which the options differ. With each additional dimension, decision-makers have another piece of information that must be attended to and evaluated. Along with increasing the cognitive complexity of the choice, additional dimensions likely increase the odds that each option is inferior to other options on one dimension or another (e.g., Chernev et al., 2015 ).

When individuals have decision accountability or are required to justify their choice of an assortment to others, they tend to prefer larger assortments; However, when individuals must justify their particular choice from an assortment to others, they tend to prefer smaller choice sets ( Ratner and Kahn, 2002 ; Chernev, 2006 ; Scheibehenne et al., 2009 ). Indeed, decision accountability is associated with decision deferral when choice sets are larger compared to smaller ( Gourville and Soman, 2005 ). Thus, decision accountability influences decision task difficulty differently depending on whether an individual is selecting an assortment or choosing an option from an assortment.

Time pressure or constraint is an important contextual factor for decision task difficulty, choice overload, and decision regret ( Payne et al., 1993 ). Time pressure affects the strategies that are used to make decisions as well as the quality of the decisions made. When confronted with time pressure, decision-makers tend to speed up information processing, which could be accomplished by limiting the amount of information that they process and use ( Payne et al., 1993 ; Pieters and Warlop, 1999 ; Reutskaja et al., 2011 ). Decision deferral becomes a more likely outcome, as is choosing at random and regretting the decision later ( Inbar et al., 2011 ).

The physical arrangement and presentation of options and information affect information perception, processing, and decision-making. This moderates the effect of choice overload because these aspects facilitate or inhibit decision-makers’ ability to process a greater information load (e.g., Chernev et al., 2015 ; Anderson and Misuraca, 2017 ). The location of options and structure of presented information allow the retrieval of information about the options, thus allowing choosers to distinguish and evaluate various options (e.g., Chandon et al., 2009 ). Specifically, organizing information into “chunks” facilitates information processing ( Miller, 1956 ) as well as the perception of greater variety in large choice sets ( Kahn and Wansink, 2004 ). Interestingly, these “chunks” do not have to be informative; Mogilner et al. (2008) found that choice overload was mitigated to the same extent when large choice sets were grouped into generic categories (i.e., A, B, etc.) as when the categories were meaningful descriptions of characteristics.

Beyond organization, the presentation order can facilitate or inhibit decision-makers cognitive processing ability. Levav et al. (2010) found that choice overload decreased and choice satisfaction increased when smaller choice sets were followed by larger choice sets, compared to the opposite order of presentation. When sets are highly varied, Huffman and Kahn (1998) found that decision-makers were more satisfied and willing to make a choice when information was presented about attributes (i.e., price and characteristics) rather than available alternatives (i.e., images of options). Finally, presenting information simultaneously, rather than sequentially, increases decision satisfaction ( Mogilner et al., 2013 ), likely due to decision-makers choosing among an available set rather than comparing each option to an imaged ideal option.

Brand names

The presence of brand names is an important moderator of choice overload. As recently demonstrated by researchers in psychology and consumer behavior, choice overload occurs only when options are not associated with brands, choice overload occurs when the same choice options are presented without any brand names ( Misuraca et al., 2019 , 2021a ). When choosing between 6 or 24 different mobile phones, choice overload did not occur in the condition in which phones were associated with a well-known brand (i.e., Apple, Samsung, Nokia, etc.), although it did occur when the same cell phones were displayed without information about their brand. These findings have been replicated with a population of adolescents ( Misuraca et al., 2021a ).

Decision-maker characteristics

Beyond the choice environment and context, individual differences in decision-maker characteristics are significant moderators of choice overload. Several critical characteristics include the decision goal as well as an individual’s preference uncertainty, affective state, decision style, and demographic variables such as age, gender, and cultural background (e.g., Misuraca et al., 2021a ).

Decision goal

A decision goal refers to the extent to which a decision-maker aims to minimize the cognitive resources spent making a decision ( Chernev, 2003 ). Decision goals have been associated with choice overload, with choice overload increasing along with choice set options, likely due to decision-makers unwillingness to make tradeoffs between various options. As a moderator of choice overload, there are several factors which impact the effect of decision goals, including decision intent (choosing or browsing) and decision focus (choosing an assortment or an option) ( Misuraca et al., 2020 ).

Decision intent varies between choosing, with the goal of making a decision among the available options, and browsing, with the goal of learning more about the options. Cognitive overload is more likely to occur than when decision makers’ goal is choosing compared to browsing. For choosing goals, decision-makers need to make trade-offs among the pros and cons of the options, something that demands more cognitive resources. Accordingly, decision-makers whose goal is browsing, rather than choosing, are less likely to experience cognitive overload when facing large assortments ( Chernev and Hamilton, 2009 ). Furthermore, when decision-makers have a goal of choosing, brain research reveals inverted-U-shaped function, with neither too much nor too little choice providing optimal cognitive net benefits ( Reutskaja et al., 2018 ).

Decision focus can target selecting an assortment or selecting an option from an assortment. When selecting an assortment, cognitive overload is less likely to occur, likely due to the lack of individual option evaluation and trade-offs ( Chernev et al., 2015 ). Thus, when choosing an assortment, decision-makers tend to prefer larger assortments that provide more variety. Conversely, decision-makers focused on choosing an option from an assortment report increased decision difficulty and tend to prefer smaller assortments ( Chernev, 2006 ). Decision overload is further moderated by the order of decision focus. Scheibehenne et al. (2010) found that when decision-makers first decide on an assortment, they are more likely to choose an option from that assortment, rather than an option from an assortment they did not first select.

Preference uncertainty

The degree to which decision-makers have preferences varies regarding comprehension and prioritization of the costs and benefits of the choice options. This is referred to as preference uncertainty ( Chernev, 2003 ). Preference uncertainty is influenced by decision-maker expertise and an articulated ideal option, which indicates well-defined preferences. When decision-makers have limited expertise, larger choice sets are associated with weaker preferences as well as increased choice deferral and choice overload compared to smaller choice sets. Conversely, high expertise decision-makers experience weaker preferences and increased choice deferral in the context of smaller choice sets compared to larger ( Mogilner et al., 2008 ; Morrin et al., 2012 ). Likewise, an articulated ideal option, which implies that the decision-maker has already engaged in trade-offs, is associated with reduced decision complexity. The effect is more pronounced in larger choice sets compared to smaller choice sets ( Chernev, 2003 ).

Positive affect

Positive affect tends to moderate the impact of choice overload on decision satisfaction. Indeed, Spassova and Isen (2013) found that decision-makers reporting positive affect did not report experiencing dissatisfaction when choosing from larger choice sets while those with neutral affect reported being more satisfied when choosing from smaller choice sets. This affect may be associated with the affect heuristic, or a cognitive shortcut that enables efficient decisions based on the immediate emotional response to a stimulus ( Slovic et al., 2007 ).

Decision-making tendencies

Satisfaction with extensive choice options may depend on whether one is a maximizer or a satisficer. Maximizing refers to the tendency to search for the best option. Maximizers approach decision tasks with the goal to find the absolute best ( Carmeci et al., 2009 ; Misuraca et al., 2015 , 2016b , 2021b ; Misuraca and Fasolo, 2018 ). To do that, they tend to process all the information available and try to compare all the possible options. Conversely, satisficers are decision-makers whose goal is to select an option that is good enough, rather than the best choice. To find such an option, satisficers evaluate a smaller range of options, and choose as soon as they find one alternative that surpasses their threshold of acceptability ( Schwartz, 2004 ). Given the different approach of maximizers and satisficers when choosing, it is easy to see why choice overload represents more of a problem for maximizers than for satisficers. If the number of choices exceeds the individuals’ cognitive resources, maximizers more than satisficers would feel overwhelmed, frustrated, and dissatisfied, because an evaluation of all the available options to select the best one is cognitively impossible.

Maximizers attracted considerable attention from researchers because of the paradoxical finding that even though they make objectively better decisions than satisficers, they report greater regret and dissatisfaction. Specifically, Iyengar et al. (2006) , analyzed the job search outcomes of college students during their final college year and found that maximizer students selected jobs with 20% higher salaries compared to satisficers, but they felt less satisfied and happy, as well as more stressed, frustrated, anxious, and regretful than students who were satisficers. The reasons for these negative feelings of maximizers lies in their tendency to believe that a better option is among those that they could not evaluate, given their time and cognitive limitations.

Choosing for others versus oneself

When decision-makers must make a choice for someone else, choice overload does not occur ( Polman, 2012 ). When making choices for others (about wines, ice-cream flavors, school courses, etc.), decision makers reported greater satisfaction when choosing from larger assortments rather than smaller assortments. However, when choosing for themselves, they reported higher satisfaction after choosing from smaller rather than larger assortments.


Demographic variables such as gender, age, and cultural background moderate reactions concerning choice overload. Regarding gender, men and women may often employ different information-processing strategies, with women being more likely to attend to and use details than men (e.g., Meyers-Levy and Maheswaran, 1991 ). Gender differences also arise in desire for variety and satisfaction depending on choice type. While women were more satisfied with their choice of gift boxes regardless of assortment size, women become more selective than men when speed-dating with larger groups of speed daters compared to smaller groups ( Fisman et al., 2006 ).

Age moderates the choice overload experience such that, when choosing from an extensive array of options, adolescents and adults suffer similar negative consequences (i.e., greater difficulty and dissatisfaction), while children and seniors suffer fewer negative consequences (i.e., less difficulty and dissatisfaction than adolescents and adults) ( Misuraca et al., 2016a ). This could be associated with decision-making tendencies. Indeed, adults and adolescents tend to adopt maximizing approaches ( Furby and Beyth-Marom, 1992 ). This maximizing tendency aligns with their greater perceived difficulty and post-choice dissatisfaction when facing a high number of options ( Iyengar et al., 2006 ). Seniors tend to adopt a satisficing approach when making decisions ( Tanius et al., 2009 ), as well as become overconfident in their judgments ( Stankov and Crawford, 1996 ) and focused on positive information ( Mather and Carstensen, 2005 ). Taken together, these could explain why the negative consequences of too many choice options were milder among seniors. Finally, children tend to approach decisions in an intuitive manner and quickly develop strong preferences ( Schlottmann and Wilkening, 2011 ). This mitigates the negative consequences of choice overload for this age group.

Finally, decision-makers from different cultures have different preferences for variety (e.g., Iyengar, 2010 ). Eastern Europeans report greater satisfaction with larger choice sets than Western Europeans ( Reutskaja et al., 2022 ). Likewise, cultural differences in perception may impact how choice options affect decision-makers from Western and non-Western cultures (e.g., Miyamoto et al., 2006 ).

Future research directions

As researchers continue to investigate the choice overload phenomenon, future investigations can provide a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms that influence when and how individuals experience the negative impacts of choice overload as well as illuminate how this phenomenon can affect people in diverse contexts (such as hiring decisions, sports, social media platforms, streaming services, etc.).

For instance, the visual preference heuristic indicates, and subsequent research supports, the human tendency to prefer visual rather than verbal representations of choice options ( Townsend and Kahn, 2014 ). However, in Huffman and Kahn’s (1998) research, decision-makers preferred written information, such as characteristics of the sofa, rather than visual representations of alternatives. Future researchers can investigate the circumstances that underlie when individuals prefer detailed written or verbal information as opposed to visual images.

Furthermore, future researchers can examine the extent to which the mechanisms underlying the impact of chunking align with those underlying the effect of brand names. Research has supported that chunking information reduces choice overload, regardless of the sophistication of the categories ( Kahn and Wansink, 2004 ; Mogilner et al., 2008 ). The presence of a brand name has a seemingly similar effect ( Misuraca et al., 2019 , 2021a ). The extent to which the cognitive processes underlying these two areas of research the similar, as well as the ways in which they might differ, can provide valuable insights for researchers and practitioners.

More research is needed that considers the role of the specific culture and cultural values of the decision-maker on choice overload. Indeed, the traditional studies on the choice overload phenomenon mentioned above predominantly focused on western cultures, which are known for being individualistic cultures. Future research should explore whether choice overload replicates in collectivistic cultures, which value the importance of making personal decisions differently than individualist cultures. Additional cultural values, such as long-term or short-term time orientation, may also impact decision-makers and the extent to which they experience choice overload ( Hofstede and Minkov, 2010 ).

While future research that expands our understanding of the currently known and identified moderators of choice overload can critically inform our understanding of when and how this phenomenon occurs, there are many new and exciting directions into which researchers can expand.

For example, traditional research on choice overload focused on choice scenarios where decision-makers had to choose only one option out of either a small or a large assortment of options. This is clearly an important scenario, yet it represents only one of many scenarios that choice overload may impact. Future research could investigate when and how this phenomenon occurs in a wide variety of scenarios that are common in the real-world but currently neglected in classical studies on choice overload. These could include situations in which the individual can choose more than one option (e.g., more than one type of ice cream or cereal) (see Fasolo et al., 2024 ).

Historically, a significant amount of research on choice overload has focused on purchasing decisions. Some evidence also indicates that the phenomenon occurs in a variety of situations (e.g., online dating, career choices, retirement planning, travel and tourism, and education), potentially hindering decision-making processes and outcomes. Future research should further investigate how choice overload impacts individuals in a variety of untested situations. For instance, how might choice overload impact the hiring manager with a robust pool of qualified applicants? How would the occurrence of choice overload in a hiring situation impact the quality of the decision, making an optimal hire? Likewise, does choice overload play a role in procrastination? When confronted with an overwhelming number of task options, does choice overload play a role in decision deferral? It could be that similar cognitive processes underlie deferring a choice on a purchase and deferring a choice on a to-do list. Research is needed to understand how choice overload (and its moderators) may differ across these scenarios.

Finally, as society continues to adapt and develop, future research will be needed to evaluate the impact these technological and sociological changes have on individual decision-makers. The technology that we interact with has become substantially more sophisticated and omnipresent, particularly in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). As AI is adopted into our work, shopping, and online experiences, future researchers should investigate if AI and interactive decision-aids (e.g., Anderson and Misuraca, 2017 ) can be effectively leveraged to reduce the negative consequences of having too many alternatives without impairing the sense of freedom of decision-makers.

As with technological advancements, future research could examine how new sociological roles contribute to or minimize choice overload. For example, a social media influencer could reduce the complexity of the decision when there is a large number of choice options. If social media influencers have an impact, is that impact consistent across age groups and culturally diverse individuals? Deepening our understanding of how historical and sociological events have impacted decision-makers, along with how cultural differences in our perceptions of the world as noted above, could provide a rich and needed area of future research.

Discussion and conclusion

Research in psychology demonstrated the advantages of being able to make choices from a variety of alternatives, particularly when compared to no choice at all. Having the possibility to choose, indeed, enhances individuals’ feeling of self-determination, motivation, performance, well-being, and satisfaction with life (e.g., Zuckerman et al., 1978 ; Cordova and Lepper, 1996 ). As the world continues to globalize through sophisticated supply chains and seemingly infinite online shopping options, our societies have become characterized by a proliferation of choice options. Today, not only stores, but universities, hospitals, financial advisors, sport centers, and many other businesses offer a huge number of options from which to choose. The variety offered is often so large that decision-makers can become overwhelmed when trying to compare and evaluate all the potential options and experience choice overload ( Iyengar and Lepper, 2000 ). Rather than lose the benefits associated with choice options, researchers and practitioners should understand and leverage the existence of the many moderators that affect the occurrence of choice overload. The findings presented in this review indicate that choice overload is influenced by several factors, including perceptual attributes, choice set complexity, decision task difficulty, and brand association. Understanding these moderators can aid in designing choice environments that optimize decision-making processes and alleviate choice overload. For instance, organizing options effectively and leveraging brand association can enhance decision satisfaction and reduce choice overload. Additionally, considering individual differences such as decision goals, preference uncertainty, affective state, decision-making tendencies, and demographics can tailor decision-making environments to better suit the needs and preferences of individuals, ultimately improving decision outcomes. Future research is needed to fully understand the role of many variables that might be responsible for the negative consequences of choice overload and to better understand under which conditions the phenomenon occurs.

Author contributions

RM: Writing – review & editing, Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft. AN: Writing – review & editing. SM: Writing – review & editing. GD: Methodology, Writing – review & editing. CS: Writing – review & editing, Supervision.

The author(s) declare that no financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: choice-overload, decision-making, choice set complexity, decision task difficulty, decision goal, decision-making tendency

Citation: Misuraca R, Nixon AE, Miceli S, Di Stefano G and Scaffidi Abbate C (2024) On the advantages and disadvantages of choice: future research directions in choice overload and its moderators. Front. Psychol . 15:1290359. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2024.1290359

Received: 07 September 2023; Accepted: 24 April 2024; Published: 09 May 2024.

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Copyright © 2024 Misuraca, Nixon, Miceli, Di Stefano and Scaffidi Abbate. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Raffaella Misuraca, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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What Students Are Saying About Tech in the Classroom

Does technology help students be more organized, efficient and prepared for the future? Or is it just a distraction?

An illustration of a large open laptop computer with many teeth, biting down on a small schoolhouse.

By The Learning Network

Is there a problem with screens in schools?

We invited students to weigh in on that question in our Picture Prompt Tech in the Classroom , which was based on an Opinion essay arguing that we should “get tech out of the classroom before it’s too late.”

Is there too much tech in your school day? — we asked students. Would you prefer more screen-free time while you are learning, or even during lunch or free periods?

Below, they share the good, the bad and the ugly about technology use in school.

Thank you to everyone who participated in the conversation on our writing prompts this week!

Please note: Student comments have been lightly edited for length.

Some students saw the value of technology in schools, including its ability to prepare students for the future.

I believe that technology in the classroom is a good thing when it is properly moderated. I think completely taking away screens from a student will not help them develop computer skills which they will most likely need in a world like ours, where most of everything is online. Sometimes phones cannot get the job done, and computers will be needed. If schools completely remove devices from the curriculum, then students will be completely clueless when they take classes involving a computer. Too much screen time can be bad for the student, but if it is well moderated, then screen time won’t be an issue.

— Saheed, GMS

I personally do not mind the amount of technology in the classroom. I personally find typing to be a lot easier instead of writing. On top of that, this amount of technology is used in adults’ day to day lives, too. Writing has become less and less relevant for everyone, because most jobs require a computer nowadays. So I think it’s actually better to have the amount of technology we do in the classroom.

— Timothy, Greenbelt Middle

They said, even though there might be down sides, the good outweighs the bad.

Screens in the classroom allows students to complete work in a more organized manner and use online resources to help them learn. It helps teachers to be able to make sure students turn work in before a certain time. However, having screens in the classroom raises students overall screen time which is bad for their eye health and sleep.

— Emily, Greenbelt Middle

I believe that computers should definitely be used at school because it has more pros than cons. They help with everything. The only problem with them is the people using them. The people using them are often misusing them and not charging them.

— Deegan, California

And they argued that tech is so entrenched in the student experience that taking it away would cause a lot of disruption.

There are no problems with screens in school. I believe without screens, school would be much less productive, produce so much waste of paper, and assignments would be lost a lot. Also when I have paper homework, which is almost never, almost every time I get it I forget because everything is on the iPad. This is important because if there is any change in the iPads we use, it’ll affect everyone drastically. Also it would just be really annoying to get used to a whole new thing.

— August, GBW

But another contingent of students said, “There is definitely a problem with screens in school.” They called them a distraction.

There is definitely a problem with screens in school. While regular technology use in school is highly efficient and much more convenient than using textbooks and paper, I still feel like using technology as the main method for learning is detrimental. There are plenty of students in my classes who are hiding behind their iPads to play games or go on their phones rather than utilizing their technology to enhance their learning experience. So in turn, I think we need to minimize (but not completely take away) the prominence of tech in our classrooms. This matters because it’s so important for students to learn how to completely pay attention and focus in on one task so that they are prepared for the moments in life where they don’t get the opportunity to look at their phone if they’re bored or to text their friends. Trust me, this may seem like I’m one hundred percent anti-phones but the truth is I love my phone and am somewhat addicted to it, so I realize that it’s a major distraction for myself in the classroom. Moreover, staring at an iPad screen for 7 hours a day puts significant strain on our eyes, so for the sake of our health and our attention spans, we need to minimize tech use in school.

— Mary, Glenbard West High School

Tech inside classrooms has had many positive effects and many negative effects. Without technology, it would take forever to find sources/information and it would also take ages to do complex things. With technology, people can easily find information and they can easily do many things but the big downside is that they can easily just search up games and get distracted. On one side, it has provided many different changes to students so they can learn in a fun and entertaining way but in another, people are mostly on their phones scrolling through YouTube or Instagram. Many people don’t have control over their body and have a big urge to go on their cellphones.

— Srikanth, Greenbelt Middle School

In my opinion, yes there is a problem with screens in schools. It distracts kids from focusing on their work. Many students are always on their phone during class, and it is disrespectful as well as sad for them. They will not be able to learn the material that is being taught. Personally, I think that screens should be reduced in class, but I do not think that is possible. Whenever a teacher takes away someone’s phone, they get very mad and say that it is their right to have their phone. In these cases it is very confusing on how to act for the teacher!

— Kadambari, gms

Some reported that their peers use technology to cheat.

It might be a problem depending on what people are doing. If it is used for school, like typing an essay, working on homework, or checking your grades it’s okay, but I know people who abuse this privilege. They go onto YouTube and watch things, listen to music when they aren’t supposed to, and play games. Many people cheat to the point where it takes forever to start a test because people don’t close out their tabs. It helps to be able to do these ‘Quick Writes’ as we call them in my ELA class because I can write faster (I know it’s called typing). It’s harder to access things because of the restriction because people mess around so they block so many useful websites and words from our computer. I like to type on the computer, but I feel people abuse this privilege too much.

— Nina, California

When the teachers assign tests on computers, sometimes teachers have to lock students’ screens to make sure they’re not cheating. Sometimes they do it on paper and they try to cheat while hiding their phones in their laps. And then if another student sees them doing that, they will tell and the student who would have the phone out could start a big argument.

— Taylor, Huntington Beach

Several lamented the sheer number of hours teenagers spend in front of screens.

I feel that we have become too comfortable with using screens for nearly every lesson in school, because it has gotten to the point where we are spending upwards of 4 hours on our laptops in school alone. I understand that it would be hard to switch back to using journals and worksheets, but it would be very beneficial for kids if we did.

— Chase, school

I think we should reduce the tech a little just because most students are going straight to screens when they get home, after a full day of screens … Although I know this would be very difficult to do because everything in the world now seems to go online.

— Jaydin, California

And they even worried about their handwriting in a world full of typing.

I think technology in a class is very helpful, but I think that we should incorporate more writing. Since the pandemic, most of the work has been online and it never gave students the opportunity to write as much. When we came back from lockdown, I almost forgot how to write with a pencil. My handwriting was very different. And now we don’t get much time to write with our hands so I think we should have fewer screens.

— Eric, Greenbelt

Some students said that less time spent on screens in school would give them a break from the always-on digital culture they live in.

Although typing is useful and using the internet is very useful, I think we should go back to how it was about 20-40 years ago when all people used the computer for was to type an essay. Drama didn’t get spread in a millisecond, we didn’t have to worry as much about stereotypes. Now all kids want to do is text each other and watch videos. I’m well aware that I have fallen into this trap and I want out, but our lives revolve around technology. You can’t get away from it. I know this is about schools not using technology, which the world without it would be impossible now, but life would be so much simpler again.

— Ivy, Huntington Beach, CA

I will say that my phone is usually always with me during school hours, but I don’t use it all the time. I may check the time or play a short game as a brain break. But I do see some people absolutely glued to their phones during class time, and it’s honestly embarrassing. You really can’t go without your phone for an hour?? It’s almost like an addiction at this point. I understand using your phone to quickly distract yourself; I do it too. And I also think it’s okay to have your phone/electronic during lunch time or free periods. But using it to the point that you can’t properly pay attention in class is just embarrassing. So, in summary, I do think that schools are having a problem with screens.

— Allison, Greenbelt Middle School

And they named classes in which they think screens do and do not have a place.

I feel like for classes for younger kids, technology is definitely not good. Kids should be playing, using their hands, and actually experiencing things instead of being on tablets in kindergarten. I think using computers in school is good though. It’s a lot more efficient, and we live in a society where fast and efficient things are the trend.

— sarah, maryland

I think screens have their place, and will always have their place, in schools and education. The capabilities of computers will always surpass anything else, and they should not be banned from school environments. Still, I have one exception: English class. Other than final drafts of essays, everything in English should be on paper. You can formulate ideas better and minimize outside influence on your thinking.

— Addie, The Potomac School

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    Convenience and flexibility: Streaming allows you to watch your favorite shows and movies on demand. You can pause, rewind, or fast forward through the content at your own pace. This gives you the freedom to watch what you want, when you want, without being tied to a specific schedule. No need for physical media: With streaming, you no longer ...


    After all, a picture speaks thousands of words alone. #4. Mirrors of The Society. Movies educate the viewers by showing the real face of society. Films adopt the actual events and stories of daily lives. In such cases, they help in mirroring the good and bad of society. People of all ages watch films.

  17. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Watching Movies At Home

    It arouses you from being uninterested and weary. It stirs up excitement between your friends and family. It can be one of the sources to make connection in your community. It creates enthusiastic topic to talk about commonly. Watching movie either in your house or theater, you can always eat something.

  18. EdgeArticles

    EdgeArticles - Essays, Paragraphs, Education, Articles.

  19. Essay On Disadvantages Of Watching Movies

    Essay On Disadvantages Of Watching Movies Essay On Disadvantages Of Watching Movies 2. Lsd Advantages And Disadvantages Lysergic acid diethylamide, more popularly known as LSD or acid, is a psychedelic drug that has a long and controversial history in the United States. LSD, a schedule one drug, is a product of diethylamine and lysergic acid ...

  20. The Harmful Effects of Too Much Screen Time for Kids

    Behavior problems: Elementary school-age children who watch TV or use a computer more than 2 hours per day are more likely to have emotional, social, and attention problems.; Educational problems: Elementary school-age children who have televisions in their bedrooms do worse on academic testing.; Obesity: Too much time engaging in sedentary activity, such as watching TV and playing video games ...

  21. Disadvantages Of English Movies Essay

    Disadvantages Of English Movies Essay. 1585 Words7 Pages. 5 / 12. The results demonstrate that all the four skills of listening, reading, speaking, and writing are possible to develop with one single movie. Using movies in ESL classrooms has beneficial effects on the learners' receptive and productive skills (Varga, 2013), since " much ...

  22. Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Television for Students

    500+ Words Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Television. In today's world, communication is a crucial aspect of life. Technological advancements made communication more accessible and cheaper. ... We also watch movies in different regional languages like Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, etc. It helps us connect with people from diverse backgrounds.

  23. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Watching Movies In The Theater

    A movie theater has its advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that people can see the showing of different movies that have been newly released. The disadvantage is that, that is all there is to it and nothing more. At home, you can control the variety and ways to watch a movie. People buy many movies to watch at home and it can be ...

  24. Frontiers

    Results showed that a higher percentage of college students (74%) turned in the essay in the first condition compared to the second condition (60%). Moreover, the essays written by the students in the limited-choice conditions were evaluated as being higher quality compared to the essays written by the students in the extensive choice condition.

  25. 'Film Geek' Review: A Cinephile's Guide to New York

    But "Los Angeles Plays Itself" is also a thoughtful and incisive work of film criticism, whereas Shepard describes movies in clichés, when he describes movies at all. More often he is talking ...

  26. What Students Are Saying About Tech in the Classroom

    Moreover, staring at an iPad screen for 7 hours a day puts significant strain on our eyes, so for the sake of our health and our attention spans, we need to minimize tech use in school. — Mary ...