The Difference Between Creativity and Knowledge: Why It Matters

By: Author Paul Jenkins

Posted on Published: December 23, 2021  - Last updated: March 25, 2022

Categories Creativity , Self Improvement

Creativity is the ability to create something new or imaginative, while knowledge is an accumulation of facts and experiences. Creativity has been shown to be a better predictor of success in many fields, but it’s not always properly appreciated. This blog post is about the difference between creativity and knowledge, why it matters, and how you can cultivate your creative side.

The Nature of Creativity

Creativity is often thought of as a mysterious act of inspiration. The “aha!” moment. The magical spark that leads to something new and wonderful.

In reality, creativity is the ability to create something new or imaginative. In business, the term is used to describe a person who invents new products and services in a process of ‘innovation.’.

However, it can also refer to the process of generating ideas, such as developing an algorithm or scientific theory.

Creativity is sometimes spontaneous (or so it seems) and often involves risk-taking. Creativity can be a great asset in finding new ways to solve problems or overcome challenges. Creativity has to do with novelty, but it’s not limited to creating something completely new. It can also be about inventing something in a new way or adapting something new to a particular context. For example, a musician playing a song on a piano that’s tuned differently from the original instrument to provide a creative performance.

Creativity is important because it allows you to do things that no one has ever done before. That’s why so many people talk about the importance of thinking outside the box and finding new ideas and ways to do things. They talk about creativity being the origination of creative ideas.

Related: Why Creativity is Important

Creativity is the ability to use knowledge and imagination to create or invent something new. This usually involves not only having a new idea but also giving that idea a form.

Creative people are often those daring enough (and encouraged to be so) to use divergent thinking and play or experiment with a different way of doing something.

This kind of creative activity can be the best way to solve a creative problem, in a business, organizational, or personal context.

Related: Why Knowledge Leads to Creativity

The Nature of Knowledge

Knowledge is a fact or theory that can be learned about a subject or object. It helps us make sense of things. Knowledge can also mean accumulated experience or wisdom. Knowledge can be fact-based, as in mathematics or science, or less concrete, as in design or art.

Knowledge can be gained from our own experience and from what others tell us about the world. For example, we can gain information about the history of music by reading books or watching historical documentaries. To us, this is new knowledge.

Things like the scientific method can develop new knowledge in a given field of activity. Knowledge creation and development are distinct, however, from a creative contribution.

Knowledge is important because it gives you perspective. You need it to learn, understand, and remember things. The organization of knowledge is closely bound to human intelligence.

How Knowledge and Creativity Differ

Knowledge and creativity differ in that creativity is the creation of a new thing from ideas that already exist or the recombination of ideas. Knowledge, on the other hand, doesn’t involve creative work, but rather the application of pre-existing facts to a set of problems.

For example, a chemistry student needs to know how to perform experiments based on laboratory information.

Knowledge doesn’t necessarily lead to creative solutions to problems a person faces. Knowledge can be important, but it’s not always necessary. For example, a player may rely on the knowledge of a teammate to properly defend a particular area in a basketball game. Creativity is necessary to come up with new ideas to solve problems.

When I think of creativity and knowledge, I imagine two circles. The creative side of the circle is filled with random ideas, thoughts, and images that may or may not be connected in some way. The knowledge side of the circle is filled with facts, figures, and other information that’s usually arranged in some sort of order or category.

Related: Where Does Creativity Come From

Which Is More Important – Knowledge or Creativity

Imagination is very closely related to creativity because both are about coming up with something unique. However, imagination is more like daydreaming. A creative person puts something into action by developing new ideas, while an imaginative person just thinks about something.

Therefore, it’s fair to use the famous Albert Einstein quote here, “Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination spans the world.”

It gives a sense of the scope of creativity as opposed to that of knowledge. Knowledge is limited to what’s already happened or been discovered, whereas creativity is unlimited in time and place.

Creative minds relish the chance to explore the unknown and come up with innovative ideas.

What does knowledge have to do with creativity?

Knowledge and creativity are related in that creative ability requires knowledge and imagination. Both creativity and knowledge are important in general.

In a business context, creativity is said to have three components:

  • Expertise (based on existing knowledge)
  • Creative thinking skills
  • Motivation (internal or external).

Knowledge is thus a subset of creativity.

The Idea That Knowledge Must Be Put To One Side

However, some philosophers and thinkers believe that you must detach yourself from knowledge to achieve true creativity.

Osho, for example, taught that you must become a child again and that creativity requires freedom from knowledge and preconceptions – otherwise you become a “technician” who only does things the “right” way.

There’s a middle ground between these two positions. Although an over-reliance on knowledge can limit creativity, it also serves as a springboard from which you can make a creative contribution to the field in which you work or operate.

A contribution that’s “value.”

A person’s creativity is important for leadership and communication with others in the workplace. In the workplace, creativity can help a person complete tasks more efficiently. Knowledge, on the other hand, is useful in the workplace because a person can use their knowledge to solve problems that arise at work.

Creativity and knowledge are both important for success. However, one isn’t the opposite of the other. Rather, the two are completely different.

Related: Is Technology Limiting Creativity

Which Comes First – Knowledge or Creativity

Knowledge is acquired, while creativity is both innate and nurtured – we’re born with it and develop our creative abilities very early in childhood, with play being an important part of creative development. And also in adulthood, when we manage to break out of routines set by others.

It seems that imaginative play can be observed in children as young as two years old. Knowledge in the sense of acquiring accepted facts and concepts in the world comes later.

In adult creativity, knowledge serves as a basis for judging whether something is creative or not. To know that something is new, you must know what already exists in terms of existing concepts and facts!

Examples of Creativity and Knowledge

Examples of knowledge.

You acquire knowledge through education, experience, and many other forms. The more knowledge you’ve, the better you’re able to handle different situations. This is why a good education is so important for people who want to enter a profession in nursing or any other profession that requires a lot of knowledge. In some cases, the knowledge you gain can be life-saving.

Take doctors and physicians as an example. They need to acquire a lot of information on various topics because there’s always something new they need to know when they’re doing their job. Knowledge can also be acquired by reading books, such as non-fiction books that teach us new things we didn’t know before about a particular subject.

Examples of creativity

Creativity is basically the ability to come up with original ideas.

The creative process is about finding new solutions to problems or situations, rather than just accepting what everyone else has to say about them.

For example, let’s say we need to teach another nurse how to perform a certain procedure. There are a number of ways we can do this, but we also want to be creative. Maybe we create a short video or a series of practice questions. That can help the new nurse learn what they need to know.

Or we could use props or costumes to illustrate some of the steps to be taught.

Related: Why Creative Process Matters

How to Bring Knowledge and Creativity Together

While creativity can provide the spark of inspiration for a new idea, you need the knowledge to turn that idea into reality.

Creating something from nothing – for example, taking an idea from your imagination and turning it into a product or service – takes a lot of creativity.

But if you don’t have enough knowledge to support your creativity, you can easily miss your target. That’s why it’s so important to have both creativity and knowledge working in harmony!

The associative nature of creativity means that you need knowledge to work with creativity. You can provide each other with ideas, and your creativity can motivate you to learn what you need to know. For example, you might develop a new teaching method that improves student learning. However, you can’t guess your students’ needs until you know enough about them. This is where knowledge comes in.

Knowledge management is a very important part of the overall process – not least because of the deluge of information all around us. The ability to filter information is critical, as is knowledge about information repository and retrieval systems – databases, knowledge graphs, and so on.

Should I Focus More on Developing Creativity or Knowledge?

I can’t imagine a world where creativity and knowledge compete. How could you choose one or the other? Creativity and knowledge are two sides of the same coin. Both are equally important and valuable. However, you need to find a balance between the two. If you focus on both creativity and knowledge, you have a greater chance of creating something really great. Creative intelligence is truly a skill for the 21st century.

Is it better to be creative or logical?

In my opinion, it depends on what you’re doing. For example, if you’re writing a romance novel, you probably want to use your creative mind to convey the feeling of being in love. But if you’re working on a legal document, you probably want to be logical because you think that’s how it should be done.

Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
  • As a source of information (ensure proper referencing)
  • As a template for you assignment

Which is more important: creativity or knowledge? Find here the answer! This creativity vs. knowledge essay explains the relationship between imagination and intelligence and gives examples.


  • Creativity vs. Knowledge

Works Cited

Schools are institutions that are set up with the aim of impacting students with knowledge. This being the primary focus of most education systems, generating new knowledge through creativity becomes secondary to most scholars. This leads to the question of which, between knowledge and creativity, is more important? This question is more relevant to students in higher institutions of learning since this level of learning is developed enough to generate creative thinking, in addition to impacting students with knowledge.

Creativity Is More Important than Knowledge

As such, a college student should ponder on this question, considering that such a student is almost ready for the job market. As a college student, creativity is more important than knowledge since creativity allows one to explore ideas with no boundaries, it gives birth to innovation, and it provides room for developing practical solutions to real life challenges, unlike knowledge which is limited to one’s expertise and experience.

While knowledge is limited to one’s skills, creativity has no boundaries since it goes as far as one’s imagination can reach. Knowledge hardly goes beyond one’s training or experience in a certain field, whereas creativity/imagination follows intuition and transcends one’s acquired skills (Ox and van der Elst 84).

Creative minds do not necessarily focus on achieving good grades in school. This is because good grades do not always imply creativity; instead, good grades are usually a reflection of one’s knowledge in a given subject since schooling systems are more oriented on impacting knowledge than creating an environment that enhances creativity.

Knowledge is determined by set standards and systems, but creativity transcends these systems since a creative mind is more flexible and imaginative. With specific focus on great people like Albert Einstein, who came up with the laws of relativity, it is very clear that Einstein exercised more creativity than knowledge in coming up with the laws (Gardner 108).

Although it is acknowledgeable that his prior knowledge in the field of physical science created an environment for developing the laws of relativity, his sense of imagination was far much important than the acquired knowledge. It is for such a reason that college students should be more creative, other than just acquiring knowledge in their course of learning.

Creativity births innovation since it is not bound by experience, unlike knowledge that is limited to acquired skills and experience. Creativity encompasses the intrinsic motivation to pursue a certain interest, and this gives birth to innovation. Creativity allows college students to think in a flexible and imaginative way such that when a motivating environment is provided, students can end up creating very impressive solutions to problems. Global success is pegged on innovation.

Virtually every sphere of life in the current world is competitive in its own way. This calls for innovative minds in order to emerge successful (HR Focus 8). On the other hand, new ideas cannot be generated by relying on knowledge alone since knowledge is limited to the skills that are acquired through a formal or informal process of learning.

As such, creative thinking remains to be the solution to innovation in the current world. It is said that contemporary organizations are encouraging creative thinking as a way of remaining competitive. College students can supplement the existing gap in innovation by being more creative, in addition to being knowledgeable in their fields of study. To a college student, divergent and convergent thinking are a recipe for success, even outside college (HR Focus 8).

Creativity holds promise to providing solutions to the numerous challenges in the work environment and the larger society. Combining expertise with imagination, which encompasses flexible thinking, would help explore problems beyond the limited human understanding and develop effective solutions.

Colleges, among other institutions of higher learning, should offer the best platform for developing individual creativity. College students have the right environment to develop creativity since university-level education encourages individual learning more than pedagogical structured learning.

The wide access to information and elaborate interaction and networking available in colleges should ignite students to be more creative and become problem solvers. Moreover, college students should realize that they are under preparation for the great roles they will later play in the society, especially in their places of work (Livingston 60). For this reason, creativity is far much important than knowledge to a college student.

Combined knowledge and creativity can generate greater achievement, thus the importance of both cannot be underestimated. For instance, while someone like Einstein used imagination to come up with the laws of relativity, he also relied heavily on his immense knowledge of physical science to draft these laws (Gardner 104). Thus, while it is right to argue that creativity is more important than knowledge to a college student, it does not mean that knowledge has no place in fostering creativity.

In fact, it is right to argue that creativity is boosted by one’s knowledge, thus a very thin line exists between knowledge and creativity. Creativity comprises of expertise, flexible thinking and imagination, and motivation. Hope (39) acknowledges that creative potential is build over time and calls for consistent study with a particular goal in mind. The study must be focused on a specific field for creativity in that field to be developed.

This implies that knowledge must be acquired under certain structures, such as schooling structures, to develop creative potential. An environment that does not foster creative thinking kills creativity. In addition, creativity is developed by acknowledging knowledge in a particular field (Ox and van der Elst 84). As such, college students cannot afford to ignore the need for structured learning and pursue creativity solely. Such an approach may not give birth to creativity since creativity is built on knowledge.

The world today is need of creative and innovative minds for global success to be achieved, and creative college minds can meet this need. To a college student, creativity will help in thinking and developing solutions beyond one’s acquired knowledge and skills.

Moreover, creative college students will find relevance in the present work environment since they will be able to come up with innovations. This notwithstanding, it is important for college student to acquire knowledge since creativity in any field is catalyzed by accumulated knowledge in the field of study.

As a college student, imagination should be given a priority in the course of acquiring knowledge if one wants to be creative. Moreover, college education should foster flexible thinking and provide a motivating environment that will give birth to creativity. Creativity among college students should be encouraged than the sole pursuit for knowledge in order to develop solutions that are so much needed in the working world and the society at large.

Gardner, Howard. Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi . New York, NY: Basic Books, 2011. Print.

Hope, Samuel. “Creativity, Content, and Policy.” Arts Education Policy Review 111.2 (2010): 39-47. Print.

HR Focus. “Creativity and Innovation: Must-Haves for Global Success.” HR Focus News Briefs (2007): 8. Print.

Livingston, Larry. “Teaching Creativity in Higher Education.” Arts Education Policy Review 111.2 (2010): 59-62. Print.

Ox, Jack, and van der Elst Judith. “How Metaphor Functions as a Vehicle of Thought: Creativity as a Necessity for Knowledge Building and Communication.” Journal of Visual Art Practice 10.1 (2011): 83-102. Print.

  • Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis
  • Linguistic Determinism and Linguistic Relativity
  • Albert Einstein as an Influential Scientist
  • Dementia Life Expectancy: Developed vs. Developing Countries
  • State of Consciousness
  • How Do We Live Justly with Others?
  • How decisions reveal our identity
  • Personal Responsibility: Students Mission and Plan
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2018, December 11). Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?

"Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?" IvyPanda , 11 Dec. 2018,

IvyPanda . (2018) 'Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge'. 11 December.

IvyPanda . 2018. "Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?" December 11, 2018.

1. IvyPanda . "Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?" December 11, 2018.


IvyPanda . "Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?" December 11, 2018.

SEP home page

  • Table of Contents
  • Random Entry
  • Chronological
  • Editorial Information
  • About the SEP
  • Editorial Board
  • How to Cite the SEP
  • Special Characters
  • Advanced Tools
  • Support the SEP
  • PDFs for SEP Friends
  • Make a Donation
  • SEPIA for Libraries
  • Entry Contents


Academic tools.

  • Friends PDF Preview
  • Author and Citation Info
  • Back to Top

Few things shape the human experience as profoundly or as pervasively as creativity does. And creativity raises a wealth of philosophical issues. Since art is such a salient domain of creativity, you might assume, at first, that the philosophy of creativity is the philosophy of art or aesthetics, or a branch thereof. But creativity invites questions of its own that go beyond the purview of those other fields.

Note that the adjective “creative” can be applied to three kinds of things: a person (“Beyoncé is creative”), a process or activity (“Tell us about your creative process”), or a product , where the latter is taken broadly to include an idea in someone’s mind or an observable performance or artifact (“That’s a creative design”).

Now suppose you are looking at a creative product, like a painting or sculpture. The philosophy of art may ask, “What makes this a work of art?” and aesthetics may ask, “What makes this beautiful?”. By contrast, the philosophy of creativity asks, “What makes this creative? Is it just that it’s new, or must it meet further conditions?” We may ask the same question not just of artworks but of any creative product, whether it be a new scientific theory, a technological invention, a philosophical breakthrough, or a novel solution to a mathematical or logical puzzle. Beyond creative products, we can ask about the creative process : Must it proceed without following rules? Is it conscious, unconscious, or both? Must it be an expression of the creator’s agency, and, if so, must that agency be exercised intentionally? Exactly how does the process manage to produce new things? Can it be explained scientifically? Furthermore, we can ask about creative persons, or more generally, creators. What does it mean for a person to be creative? Is it a virtue to be creative? What capacities and characteristics does a being need to have in order to be creative? Could a computer be creative? These are the kinds of questions animating the literature we’ll survey below.

Some of these questions have an empirical dimension, most obviously those which pertain to how the creative process is actually carried out. Thus, much of the research we’ll canvass falls under the inter-disciplinary umbrella of cognitive science, with contributions not only from philosophers but also from researchers in neighboring fields like psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.

1. The Philosophy of Creativity: Past and Present

2.1 challenges to the value condition, 2.2.1 surprise, 2.2.2 originality, 2.2.3 spontaneity, 2.2.4 agency, 2.3 is creativity a virtue, 3. can creativity be learned, 4. can creativity be explained, 5.1 preparation, 5.2.1 blind variation, 5.2.2 the default-mode network, 5.2.3 imagination, 5.2.4 incubation, 5.3 insight, 5.4 evaluation, 5.5 externalization, 5.6 worries and future directions, 6. creativity and artificial intelligence, 7. conclusion, other internet resources, related entries.

Given the significance creativity has in our lives and the deep philosophical questions it raises, one might expect creativity to be a major topic in philosophy. Curiously, it isn’t.

To be sure, some of the most prominent figures in the history of Western philosophy have been fascinated with creativity—or what we now call “creativity”. According to some scholars, the abstract noun for creativity did not appear until the nineteenth century—but the phenomenon certainly existed and many philosophers took an interest in it (McMahon 2013; Nahm 1956; Murray 1989; Tatarkiewicz 1980: chapter 8).

To name just a few examples: Plato (4 th century BCE) had Socrates say, in certain dialogues, that when poets produce truly great poetry, they do it not through knowledge or mastery, but rather by being divinely “inspired” by the Muses, in a state of possession that exhibits a kind of madness ( Ion and Phaedrus ). Aristotle (3 rd century BCE), in contrast, characterized the work of the poet as a rational, goal-directed activity of making ( poeisis ), in which the poet employs various means (such as sympathetic characters and plots involving twists of fate) to achieve an end (of eliciting various emotions in the audience). Margaret Cavendish (1623–1673) and Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749) championed the creative use of the imagination to pursue freedom, overcome prejudice, and cultivate natural abilities even despite social and political oppression . Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) conceived of artistic genius as an innate capacity to produce original works through the free play of the imagination, a process which does not consist in following rules, can neither be learned nor taught, and is mysterious even to geniuses themselves. Schopenhauer (1788–1860) stressed that the greatest artists are distinguished not only by the technical skill they employ in the production of art, but also by the capacity to “lose themselves” in the experience of what is beautiful and sublime (Schopenhauer 1859: Vol. I: 184–194 and Vol. II: 376–402). Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) argued that the greatest feats of creativity, which he took to be exemplified by the tragic poetry of ancient Greece, was being born out of a rare cooperation between the “Dionysian” spirit of ecstatic intoxication, which imbues the work with vitality and passion, and the “Apollonian” spirit of sober restraint, which tempers chaos with order and form (Nietzsche 1872 [1967]). William James (1842–1910) theorized about creative genius exerts the causal power to change the course of history (Simonton 2018). This is just a glimpse of what each of these philosophers had to say about creativity, and many other figures could be added to their number.

Nevertheless, while some of the topics explored by earlier thinkers have come to occupy a central place in philosophy today—such as freedom, justice, consciousness, and knowledge—creativity is not among them. Indeed, “philosophy of creativity” is still a neologism in most quarters, just as, for example, “philosophy of action” and “philosophy of gender” were not too long ago. However, philosophical work on creativity has been picking up steam over the last two decades (as shown, for example, in a few important collections of essays: B. Gaut & Livingston 2003; Krausz, Dutton, & Bardsley 2009; Paul & Kaufman 2014; B. Gaut & Kieran 2018). We’ll now dive into those contributions, along with earlier work, beginning with what is perhaps the most basic question one can ask in this field.

2. What is Creativity?

As we noted at the outset, the term “creative” can be applied to three kinds of things: a person , a process , or a product (where a product could be an idea, performance, or physical artifact).

Most definitions focus on the product. According to one common approach, persons or processes are creative to the extent that they produce creative products, and a product is creative if it meets two conditions: in addition to being new it must also be valuable . Many theorists argue that novelty is not sufficient, because something can be new but worthless (e.g., a meaningless string of letters), in which case it doesn’t merit the compliment of being called “creative”. Immanuel Kant is often cited as anticipating this definition of creativity in his discussion of (artistic) genius. According to a common interpretation, Kant defines (artistic) genius as the ability to produce works that are not only “original”—since “there can be original nonsense”—but also “exemplary” (Kant 1790: §§43–50 [2000: 182–197]). (Hills & Bird [2018] challenge this reading of Kant.) This definition is so widely accepted among psychologists that it has come to be known as “the standard definition” of creativity in psychology. In practice, “creativity is often not defined” (J.C. Kaufman 2009: 19) in psychological experiments—more on this in §5 below. When psychologists do explicitly adopt a definition, however, they usually say that creative products are not only new, but also valuable in some way, though they variously express the product’s value in terms of its being “useful”, “effective”, “worthwhile”, “fit”, or “appropriate to the task at hand” (Bruner 1962: 18; A. J. Cropley 1967: 67; Jackson & Messick 1965: 313; Kneller 1965: 7; Cattell & Butcher 1968; Heinelt 1974; J.C. Kaufman 2009: 19–20; S.B. Kaufman & Gregoire 2016; Stein 1953; Sternberg & Lubart 1999: 3—for an overview, see Runco & Jaeger 2012). A few psychologists have suggested that the standard definition doesn’t fully capture the concept of creativity (Amabile 1996; Simonton 2012b). As for philosophers, at least one of them defends the standard definition with qualifications (Klausen 2010), but many of them challenge it, as we’ll soon see.

While it is uncontroversial that novelty is required for creativity, philosophers have refined that point. Certain examples may seem, at first, to suggest that novelty isn’t really necessary for creativity. Newton’s discovery of calculus was creative even if, unbeknownst to him at the time, Leibniz got there first—one of many examples of what are called “multiples” in the history of science (Simonton 2004). A beginning student’s idea that freedom is compatible with causal determinism might be creative even if, as she will soon learn, philosophers have been defending such “compatibilist” theories for millennia. However, examples like these do not force us to abandon the novelty requirement, but only to qualify it. Newton’s calculus and the student’s compatibilism were not new in all of history, but they were new to their respective creators, and that is enough for them to count as creative. In the terminology of philosopher Margaret Boden, these ideas are “psychologically creative” (P-creative) even though they are not “historically creative” (H-creative). Notice that P-creativity is more fundamental. Anything that is new in all of history (H-creative) must also be new to its creator (P-creative). Thus, creativity always exhibits psychological novelty, though it doesn’t always exhibit historical novelty.

Again, no one denies that a creative product must be new, at least to its creator. But as we’ll now see, some philosophers depart from the standard definition of creativity by rejecting the value condition ( §2.1 ), or by proposing some further condition(s) ( §2.2 ), or by doing both.

Some theorists have argued that although creative things are valuable, we shouldn’t build value into the definition of creativity, because doing so is not informative or explanatory:

Knowing that something is valuable or to be valued does not by itself reveal why or how that thing is. By analogy, being told that a carburetor is useful provides no explanatory insight into the nature of a carburetor: how it works and what it does. (Stokes 2008: 119; Stokes 2011: 675–76)

Those who maintain that value is required for creativity might reply that it doesn’t need to be informative or explanatory. Being a man is required for being a bachelor even though it’s not informative or explanatory to say that bachelors are men. Stokes notes that “creative” is a term of praise, and uses this point to argue that what is creative must be produced intentionally (since we don’t rightly praise what is unintentional or accidental)—an idea we’ll return to below. But the same point also seems to imply that what is creative must also have value (since we don’t rightly praise what doesn’t have value). And while the concept “carburetor” is value-neutral, as shown by the fact that a carburetor can be worthless or useless (if it’s broken), “creative”, one might argue, is a value-laden concept, like “progress”. Progress necessarily involves novelty or change, but we don’t praise change as progress unless it’s good change. Likewise, defenders of the value condition urge, creativity necessarily involves novelty, but we don’t praise novelty as creative unless it’s good novelty.

Other critics use counterexamples to argue that value isn’t necessary for creativity, the most prominent cases being ones of immoral creativity. (For a collection of essays by psychologists on the phenomenon of immoral or so-called “dark” creativity’, see D. Cropley et al. 2010). Putative cases of immoral creativity include creative accounting to cheat investors or creative testimony to mislead jurors, and the stock example in the literature is creative torture or murder. One can imagine novel and well-designed murders, as Thomas De Quincey once did in a satirical essay:

[S]omething more goes to the composition of a fine murder than two blockheads to kill and be killed—a knife—a purse—and a dark lane. Design, gentlemen, grouping, light and shade, poetry, sentiment, are now deemed indispensable to attempts of this nature. Mr. Williams has exalted the ideal of murder to all of us […] Like Æschylus or Milton in poetry, like Michael Angelo in painting, he has carried his art to a point of colossal sublimity. (De Quincey 1827; see also discussion in Battin et al. 1989)

Innovative ways of inflicting needless agony and craftily designed murders are not good (they have no value), and yet they can be creative. If this is right, then it seems to follow that creativity doesn’t require value.

One way of trying to save the value condition is by flatly denying that torture methods can be creative, and by denying more generally that creative things can be bad (Novitz 1999). But such denial seems ad hoc and implausible—“evil creativity” is not a contradiction in terms—and some have argued that this denial faces other problems besides (Livingston 2018).

Other theorists revise or qualify the value condition in order to accommodate examples of immoral creativity. Paisley Livingston (2018) proposes that a creative product only needs to be instrumentally valuable or “effective” as means to its intended end, regardless of whether that end is morally good, bad, or indifferent. Berys Gaut (2018) distinguishes between something’s being good (or good, period) versus being good of its kind . In his view, a new way of wielding blades and pulleys may be creative if it’s a good of its kind—good as a method of torture—even though it isn’t good. In order for something to count as creative, Gaut says, it doesn’t need to be good; it just needs to be good of its kind.

Alison Hills and Alexander Bird (2018) are unconvinced by such qualifications. They contemplate an elaborate torture device that ends up killing its victims immediately, “without enough suffering on the way”. The device may still be creative, they hold, even though “as a method of torture, it’s no good” (2018: 98). Indeed, they argue, a creative item needn’t be good in any way at all, not even for its creator. The ineffective torture device just described doesn’t satisfy its creator’s preferences, it doesn’t give him pleasure, it isn’t an achievement, it doesn’t contribute at all to his well-being—and yet, they contend, it may be creative, provided that it’s new and was produced in the right way. Exactly what “the right way” amounts to is the topic we turn to next.

2.2 Other proposed conditions

With or without the value condition, some theorists argue that a product must satisfy one or more further conditions, beyond being new, in order to count as creative. The four most prominent proposals are that the product must be (i) surprising, (ii) original (i.e., not copied), (iii) spontaneous, and/or (iv) agential. Each of these is a condition on the process of creativity. To be clear, we are still concerned with what it means for a product to be creative, but the proposals we’ll now consider say that in order for a product to count as creative, it must be brought about in the right way.

Margaret Boden holds that a creative product must be “ new, surprising, and valuable ” (2004: 1; cf. Boden 2010; 2014). It is perhaps most natural to assume that being surprising—like being new and valuable—is a feature of a product. But while Boden does think of creative products as surprising, her interest is more fundamentally in the underlying generative process, in how a creator manages to make something surprising. In her view, there are “three types of creativity”—combinatorial, exploratory, and transformative—“which elicit different forms of surprise, [and] are defined by the different kinds of psychological processes that generate the new structures” (2010: 1, italics added).

Combinatorial creativity occurs when old ideas are combined in new ways. Obvious examples include fictional hybrid creatures or chimeras: add wings to a horse (Pegasus), add the tail of a fish to a woman’s head and upper-body (a mermaid), add a lion’s body to a woman’s head and torso (Sphinx), and so on. Other combinations are found in analogies, such as when Niels Bohr compared an atom to the solar system. The term “combination” can refer either to the product of things combined or to the process of combining them, but Boden’s focus is on the process here, on the fact that one way to generate new ideas is to begin with old ideas and combine them in new ways.

To explain her other two kinds of creativity, Boden invokes the notion of a “conceptual space”, which is roughly a system comprising a set of basic elements (e.g., basic ideas or representations) as well as rules or “constraints” for manipulating or re-combining those elements. A conceptual space is not a painting, song, or poem, for example; it’s a way of creating a painting, song, poem, or theory. The rules or constraints are “the organizing principles that unify and give structure to a given domain of thinking”. And so a conceptual space is

the generative system that underlies that domain and defines a certain range of possibilities: chess moves, or molecular structures, or jazz melodies. (1994: 79)

We could think of a conceptual space as not just a set of thoughts but also a style of thinking defined by rules for generating new thoughts.

“Within a given conceptual space”, Boden observes, “many thoughts are possible, only some of which may have been actually thought” (2004: 4). Some conceptual spaces contain more possibilities than others. Consider different games. Tic-tac-toe is such a simple game that all of its possible moves have already been made many times over. The same is not true in chess, by contrast, which allows for a mind-boggling number of possible moves. The range of possible ideas is also practically inexhaustible in literature, music, the visual and performing arts, as well as the various domains of theoretical inquiry. And within those pursuits, there are various “structured styles of thought”—genres, paradigms, methodological orientations—which Boden thinks of as conceptual spaces.

Boden argues that the elements as well as the operating rules of a conceptual space can be, and in some cases have been, captured in computer programs. She has used this point not only to argue that computers can be creative (a topic we’ll return to below in §5 ), but also to suggest that we should employ the computational model of the mind in order to explain how humans create.

With her notion of conceptual spaces in hand, Boden says that exploratory creativity occurs within a given conceptual space. The new idea that emerges is one that was already possible within that space, because it was permitted by its rules. “When Dickens described Scrooge as ‘a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner,’” Boden writes, “he was exploring the space of English grammar” in which “the rules of grammar allow us to use any number of adjectives before a noun” (Boden 1994: 79). Dickens’s description may strike us somewhat surprising, unexpected, or improbable, but it doesn’t have an air of impossibility about it.

By contrast, Boden argues, another form of creativity does. In this kind of case, the creative result is so surprising that it prompts observers to marvel, “But how could that possibly happen?” (2004: 6). Boden calls this transformational creativity because it cannot happen within a pre-existing conceptual space; the creator has to transform the conceptual space itself, by altering its constitutive rules or constraints. Schoenberg crafted atonal music, Boden says, “by dropping the home-key constraint”, the rule that a piece of music must begin and end in the same key. Lobachevsky and other mathematicians developed non-Euclidean geometry by dropping Euclid’s fifth axiom. Kekulé discovered the ring-structure of the benzene molecule by negating the constraint that a molecule must follow an open curve (Boden 1994: 81–3). In such cases, Boden is fond of saying that the result was “downright impossible” within the previous conceptual space (Boden 2014: 228).

Boden’s definition of creativity has perhaps been most influential among researchers who share her intertest in computer creativity (e.g., Halina 2021; Miller 2019: ch. 3; du Sautoy 2019). In a variation of Boden’s account, one philosopher proposes that what makes a mental process creative is not that it actually involves “the recombination of old ideas or the transformation of one’s conceptual space”, but rather that the creator experiences the process as having one of those features (Nanay 2014).

Maria Kronfeldner (2009; 2018) argues that the process of making something creative must exhibit originality . As she uses the term “original”, it does not simply mean “new”; instead, it has to do with the kind of causal process the creator must employ. She motivates her view by asking why it’s the case that, as we noted earlier, psychological novelty is required for creativity while historical novelty is not. Why is it, for example, that Newton’s invention of calculus was creative even if Leibniz invented it first? The answer, of course, is that it’s because Newton didn’t copy his calculus from Leibniz. Insofar as Newton came up with calculus independently, on his own, then he exhibited originality in his discovery, even though someone else got there first. This originality, Kronfeldner argues, is essential to creativity.

Kronfeldner (2009; 2018) also argues that spontaneity is required for creativity. An idea occurs spontaneously to the extent that it is produced without foresight or intentional control. If you were to foresee the output of the creative process at the beginning of that process, then you wouldn’t need any further process to come up with it. So if an idea is creative, you cannot have fully seen it coming. To that extent, insight comes as a surprise, hence the common phenomenological observation that creative breakthroughs feel like they come unbidden or out of the blue: “Eureka!”, “Aha!”, a lightbulb turns on.

Gaut (2018: 133–137) agrees that creativity requires spontaneity, and he points out, as Kronfeldner does, that it comes in degrees. He explains that you do something spontaneously to the extent that do it without planning it in advance. If you are going to act creatively, he argues, you cannot set out to follow an “exact plan”—a mechanical procedure, routine, or algorithmic rule—which would give you advance knowledge of exactly what the outcome will be and exactly the means you'll take to achieve it. At the outset of a creative act, you have to be to some extent ignorant of the end, or the means, or both. That ignorance opens up room for spontaneity and creativity.

Some philosophers argue that an item does not count as creative unless it has been produced by an agent. Consider a unique snowflake with an intricate shape, a distinctive sunset with stunning layers of red-orange hues, a novel patterning of dunes across a wind-blown desert. All of these things are aesthetically valuable and new. None of them are creative, however, insofar as they all occurred naturally and were not made by an agent. Gaut uses examples like these to argue that creative things must be created by agents (B. Gaut 2018: 129–30; cf. B. Gaut 2010, and B. Gaut 2014b) and several other philosophers agree (Carruthers 2006, 2011; Kieran 2014a, 2014b; Stokes 2008, 2011, 2014; Paul & Stokes 2018).

Of course, many theists would maintain that everything in nature is the handiwork of an agent—namely, God—and so arguably it would make sense for them to regard a natural phenomenon as creative if it is valuable and new. For theists, the unparalleled beauty of nature is a reason to praise the Creator. But this only supports the conceptual point that creativity, by definition, requires agency. We may coherently regard valuable new things as creative if we attribute them to a creative agent, as the theist does with the natural world; otherwise, we can’t. So again, it seems, creativity requires agency.

This leaves open the question of exactly how a creator’s agency must be exercised in order for the result to count as creative. Some philosophers argue that the agent’s act of creation must be intentional . Suppose you are snowboarding on a powder day and, unbeknownst to you, the tracks from your board result in a pleasing new pattern as viewed from high above. The new pattern has aesthetic value, but it isn’t creative. And that is because you didn’t intend to make it. Underlying this intuition, as well as our intuitions about the natural phenomena above, is the fact that “creative” is a term of praise, and we do not extend praise (or blame) for things that are not done by an agent, or for things that an agent doesn’t do in some sense intentionally.

While a number of philosophers endorse some version of the agency requirement for creativity, many theorists make no mention of it, whether to endorse it or reject it, including all of the psychologists cited above. Further, at least two philosophers are willing to attribute creativity to natural phenomena like trees and evolutionary processes: Arnheim (2001) and, in recent work, Boden (2018). These latter theorists don’t discuss agency as such, but insofar as the natural phenomena they call creative are not the result of agency, their view would imply that agency isn’t required for creativity.

The four proposals we’ve just considered all say that a product must arise from a certain kind of process—a process that exhibits surprise, originality, spontaneity, or agency—in order to count as creative. While there is wide agreement among philosophers that creativity requires some special kind of process, not just a special product, there is no consensus on what is required of the process. Of the four process conditions described here, the agency condition seems to be the one that is explicitly endorsed by the greatest number of philosophers thus far, though even they are still just a handful. And as we’ve seen, the other proposed conditions have serious arguments in their favor as well.

Some philosophers argue that if any process requirement is correct, this has an intriguing corollary for judgements about creativity: Even when we are explicitly judging only that a product is creative, we are implicitly assuming something about the process by which it was made. Suppose, for illustration, that the agency requirement is correct—that being generated through an agential process is built into the very concept of a creative product. Suppose further that you are applying that concept competently. It follows that if you come across a captivating arrangement of stones on the beach and you judge it to be creative, you are at least implicitly assuming that it was created through an agential process. If someone later persuades you that the stones happened to be moved into place by the wind and waves, not by any agent but just by chance, then you may still regard the result as aesthetically interesting but you would have to rescind your judgement that it is creative. So if the agency condition is correct, whenever you point to some item and say, “This is creative”, what you are saying, in part is, “This resulted from a creative process”. Furthermore, on this view, analogous implications follow if any other process condition is correct (Paul & Stokes 2018).

Having considered what is required for something to count as a creative product , and whether it must be produced by a certain kind of process , we now turn to analysis of the creative person .

Some theorists suggest that creativity, as an attribute of persons, is an ability to perform creative acts or produce creative things (Boden 2004). Others argue, however, that creativity isn’t merely an ability. An ability is something you can possess without ever putting it to use. You might have the ability to learn Swahili, for example, without ever making the effort to learn that language, despite having ample opportunities to do so. Creativity is different in this regard. If someone has the ability to be creative but never uses that ability when given numerous chances to do so, we would not call that person creative. Creative people are not merely able to act creatively. They are, moreover, disposed to exercise that ability, such that they do act creatively, at least some of the time, when the occasion arises. On this view creativity is a disposition , also referred to as a trait (Grant 2012; cf. B. Gaut 2014b, 2018).

Philosophers have long distinguished virtues as a special subclass of dispositions or traits. In Western philosophy, the tradition of theorizing about virtues goes back to the ancient Greeks, and over the last half-century it has enjoyed a renaissance in ethics (see entry on virtue ethics ) and, more recently, in epistemology (see entry on virtue epistemology ) and aesthetics (Lopes 2008; Roberts 2018; Hills 2018). Traditional examples of virtues include wisdom, justice, temperance, and courage. Should creativity be added to the list?

The answer depends, of course, on what it means for a trait to be a virtue. At the very least, a virtue is a trait that is good or valuable. So whether creativity counts as a virtue in this minimal sense depends on whether creativity is necessarily valuable, a point which is contested, as we saw in the previous section. In fact, those who contend that creativity isn’t necessarily valuable often do so in order to prove that it isn’t a virtue.

But let’s suppose for the sake of argument that creativity is indeed a valuable trait. Is it also a virtue in some more robust sense? Virtue theorists commonly take their cue from Aristotle’s classic discussion in the Nichomachean Ethics . Citing justice and temperance as paradigm virtues, Aristotle asserts that a trait must meet at least three conditions to count as a virtue:

For actions in accord with the virtues to be done temperately or justly it does not suffice that they themselves have the right qualities. Rather, the agent must also be in the right state when he does them. First, he must know [that he is doing virtuous actions]; second he must decide on them, and decide on them for themselves; and thrid, he must also do them from a firm and unchanging state. ( EN II.4, 1105a28–1105a33)

So, for example, if you return something you’ve borrowed, that act exhibits the virtue of justice if and only if (1) you know that you’re returning what you borrowed, (2) you choose to do so because it is the just thing to do, and for no other reason, and (3) you are disposed to do the just thing across the range of circumstances when the opportunity arises. In addition to justice and temperance, Aristotle enumerates other ethical virtues like prudence, generosity, and courage, as well as the intellectual virtue of theoretical wisdom. In his view, each of these traits requires one to meet the three conditions above. While he does not consider whether creativity is a virtue, we may ask whether creativity also has these three criteria. Does one have to meet these three requirements in order to count as creative?

We’ll begin with the third requirement to set it to one side. Does a person’s act count as creative only “if he does it from a fixed and permanent disposition of character”? Examples suggest otherwise. Consider the poet Arthur Rimbaud, who abandoned poetry at the age of 21 to pursue a life of adventure. The fact that he never produced another poem after that does not count against the fact that he was a creative poet in his youth (B. Gaut 2014b). Unlike the Aristotelian virtues, then, creativity does not have to be a permanent disposition.

Even so, it would still be significant if creativity turned out to be like an Aristotelian virtue in meeting the first two requirements. And arguably, creativity does meet the first requirement. A person doesn’t count as doing something creative unless “he knows what he is doing”. This was already implied by the agency condition for creativity discussed earlier.

Where things get interesting is with Aristotle’s second criterion for virtue. In order for your action to count as virtuous, he says, you have to do it “for its own sake”—i.e., you have to do it because you value virtue as an end itself, and not as a means to some external reward like praise, money, status, fame, or winning a competition. Consider the virtue of generosity, for instance. If you give money to someone in need merely because it will make you look good in the eyes of your friends, then you aren’t really being generous. Your act may outwardly look like generosity, but it’s not the real thing. To exhibit real generosity, you have to pursue generosity as an end in itself; you have to help others just for the sake of helping others. Now contrast being generous with being polite. If you compliment your colleague on the good work she’s done, then even if you’re doing this in order to manipulate her, you are being polite to her. You can have an ulterior motive for being polite. So politeness is not a virtue the way generosity is.

Is creativity a virtue in this respect? That is, does being creative require acting creatively for its own sake? Matthew Kieran’s (2014a, 2014b, 2018) answer is a qualified yes. While he grants that you can be motivated by external rewards to exhibit “minimal creativity” in producing valuable new things, he maintains that “exemplary creativity” requires you to be motivated by the value of creativity itself. Thus, in his view, exemplary creativity is a virtue.

To support this claim, Kieran points to a research program in psychology which purports to show that creativity is driven by “intrinsic motivation” rather than “extrinsic motivation”. A classic experiment in this program is “the magic markers study”, in which kids end up producing less creative drawings when they are offered a prize (Lepper et al. 1973). Many other studies have reported similar results, which lead Teresa Amabile to conclude, at first without qualification, that creativity is enhances by intrinsic motivation and hampered by extrinsic motivation (Amabile 1983: 107).

Further research introduced complications. In some studies, subjects were given “immunization techniques” whereby they were first primed or trained to focus on intrinsically motivating factors like the pleasure or aesthetical value of engaging in artistic activities, and it was found that when they engaged in those activities afterward, external rewards actually enhanced their creativity.

As researchers interpreted these findings, offering reward can support one’s intrinsic motivation, provided that the reward works either to boost one’s sense of agency or to provide useful feedback about what’s working and what isn’t. Intrinsic motivation is still what fuels creativity, on this interpretation; rewards help only indirectly, when they reinforce intrinsic motivation. This lead Amabile to revise her hypothesis as the Intrinsic Motivation Principle (IMP):

Intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity; controlling extrinsic motivation is detrimental to creativity, but informational or enabling extrinsic motivation can be conducive, particularly if initial levels of intrinsic motivation are high. (1996: 107)

Kieran takes this as evidence for his claim that creativity, or at least what he calls exemplary creativity, requires intrinsic motivation and is therefore a virtue in that respect.

Objecting to this proposal, Gaut cites evidence that extrinsic motivation is not always detrimental to creativity. In one study, students in an introductory psychology class came up with more creative short story titles if they were offered a financial reward (Eisenberger & Rhodes 2001). In the studies where immunization techniques were used, proponents of IMP argue that rewards enhance creativity only indirectly, by buttressing intrinsic motivation. But in this case no such techniques were used, and so it seems the prospect of a reward enhanced creativity directly.

Further, Gaut argues that this point coheres with the role that rewards seem to play in so many real-world cases of creative achievement. In their quest to discover the structure of the DNA molecule, Watson and Crick were driven “to imitate Linus Pauling and beat him at his own game” (Watson 1968 [1999: 46]). Picasso and Matisse were both spurred on by their rivalry with each other (Flam 2003: 37). Paul McCready says he was driven to invent his award-winning human-powered glider in 1977 because he needed the prize-money to pay off his debts:

I felt that I didn’t have the time to mess with such things, but I had this strong economic motivation to take an interest in man-powered flight, so I charged around trying to figure out a way to solve it. (quoted in Sternberg & Lubart 1995: 242)

One historian argues that in World War II the Poles beat the French in cracking the Germans’ Enigma Code because they were more terrified of German invasion (Singh 1999: ch. 4). Gaut quips: “Fear of death is a more powerful motivator than the intrinsic satisfactions of code breaking” (Gaut 2014b: 196).

Finally, Gaut points out that even if IMP is true, it is only a causal, probabilistic claim: intrinsic motivation is “conducive” to creativity; extrinsic motivation is “detrimental”. But for a trait to be a virtue, intrinsic motivation must be conceptually necessary for the exercise of that trait. If we learn that someone gave to charity just to enhance his reputation, we conclude that he wasn’t really being generous. By contrast, if we discover that someone created gorgeous artwork just for the fame and glory, we may then lose some of our admiration for her creativity, but we do not deny that she was being creative.

Kieran could remind us that, in his view, intrinsic motivation is not required for all creativity, but only for the special form of it that he calls exemplary creativity. Anticipating this reply, Gaut says that to distinguish between two forms of creativity is just to concede his point. There are not two forms of generosity, one that requires intrinsic motivation and another that does not. If your act of giving isn’t motivated by the right kind of reason, then it doesn’t count as an act of generosity at all. Thus, Gaut argues, to grant the possibility of non-exemplary creativity is to grant that, unlike generosity, creativity isn’t a virtue in the traditional Aristotelian sense.

Another way to examine relations between creativity and virtue is through the lens of virtue epistemology. Linda Zagzebksi defines a virtue

as a deep and enduring acquired excellence of a person, involving a characteristic motivation to produce a certain desired end and reliable success in bringing about that end. (1997: 137, italics added)

While there is a lot packed into this definition, what we’ll pinpoint here is the idea that virtue involves reliable success in achieving a desired end, and that the agent who is epistemically virtuous, in particular, is one who is reliably successful in achieving knowledge. Knowledge requires truth, of course, so an epistemic virtue is a trait that is “truth-conducive”. Epistemologists typically regard a process as truth-conducive to the extent that the beliefs it produces are more often true than false. But Zagzebksi proposes that a process or trait may be truth-conducive in a different sense, insofar as it is necessary for advancing knowledge in some area, even if it produces a very small proportion of true beliefs. Creativity, she claims, is truth-conducive in this sense, and thus it qualifies as an epistemic virtue (1997: 182). Also note the emphasis on agency. In contrast to contemporary western epistemology, virtue epistemology identifies the agent (rather than, say her beliefs) as the essential locus of epistemic valence; it is the agent who is epistemically good (or not). This emphasis comports well with the proposal, discussed above, that the creator’s agency is necessary for genuine creative achievement. A virtue-theoretic approach thus illuminates what may (as we will discuss again later) be essential to creativity, namely, a process that non-trivially involves a responsible agent.

We’ve seen that even after we fix a specific referent for the term “creative”—whether it be a person, process, or product—there are lively disagreements about what it means. These debates often seem to presuppose that the term always expresses the same concept, for which we can seek necessary and sufficient conditions. But we’ve also seen that some theorists distinguish between different concepts of creativity, corresponding to different senses of the term “creative”. In future work we may see theorists develop such pluralistic approaches in more detail. The trick, though, will be to give principled reasons for multiplying different concepts of creativity so that the analyses do not simply reduce to saying that anything goes.

There is a long tradition of thinkers who answer no to the question above. Two of the most influential are from the eighteenth century—Edward Young and Immanuel Kant—who were concerned specifically with genius , the capacity for achieving the very highest levels of creativity. In Conjectures on Original Composition (1759), Young says,

An Original may be said to be of a vegetable nature; it rises spontaneously from the vital root of genius; it grows , it is not made …. (1759 [1966: 7])

His idea is that originality emerges naturally from something implanted in us by nature, and it can only be hindered by learning. Young seems to think of learning as proceeding either through imitation or through the following of rules, and both, he thinks, are detrimental to originality. Regarding imitation he writes,

Born Originals , how comes it to pass that we die Copies ? That meddling ape Imitation … destroys all mental individuality…. (1759 [1966: 20])

And insofar as learning is “a great lover of rules”, he warns that it “sets rigid bounds to that liberty, to which genius often owes its supreme glory” (1759 [1966: 13]).

Kant makes similar claims in his Critique of Judgment (1790). Like Young, he takes genius to be a natural capacity, though a very rare one:

such a skill cannot be communicated, but is apportioned to each immediately from the hand of nature and dies with him. (1790: §47 5:309 [2000: 188])

It certainly cannot be learned through imitation:

genius is entirely opposed to the spirit of imitation . Now since learning is nothing but imitation, even the greatest aptitude for learning, facility for learning (capacity) as such, still does not count as genius. (1790: §47 5:308 [2000: 187])

Nor can it be learned through rules, Kant holds, for genius is

the talent (natural gift) that gives the rule to art … the inborn predisposition of the mind ( ingenium ) through which nature gives the rule to art. (1790: §46 5:307 [2000: 186])

For Kant, a genius does not follow rules; a genius invents the rules, indirectly, by creating exemplary works from which other artists might extract rules and undertake “a methodical instruction in accordance with rules” (1790: §49 5:318 [2000: 196]).

Young and Kant are concerned with genius, specifically, but if we extend their reasoning to creativity in general, as Berys Gaut (2014a) has noted, we can discern two lines of argument:

The imitation argument All learning is a form of imitation. Imitating someone or something is incompatible with being creative. So, one cannot learn to be creative. The rules argument All learning consists in the following of rules. Following rules is incompatible with being creative. So, one cannot learn to be creative. (2014a: 266)

Gaut points out, first of all, that both arguments are invalid. In both cases, what the premises would entail is that learning cannot be creative, that, in other words, you cannot learn creatively (a claim about how you can learn). But even if that were true, it wouldn’t follow that you cannot learn to be creative (a claim about what you can learn). If you absorb the advice of a creative writing manual then this act of learning may not itself be creative. But if the manual is effective—and we’ll see in a moment how it can be—then what you will learn is how to become more creative.

Gaut also challenges the premises of these arguments. To start with the first premise of the imitation argument, it simply isn’t true that all learning proceeds through imitation, as we learn many things through direct experience, trial and error, and many other means.

The second premise is also suspect. Something superficially close to it is true: mere copying is incompatible with being creative. But to the extent that we learn from others by imitating them, this is not merely a matter of copying them. When a child learns to speak the language of those around her, she doesn’t simply parrot the exact same sentences she hears; she absorbs the vocabulary and underlying grammar in a way that enables her to form new sentences of her own devising.

Now for the rules argument. Contrary to the first premise, it cannot be the case that all learning consists in following rules, Gaut argues, because for any given rule there will be hard cases where it is unclear whether or how the rule applies to them, and so an individual still has to use her own judgment in applying the rule.

The second premise is false too. Recall the distinction from §3 above between two kinds of rules. An algorithm serves as an exact plan, specifying both the outcome and the path for getting to it in exact detail. In contrast, a heuristic is a looser “rule of thumb” that leaves room for an agent to exercise her own judgment, choice, and creativity in determining whether, when, and how to follow the rule. While algorithms, in this sense, may preclude creativity, heuristics do not, which is why, as we’ll see below, the teaching of creativity so often takes the form of heuristics.

There is a sense in which the question at hand can be answered empirically: We can show that creativity can be taught simply by pointing to cases where it has been taught. Gaut himself discusses such examples as they occur in mathematics and fiction writing, which we’ll turn to below. But while such cases may suffice to show that creativity can be taught, Gaut further enriches our understanding by explaining how this is possible . He does so partly by articulating and then debunking the imitation and rules arguments to the contrary. But in addition, he offers the following positive argument to show that creativity can be taught and learned. He calls it “the constitutive argument” because it begins with his view of what constitutes or defines creativity itself.

The constitutive argument

  • Creativity is a disposition—involving both the ability and the motivation —to produce things that are new and valuable, and to do so in ways that express one’s agency through “the exercise of choice, evaluation, understanding, and judgment” (Gaut 2014a: 273).
  • At least some people can learn to enhance their creative motivation .
  • At least some people can learn to enhance their creative abilities .
  • So, at least some people can learn to become more creative.

Premise 1 recapitulates the point we’ve already seen Gaut and others defend (in §2.3 above), that creativity is not merely an ability but a disposition or trait, whereby the creative person is disposed or motivated to exercise that ability when given the opportunity.

In support of premise 2, Gaut argues that you can strengthen both your intrinsic motivation to be creative (when you take pleasure in your creative activities), as well as your extrinsic motivation to be creative (when you are rewarded with praise, grades, pay, etc. for your creative efforts).

Defending premise 3, Gaut points out that you can develop your ability to produce valuable new things by practising and strengthening the relevant skills. And this development can be substantially aided by learning certain heuristics.

Heuristics are indeed a staple of education in creative pursuits from mathematics (draw the figure; consider special cases; consider extreme cases; generalize the problem; look for a related problem, etc.—see Pólya 1945; Schoenfeld 1982, 1987a, 1987b) to creative writing (write what you know; be specific and detailed in describing sensory experiences; practice seeing similarities between dissimilar things; show, don’t tell, etc.—see Bell & Magrs 2001; Anderson 2006; Maybury 1967; S. Kaufman & J. Kaufman 2009). Gaut also identifies several heuristics that might be used to foster creativity in philosophy, even among children (cf. M. Gaut 2010; B. Gaut & M. Gaut 2011).

With this last theme, Gaut has a kindred spirit in Alan Hájek (2014, 2016, 2017, 2018), who has independently proposed that by using various heuristics, philosophers can enhance their abilities to make valuable contributions to their field, including ideas that are distinctively creative. It has been said that anyone of average talent can become a strong chess player by learning and internalizing certain chess heuristics: “castle early”, “avoid isolated pawns”, etc. Analogously, Hájek suggests, philosophy has a wealth of heuristics— philosophical heuristics —although they have not been as well documented and studied. Sometimes these take the form of useful heuristics for generating counterexamples, such as “check extreme cases”. Sometimes they suggest ways of generating new arguments out of old ones, as in “arguments involving possibility can often be recast as arguments involving time, or space”. Sometimes they provide templates for positive arguments (e.g., ways of showing that something is possible). Hájek offers a catalogue of such philosophical heuristics to show that, contrary to a common assumption, creativity, even in philosophy, can be compatible with, and enhanced by, following rules.

Upon observing the work of creative people, it is natural to wonder: How do they do that? How do people create? The issue we turn to now is whether we could, at least in principle, answer this question scientifically, using the methods of modern empirical psychology and other cognitive and behavioral sciences. Those who take a negative stance on this matter are not merely saying that, in practice, it would be exceedingly difficult for science to explain creativity. They are saying that it’s altogether impossible that science could ever explain creativity.

Hospers (1985) defends this kind of pessimism based on the variety and complexity of creativity, given that creativity occurs not only in art, but in science, theorizing of any sort, engineering, business, medicine, sport, gaming, and so on. At least two worries may follow. First, given the complexity of any one of these individual domains, one might worry that there are simply too many variables to allow for a clear explanation. Art provides a paradigmatic example. Consider an artwork that you judge to be masterful (a sculpture, a painting, a film). Now imagine attempting to describe or identify all the reasons for which you think it is masterful. Take as much time as you like but, the skeptic will urge, any long description you construct will invariably strike you as woefully incomplete by comparison to the artwork, and the experience thereof. So, if the creative achievements of artists, in all of their complexity, cannot even be adequately described, we have little reason to think that such achievements can be explained.

How can theorists respond to these skeptical worries? Both the complexity and generalizability worries might be partially disarmed by noting analogies between creativity and other phenomena. For instance, consider the range of bodily movement involved in some of the very domains of activities listed above: art, science, engineering, medicine, sport. The kinds of bodily action specific to these domains are complex and vary dramatically: the relevant physical movements of the surgeon are much different from the tennis player. However, it is not plausible that this complexity and variety precludes explanation of bodily action in those domains. It simply implies that some features of the explanation will be context-sensitive, that is, specific to that domain of activity. And further to the analogy: the fact that the long description of, say, the tennis serve is incomplete does not preclude it from being apt and explanatory. If this line of reasoning is sound for bodily action, why not also for creative action?

At this point, one might argue that while complexity and generalizability worries would only show that creativity is difficult to explain in practice, the very nature of creativity implies, more strongly, that it could never be explained, not even in principle. Resources to support this kind of pessimism may be adduced from various past philosophers. We need to tread carefully, however, since most of the figures we are about to consider were writing long before the rise of the relevant sciences, so they could not have made any explicit claim either way as to whether creativity could be explained by those sciences. Nevertheless, some of them did make claims which entail, or seem to entail, that creativity simply isn’t the kind of thing that could be explained through scientific inquiry as we understand it today.

The classic expression of such a view comes from Plato. In his dialogues, Plato features his teacher Socrates as a spokesperson for his own views, and in the Ion he has Socrates argue that poets do not produce poetry through knowledge or skill. When you exercise a skill ( technē ), you apply techniques, rules, or methods to perform a given activity, like charioteering, fishing, or commanding an army. In principle, one could explain these activities by identifying the techniques they involve, and a student or apprentice could learn these activities by applying and practicing those techniques. But poetry is not like that, in Socrates’ view. A poet can only imitate the application of rules or techniques, mimicking the surface appearance of skill. Voicing an idea that was familiar in Ancient Greek culture, Socrates suggests that poetry emerges instead through divine inspiration, whereby a human being is inspired —literally “filled with a spirit”, with a god or goddess, with a muse:

You know, none of the epic [or lyric] poets, if they’re good, are masters of their subject; they are inspired, possessed, and that is how they utter all those beautiful poems. … [They] are not in their right minds when they make those beautiful lyrics, but as soon as they sail into harmony and rhythm they are possessed by Bacchic frenzy. […] For a poet is an airy thing, winged and holy, and he is not able to make poetry until he becomes inspired and goes out of his mind and his intellect is no longer in him. As long as a human being has his intellect in his possession he will always lack the power to make poetry or sing prophecy. […] You see, it’s not mastery [ technē ] that enables them to speak those verses, but a divine power. That’s why the god takes their intellect away from them when he uses them as his servants, as he does prophets and godly diviners, so that we who hear should know that they are not the ones who speak those verses that are of such high value, for their intellect is not in them: the god himself is the one who speaks, and he gives voice through them to us. In this more than anything, then, I think, the god is showing us, so that we should be in no doubt about it, that these beautiful poems are not human, not even from human beings, but are divine and from gods; that poets are nothing but representatives of the gods, possessed by whoever possesses them. ( Ion 534a-d)

Socrates repeats this view in the Phaedrus : “Some of the greatest blessings come by way of madness, indeed madness that is heaven-sent” (244a). He adds that while a poet may have some kind of skill, anyone who aspires to make poetry purely by skill, without the madness or the muse, will fail (245a).

It’s important to note that “madness”, for Plato, is a supernatural affair. From the vantage of contemporary behavioral science, we think of madness—or rather, mental illness—as a pathology arising from some combination of genetic and environmental factors, and those factors can be studied scientifically. So even if creativity is linked to mental illness—a highly controversial proposition—it could still be entirely within the scope of science. However, Plato’s talk of “madness” does not refer to any naturally occurring pathology, but rather to the result of divine intervention: the poet is taken over or “possessed” by the muse and that is precisely why he is “out of his mind”. Plato’s poet suffers divine madness.

According to this story, then, the person we call a poet isn’t really a creator of poetry, but is merely the vessel through which a divine being delivers poetry. If it is literally true that the source of poetry is supernatural, then poetic creativity could never be explained by science, which is limited to the investigation of natural causes. (For more on Plato, see Asmis 1992.)

This kind of supernaturalism has enjoyed a long afterlife in Western thought. In ancient Rome, the Latin term “ genius ” referred to a guiding spirit that was thought to accompany each person throughout their lives. The genius of an artist would occasionally deliver art through that person in the manner of Platonic inspiration.

Conceptions of the artist take a new turn when the idea of genius is transformed in the eighteenth century. As we saw above, Immanuel Kant defines genius as a natural capacity that a certain kind of artist possesses innately and which partly constitutes that artist’s identity. So rather than saying that a gifted artist “has a genius”, Kant says that such a person “is a genius”. What distinguishes the genius is fundamentally an imaginative capacity—an ability to engage in a “free play” of imagination to produce artworks of “exemplary originality”. These works are exemplary not only in the sense that they have artistic or aesthetic value, unlike “original nonsense”; they are also exemplary in the more radical sense of providing an exemplar—a new paradigm and precedent—for lesser artists to follow. A work of genius sets a new standard of artistic value, and, looking to that exemplar, lesser artists may then extract techniques or rules for their own craft. The genius therefore “gives the rule to art”. In creating such works, the genius does not follow any rules or methods. Instead the genius creates art through a “free play of imagination”—where the terms “free” and “play” characterize the nature of an activity unconstrained by any pre-established methods or rules:

[G]enius … is a talent for producing that for which no determinate rule can be given, not a predisposition of skill for that which can be learned in accordance with some rule …. (1790: §46 5:307–8; 2000 trans., 186)

Kant thought that genius, so conceived, is limited to the fine arts, poetry being chief among them. Meanwhile, in Kant’s view, there is no room for genius in science, for example, where good theories and hypotheses must emerge from the careful application of scientific method, and so he said that even Isaac Newton, “that great man of science”, was not a genius. We’ll soon consider why this view might seem to entail that creativity is inexplicable, but first it will be helpful to bring another figure, Arthur Schopenhauer, who was deeply influenced both by Kant and by Plato.

Like Kant, Schopenhauer thought of genius as a natural capacity that is limited to the fine arts. He also echoes Plato’s sentiments about madness, famously stating that “genius and madness have a side where they touch and even pass over into each other” ( The World as Will and Representation , 1859, WWV I: 190), and that “Genius lives only one storey above madness” ( Parerga and Paralipomena , SW 2:53, PP 2:49). In a state of madness, Schopenhauer’s genius is like Plato’s poet in experiencing a momentary loss of self, but what displaces the self is not any divine being but rather a pure Idea which seizes the author’s being and becomes the object of both his fascination and his artistic expression:

We lose ourselves entirely in this object, to use a pregnant expression; in other words, we forget our individuality, our will, and continue to exist only as pure subject, as clear mirror of the object, so that it is as though the object alone existed without anyone to perceive it, and thus we are no longer able to separate the perceiver from the perception, but the two have become one, since the entire consciousness is filled and occupied by a single image of perception. ( World WWV I: 178–179, §34).

With their focus on genius construed as a natural capacity, figures like Kant and Schopenhauer abandon the supernaturalism of the Platonic muse. Nevertheless, they retain the idea that creativity—specifically genius-level creativity in the fine arts—is not a matter of exercising a skill or applying given rules, methods, or techniques.

As we noted earlier, these figures did not and could not have explicitly denied that creativity could be explained by the sciences of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, but they are commonly taken to represent such a denial (Kronfeldner 2018). Why?

Perhaps figures like Kant and Schopenhauer seem to make creativity, or at least creative genius, inexplicable insofar they suppose it to be innate and as they have no story to tell about how one came to acquire an innate capacity except to say that it was either an accident of chance (which is no explanation at all) or a gift from God (which again is not a scientific explanation). But while these figures seemed to think of artistic genius as being endowed entirely by nature with no contribution from nurture, modern genetic theory rejects that dichotomy. Instead of positing all-or-nothing natural abilities, behavioral scientists today think in terms of genetically inherited predispositions. In order for a genetic predisposition to develop into a trait with an observable phenotype, it needs to be triggered and shaped through a complex interaction between an organism’s genes and certain kinds of stimuli or environmental conditions. There are still open questions about exactly how, and how much, genes and environment feed into the development of any given trait, but it’s misguided to pose the binary nature-versus-nurture question as if the two were mutually exclusive (see Tabery 2014). Many researchers agree that some people have a stronger natural predisposition toward creativity than others, and that genius-level creativity partly stems from such a predisposition. Even so, the predisposition itself can be understood scientifically in terms of genetic heritability. (For a sampling of the relevant studies, see the essays collected in S.B. Kaufman 2013.)

Perhaps creativity seems inexplicable according to these accounts because it doesn’t follow rules or methods. In order to explain how to do something—how to build a boat or lead an army etc.—perhaps I need to be able to identify the rules or methods you should follow in order to practice and apply those skills. How-to explanations are instructions. But scientific explanations needn’t be instructions. A lot of good science explains how something happens—e.g., how heat melts ice or how a bat navigates its environment by echolocation—without explaining how to do it yourself.

Perhaps creativity seems inexplicable according to these accounts because creators themselves do not know how they create. But a scientific explanation needn’t be available through introspection. Most people cannot explain how their own digestive, circulatory, or perceptual systems work, but scientists who study those systems can.

Another line of thought is perhaps implicit in Kant but comes to the fore in Schopenhauer, who says that “the nature of genius consists precisely in the preeminent ability” to

consider things independently of the principle of sufficient reason , in contrast to the way of considering which proceeds in exact accordance with this principle, and is the way of science and experience. ( World WWV: I: 192, §36)

The principle of sufficient reason says that for every fact there is a cause which completely explains that fact. So the defining ability of genius is to see things in a way that transcends the causal order and defies all explanation.

A version of this view is defended more recently by Carl Hausman (1975 [1984], 1979, 1985) who frames it in terms of novelty that creativity involves. Hausman asserts that if a product is creative, it must be metaphysically novel (or in his terms, “genuinely novel”) in the sense that it cannot be predicted from, or explained by, prior events—not even in principle. Creativity is therefore incompatible with causal determination and causal explanation: “A causal view of explanation sets a framework for ways of denying that there is anything new under the sun” (Hausman 1984: ix). If something can be explained by prior causes, it is not metaphysically novel, and is therefore, in Hausman’s view, not truly creative.

Against Hausman’s skeptical charge, Maria Kronfeldner (2009) argues that creativity is compatible with causal determination. First, causal determinism does not preclude novelty or change. Determinism says the emergence of new kinds of things can at least in principle be predicted in advance. Importantly, though, when this prediction becomes true, then something new is added to the world. Of course, not all novelty instantiates creativity. The question is whether the kind of novelty involved in creativity must be metaphysical novelty, which is by definition incompatible with causal determination. This is doubtful. Notice that, by definition, metaphysical novelty defies natural laws. The production of something metaphysically novel would therefore require supernatural powers. Traditional Western religions conceive of God as performing the miracle of creation ex nihilo . But are we positing a miracle every time we describe a human artifact or achievement as creative? Surely not. As noted above, human creativity is manifest in things that are novel relative to the agent producing them or new to human history, but both of those kinds of novelty (psychological and historical) are perfectly compatible with causal determination. As Kronfeldner explains, creativity does not preclude causes in general; it only precludes certain kinds of causes. A creative product, she argues, must be original —which means that it cannot be produced through a process of copying something prior. And it must be spontaneous (not produced through a routine or mechanical procedure)—which means that it is to some extent independent of the agent’s intentional control and previously acquired knowledge. (For more on originality and spontaneity, recall §2.2 above). Intuitively, the causes of something creative cannot simply be a matter of copying or following a routine. But it may have causes nonetheless, and cognitive science can investigate those causes, at least in principle. Indeed, as we’ll see next, it is doing so in practice.

5. The Cognitive Science of Creativity

Although creativity has been relatively understudied by contemporary philosophers, as we noted in §1 , it has been receiving a great deal of attention from psychologists over the past few decades. In 1950, J. P. Guilford gave a presidential address at the American Psychological Association calling for research on the topic, and the field soon took off with waves of research investigating the traits and dispositions of creative personalities; the cognitive and neurological mechanisms at play in creative thought; the motivational determinants of creative achievement; the range of institutional, educational, and environmental factors that enhance or inhibit creativity; and more. Today, the blossoming of this field can be seen in the flurry of popular writing on its results; an official division of the American Psychological Association for the psychology of aesthetics, creativity, and the arts (Division 10); numerous academic conferences; dedicated peer-reviewed journals ( Psychology of Aesthetics , Creativity and the Arts ; Creativity Research Journal ; Journal of Creative Behavior ; International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving ); special issues of journals ( Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , Takeuchi & Jung 2019); literature surveys (Hennessey & Amabile 2010; Runco & Albert 2010; Runco 2017; Glaveanu 2014; Williams et al. 2016); textbooks (J.C. Kaufman 2009; Sawyer 2012; R. W. Weisberg 1986, 2006); and a comprehensive encyclopedia (Runco & Pritzker 2020). According to one overview, creativity has been studied by nearly all of the most eminent psychologists of the twentieth century, and “the field can only be described as explosive” (Albert & Runco 1999: 17). There is also a groundswell of new work on creativity in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), and robotics.

The present section surveys empirical work in psychology along with some related work in neuroscience, while the next section ( §6 ) covers research in computing, AI, and robotics. Throughout, we’ll see that philosophers are actively in dialogue with these fields under the broad, interdisciplinary umbrella of cognitive science.

The vast body of empirical research of creativity can be seen as addressing a variety of issues, but the central question that concerns us here is the one we identified above as the challenge for explaining creativity: How are people creative? This question is analogous to a number of other questions in cognitive science: How do people perceive through sense modalities such as vision? How do they form concepts? How do they acquire a language? How do they make inferences? Just as psychologists investigate the psychological and neurological processes, systems, and mechanisms at work in these other mental operations, as well as the internal and external factors that either enhance or hinder these operations, they are doing the same for creativity. There is no pretension to achieving a complete explanation which would include each and every causal factor, and provide the basis for perfectly predicting creative outcomes in advance. But to the extent that we identify some of the relevant causal factors involved in creativity we thereby make progress in explaining creativity, just as we do with other features of the mind.

As we noted in §2 , the standard definition of creativity in psychology says that a product (idea or artefact) is creative to the extent that it is both new and valuable (“effective”, “useful” or “appropriate”), and, in turn, people and processes are creative to the extent that they produce new and valuable things. As we also noted, many psychologists do not actually employ this, or any, definition of creativity in conducting their research. In one sampling of studies of creativity published in peer-reviewed psychology journals, only 38% of them included an explicit definition of creativity (Plucker, Beghetto, & Dow 2004), as they rely in one way or another on the assumption that we know it when we see it. For example, many studies use the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), whereby experimental subjects produce things that are then rated for how creative they are by a panel of experts in the relevant field; so paintings are rated by professional painters, stories by published authors, etc. Many other research methodologies are used, as we’ll see below.

Empirical research on creativity departs in several ways from the traditional approaches that seemed to place creativity outside the scope of science. For starters, in stark contrast to Plato’s supernaturalism, empirical psychologists take creativity to be a completely natural phenomenon. Creative people may of course be “inspired” in the sense of feeling energized or filled with ideas, but rather than being literally “breathed into” by some god or muse, their thoughts and behaviors are presumed to have causes that are perfectly natural. While it is difficult in practice to identify these causes, they are not in principle beyond the reach of science.

Further, the range of phenomena that contemporary researchers countenance within the ambit of creativity is far broader and more diverse than the traditional focus on poetry and the fine arts, as creativity can be manifest in any kind of art or craft, as well as in the sciences, technology, entrepreneurship, cooking, humor, or indeed in any domain where people come up with ideas or things that are novel and valuable in some way or another. Departing from Kant, genius, the highest echelon of creativity, may be acknowledged in virtually any of these domains, not just in the fine arts. And while a few researchers (e.g., Simonton 1984, 1994, 1997, 2009; Root-Bernstein & Root-Bernstein 1999) venture to examine genius (so-called “Big-C” creativity), most of them focus instead on relatively ordinary creative feats (“little-c” creativity) including the kinds of story-making, drawing, and problem-solving that can be elicited on command from regular people in experimental settings. Some researchers propose that in order to understand how the mind generates new ideas, we should begin with even more rudimentary phenomena. For example, philosopher Jesse Prinz and psychologist Lawrence Barsalou focus on how we form new concepts to categorize the things we perceive, a process which they claim is creative, albeit in a “mundane” rather than “exceptional” way (Prinz & Barsalou 2002; Barsalou & Prinz 1997; cf. Child 2018).

Of course, many feats of human creativity, and the ones that are most interesting, go far beyond the basic formation of concepts. A major step toward explaining those feats is to recognize that what we call “the creative process”, as if it were a single, homogenous phenomenon, is in fact an assembly of multiple stages or operations. The simplest recognition of this fact is the Geneplore model which distinguishes just two stages: generating ideas and exploring ideas (Finke 1996; Smith, Ward, & Finke 1995). This distinction may be seen as echoing one made by philosophers of science in the early twentieth century, between the context of discovery and the context of justification (Popper 1934). Other theorists posit up to eight stages of creativity (for a summary of proposals, see Sawyer 2012: 89). But the most influential stage-theory traces back to Henri Poincaré’s lecture, “Mathematical Creation” (1908 [1913: 383–394]), in which he identifies four phases in his own innovative work as a mathematician:

  • conscious hard work or preparation ,
  • unconscious incubation ,
  • illumination , and
  • verification .

In his book, The Art of Thought (1926), the psychologist Graham Wallas endorses Poincaré’s four stages with corroborating evidence from the personal reports of other eminent scientists like Hermann von Helmholtz. Wallas’s scheme, as a development of Poincaré’s, is still the one that is most widely cited, and we employ a version of it here with some slightly different terminology and with two more substantive alterations: instead of “incubation”, we identify the second operation more generally as the “generation” of ideas, which may include unconscious incubation but may also occur in conscious, deliberate thought; and we add “externalization” for a total of five operations:

  • Preparation —You invest a great deal of effort learning and practicing in order to acquire the knowledge, skills, and expertise required for work in a given domain.
  • Generation —You produce new ideas, whether through conscious reflection or unconscious incubation.
  • Insight —You consciously experience the emergence of a new idea, which would strike you with a feeling of surprise: “Aha!”, “Eureka!”
  • Evaluation – You assess the idea to determine whether it should be discarded, retained, revised, or amended.
  • Externalization —You express your idea in a concrete, observable form.

Artists provide compelling examples (though not the only ones) of each of these five operations. Such examples can be especially illustrative since they come straight from the artists’ mouths, as they reflect upon, and share, their creative process. The twentieth century painter Jacob Lawrence was known for painting in the style of visual narratives. Lawrence developed a system, much like a filmmaker’s storyboard, for the preparation of these paintings. He would lay as many as 60 wood panels on the studio floor, each with individual scenes and sometimes with captions. From these storyboards, Lawrence would generate and evaluate ideas and insights for a visual narrative, culminating in the paintings such as those in his Migration Series (see Whitney Museum, 2002, in Other Internet Resources ). Toni Morrison, the Nobel prize winning novelist, remarks on the labors and sustained effort required at the preparation, generation, evaluation, and externalization stages of a creative writing process. Commenting on her novel Jazz , she says,

I thought of myself as like the jazz musician—someone who practices and practices and practices in order to be able to invent and to make his art look effortless and graceful. I was always conscious of the constructed aspect of the writing process, and that art appears natural and elegant only as a result of constant practice and awareness of its formal structures.

She further notes that insight does not always come in a flash,

[I]t’s a sustained thing I have to play with. I always start out with an idea, even a boring idea, that becomes a question I don’t have any answers to. (T. Morrison 1993)

Writer Ishmael Reed claims that insight can come unexpectedly and in various contexts:

One can find inspiration from many sources. The idea of Japanese by Spring originated in a news item that claimed the endowment to a major university was traced to Japanese mob, the Yakuza. Flight to Canada began as a poem. The Terrible series began when I heard someone at party mention that there was a black figure, Black Peter, in the Dutch Christmas, and by coincidence I was invited to the Netherlands shortly afterwards, where I witnessed the arrival of Saint Nicholas and Peter on a barge that floated into Amsterdam with crowds looking on. I took photos of the ceremony …. (Howell 2020: 91)

And with signature profundity, James Baldwin suggested that all elements of the creative artistic process, from preparation to externalization, require a basic enabling condition: being (and willing to be) alone (Baldwin 1962).

As Wallas recognized (1926: 81), and as the above examples suggest, the “stages” of the creative process are not necessarily discrete steps that follow one another in a tidy sequence. Creative work is messy: over time you have numerous ideas, keeping some and abandoning others in multiple rounds of trial-and-error; you incubate new ideas for one problem while you’re busy externalizing your ideas for another; and your moments of insight, evaluation, and externalization trigger further generative processes that send you cycling through these operations many times over. It’s still important to distinguish these operations, however, because, as researchers are confirming, they are enabled and influenced by different causal factors.

Among the additional stages that researchers have posited, one of the most widely discussed is known as problem-finding. Psychologists often conceptualize creative thought in terms of problem-solving: the ideas generated within the creative process are seen as candidate solutions to a given problem—where “problems” are broadly construed to include any creative aim, like that of producing a particular kind of artwork or proving a particular theorem, etc. (Flavell & Draguns 1957: 201; Newell, Shaw, & Simon 1962). But following some early work by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi (1965), many researchers came to appreciate that a lot of creative work is done not just in solving problems but in finding the right problem to begin with (Abdulla et al. 2020; Csikszentmihalyi & Getzels 1970; Getzels 1965; Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi 1975). While we agree that problem-finding often plays a key role in creativity, we have not assigned it to a separate stage, for the following reasons. Consider that you might settle on a problem to work on in either of two ways. On one hand, you might choose a problem to work on from a pre-existing menu of options. In that case, your choice would fall under the evaluation phase; it’s just that the idea you select is a problem that calls for the pursuit of further ideas. If, on the other hand, you develop a new problem, you would thereby be engaging in the generation of a new idea—the new problem—which may emerge in a moment of insight . Einstein and his colleague celebrated the novelty in such problem-finding:

The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. (Einstein & Infeld 1938: 92)

Either way—whether you “find” a problem by picking a pre-existing one or by coming up with a new one yourself—problem-finding, though important, does not need to be seen as an additional operation beyond the five listed above; it’s just a special case of generation, insight, or evaluation.

The next five sub-sections will respectively examine the five operations of creative work. Notice that three of them—preparation, evaluation, and externalization—are uncontroversially ordinary activities that involve no apparent mystery; it’s a challenge to explain them but no one is tempted to regard them as inexplicable or as violating the laws of nature. As we saw in §4 , traditional skepticism about the possibility of explaining creativity is really focused on the two remaining phenomena: the generation of new ideas ( §5.2 ) and the experience of insight whereby an idea seems to come out of the blue, as if from a god ( §5.3 ).

It’s myth that outsiders are more creative. To put yourself in a position to create anything of value, you have to spend a great deal of time and effort acquiring the relevant knowledge, skills, and expertise. In what has come to be called “the ten-year rule”, Howard Gardner (1993) found that, on average, people spend about 10 years learning and being immersed in a domain before they make any significant creative contribution to it.

Though a certain amount of rote learning is required, gaining mastery in a field is not simply a matter of passively absorbing information. Much of it involves what Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice, where you focus on tasks which are a little beyond your current abilities, but which you eventually conquer through feedback and repetition. Across a variety of domains—including physics, medicine, programming, dance, and music—Ericsson found that, on average, world-class performance becomes possible for people only after 10,000 hours of deliberate practice in their chosen activity. This finding also converges on the ten-year rule, because if you engage in deliberate practice four hours a day, five days a week, that would add up to 10,000 hours in ten years (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer 1993; Ericsson et al. 2006).

However, there seems to be a point at which too much formal training can dampen creativity. Simonton (1984: 70–73) has reported that the relationship between creativity and education level is an inverted-U, as too much schooling can reinforce familiar, pre-established styles of thought. Even so, the point remains that, before you run into diminishing returns, years of preparatory learning and practice are required for exceptional creativity.

5.2 Generation

In this section we discuss four kinds of mental capacities or processes that researchers have posited for generating new ideas.

Psychologist Donald T. Campbell (1960, 1965) proposed that creative thought proceeds through “blind variation and selective retention (BVSR)”. The “variations” he refers to are the various ideas that might occur to a creator, and the process of generating them is “blind” to the extent that it is not guided or directed by prior knowledge of how valuable or useful they will be: “Real gains must have been the products of explorations going beyond the limits of foresight or prescience , and in this sense blind” (Campbell 1960: 92, emphasis added). Once ideas have been generated, however, there is a subsequent stage where the creator selectively retains some of those ideas while discarding others, and Campbell says this stage is “sighted” rather than blind since it is guided by the creator’s judgments as to which ideas are valuable. While there is little debate that selective retention is sighted in this sense, there has been more controversy over whether the initial production of ideas is, by contrast, blind.

In his prolific body of work, Dean Keith Simonton has extended and refined Campbell’s proposal. His work nicely illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of creativity research as he, like Campbell, is a psychologist who engages with philosophers, some of whom are broadly sympathetic to the BVSR theory (Briskman, 2009; Nickles, 2003), while others are skeptical (Kronfeldner 2010, 2011, 2018). In earlier writings Simonton suggested, in a way Campbell did not, that BVSR is to be understood on the model of Darwinian evolution (Simonton 1999a, 1999b). But Simonton (forthcoming: 2–3) has come to rescind the Darwinian framing of BVSR, conceding that it is misleading. Reprising Campbell’s core idea, he says that a process of generating an idea is blind to the extent that it is not guided by “the creator’s prior knowledge of the variation’s utility” (Simonton forthcoming: 5; cf. Simonton 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2018). He stresses that blindness is not all-or-nothing; it comes in degrees. An example of a highly sighted process is that of using the quadratic formula to find the roots of a quadratic equation: you know in advance that if you apply the formula correctly, it will yield the correct answer. Examples of relatively blind processes include remote association and mind wandering.

Despite the foregoing criticism of BVSR, recent neuroscientific studies suggest a network of brain activity that may serve the blind variation role. Brain activity doesn’t cease when one is not focusing on a task, when one is at rest, daydreaming, and so on. Following this insight, researchers have used neuroimaging methods to identify what is now called the default mode network (DMN). The precise anatomy of this network is still a matter of investigation, but it is supposed to be less active when one is focused on an external task (say a problem in the real world or in the lab) and more active when one is not so focused (Raichle et al. 2001; Buckner & DiNicola 2019). Notice then, that while this network is not creativity-specific—it is supposed to be active during memory recall, imagining future events, daydreaming, and so on—it does seem especially well-suited for creativity, and particularly for the random idea generation hypothesized by the BVSR (Jung et al. 2013). Creativity researchers in these fields often refer to this more “free” production of ideas as “divergent thinking”, and some argue on the basis of neuroimaging studies that creative thought requires cooperation between this mode of thought as well as that under “executive control”. As one team puts the point,

In general, we contend that the default network influences the generation of candidate ideas, but that the control network can constrain and direct this process to meet task-specific goals via top-down monitoring and executive control.. (Beaty, Benedek, et al. 2016; see also Mayseless, Eran, & Shamay-Tsoory 2015; Beaty, Seli, & Schacter 2019; Chrysikou 2019)

Notice how well this comports with both the Geneplore and the BVSR frameworks, perhaps identifying a way to keep some of the insights of both without commitment to a special creativity mechanism after all.

At least since Kant, theorists have identified an important link between creativity and imagination; indeed, the two are sometimes unfortunately conflated. Construed broadly, imagination can take various forms: sensory imagery, propositional imagination, supposition, free association. Berys Gaut (2003, 2009, 2010) and Stokes (2014, 2016) have both recently argued that, although imagination and creativity are distinct, imagination is especially well-suited to creative thought because of its characteristic flexibility. They both agree that imagination is decoupled from action (Gaut 2003) and “non-truthbound” (Stokes 2014) in the sense that, unlike belief, imagination is not limited by the proper function of accurately representing (some part of) the world. This freedom or playfulness of imagination is crucial to generating new ideas, since it allows one to safely “try out” hypotheses, conceptual combinations, strategies for solutions, and so on, without epistemic or behavioral commitment.

A series of studies illustrates both the need for non-truthbound capacities in creative thought, as well as the difficulty of employing them. When people—children and adults alike—are asked to imagine and draw non-existent houses, people, or animals, they depict things that are strikingly similar to their familiar counterparts in the real world: imagined people, for example, were generally drawn with some version of a head, limbs, eyes, and so forth. (Karmiloff-Smith 1990, 1992: 155–61; Cacciari et. al 1997; Ward 1994, 1995). This suggests that we are highly constrained in our creativity by the concepts we already have. Concepts of existing things are truth-bound: your concept of an animal, for example, has the proper function of accurately representing the range of things that are in fact animals. When you try to envision a new, fictional kind of animal, you begin with a mental image that exemplifies your existing concept of animal, which is why you are constrained by that concept. You then have to manipulate your initial image, varying its features in ways that abandon the aim of accuracy, using a capacity that isn’t truthbound. Generalizing this point yields the cognitive manipulation thesis , according to which creative thought requires cognitive manipulation, which involves thinking in ways that are not bound to the truth (Stokes 2014: 167). Plausibly, imagination is the mental capacity which is best suited to serve in this cognitive manipulation role. In the studies just cited, subjects must use their imagination to manipulate their existing concepts so as to form new ideas.

Recent empirical research on visual imagery seems to corroborate this claim. Various studies have identified positive correlations between creative problem solving and visual image generation, image transformation, and vividness of imagery (Finke 1990, 1996; Zemore 1995; R. Morrison & Wallace 2001; Pérez-Fabello and Campos 2007). A more recent study highlights the importance of image transformation ability—the ability to mentally manipulate a given image—and the ability to achieve high degrees of visual creativity. Further, the results of this study suggest that although vividness negatively correlates with the practicality of images created, vividness positively correlates with novel idea generation (Palmiero et al. 2015). The novelty involved is minimal, but again it appears that imagination, here in the form of imagery, well serves the role of cognitive manipulation.

Stokes observes further that we can voluntarily control imaginative states (in contrast with other non-truthbound states, like desires and wishes). And because imagination connects in important ways with inferential systems, as well as affective systems, the thoughts it produces can often be integrated with knowledge and skills to formulate an innovative strategy or solution to a problem. Finally, this role for imagination in creativity is not exclusive to the rich creativity of artists and scientists, but indeed seems to characterize the minimally creative behavior that we all enjoy. This claim is partly motivated by the empirical research just discussed. Here, as in the more radical cases, instances of novel achievement or learning by subjects requires more than rote memorization; it requires cognitive manipulation of the information in the relevant conceptual space (e.g., combining concepts about houses and persons). This kind of cognitive activity is best done by using the imagination.

Peter Carruthers has argued that imagination is important to creativity on evolutionary grounds (2002, 2006; see also Picciuto & Carruthers 2014). Like the above analyses, he focuses on the playfulness of imagination. Pretend play typically develops early in childhood in humans. And imagination in adults provides the right mechanisms for generating and exploring ideas (just as required by the Geneplore model). Carruthers argues that imagination evolves under adaptive advantage as a kind of practice for adult creativity—and may have been accordingly selected for, aligning with the putative creativity explosion of 40,000 years ago (Mithen 1996, 1998; Harris 2000). This, he argues, is the most parsimonious explanation of both the emergence and the ubiquity of creativity in the human species. See B. Gaut (2009) for a critique of Carruthers’ analysis.

While we may generate ideas consciously in imagination, we may also do so during a period of unconscious incubation, when we are focused on something else. This point is illustrated by any number of famous stories, though some are probably embellished after years of retelling. Isaac Newton witnessed an apple fall from a tree (on some accounts, falling upon Newton’s head) and thereby found the insight for his laws of gravity. August Kekulé is reported to have discovered the structure of the benzene molecule while daydreaming of a serpent circling upon and seizing its own tail. Henri Poincaré alleged that, while boarding a bus, he enjoyed a needed flash of insight that led to his discovery of non-Euclidian geometry. Richard Feynman, the Nobel prize winning physicist, claimed to find inspiration while sipping soda and doodling at adult clubs. And Einstein reported:

I was sitting in a chair in the patent office at Bern when all of a sudden a thought occurred to me. “If a person falls freely he will not feel his own weight”. I was startled. This simple thought made a deep impression on me. It impelled me toward a theory of gravitation. (Einstein, “Kyoto Lecture”, translated and quoted in Pais 1982: 179)

In each case, someone is suddenly struck with a flash of insight about one thing while engaged with something else entirely. The empirically-minded theorist rejects the notion that such ideas arise ex nihilo or through divine possession. So how are they explained in terms of natural mental phenomena?

Arthur Koestler, partly inspired by the work of Henri Poincaré (1908 [1913]), hypothesized that during creative thought processing, ideas are combined in novel ways, and this combination is performed largely unconsciously , by what Poincaré called the subliminal self (Koestler 1964: 164–5). For Poincaré there are only two ways we might think of the unconscious. One, we might think of the unconscious in Freudian terms, as a self capable of careful and fine discernment and, importantly, distinctions and combinations that the conscious self fails to make. Alternatively (and this is the option favored by both Poincaré and Koestler), we can think of the unconscious as a sub-personal automaton that mechanically runs through various combinations of ideas. Importantly, this unconscious process (or, if one likes, automaton) generates random conceptual associations and ideas. And these can then be further considered, examined, explored, and revised.

In the context of creativity in particular, there is precedent, or at least overlap, in Colin Martindale’s cortical arousal theory. This theory centers around the nature of focuses of attention (Martindale 1977, 1981, 1995, 1999; Martindale & Armstrong 1974; Martindale & Hines 1975). Martindale proposes a multi-stage model of problem solving, which if the right mechanism is possessed, leads to creative thought. In the initial stages, information is gathered, various approaches are taken to the problem, and there is a high level of cortical arousal with a narrow focus of attention. As information increases and the problem remains unsolved, two kinds of responses may occur. The first kind of response is to keep attempting the same solutions to the problem such that the arousal and attention focus stay high and narrow, respectively. Alternatively, some persons experience a decrease in cortical arousal coupled with a wider range of attention focus. Information then enters what Martindale calls primary processing: a kind of subconscious cognition not under the complete control of the agent. It is this kind of processing, and the arousal mechanisms that enable it, that distinguish creative insight or achievement from non-creative ones. The first kind of response typically results in frustration and failure (fixation), while the second often results in creative insight.

Some early studies on these phenomena centered around a familiar observation. Consider the tip-of the-tongue phenomenon, when you know that you know some bit of information (an actor’s name or the title of a song) but, try as you may, you just can’t recall it. It often helps to give up for a moment and allow the memory to surface without effort. Researchers found that the same approach—forgetting about a problem—works well to overcome fixation on ineffective ideas so as to allow the actual solution to pop up. Smith and Blankenship primed two groups of subjects with inappropriate or misleading solutions to problems. They left one group to continue struggling with the same problem, while they distracted the second group with a distinct but cognitively demanding task. The second group thereby overcame fixation and outperformed the first group when returning attention to the original target problem (Smith & Blankenship 1989, 1991; see also Smith, Ward, & Finke 1995).

These behavioral methods can be combined with contemporary understanding of neural plasticity and the effects of cognitive effort and attention. Neuroscientists have long recognized that the human brain is plastic —stable in genetic material but constantly undergoing functional change and development in neural networking in response to external stimuli, with the work of Donald Hebb in the middle of the twentieth century being one important early precedent. As Hebb put it, neural cells that “fire together, wire together”. Cell assemblies thus form as a result of the synchrony and proximity of the firing of individual cells.

[A]ny two cells or systems of cells that are repeatedly active at the same time will tend to become “associated”, so that activity in one facilitates activity in the other. (Hebb 1949 [2002: 70])

And continued attention to a problem, what some have called cerebral effort , causes changes in the networking of the brain’s cortex (Donald 2001: 175–8). Importantly, these changes can continue to take place, to “reverberate” even after one has removed attention from that problem. This motivates a simple (and somewhat unsurprising) hypothesis: attending to and performing cognitive tasks affects neural networking (Posner et al. 1997; Posner & Raichle 1994; see also Kami et al. 1995), and those changes can involve strengthening of synaptic connectivity (which correlate with conceptual connections and associations). These changes, again, can occur both when one is attending to a task and after one has diverted attention elsewhere. And, finally, the latter goes some way to explain a moment of insight after incubation (the so-called incubation effect): when one returns attention to the target problem, new or newly strengthened neural connectivity (as a result of previous cognitive effort) can give rise to a new idea. And because that neural process is not in any sense done by you, the emergence of the new idea can feel like a burst of insight (see Stokes 2007; Thagard & Stewart 2011; Ritter & Dijksterhuis 2014; and Heilman 2016).

There are also various recent studies on closely related topics: on mindwandering and spontaneous thought (Christoff et al. 2016; Irving & Thompson 2018; Murray et al. forthcoming), on so-called “divergent thinking” (Mekern et al. 2019), and more on the neural basis of insight (Jung-Beeman et al. 2004; Bowden et al. 2005; Limb & Braun 2008; Dietrich & Kanso 2010; Kounios & Beeman 2014).

It should be intuitive that creativity often involves solving problems and doing so in interesting or surprising ways. In exceptional cases, the individual identifies a problem solution that perhaps no one (including the creator) anticipated. But there are countless examples of more mundane instances of problem solving, where the solution may be surprising (or especially interesting) to only a few individuals, perhaps even only to the problem solver. One broad, standard experimental method used by researchers thus focuses on insight in problem solving. Some problems (thankfully!) can be solved by straightforward appeal to memory, or by applying some technique or method of calculation in a mechanical way. Solving the problem may still take time and effort, but the solution will come so long as one executes the appropriate strategy or applies the relevant knowledge from memory. An insight problem, by contrast, typically requires something new on the part of the individual, and one must often “change views” of the structure of the very problem. Predictably, there are a variety of definitions or characterizations of “insight” in the literature. Here are two recent, representative examples. Bowden et al. suggest that insight occurs

when a solver breaks free of unwarranted assumptions, or forms novel, task-related connections between existing concepts or skills. (Bowden et al. 2005: 322)

More recently, Kounios and Beeman write,

we define insight as any sudden comprehension, realization, or problem solution that involves a reorganization of the elements of a person’s mental representation of a stimulus, situation, or event to yield a nonobvious or nondominant interpretation. (2014: 74)

There are at least two, separable components of insight thus understood. First, an insight problem requires non-mechanical or non-algorithmic solution, and this in turn requires some kind of conceptual reorganization. A hackneyed phrase may come to mind here: one has to “think outside the box”.

The second element of insight as understood here is subjective or phenomenological. An insightful problem solution is often described as occurring suddenly and with little or no apparent effort. It is an aha moment, even if less dramatic than the traditionally romanticized Eureka moment. One way researchers have tested for this subjective feature is to ask subjects to report nearness or “warmth” relative to solving a problem. They find that for insight problems, by contrast to non-insight problems, subjects report that as they near solution they experience abrupt changes in the sense of warmth for solving the problem (Metcalfe & Wiebe 1987; see also Dominowski 1995; Laukkonen & Tangen 2018). More recently, researchers have begun to employ neuroimaging techniques to study insight and insightful problem solving (Luo & Niki 2003; Mai et al. 2004).

First, researchers have developed methods for using subjective report, where subjects rate whether they felt that they used insight in solving a designated problem (Bowden et al. 2005). And second, and coupled with those report methods, researchers have developed simple problems that can be solved with insight. One such example is the “Compound remote associates problem” (CRA). Here is an example of a CRA problem:

Each of the three words in (a) and (b) below can form a compound word or two-word phrase with the solution word. The solution word can come before or after any of the problem words. french, car, shoe boot, summer, ground [ 1 ] (Bowden et al. 2005: 324)

Because of their simplicity, these problems can be solved unambiguously and quickly, and with this speed comes better potential for neuroimaging study. In instances where subjects report insight solutions to these kinds of problems,

EEG shows a burst of high-frequency (gamma-band) EEG activity over the right temporal lobe, and fMRI shows a corresponding change in blood flow in the medial aspect of the right anterior superior temporal gyrus (Jung-Beeman et al. 2004). (Kounios & Beeman 2014: 78)

The question for neuroscientists is whether this convergence of evidence is sufficient to establish neural correlates of insight.

A moment of “insight” can be misleading, as what initially strikes you as a promising idea may ultimately turn out to be a dead end. You may have countless ideas in the course of undertaking a complex creative project, while only a few of them will make the final cut. A crucial part of your creative work therefore consists in evaluating your ideas. For any idea that occurs to you, you might have to ask: Will this work? Is it new? How does it fit in with other parts of your project? Do you have the resources and abilities to bring it to fruition? Is it worth the time and effort?

Much of the research on this phase of the creative process is concerned to identify and categorize the range of factors that people take into consider as they evaluate their ideas (Blair & Mumford 2007; Dailey & Mumford, 2006). Unsurprisingly, those factors vary from one domain to another. New culinary dishes are judged by factors like aroma, taste, texture, color, presentation (Horng & Lin 2009), whereas improved musical performances are judged according to their complexity, originality, and technical virtuosity (Eisenberg & Thompson 2003), and so on. Your understanding of the relevant factors is part of your internalized model of the domain (Bink & Marsh, 2000; Csikszentmihalyi & Sawyer 1995). And since you acquired and refined that model through years of preparation, your capacity for evaluation is largely a consequence of your efforts from that initial stage.

Somewhat more surprisingly, there is some evidence that people who are good at evaluating ideas are also good at generating them (Runco 1991; Runco & Dow 2004; Runco & Chand 1994; Runco & Vega 1990).

Other studies support what Sawyer calls Sawyer (2012: 131) calls the productivity theory, which says that the best way to get good ideas is to have lots of ideas and just throw away the bad ones. In historiometric studies, Simonton found that creators who yielded the greatest number of works over their lifetimes were mostly likely to produce works that were significant and stood the test of time. Even more striking, he discovered that, from year to year, the periods when creators were most productive were also the ones in which they were most likely to do exceptional work (Simonton 1988a, 1988b). Linus Pauling, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 as well as the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962, summed up the productivity theory in a famous remark:

If you want to have good ideas you must have many ideas. Most of them will be wrong, and what you have to learn is which ones to throw away. (quoted by Crick 1995 [time 34:57])

The final operation of the creative process—externalizing ideas—may involve any number of disparate activities, which Keith Sawyer sums up as follows:

Creativity research has tended to focus on the early stages of the eight-stage creative process—particularly on the idea-generating stage. But a lot has to happen to make any idea a reality. Successful creators are skilled at executing their ideas, predicting how others might react to them and being prepared to respond, identifying the necessary resources to make them successful, forming plans for implementing the ideas, and improvising to adjust their plans as new information arrives. These activities are important in all creativity, but are likely to be even more important in practical domains such as technological invention and entrepreneurship (Mumford, 2003; Policastro & Gardner, 1999). (Sawyer 2012: 133–4)

It may be tempting to assume that the real creative work is finished once a new idea emerges in the moment of insight, and that externalization is just the uncreative, mechanical chore of making the idea public. But a closer look at the phenomenon reveals that externalization is often integral to creativity itself.

Vera John-Steiner (1985) interviewed, and examined the notebooks of, over 70 exceptional creators (ranging from author Anaïs Nin to composer Aaron Copland), and consulted the notebook of another 50 eminent historical creators such as Leo Tolstoy and Marie Curie. A recurring theme throughout was that at the beginning of each creative endeavor and continually throughout its development, creators manipulate and build upon their impressions, inklings, and tentative hunches using sketches, outlines, and other external representations.

Perkins (1981) corroborated this finding by analyzing the 61 sketches Picasso made en route to painting his famous work, Guernica , as well as Beethoven’s musical drafts and Darwin’s notebooks. In each case, the artist progressed by engaging with external representations.

Other studies found that people discovered and solved more problem when they used sketches during a task (Verstijnen 1997), and that people come up with better ideas for improving inventions when they work with visual diagrams (Mayer 1989).

One reason externalization is so vital to substantial creative work is because of our limited capacity to consciously hold and manipulate information in our minds. It helps to offload ideas and store them in the form of physical symbols and expressions in order to free up space for the mind to examine those ideas at arm’s length while entertaining new ones. Thus research shows that internal strategies like mental visualization can help with relatively simple tasks, but for more complex projects externalization is key (Finke et al. 1992: 60).

We close our survey of the cognitive science of creativity with a brief discussion of some general worries about current work, and some prescriptions for future research.

Some have worried about the validity of the psychometric measures employed in neuroimaging studies. One such concern regards the confidence that we should have that the tests employed are really tracking creative behavior. This is of course a general problem, partly symptomatic of the challenges that come with defining creativity (like other phenomena) and with the special challenges that attach to features such as insight and incubation. But there are particular challenges that come with using neuroimaging technologies such as fMRI scanning to attempt to study naturally occurring phenomena. Use of this technology is almost invariably ecologically invalid—one cannot run an fMRI in the artist’s studio. And because of the cost and sensitivity of these imaging systems, the correlative behavioral tests are often significantly abbreviated. This may impose constraints on space for occurrence of the target phenomena—novel thinking and insight—during the imaging session. As one researcher worries,

Too often single tests are used—or even single items! This is contrary of psychometric theory in general (where longer tests allow errors to cancel themselves out and are thus more reliable) and true of the research on creativity assessment in particular, where differences among items and even tests are common (Richards, 1976; Runco, Mohamad, & Paek, 2016 [sic should be Runco, Abdulla et al. 2016). Results from any one test will not generalize to other tests. Results from a single item of course have even less generalizability. (Runco 2017: 309–310; see also Abraham 2013)

Another empirical researcher criticizes what he sees as “the wild goose chase” in the neuroscience of creativity. Arne Dietrich (2019) recapitulates the above worries about validity of psychometric measures and their abbreviated and piecemeal application. He further worries about the now dominant emphasis on divergent thinking, and the default mode network (as well as the now mostly abandoned emphasis on notions such as madness, the right brain, and REM sleep). Dietrich’s concern in each case is that the research emphasis is unhelpfully myopic, and that while the imaging methods are sound and state of the art, the characterization of creativity is not. He decries the temptation to identify what may be a feature of creativity with the whole of the phenomenon. Divergent thinking, he suggests, is likely a cluster of various mental phenomena rather than a singular one, and

there is no effort underway to dissect divergent thinking and link it to the kinds of cognitive processes we use to operationalize all other psychological phenomena, such as working memory, cognitive control, semantic memory, perceptual processes, or executive attention. (2019: 37)

Notice, then, that the “wild goose” for Dietrich is to hastily conclude and then center studies around a singular, special creativity mechanism.

Dietrich also offers various prescriptions for remedy. To combat myopia, he suggests (as some have in other disciplines, e.g., Boden 2004) a plurality of types of creativity (and/or features of creativity). He cautions,

Since different types of creativity contain opposing brain mechanisms—focused versus defocused attention, for instance—any all-encompassing claim about creativity in the brain will almost certainly qualify as phrenology. (2019: 39)

He pairs this with a prescription for a more interdisciplinary approach to the topic. Others in the field have made the same prescription, advocating a “systems” approach sensitive both to the multi-faceted nature of creativity and the value of theorizing at multiple levels of explanation (Hennessy & Amabile 2010).

These directives for future research seem hard to resist. At the very least, it would seem advantageous to ensure that the full range of empirical method across the behavioral and brain sciences is communicated across the relevant sub-disciplines. This would ideally lead to better collaboration amongst such researchers. What’s interesting is that a cousin to this prescription is not well heeded by the same researchers advancing it here. However little crossover there is between, say, behavioral psychologists and neuroscientists in studies of creativity, there is comparatively even less crossover (almost none) between the psychological sciences and computational approaches to creativity. The next section thus begins by highlighting this “gap”, and identifying some of the potentially fruitful areas for interdisciplinary work on that front. It then continues with a discussion, generally, of research on creativity in the fields of computing science, artificial intelligence, and robotics.

Just as we find in psychology and neuroscience, there is a rich research literature on creativity in artificial intelligence and computer science, with devoted journals, special issues, and conferences ( The Journal of Artificial Creativity , The Journal of Creative Music Systems , Digital Creativity , Minds and Machines special issue on Computational Creativity [Gervás et al. 2010], The International Conference on Computational Creativity ). The question we focus on here is whether a computer could be creative . As background, it is worth considering how theorists approached the analogous question as to whether a computer could think .

Although theorists of various kinds have asked whether machines can think since at least the early modern period, the most important conceptual innovations on the topic came from Alan Turing, centering around his 1950 paper “Computing machinery and intelligence”. Here Turing provided a number of groundbreaking insights. Perhaps most familiar is Turing’s “imitation game”, now commonly known as “the Turing Test”. In brief, the test involved an unknowing interrogator who could ask an open-ended series of questions of both a human and a computer. If the interrogator could not distinguish computer from human, Turing postulated that this would suffice to illustrate genuine intelligence. There is no shortage of controversy regarding the aptness of the test for intelligence, and arguably no computer has yet passed it. (For more thorough discussion of Turing and the Turing test see entries on Alan Turing , Turing machines , and the Turing test ).

Successful performance in Turing’s game would require remarkable behavioral flexibility. And it is highly operational: specify a threshold for imitation, and then simply allow the interrogator to ask questions, then assess performance. If the behavior is sufficiently flexible to fool the interrogator, Turing claimed, the behavior was intelligent and, therefore, the computer intelligent.

With this background in mind, what are some of the cases in AI research lauded as success cases, and how do they align with some of Turing’s criteria?

Many of the familiar success cases are highly specialized. Deep Blue defeated chess master Garry Kasparov (Kasparov & Greengard 2017); some language processing systems managed to navigate social contexts such as ordering from a menu at a restaurant (Schank & Abelson 1977); AlphaGo more recently defeated the world champion Go player. This specialization is both a virtue and a limitation. On the one hand, achievement in such a specialized domain implies an exceptional amount of detailed memory and skill. On the other hand, this knowledge and skill does not generalize. Neither Deep Blue nor Alpha Go could successfully order from a menu, along with countless other basic human tasks. Put in terms of Turing’s imitation game, these systems would fail miserably to fool a human, or even remotely imitate one (except for their performance in a very narrow domain). What about systems such as IBM’s Watson , which famously won (against humans) on the television game show Jeopardy! This performance is more general, since topics on the show vary widely, and seemed to require both language comprehension and some minimal reasoning skills (see entry on artificial intelligence for extended discussion). Even so, Watson’s capabilities are still quite limited: it cannot make fluid conversation “in real time” and is largely insensitive to temporal and other factors that come with context.

There are many, many more examples of computational systems that display sophisticated behavior, from the highly specialized to the more general. On the language processing front, very recent AI systems such as OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Google’s LaMDA significantly outperform the systems described above. To be clear, these are remarkable achievements that display substantial complexity and, it appears in some cases, significant flexibility—features Turing highlighted in characteristically human behaviors. But this also underscores a distinction, often invoked by critics of artificial intelligence research. There is a difference between a computer’s displaying or merely imitating an intelligent behavior, and a computer’s instantiating intelligence through such behavior. And the critic will say, even if a computer behaves as if it is intelligent, this is just modeling or simulating intelligence. The greater ambition, though, is “genuine artificial intelligence”, a system that actually thinks. John Searle refers to this as the distinction between “weak AI” and “strong AI”, respectively.

  • Weak AI : Could a computer behave as if it thinks?
  • Strong AI: Could a computer genuinely think?

The general worry here is that however sophisticated a system’s behavior may appear “from the outside”, for all we know it may just be a “hollow shell” (Haugeland 1981 [1997]; Clark 2001). The worry has then been fleshed out in various ways by specifying what is missing from the shell, as it were. Here are three standard such candidates. And, again, in each case however sophisticated the computer’s behavior may appear it still may be lacking in any or all of the following. First, the computer may lack consciousness . Second, the computer may lack any understanding of the symbols over which it computes (Searle 1980). Finally, the computer may operate without caring about its own behavior or, as John Haugeland colorfully puts it, without “giving a damn”. In each case, any kind of response from the ambitious AI researcher encounters the substantial challenges that come with theorizing mental phenomena such as consciousness, understanding, linguistic competence, and emotion. (Turing 1950, for instance, recognized but largely eschewed these kinds of topics).

It’s one thing to ask whether computers could think, and another to ask whether they could be creative. And just as the prospect of artificial intelligence or thinking divides into two questions—of weak AI and strong AI—we may distinguish two analogous questions about artificial creativity, which we’ll refer to as the questions of “weak AC” and “strong AC”, respectively. To begin with the former:

  • Weak AC : Could a computer behave as if it’s creative?

Something behaves as if it’s creative if it produces things which are psychologically new (new to that thing) and valuable . Arguably, a number of computers have already done that.

In the 1970s, Harold Cohen began using computational technologies to produce new drawings and paintings. The work of his computer painter, Aaron, has exhibited at galleries such as the Tate and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. David Cope’s “EMI” (Experiments in Musical Intelligence) has composed musical works in the style of various known composers and styles, even a full-length opera. Some of these works have been recorded and produced by bona fide record labels. Just search “Emily Howell” on Spotify or Apple Music and give it a listen (Cope 1996, 2006). Simon Colton’s The Painting Fool is an ongoing project, involving a software that abstracts phrases, images, and other items from newspaper articles and creates collage-style pieces. It has also produced portraits, based on images of film characters, of the same individual in different emotional states (see Painting Fool in Other Internet Resources ; see Colton 2012 for theoretical discussion). Even more recently, there have been explosive developments in generative art systems like DALL•E, Midjourney, Stable Diffusion, VQGAN+CLIP. (For discussion see Paul & Stokes 2021). In all of these cases, the relevant outputs of the computer program are new relative to its past productions—so they are psychologically (or behaviorally) novel, which again is all the novelty that creativity requires. And although historical novelty isn’t required for creativity, it’s worth noting that these products appear to be to be new in all of history as well.

What about value? As noted above in §2.1 , some theorists reject the value condition, but even if value is required for creativity, that too is a condition these computer artworks seem to meet. Assessments of value can be controversial, but that is no less true for the outputs of human creativity. The fact that these works are critically acclaimed, showcased in prestigious galleries, and commissioned by selective record labels testifies to their artistic merit, and viewers find them pleasing, interesting, and appealing, even before being apprised of their unusual origin. So it is reasonable to conclude computer programs like the ones just described exhibit at least weak AC insofar as they produce works of valuable novelty, and one could cite many more examples in the same vein.

Some theorists have noted that, whether or not the original Turing test is a good test for intelligence or thinking, we might adopt an analogous test for creativity: If a computer can fool human observers into thinking that it is a human creator, then it is in fact creative (Pease & Colton 2011; see also Chen 2020 for useful discussion of artificial creativity, including many additional examples of particular cases, and so-called Dartmouth-based Turing tests). If we employ this test, we might find ourselves with an unexpected conclusion: computers can be creative; in fact, some of them already are. But one might reasonably worry that the test is inadequate and the conclusion is too quick (Berrar & Schuster 2014; Bringsjord et al. 2001). From the fact that a computer operates as if it’s creative, one might argue, it doesn’t follow that it really is. Which brings us to our next question:

  • Strong AC : Could a computer genuinely be creative?

This obviously returns us to the question of what conditions something must meet in order to count as being genuinely creative. And here we need go beyond the outwardly observable product-features of novelty and value to consider the underlying processes of genuine creativity. As we saw in §2.2 , theorists have variously proposed that in order for a process to count as creative, it must be surprising, original, spontaneous, and/or agential. There is no consensus to appeal to here, but if any one of these conditions is indeed required for genuine creativity, then a computer could be genuinely creative only to the extent that it executes processes which satisfy that condition.

The classic statement of skepticism regarding the possibility of computer creativity is due to Lady Ada Lovelace who had this to say while remarking on “the Analytical Engine” designed by her friend Charles Babbage:

It is desirable to guard against the possibility of exaggerated ideas that might arise as to the powers of the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. (Lovelace 1843, italics added)

Though Lovelace does not frame her comments in terms of “creativity” as such, she explicitly denied that a computer could satisfy at least one condition that is plausibly required for creativity, namely originality . A computer cannot be the originator, the author, or the creator of anything new, she contends; it can only do what it is programmed to do. We cannot get anything out of a computer that has not already been programmed into it. Further, Lovelace may also be interpreted as expressing or implying doubt about whether a computer could satisfy the three other proposed requirements for genuine creativity. Insofar as a computer’s outputs cannot be original, one might also suspect that they cannot be surprising . The image of a machine strictly following rules invokes precisely the kind of mechanical procedure that is the antithesis of spontaneity . And it may seem that such a machine could not be a genuine agent either. The problem isn’t just that a computer can’t produce anything original; it’s that it deserves no credit for whatever it does produce. Any praise or blame for the outputs of a computer rightly go to the engineers and programmers who made the machine, not to the machine itself. While these points may be intuitive, at least some of them are being challenged by modern technologies, which have come a long way since Babbage’s invention.

Consider AlphaGo again. This is a “deep learning” system, which involves two neural networks: a Policy network and a Value network. Very briefly: The system is trained using a vast number of legitimate moves made in actual games of Go played by professional human players (28.4 million moves from 160,000 games, to be precise; see Silver et al. 2016 and Halina 2021). The network is further trained, again using learning algorithms, by playing many games (some 100 million) against previous versions of itself (in the sense of a differently weighted neural network). The weights of nodes in the network are then adjusted by a learning algorithm that favors moves made in winning games. The value network is trained over a subset of these many games, with node weighting adjustments resulting in reliable probability assignments to moves vis-à-vis their potential to contribute to a win. Finally, the system employs a Monte Carlo search tree (MCT). Generally, this kind of algorithm is designed to simulate a decision process to optimize success given chosen parameters. In this case, the search algorithm selects a given path of moves, then adds some valid moves to this path, and then if this process does not terminate (end in win/loss), the system performs a “rollout”. A rollout essentially plays the game out for both players (using samples of possible moves) to its conclusion. The information that results from the MCT and processing by the value network are then fed back (back propagated) into the system. This entire process (once the system is trained) is rapid and determines how AlphaGo “decides” to move in any given game.

Here are some things to note. AlphaGo’s style of play is surprising . As commentators have noted, it is starkly unconventional relative to standards of human play (Halina cites Baker and Hui 2017 [ Other Internet Resources ]). Indeed, Lee Sodol, the world champion Go player defeated by AlphaGo in 2016, remarked that AlphaGo’s play revealed that much of human play is, contrary to prior common opinion, not creative after all—intimating that at least some of the play of AlphaGo is . Note further that this system is flexible. While there are learning algorithms and rules that adjust network weights, the system is not mechanical or predictable in the same fashion as earlier, classical systems (including Deep Blue , for example). In a recent paper, Marta Halina has made this argument (Halina 2021). She explicitly invokes Boden’s characterization, which requires novelty, value, and surprise of creativity. Again, the novelty and value should be plausibly attributed in this case. Regarding surprise, Halina suggests that it is AlphaGo’s employment of MCT that enables a kind of “insight”, flexibility, and unpredictable results. She writes,

It is the exploration parameter that allows AlphaGo to go beyond its training, encouraging it to simulate moves outside of those recommended by the policy network. As the search tree is constructed, the system starts choosing moves with the highest “action value” to simulate, where the action value indicates how good a move is based on the outcome of rollouts and value-network evaluations. (Halina 2021: 324)

Halina grants that given its domain-specificity, as we have already noted, this system’s particular abilities do not generalize in a way that may be required to properly attribute genuine intelligence. But she suggests that the complex use of the MCT search may amount to “mental scenario building” or, we might say, a kind of imagination. And insofar as this search algorithm technology can be applied to other systems in other domains, and imagination is a general component of intelligence, perhaps here lies space for generalizability. AlphaGo also affords at least some reply to the traditional Lovelace worry.

Artificial systems do not act only according to preprogrammed rules hand-coded by engineers. Moreover, current deep-learning methods are capable of producing systems that are superhuman in their abilities to discover novel and valuable solutions to problems within specific domains. (Halina 2021: 327)

If this is right, then AlphaGo exhibits originality . Finally, the flexibility with which this system operates may also satisfy Kronfeldner’s spontaneity requirement.

Some of these same features are found in a related approach in AI, namely research in evolutionary robotics. These systems also involve various forms of machine learning but in this case the learning is distributed, as it were, across a population of individuals rather than one individual. This approach can be understood, albeit imperfectly, as analogous to natural evolution. One begins, typically in computer simulation, with a population of agents. These agents are typically identified with individual neural networks, the connections and weightings of which are random to start. Relative to some task—for instance, avoiding obstacles, collecting objects, performing photo or phonotaxis—a genetic algorithm assigns a fitness value to each individual agent after a certain period of time or number of trials. Fitter agents are typically favored and used to generate the next population of agents. Also included in this generation are random mutation and genetic crossover (digital breeding!). Although it can take hundreds of generations, this is a discovery approach to engineering or constructing a system that successfully performs a task; it is “gradient descent learning” (Clark 1996). In this bottom-up approach, no single individual, nor even an entire population, are in any strict sense programmed. Rather, successful agents have “learned” as a result of generations of randomness, crossover, and small fitness improvements (and lots and lots of failures). Early success cases evolved robots that can follow trails (Koza 1992), locomote in insect-fashion (Beer & Gallagher 1992), guide themselves visually (Cliff, Husbands, & Harvey 1993), and collect garbage (Nolfi & Floreana 2000). See Bird and Stokes (2006, 2007) and Stokes and Bird (2008) for analysis and study of creativity in the context of evolutionary robotics.

These systems most certainly produce novelty. Later, fit individuals achieve novelty at their aimed task relative to whole generations and populations of previous agents. And this novelty is often surprising to the engineers and programmers that build them, indeed sometimes even unpredictably independent of any relevant task for individuals in the population. There are many examples in the literature. Indeed Lehman and others (2020) catalog a large range of cases where digital evolution surprises its creators, categorizing them in four representative groups: “mis-specified fitness functions”, “unintended debugging”, “exceeded experimenter expectations”, and “convergence with biology”. Here is one now relatively famous example of the first type of case. In early research in artificial life (A-Life), Karl Sims (1994) designed virtual creatures that were supposed to learn to walk (as well as swim and jump) in a simulated environment. The fitness function assessed individual agents on their average ground velocity across 10 seconds. Some of the fittest individuals to evolve were surprising: they grew tall and rigid and when they would fall over they would achieve high ground velocity, thus maximizing fitness given the (mis)specified parameters in unpredicted ways.

This is but one example of how systems like these can evolve in unpredictable or surprising ways. This unpredictability has occurred not just in simulated robotics, but in embodied robotics as well. In using a genetic algorithm to attempt to evolve oscillating sensors, researchers unintentionally evolved a radio antenna (Bird & Layzell 2002). This unexpected result arose from a combination of the particular algorithm used (which was intended) and various physical features of the space such as proximity to a PC monitor (which the researchers had presumably deemed irrelevant but which the evolved system, in a sense, did not). And one might be further inclined to describe some of these achievements as creative (and not just in the trivial sense that they are original instances of robotic success), since they also produce value, at least insofar as they are useful at performing a task, whether it is locomoting or locating a source of light or sensing radio waves.

Some theorists in this domain might argue that these systems achieve spontaneity as well. Given the substantial inclusion of randomness in the system’s development—both at the outset when the individual’s neural networks are randomized and more importantly with random mutation across populations—it is intuitive to describe the system’s as not following a mechanical procedure. Indeed, the way in which systems exploit fitness functions and data patterns further underscores this point. (Again, see the rich catalog of cases offered by Lehman et al. 2020).

On the face of it, then, recent technologies in AI, evolutionary robotics, and artificial life, seem to fulfill many of the conditions proposed for genuine creativity. These systems produce things that are novel and valuable, and do so through computational processes that are plausibly surprising, original, and spontaneous. The one requirement we have yet to address, however, is agency . Recall the suggestion, implicit in Lovelace’s remarks, that whatever a computer produces is to the credit of the programmer, not the computer. Notice that as sophisticated as current technologies in artificial creativity may be, presumably they are still not subject to praise or blame for what they do. If any beings are responsible for the work of these programs, it still seems to be the programmers and engineers who make them, not the programs themselves. The programs themselves do not seem to “give a damn”. So, if the creative process requires agency, arguably we have not yet created, programmed, or evolved a computational system that is really creative, however much they might appear to be. In the pursuit of strong AC, agency might be the final frontier (Paul & Stokes 2021).

It should be clear from the above discussions that there are rich and lively research programs, across a range of scientific disciplines, studying human creativity. These approaches substantiate the view that, contrary to the romantic tradition, creativity can be explained. Psychological functions and neural correlates have been identified, and remarkable advances are being made with computational and robotics technologies. What may be less clear is that, despite these advances, the distinct research programs in question are largely disjoint or siloed.

In a recent paper, Geraint Wiggins and Joydeep Bhattacharya (2014) highlight this “gap” between scientific studies of creativity. Their particular emphasis is on the gaps between research in neuroscience and research in computer science, and they advocate a bridge in the form of a neurocomputational approach. This kind of bridging may be called for even beyond what these authors prescribe, since there are gaps not just between these disciplines, but also between these and behavioral psychology, AI and A-Life research, and philosophical analysis. Creativity is a deeply complex and deeply important phenomenon. Fully understanding it will require us to integrate a variety of theoretical perspectives, and, as this survey reveals, philosophy has a vital role to play in that endeavor.

  • Abdulla, Ahmed M., Sue Hyeon Paek, Bonnie Cramond, and Mark A. Runco, 2020, “Problem Finding and Creativity: A Meta-Analytic Review”, Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts , 14(1): 3–14. doi:10.1037/aca0000194
  • Abraham, Anna, 2013, “The Promises and Perils of the Neuroscience of Creativity”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 7. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00246
  • Albert, Robert S. and Mark A. Runco, 1999, “A History of Research on Creativity”, in Sternberg 1999: 16–32. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807916.004
  • Amabile, Teresa, 1983, The Social Psychology of Creativity , (Springer Series in Social Psychology), New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • –––, 1996, Creativity in Context: Update to the Social Psychology of Creativity , Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Anderson, Linda, 2006, Creative Writing: A Workbook with Readings , Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315811932
  • Aristotle, The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation , Jonathan Barnes (ed.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  • Aristotle, [EN], Nicomachean Ethics , Terrence Irwin (trans.), Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 2019.
  • Arnheim, R., 2001, “What It Means to Be Creative.” British Journal of Aesthetics 41(1): 24–25. doi:10.1093/bjaesthetics/41.1.24
  • Asmis, Elizabeth, 1992, “Plato on Poetic Creativity”, in The Cambridge Companion to Plato , Richard Kraut (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 338–364. doi:10.1017/CCOL0521430186.011
  • Baldwin, James, 1962, “The Creative Process”, in Creative America, New York, NY: Ridge Press.
  • Barsalou, Lawrence W. and Jesse J. Prinz, 1997, “Mundane Creativity in Perceptual Symbol Systems”, in Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. , Thomas B. Ward, Steven M. Smith, and Jyotsna Vaid (eds.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 267–307. doi:10.1037/10227-011
  • Battin, Margaret P., John Fisher, Ronald Moore, and Anita Silvers, 1989, Puzzles about Art: An Aesthetics Casebook , New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Beaty, Roger E., Mathias Benedek, Paul J. Silvia, and Daniel L. Schacter, 2016, “Creative Cognition and Brain Network Dynamics”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 20(2): 87–95. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.10.004
  • Beaty, Roger E., Paul Seli, and Daniel L Schacter, 2019, “Network Neuroscience of Creative Cognition: Mapping Cognitive Mechanisms and Individual Differences in the Creative Brain”, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 27(June): 22–30. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.08.013
  • Beer, Randall D. and John C. Gallagher, 1992, “Evolving Dynamical Neural Networks for Adaptive Behavior”, Adaptive Behavior , 1(1): 91–122. doi:10.1177/105971239200100105
  • Bell, Julia and Paul Magrs (eds), 2001, The Creative Writing Coursebook: Forty Authors Share Advice and Exercises for Fiction and Poetry , London: Macmillan UK.
  • Berrar, Daniel Peter and Alfons Schuster, 2014, “Computing Machinery and Creativity: Lessons Learned from the Turing Test”, Kybernetes , 43(1): 82–91. doi:10.1108/K-08-2013-0175
  • Bink, Martin L. and Richard L. Marsh, 2000, “Cognitive Regularities in Creative Activity”, Review of General Psychology , 4(1): 59–78. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.4.1.59
  • Bird, Jon and P. Layzell, 2002, “The Evolved Radio and Its Implications for Modelling the Evolution of Novel Sensors”, in Proceedings of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation. CEC’02 (Cat. No.02TH8600) , Honolulu, HI, USA: IEEE, 2:1836–1841. doi:10.1109/CEC.2002.1004522
  • Bird, Jon and Dustin Stokes, 2006, “Evolving Minimally Creative Robots”, in Proceedings of the Third Joint Workshop on Computational Creativity, 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Simon Colton and Alison Pease (eds), 1–5. [ Bird and Stokes 2006 available online ]
  • –––, 2007, “Minimal Creativity, Evaluation and Fractal Pattern Discrimination”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Joint Workshop on Computational Creativity , Amílcar Cardosa and Geraint A. Wiggins (eds), 121–128. [ Bird and Stokes 2007 available online ]
  • Blair, Cassie S. and Michael D. Mumford, 2007, “Errors in Idea Evaluation: Preference for the Unoriginal?”, The Journal of Creative Behavior , 41(3): 197–222. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.2007.tb01288.x
  • Boden, Margaret A., 1994, “What Is Creativity?”, in Dimensions of Creativity , Margaret A. Boden (ed.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 75–117. doi:10.7551/mitpress/2437.003.0006
  • –––, 1998, “Creativity and Artificial Intelligence”, Artificial Intelligence , 103(1–2): 347–356. doi:10.1016/S0004-3702(98)00055-1
  • –––, 2004, The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms , second edition, London/New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203508527
  • –––, 2010, Creativity and Art: Three Roads to Surprise , Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
  • –––, 2014, “Creativity and Artificial Intelligence: : A Contradiction in Terms?”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 224–244. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0012
  • –––, 2018, “The Value of Creativity”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 173–193.
  • Borcherding, Julia, unpublished, “Fancies and Illusions: Cavendish and du Châtelet on the Liberating Powers of the Imagination”, Philosophy, Cambridge University.
  • Bowden, Edward M., Mark Jung-Beeman, Jessica Fleck, and John Kounios, 2005, “New Approaches to Demystifying Insight”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 9(7): 322–328. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.05.012
  • Bringsjord, Selmer, 1994, “Lady Lovelace Had It Right: Computers Originate Nothing”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 17(3): 532–533. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00035718
  • Bringsjord, Selmer, Paul Bello, and David Ferrucci, 2001, “Creativity, the Turing Test, and the (Better) Lovelace Test”, Minds and Machines , 11(1): 3–27. doi:10.1023/A:1011206622741
  • Briskman, Larry, 1980, “Creative Product and Creative Process in Science and Art.” Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 23(1): 83–106.
  • Bruner, Jerome S., 1962, “The Conditions of Creativity”, in Contemporary Approaches to Creative Thinking , H. Gruber, G. Terrell, and M. Wertheimer (eds), New York: Atherton, 1–30.
  • Buckner, Randy L. and Lauren M. DiNicola, 2019, “The Brain’s Default Network: Updated Anatomy, Physiology and Evolving Insights”, Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 20(10): 593–608. doi:10.1038/s41583-019-0212-7
  • Cacciari, Cristina, Maria Chiara Levorato, and Piercarla Cicogna, 1997, “Imagination at Work: Conceptual and Linguistic Creativity in Children”, in Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. , Thomas B. Ward, Steven M. Smith, and Jyotsna Vaid (eds.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 145–177. doi:10.1037/10227-007
  • Campbell, Donald T., 1960, “Blind Variation and Selective Retentions in Creative Thought as in Other Knowledge Processes”, Psychological Review , 67(6): 380–400. doi:10.1037/h0040373
  • –––, 1965, “Variation and Selective Retention in Socio-Cultural Evolution”, in Social Change in Developing Areas : A Reinterpretation of Evolutionary Theory , H.R. Barringer, G.I. Blanksten, and R.W. Mack (eds), Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 19–49.
  • Carruthers, Peter, 2002, “Human Creativity: Its Cognitive Basis, Its Evolution, and Its Connections with Childhood Pretence”, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 53(2): 225–249. doi:10.1093/bjps/53.2.225
  • –––, 2006, The Architecture of the Mind: Massive Modularity and the Flexibility of Thought , Oxford: Clarendon Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207077.001.0001
  • –––, 2011, “Creative Action in Mind”, Philosophical Psychology , 24(4): 437–461. doi:10.1080/09515089.2011.556609
  • –––, 2020, “Mechanisms for Constrained Stochasticity”, Synthese , 197(10): 4455–4473. doi:10.1007/s11229-018-01933-9
  • Cattell, Raymond B. and Harold John Butcher, 1968, The Prediction of Achievement and Creativity , Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Chen, Melvin, 2020, “Imagination Machines, Dartmouth-Based Turing Tests, & a Potted History of Responses”, AI and Society , 35(1): 283–287. doi:10.1007/s00146-018-0855-3
  • Child, William, 2018, “Wittgenstein, Seeing-As, and Novelty”, in Aspect Perception After Wittgenstein: Seeing-As and Novelty , Michael Beaney, Dominic Shaw, and Brendan Harrington (eds), New York: Routledge, 29–48.
  • Christoff, Kalina, Zachary C. Irving, Kieran C. R. Fox, R. Nathan Spreng, and Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, 2016, “Mind-Wandering as Spontaneous Thought: A Dynamic Framework”, Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 17(11): 718–731. doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.113
  • Chrysikou, Evangelia G, 2019, “Creativity in and out of (Cognitive) Control”, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 27(June): 94–99. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.09.014
  • Clark, Andy, 1996, Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • –––, 2001, Mindware , New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cliff, Dave, Phil Husbands, and Inman Harvey, 1993, “Explorations in Evolutionary Robotics”, Adaptive Behavior , 2(1): 73–110. doi:10.1177/105971239300200104
  • Colton, Simon, 2012, “The Painting Fool: Stories from Building an Automated Painter”, in Computers and Creativity , Jon McCormack and Mark d’Inverno (eds.), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 3–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31727-9_1
  • Cope, David, 1996, Experiments in Musical Intelligence , (Computer Music and Digital Audio Series 12), Madison, WI: A-R Editions.
  • –––, 2006, Computer Models of Musical Creativity , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Crick, Francis, 1995, “The Impact of Linus Pauling on Molecular Biology”, video (with transcript), part of a conference, “The Life and Work of Linus Pauling (1901–1994): A Discourse on the Art of Biography”, 28 February – 2 March 1995, Oregon State University, Special Collections & Archives Research Center, Oregon State University Libraries. [ Crick 1995 available online .
  • Cropley, A. J., 1967, Creativity (Education Today), London: Longmans.
  • Cropley, David H., Arthur J. Cropley, James C. Kaufman, and Mark A. Runco (eds.), 2010, The Dark Side of Creativity , New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511761225
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 1965, “Artistic Problems and Their Solutions: An Exploration of Creativity in the Arts”, PhD thesis, University of Chicago. [ Csikszentmihalyi 1965 available online ]
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and J. W. Getzels, 1970, “Concern for Discovery: An Attitudinal Component of Creative Production 1”, Journal of Personality , 38(1): 91–105. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1970.tb00639.x
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Keith Sawyer, 1995, “Creative Insight: The Social Dimension of a Solitary Moment”, in The Nature of Insight , R. J. Steinberg and J. E. Davidson (eds.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 329–363. Reprinted in Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s The Systems Model of Creativity: The Collected Works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi , Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, 73–98. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9085-7_7
  • Dailey, Lesley and Michael D. Mumford, 2006, “Evaluative Aspects of Creative Thought: Errors in Appraising the Implications of New Ideas”, Creativity Research Journal , 18(3): 385–390. doi:10.1207/s15326934crj1803_11
  • De Quincey, Thomas, 1827, “On Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts”, Blackwood’s Magazine , 21(122/February): 199–213.
  • Dietrich, Arne, 2019, “Where in the Brain Is Creativity: A Brief Account of a Wild-Goose Chase”, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 27(June): 36–39. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.09.001
  • Dietrich, Arne and Riam Kanso, 2010, “A Review of EEG, ERP, and Neuroimaging Studies of Creativity and Insight”, Psychological Bulletin , 136(5): 822–848. doi:10.1037/a0019749
  • Dominowski, Roger L., 1995, “Productive Problem Solving”, in Smith, Ward, and Finke 1995: 73–95.
  • Donald, Merlin, 2001, A Mind so Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness , New York: W.W. Norton.
  • du Sautoy, Marcus, 2019, The Creativity Code: Art and Innovation in the Age of AI , Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
  • Einstein, Albert, “Kyoto Lecture”, 14 December 1922, from notes in Japanese taken by Jun Ishiwara and published as Einstein Koen-Roku , Tokyo: Tokyo-Tosho, 1977.
  • Einstein, Albert and Leopold Infeld, 1938, The Evolution of Physics: The Growth of Ideas from Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta , New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Eisenberger, Robert and Linda Rhoades, 2001, “Incremental Effects of Reward on Creativity”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 81(4): 728–741. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.81.4.728
  • Eisenberg, Jacob and William Forde Thompson, 2003, “A Matter of Taste: Evaluating Improvised Music”, Creativity Research Journal , 15(2–3): 287–296. doi:10.1080/10400419.2003.9651421
  • Ericsson, K. Anders, Neil Charness, Paul J. Feltovich, and Robert R. Hoffman (eds.), 2006, The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance , New York/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511816796
  • Ericsson, K. Anders, Ralf T. Krampe, and Clemens Tesch-Römer, 1993, “The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance”, Psychological Review , 100(3): 363–406. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363
  • Essinger, James, 2014, Ada’s Algorithm: How Lord Byron’s Daughter Ada Lovelace Launched the Digital Age , Brooklyn: Melville House.
  • Finke, Ronald A., 1990, Creative Imagery: Discoveries and Inventions in Visualization , Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
  • –––, 1996, “Imagery, Creativity, and Emergent Structure”, Consciousness and Cognition , 5(3): 381–393. doi:10.1006/ccog.1996.0024
  • Finke, Ronald A., Ward, Thomas B., Smith, Steven M., 1992, Creative Cognition: Theory, Research, and Applications , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Flam, Jack D., 2003, Matisse and Picasso: The Story of Their Rivalry and Friendship , Cambridge, MA: Icon Edition/Westview Press.
  • Flavell, John H. and Juris Draguns, 1957, “A Microgenetic Approach to Perception and Thought”, Psychological Bulletin , 54(3): 197–217. doi:10.1037/h0041350
  • Gardner, Howard, 1993, Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi , New York: BasicBooks.
  • Gaut, Berys, 2003, “Creativity and Imagination”, in Gaut and Livingston 2003: 148–173 (ch. 6).
  • –––, 2009, “Creativity and Skill”, in Krausz, Dutton, and Bardsley 2009: 83–104.
  • –––, 2010, “The Philosophy of Creativity”, Philosophy Compass , 5(12): 1034–1046. doi:10.1111/j.1747-9991.2010.00351.x
  • –––, 2012, “Creativity and Rationality”, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism , 70(3): 259–270. doi: 10.1111/jaac.2012.70.issue-3
  • –––, 2014a, “Educating for Creativity”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 265–287. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0014
  • –––, 2014b, “Mixed Motivations: Creativity as a Virtue”, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement , 75: 183–202. doi:10.1017/S1358246114000198
  • –––, 2018, “The Value of Creativity”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 124–39.
  • Gaut, Berys and Morag Gaut, 2011, Philosophy for Young Children: A Practical Guide , London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203818428
  • Gaut, Berys and Matthew Kieran (eds.), 2018, Creativity and Philosophy , New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781351199797
  • Gaut, Berys Nigel and Paisley Livingston (eds.), 2003, The Creation of Art: New Essays in Philosophical Aesthetics , New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gaut, Morag, 2010, “Can Children Engage in Philosophical Enquiry?” in Exploring Interdisciplinary Trends in Creativity and Engagement , Barbara McKenzie and Phil Fitzsimmons (eds), Oxford, U.K.: Oxford Inter-Disciplinary Press, 195–203.
  • Gervás, Pablo, Rafael Pérez y Pérez, and Tony Veale, 2010, Computational Creativity , special issue of Minds and Machines , 20(4).
  • Getzels, Jacob W., 1965, “Creative Thinking, Problem Solving, and Instruction”, in Theories of Learning and Instruction. Sixty-Third Year Book of the National Society for the Study of Education , E.R. Hilgard (ed.), Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 240–67.
  • Getzels, Jacob W. and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, “From Problem Solving to Problem Finding”, in Perspectives in Creativity , Irving A. Taylor and Jacob W. Getzels (eds.), Chicago: Aldine, chap. 4.
  • Glaveanu, Vlad Petre, 2014, “The Psychology of Creativity: A Critical Reading”, Creativity. Theories—Research—Applications , 1(1): 10–32.
  • Grant, James, 2012, “The Value of Imaginativeness”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 90(2): 275–289. doi:10.1080/00048402.2011.574143
  • Guilford, J. P., 1950, “Creativity”, American Psychologist , 5(9): 444–454. doi:10.1037/h0063487
  • Guyer, Paul, 2003, “Exemplary Originality: Genius, Universality, and Individuality”, in Gaut and Livingston 2003: 116–137.
  • Hájek, Alan, 2014, “Philosophical Heuristics and Philosophical Creativity”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 288–318. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0015
  • –––, 2016, “Philosophical Heuristics and Philosophical Methodology”, in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology , Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler, and John Hawthorne (eds), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. 19.
  • –––, 2017, “The Philosophy Toolkit”, AEON , 3 April 2017. [ Hájek 2017 available online ]
  • –––, 2018, “Creating Heuristics for Philosophical Creativity”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 292–312.
  • Halina, Marta, 2021, “Insightful Artificial Intelligence”, Mind & Language , 36(2): 315–329. doi:10.1111/mila.12321
  • Harris, Paul L., 2000, The Work of the Imagination , (Understanding Children’s Worlds), Oxford/Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Haugeland, John (ed.), 1981 [1997], Mind Design , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Second and enlarged edition as Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence , Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book. First edition, 1997. doi:10.7551/mitpress/4626.001.0001
  • Hausman, Carl R., 1975 [1984], A Discourse on Novelty and Creation , The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. New edition Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1984.
  • –––, 1979, “Criteria of Creativity”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 40(2): 237–249. doi:10.2307/2106319
  • –––, 1984, “Second Preface”, in the 1984 edition of Hausman 1975.
  • –––, 1985, “Originality as a Criterion of Creativity”, in Creativity in Art, Religion, and Culture , Michael H. Mitias (ed.), Amsterdam: Rodopoi, 26–41.
  • Hebb, D. O., 1949 [2002], The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory , New York: Wiley, Reprinted Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
  • Heilman, Kenneth M., 2016, “Possible Brain Mechanisms of Creativity”, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 31(4): 285–296. doi:10.1093/arclin/acw009
  • Heinelt, Gottfried, 1974, Kreative Lehrer = Kreative Schüler , Freiburg: Herder.
  • Hennessey, Beth A. and Teresa M. Amabile, 2010, “Creativity”, Annual Review of Psychology , 61(1): 569–598. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100416
  • Hills, Alison, 2018, “Moral and Aesthetic Virtue”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 118(3): 255–274. doi:10.1093/arisoc/aoy015
  • Hills, Alison and Alexander Bird, 2018, “Creativity Without Value”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 95–107.
  • Hofstadter, Douglas, 2001, “Staring EMI Straight in the Eye—and Doing My Best Not to Flinch”, in Virtual Music: Computer Synthesis of Musical Style , David Cope (ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 33–82.
  • Horng, Jeou-Shyan and Lin Lin, 2009, “The Development of a Scale for Evaluating Creative Culinary Products”, Creativity Research Journal , 21(1): 54–63. doi:10.1080/10400410802633491
  • Hospers, John, 1985, “Artistic Creativity”, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism , 43(3): 243–255. doi:10.2307/430638
  • Howell, Patrick A., 2020, Dispatches from the Vanguard: The Global International African Arts Movement versus Donald J. Trump , London: Repeater Books.
  • Irving, Zachary and Evan Thompson, 2018, “The Philosophy of Mind-Wandering”, in Oxford Handbook of Spontaneous Thought: Mind-Wandering, Creativity, and Dreaming , Christoff Kalina and Fox Kieran, Oxford University Press, ch. 8.
  • Jackson, Philip W. and Samuel Messick, 1965, “The Person, the Product, and the Response: Conceptual Problems in the Assessment of Creativity1”, Journal of Personality , 33(3): 309–329. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1965.tb01389.x
  • John-Steiner, Vera, 1985, Notebooks of the Mind: Explorations of Thinking . 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Jung, Rex Eugene, Brittany S. Mead, Jessica Carrasco, and Ranee A. Flores, 2013, “The Structure of Creative Cognition in the Human Brain”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 7. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00330
  • Jung-Beeman, Mark, Edward M Bowden, Jason Haberman, Jennifer L Frymiare, Stella Arambel-Liu, Richard Greenblatt, Paul J Reber, and John Kounios, 2004, “Neural Activity When People Solve Verbal Problems with Insight”, PLoS Biology , 2(4): e97. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020097
  • Kami, Avi, Gundela Meyer, Peter Jezzard, Michelle M. Adams, Robert Turner, and Leslie G. Ungerleider, 1995, “Functional MRI Evidence for Adult Motor Cortex Plasticity during Motor Skill Learning”, Nature , 377(6545): 155–158. doi:10.1038/377155a0
  • Kant, Immanuel, 1790 [2000], Kritik der Urteilskraft , Berlin und Libau : Lagarde und Friedrich. Translated as Critique of the Power of Judgment , Paul Guyer (ed.), Eric Matthews (trans.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Citations include the section of the Critique , the volume and page number of the Akademie edition, and page number of this translation. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511804656
  • Karmiloff-Smith, Annette, 1990, “Constraints on Representational Change: Evidence from Children’s Drawing”, Cognition , 34(1): 57–83. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(90)90031-E
  • –––, 1992, Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Cognitive Science , (Learning, Development, and Conceptual Change), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Kasparov, Garry K. and Mig Greengard, 2017, Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins , New York: PublicAffairs, an imprint of Perseus Books.
  • Kaufman, James C., 2009, Creativity 101 , (The Psych 101 Series), New York: Springer Publishing.
  • Kaufman, Scott Barry (ed.), 2013, The Complexity of Greatness: Beyond Talent or Practice , Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794003.001.0001
  • Kaufman, Scott Barry and Carolyn Gregoire, 2016, Wired to Create: Discover the 10 Things Great Artists, Writers and Innovators Do Differently , Perigee/Penguin.
  • Kaufman, Scott Barry and James C. Kaufman (eds.), 2009, The Psychology of Creative Writing , Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0007
  • Kieran, Matthew, 2014a, “Creativity as a Virtue of Character”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 125–144. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0007
  • –––, 2014b, “Creativity, Virtue and the Challenges from Natural Talent, Ill-Being and Immorality”, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement , 75: 203–230. doi:10.1017/S1358246114000241
  • –––, 2018, “Creativity, Vanity and Narcissism” in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 74–92.
  • Kivy, Peter, 2001, The Possessor and the Possessed: Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, and the Idea of Musical Genius , (Yale Series in the Philosophy and Theory of Art), New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Klausen, Søren Harnow, 2010, “The Notion of Creativity Revisited: A Philosophical Perspective on Creativity Research” Creativity Research Journal , 22(4):347–360. doi:10.1080/10400419.2010.523390
  • Kneller, George F., 1965, The Art and Science of Creativity , New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Koestler, Arthur, 1964, The Act of Creation , New York: Macmillan.
  • Kounios, John and Mark Beeman, 2014, “The Cognitive Neuroscience of Insight”, Annual Review of Psychology , 65(1): 71–93. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115154
  • Koza, John R., 1992, Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection , (Complex Adaptive Systems), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Krausz, Michael, Denis Dutton, and Karen Bardsley (eds.), 2009, The Idea of Creativity , Leiden/Boston: Brill. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004174443.i-348
  • Kronfeldner, Maria E., 2009, “Creativity Naturalized”, The Philosophical Quarterly , 59(237): 577–592. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2009.637.x
  • –––, 2010, “Darwinian ‘Blind’ Hypothesis Formation Revisited”, Synthese , 175(2): 193–218. doi:10.1007/s11229-009-9498-8
  • –––, 2011, Darwinian Creativity and Memetics , (Acumen Research Editions), Durham, UK: Acumen Publishing.
  • –––, 2018, “Explaining Creativity”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 213–229.
  • Laukkonen, Ruben E. and Jason M. Tangen, 2018, “How to Detect Insight Moments in Problem Solving Experiments”, Frontiers in Psychology , 9(March): article 282. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00282
  • Lehman, Joel, Jeff Clune, Dusan Misevic, Christoph Adami, Lee Altenberg, Julie Beaulieu, Peter J. Bentley, Samuel Bernard, Guillaume Beslon, David M. Bryson, et al., 2020, “The Surprising Creativity of Digital Evolution: A Collection of Anecdotes from the Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life Research Communities”, Artificial Life , 26(2): 274–306. doi:10.1162/artl_a_00319
  • Lepper, Mark R., David Greene, and Richard E. Nisbett, 1973, “Undermining Children’s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward: A Test of the ‘Overjustification’ Hypothesis”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 28(1): 129–137. doi:10.1037/h0035519
  • Limb, Charles J. and Allen R. Braun, 2008, “Neural Substrates of Spontaneous Musical Performance: An FMRI Study of Jazz Improvisation”, PLoS ONE , 3(2): e1679. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001679
  • Livingston, Paisley, 2018, “Explicating ‘Creativity’”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 108–123.
  • Lopes, Dominic McIver, 2008, “Virtues of Art: Good Taste”, Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume , 82(1): 197–211. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8349.2008.00169.x
  • Lovelace, Ada Augusta, 1843, “Translation of, and Notes to, Luigi F. Menabrea’s Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage”, in Scientific Memoirs, Volume 3 , Richard Taylor (ed.), London: Richard and John E. Taylor, 691–731.
  • Luo, Jing and Kazuhisa Niki, 2003, “Function of Hippocampus in ‘Insight’ of Problem Solving”, Hippocampus , 13(3): 316–323. doi:10.1002/hipo.10069
  • Mai, Xiao-Qin, Jing Luo, Jian-Hui Wu, and Yue-Jia Luo, 2004, “‘Aha!’ Effects in a Guessing Riddle Task: An Event-Related Potential Study”, Human Brain Mapping , 22(4): 261–270. doi:10.1002/hbm.20030
  • Martindale, Colin, 1977, “Creativity, Consciousness, and Cortical Arousal”, Journal of Altered States of Consciousness , 3(1): 69–87.
  • –––, 1981, Cognition and Consciousness , (Dorsey Series in Psychology), Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
  • –––, 1995, “Creativity and Connectionism”, in Smith, Ward, and Finke 1995 :249–68.
  • –––, 1999, “Biological Bases of Creativity”, in Sternberg 1999: 137–152. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807916.009
  • Martindale, Colin and James Armstrong, 1974, “The Relationship of Creativity to Cortical Activation and Its Operant Control”, The Journal of Genetic Psychology , 124(2): 311–320. doi:10.1080/00221325.1974.10532293
  • Martindale, Colin and Dwight Hines, 1975, “Creativity and Cortical Activation during Creative, Intellectual and Eeg Feedback Tasks”, Biological Psychology , 3(2): 91–100. doi:10.1016/0301-0511(75)90011-3
  • Maybury, Barry, 1967, Creative Writing for Juniors , London: B. T. Batsford.
  • Mayer, Richard E., 1989, “Systematic Thinking Fostered by Illustrations in Scientific Text”, Journal of Educational Psychology , 81(2): 240–246. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.81.2.240
  • Mayseless, Naama, Ayelet Eran, and Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory, 2015, “Generating Original Ideas: The Neural Underpinning of Originality”, NeuroImage , 116(August): 232–239. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.030
  • McMahon, Darrin M., 2013, Divine Fury: A History of Genius , New York: Basic Books.
  • Mekern, Vera, Bernhard Hommel, and Zsuzsika Sjoerds, 2019, “Computational Models of Creativity: A Review of Single-Process and Multi-Process Recent Approaches to Demystify Creative Cognition”, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 27(June): 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.09.008
  • Metcalfe, Janet and David Wiebe, 1987, “Intuition in Insight and Noninsight Problem Solving”, Memory & Cognition , 15(3): 238–246. doi:10.3758/BF03197722
  • Miller, Arthur I., 2019, The artist in the machine: The world of AI-powered creativity , Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. doi:10.7551/mitpress/11585.001.0001
  • Mithen, Steven J., 1996, The Prehistory of the Mind: The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion and Science , New York: Thames and Hudson.
  • –––, 1998, “A Creative Explosion? Theory of Mind, Language, and the Disembodied Mind of the Upper Paleolithic”, in Creativity in Human Evolution and Prehistory , Steven Mithen (ed.) , London: Routledge, 97–106.
  • Morrison, Robert G. and Benjamin Wallace, 2001, “Imagery Vividness, Creativity and the Visual Arts”, Journal of Mental Imagery , 25(3–4): 135–152.
  • Morrison, Toni, 1993, “The of of Fiction No. 134”, interview by Elissa Schappell and Calaudia Brodsky Lacour, The Paris Review , 128(Fall 1993). [ Morrison 1993 available online ]
  • Mumford, Michael D., 2003, “Where Have We Been, Where Are We Going? Taking Stock in Creativity Research”, Creativity Research Journal , 15(2–3): 107–120. doi:10.1080/10400419.2003.9651403
  • Murray, Penelope, 1989, Genius: The History of an Idea , Oxford/New York: B. Blackwell.
  • Murray, Samuel, Nathan Liang, Nicholaus Brosowsky, and Paul Seli, forthcoming, “What Are the Benefits of Mind Wandering to Creativity?”, Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts , early online: September 2021. doi:10.1037/aca0000420
  • Nahm, Milton Charles, 1956, Genius and Creativity: An Essay in the History of Ideas , New York: Harper Torchbooks.
  • Nanay, Bence, 2014, “An Experiential Account of Creativity”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 17–36. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0002
  • Newell, Allen, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon, 1962, “The Processes of Creative Thinking”, in Contemporary Approaches to Creative Thinking: A Symposium Held at the University of Colorado. , Howard E. Gruber, Glenn Terrell, and Michael Wertheimer (eds.), New York: Atherton Press, 63–119. doi:10.1037/13117-003
  • Nickles, Thomas, 2003, “Evolutionary Models of Innovation and the Meno Problem”, in L. V. Shavinina (ed.), The International Handbook on Innovation, 54–78. New York, NY: Elsevier Science.
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1872 [1967], The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music , Walter Kaufmann (trans.), New York: Vintage.
  • Nolfi, Stefano and Dario Floreano, 2000, Evolutionary Robotics: The Biology, Intelligence, and Technology of Self-Organizing Machines , Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. doi:10.7551/mitpress/2889.001.0001
  • Novitz, David, 1999, “Creativity and Constraint”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 77(1): 67–82. doi:10.1080/00048409912348811
  • Pais, Abraham, 1982, Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein , Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Palmiero, Massimiliano, Raffaella Nori, Vincenzo Aloisi, Martina Ferrara, and Laura Piccardi, 2015, “Domain-Specificity of Creativity: A Study on the Relationship Between Visual Creativity and Visual Mental Imagery”, Frontiers in Psychology , 6(December). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01870
  • Paul, Elliot Samuel and Scott Barry Kaufman (eds.), 2014, The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays , Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.001.0001
  • Paul, Elliot Samuel and Dustin Stokes, 2018, “Attributing Creativity”, in Gaut and Kieran 2018: 193–210.
  • –––, 2021, “Computer Creativity is a Matter of Agency”, Institute of Arts and Ideas News , 11 November 2021, [ Paul and Stokes 2021 available online ]
  • Pease, Alison and Simon Colton, 2011, “On Impact and Evaluation in Computational Creativity: A Discussion of the Turing Test and an Alternative Proposal”, in Proceedings of AISB ’11: Computing and Philosophy , Dimitar Kazakov and George Tsoulas (eds.), York: Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, 15–22.
  • Pérez-Fabello, María José and Alfredo Campos, 2007, “Influence of Training in Artistic Skills on Mental Imaging Capacity”, Creativity Research Journal , 19(2–3): 227–232. doi:10.1080/10400410701397495
  • Perkins, David N., 1981, The Mind’s Best Work , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Picciuto, Elizabeth and Peter Carruthers, 2014, “The Origins of Creativity”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 199–223. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0011
  • Plato, Plato: Complete Works , John M. Cooper and D.S. Hutchinson (eds), Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 1997.
  • Plucker, Jonathan A., Ronald A. Beghetto, and Gayle T. Dow, 2004, “Why Isn’t Creativity More Important to Educational Psychologists? Potentials, Pitfalls, and Future Directions in Creativity Research”, Educational Psychologist , 39(2): 83–96. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3902_1
  • Poincaré, Henri, 1908 [1913], Science et Méthode , Paris: Flammarion. Translated as “Science and Method” in The Foundations of Science: Science and Hypothesis, The Value of Science, Science and Method , George Bruce Halsted (trans.), (Science and Education 1), New York: The Science Press, 1913. [ Poincaré 1913 available online ]
  • Policastro, Emma and Howard Gardner, 1999, “From Case Studies to Robust Generalizations: An Approach to the Study of Creativity”, in Sternberg 1999: 213–225. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807916.013
  • Pólya, George, 1945, How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Popper, Karl Raimund, 1934 [1959], Logik der forschung: zur erkenntnistheorie der modernen naturwissenschaft , (Schriften zur wissenschaftlichen weltauffassung, Bd. 9), Wien: J. Springer. Translated as The Logic of Scientific Discovery , London: Hutchinson, 1959.
  • Posner, Micheal I., and Raichle, Marcus E., 1994, Images of Mind , New York, NY: WH Freeman and Co.
  • Posner, Michael I., DiGirolamo, Gregory, J., Fernandez-Duque, Diego, 1997, “Brain mechanisms of cognitive skills”, Consciousness and Cognition 1997, 6(2-3):267-90. doi: 10.1006/ccog.1997.0301. PMID: 9262412.
  • Prinz, Jesse and Laurence Barsalou, 2002, “Acquisition and Productivity in Perceptual Symbol Systems: An Account of Mundane Creativity”, in Creativity, Cognition, and Knowledge: An Interaction , Terry Dartnall (ed.), Westport, CT: Praeger, ch. 2.
  • Raichle, Marcus E., Ann Mary MacLeod, Abraham Z. Snyder, William J. Powers, Debra A. Gusnard, and Gordon L. Shulman, 2001, “A Default Mode of Brain Function”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 98(2): 676–682. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.2.676
  • Richards, Ruth L., 1976, “A Comparison of Selected Guilford and Wallach-Kogan Creative Thinking Tests in Conjunction With Measures of Intelligence*”, The Journal of Creative Behavior , 10(3): 151–164. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1976.tb01018.x
  • Ritter, Simone M. and Ap Dijksterhuis, 2014, “Creativity: The Unconscious Foundations of the Incubation Period”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 8(April). doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00215
  • Roberts, Tom, 2018, “Aesthetic Virtues: Traits and Faculties”, Philosophical Studies , 175(2): 429–447. doi:10.1007/s11098-017-0875-8
  • Root-Bernstein, Robert Scott and Michèle Root-Bernstein, 1999, Sparks of Genius: The Thirteen Thinking Tools of Creative People , Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
  • Runco, Mark A., 1991, “The Evaluative, Valuative, and Divergent Thinking of Children*”, The Journal of Creative Behavior , 25(4): 311–319. doi:10.1002/j.2162-6057.1991.tb01143.x
  • –––, 2017, “Comments on Where the Creativity Research Has Been and Where Is It Going”, The Journal of Creative Behavior , 51(4): 308–313. doi:10.1002/jocb.189
  • Runco, Mark A., Ahmed M. Abdulla, Sue Hyeon Paek, Fatima A. Al-Jasim, and Hanadi N. Alsuwaidi, 2016, “Which Test of Divergent Thinking Is Best?”, Creativity. Theories—Research—Applications , 3(1): 4–18. doi:10.1515/ctra-2016-0001
  • Runco, Mark A. and Robert S. Albert, 2010, “Creativity Research: A Historical View”, in The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity , James C. Kaufman and Robert J. Sternberg (eds.), New York: Cambridge University Press, 3–19. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511763205.003
  • Runco, Mark A. and Ivonne Chand, 1994, “Problem Finding, Evaluative Thinking, and Creativity”, in Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity , Mark A. Runco (ed.), (Creativity Research), Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing, 40–76.
  • Runco, Mark A. and Gayle T. Dow, 2004, “Assessing the Accuracy of Judgments of Originality on Three Divergent Thinking Tests”, Korean Journal of Thinking & Problem Solving , 14(2): 5–14.
  • Runco, Mark A. and Garrett J. Jaeger, 2012, “The Standard Definition of Creativity”, Creativity Research Journal , 24(1): 92–96. doi:10.1080/10400419.2012.650092
  • Runco, Mark A. and Steven R. Pritzker (eds.), 2020, Encyclopedia of Creativity , third edition, Amsterdam: Academic Press.
  • Runco, Mark A. and Luiz Vega, 1990, “Evaluating the Creativity of Children’s Ideas”, Journal of Social Behavior & Personality , 5(5): 439–452.
  • Sawyer, R. Keith, 2012, Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation , second edition, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Schank, Roger A. and Abelson, Robert P., 1977, Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: An Inquiry Into Human Knowledge Structures , London: Psychology Press.
  • Schoenfeld, Alan H., 1982, “Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction”, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education , 13(1): 31–49. doi:10.2307/748435
  • –––, 1987a, “Pólya, Problem Solving, and Education”, Mathematics Magazine , 60(5): 283–291. doi:10.2307/2690409
  • –––, 1987b, “What’s All the Fuss about Metacognition?”, in Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education , Alan H. Schoenfeld (ed.), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 189–215.
  • Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1859 [WWV], Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung , third edition, Leipzig. First edition in 1811 and expanded in 1844. Translated as The World as Will and Representation , two volumes, E. F. J. Payne (trans.), Indian Hills, CO: The Falcon’s Wing Press, 1958. Reprinted New York: Dover Publications, 1966. Citations, WWV, with volume and page are to the 1966 edition.
  • –––, 1851 [SW/PP], Parerga und Paralipomena: kleine philosophische Schriften , two volumes, Berlin. Collected in his Sämtliche Werke [SW], Arthur Hübscher (ed.), Mannheim: F. A. Brockhaus, 1988, volumes 5 and 6. Translated as Arthur Schopenhauer: Parerga and Paralipomena Short Philosophical Essays , 2 volumes, Christopher Janaway, Sabine Roehr, and Adrian Del Caro (eds.), Adrian Del Caro (trans.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014 and 2015. Page numbers are given both to the SW edition with volume and page and to the Cambridge University edition [PP] with volume and page.
  • Searle, John R., 1980, “Minds, Brains, and Programs”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 3(3): 417–424. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00005756
  • Shevlin, Henry, Karina Vold, Matthew Crosby, and Marta Halina, 2019, “The Limits of Machine Intelligence: Despite Progress in Machine Intelligence, Artificial General Intelligence Is Still a Major Challenge”, EMBO Reports , 20(10). doi:10.15252/embr.201949177
  • Silver, David, Aja Huang, Chris J. Maddison, Arthur Guez, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Julian Schrittwieser, Ioannis Antonoglou, Veda Panneershelvam, Marc Lanctot, et al., 2016, “Mastering the Game of Go with Deep Neural Networks and Tree Search”, Nature , 529(7587): 484–489. doi:10.1038/nature16961
  • Simonton, Dean Keith, 1984, Genius, Creativity, and Leadership: Historiometric Inquiries , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • –––, 1988a, “Creativity, Leadership, and Chance”, in R. J. Sternberg (ed.), The Nature of Creativity , 386-426. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • –––, 1988b, Scientific genius: A psychology of science . New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • –––, 1994, Greatness: Who Makes History and Why , New York: Guilford.
  • –––, 1997, Genius and Creativity: Selected Papers , Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
  • –––, 1999a, “Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention: Is the Creative Process Darwinian?”, Psychological Inquiry , 10(4): 309–328.
  • –––, 1999b, Origins of Genius: Darwinian Perspectives on Creativity , New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • –––, 2004, Creativity in Science: Chance, Logic, Genius, and Zeitgeist , Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • –––, 2009, Genius 101 , (The Psych 101 Series), New York: Springer.
  • –––, 2011, “Creativity and Discovery as Blind Variation: Campbell’s (1960) BVSR Model after the Half-Century Mark”, Review of General Psychology , 15(2): 158–174. doi:10.1037/a0022912
  • –––, 2012a, “Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR”, The Journal of Creative Behavior , 46(1): 48–65. doi:10.1002/jocb.004
  • –––, 2012b, “Taking the U.S. Patent Office Criteria Seriously: A Quantitative Three-Criterion Creativity Definition and Its Implications”, Creativity Research Journal , 24(2–3): 97–106. doi:10.1080/10400419.2012.676974
  • –––, 2018, “Creative Genius as Causal Agent in History: William James’s 1880 Theory Revisited and Revitalized”, Review of General Psychology , 22(4): 406–421. doi:10.1037/gpr0000165
  • –––, forthcoming, “The Blind-Variation and Selective-Retention Theory of Creativity: Recent Developments and Current Status of BVSR”, Creativity Research Journal , early online: 14 April 2022 (20 pages). doi:10.1080/10400419.2022.2059919
  • Sims, Karl, 1994, “Evolving 3D Morphology and Behavior by Competition”, Artificial Life , 1(4): 353–372. doi:10.1162/artl.1994.1.4.353
  • Singh, Simon, 1999, The Code Book: The Secret History of Codes and Codebreaking , London: Fourth Estate.
  • Smith, Steven M. and Steven E. Blankenship, 1989, “Incubation Effects”, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society , 27(4): 311–314. doi:10.3758/BF03334612
  • –––, 1991, “Incubation and the Persistence of Fixation in Problem Solving”, The American Journal of Psychology , 104(1): 61–87. doi:10.2307/1422851
  • Smith, Steven M., Thomas B. Ward, and Ronald A. Finke (eds.), 1995, The Creative Cognition Approach , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Stein, Morris I., 1953, “Creativity and Culture”, The Journal of Psychology , 36(2): 311–322. doi:10.1080/00223980.1953.9712897
  • Sternberg, Robert J. (ed.), 1999, Handbook of Creativity , Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807916
  • Sternberg, Robert J. and Todd I. Lubart, 1995, Defying the Crowd: Cultivating Creativity in a Culture of Conformity , New York, NY: Free Press.
  • –––, 1999, “The Concept of Creativity: Prospects and Paradigms”, in Sternberg 1999: 3–15. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511807916.003
  • Stokes, Dustin R., 2007, “Incubated Cognition and Creativity”, Journal of Consciousness Studies , 14(3): 83–100.
  • –––, 2008, “A Metaphysics of Creativity”, in New Waves in Aesthetics , Kathleen Stock and Katherine Thomson-Jones (eds.), New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 105–124.
  • –––, 2011, “Minimally Creative Thought: Minimally Creative Thought”, Metaphilosophy , 42(5): 658–681. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2011.01716.x
  • –––, 2014, “The Role of Imagination in Creativity”, in Paul and Kaufman 2014: 157–184. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199836963.003.0009
  • –––, 2016, “Imagination and Creativity”, in The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Imagination , Amy Kind (ed.), London/New York: Routledge, chapter 18.
  • Stokes, Dustin R. and Jon Bird, 2008, “Evolutionary Robotics and Creative Constraints”, in Beyond the Brain: Embodied, Situated, and Distributed Cognition , Benoit Hardy-Vallée and Nicolas Payette (eds.), Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 227–245.
  • Tabery, James, 2014, Beyond versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture , (Life and Mind: Philosophical Issues in Biology and Psychology), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Takeuchi, Hikaru and Rex Jung (eds), 2019, Creativity , special issue of Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences , 27: 1–174.
  • Tatarkiewicz, Władysław, 1980, A History of Six Ideas: An Essay in Aesthetics , Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Thagard, Paul and Terrence C. Stewart, 2011, “The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks”, Cognitive Science , 35(1): 1–33. doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01142.x
  • Turing, Alan M., 1950, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind , 59(236): 433–460. doi:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433
  • Verstijnen, Ilse Marieke, 1997, “Sketches of Creative Discovery: A Psycological Inquiry into the Role of Imagery and Sketching in Creative Discovery”, Doctoral thesis, Technische Universiteit, Delft, The Netherlands. [ Verstijnen 1997 available online ]
  • Wallas, Graham, 1926, The Art of Thought , London: J. Cape.
  • Ward, Thomas B., 1994, “Structured Imagination: The Role of Category Structure in Exemplar Generation”, Cognitive Psychology , 27(1): 1–40. doi:10.1006/cogp.1994.1010
  • –––, 1995, “What’s Old about New Ideas?” in Smith, Ward, and Finke 1995: 157–178.
  • Watson, James D., 1968 [1999], The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA , New York: Atheneum. First Touchstone edition, London: Penguin, 1999.
  • Weisberg, Robert W., 1986, Creativity: Genius and Other Myths , New York: W.H. Freeman.
  • –––, 2006, Creativity: Understanding Innovation in Problem Solving, Science, Invention, and the Arts , Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Wiggins, Geraint A. and Joydeep Bhattacharya, 2014, “Mind the Gap: An Attempt to Bridge Computational and Neuroscientific Approaches to Study Creativity”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 8(July). doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00540
  • Williams, Rich, Mark A. Runco, and Eric Berlow, 2016, “Mapping the Themes, Impact, and Cohesion of Creativity Research over the Last 25 Years”, Creativity Research Journal , 28(4): 385–394. doi:10.1080/10400419.2016.1230358
  • Young, Edward, 1759 [1966], Conjectures on Original Composition: In a Letter to the Author of Sir Charles Grandison , London: A. Millar. Reprinted Leeds: Scolar Press, 1966.
  • Zagzebski, Linda Trinkaus, 1997, Virtues of the Mind: An Inquiry into the Nature of Virtue and the Ethical Foundations of Knowledge , Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zemore, Sarah E., 1995, “Ability to Generate Mental Images in Students of Art”, Current Psychology , 14(1): 83–88. doi:10.1007/BF02686876
How to cite this entry . Preview the PDF version of this entry at the Friends of the SEP Society . Look up topics and thinkers related to this entry at the Internet Philosophy Ontology Project (InPhO). Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers , with links to its database.
  • Baker, Lucas and Fan Hui, 2017, “ Innovations of AlphaGo ”, on the DeepMind blog, 10 April 2017. Accessed 9 July 2021.
  • Whitney Museum, 2002, The Migration Series: His Painting Method .

artificial intelligence | epistemology: virtue | ethics: virtue | imagination | Turing, Alan | Turing machines | Turing test

Copyright © 2023 by Elliot Samuel Paul < elliotspaul @ gmail . com > Dustin Stokes < dustin . stokes @ utah . edu >

  • Accessibility

Support SEP

Mirror sites.

View this site from another server:

  • Info about mirror sites

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright © 2024 by The Metaphysics Research Lab , Department of Philosophy, Stanford University

Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054

  • Yale University
  • About Yale Insights
  • Privacy Policy
  • Accessibility

What Is Creativity?

Where do the new ideas come from—the ones that change industries and societies? In a lecture at Yale SOM, Prof. Richard Foster explains what creativity is—and isn’t—and describes the kinds of traits, knowledge, and ways of thinking that lead to the moment of creative insight.

  • Richard N. Foster Lecturer in Management

In an age defined by technological innovations, creativity is prized. But as virtues go, it’s hard to pin down. In one moment, there’s a blank page; in the next, there’s an idea. What happened in between? Perhaps more importantly, what happened before—what are the kinds of traits, knowledge, and ways of thinking that lead to the moment of creative insight?

An entire industry has grown up focused on unlocking the mysteries of creativity. Both scholarly and popular books proliferate; universities have created courses aimed at breaking creativity into “a set of tools for generating new ideas”; and consultants, often working under the tag of “ design thinking ,” teach everyone from doctors to engineers how to unlock their creative selves and innovate.

The idea of humans as uniquely creative animals goes back at least as far as the ancient Greeks . Aristotle considered creativity to be a gift from the gods, something that resulted not during rational thought but when one was “bereft of his senses.” As society has become more scientific, so has its conception of creativity. Researchers use the latest imaging technology to analyze exactly what happens in our brains during the creative process.

Richard Foster, a lecturer in management at Yale SOM and emeritus director of McKinsey & Company, has made a study of creativity, both its history and the process itself. He differentiates creativity both from innovation and discovery, which often are used as synonyms. Only creativity, he says, is about making something new, rather than merely applying or discovering something new. “Creative solutions are insightful, they’re novel, they’re simple, they’re elegant, and they’re generative,” he says. “When you find one creative idea, more often than not it triggers other ideas in the same fashion.”

A key to being creative, as Foster sees it, is the ability to find associations between different fields of knowledge, especially ones that appear radically different at first. The process is iterative rather than linear and requires people with curiosity, energy, and the openness to see connections where others cannot. “New solutions are often the combination of two or more existing concepts. If you had a videotape store and combine it with Amazon and Priority Mail, you get Netflix,” he says. “It’s all about constructing associative networks of ideas. That’s what you’re doing when you’re creating a business. A business is not one idea; it’s many, many ideas.”

Creativity or Knowledge – What do you prefer?

creativity vs knowledge essay

“ Which is better Knowledge or creativity? ” is a question that is hard to answer because both things have their own impact. Both are used to find the solution to the problem. Creativity and knowledge are like two rooms the creative side is filled with ideas, thoughts, and imagination while the other room is having information, a set of facts, and figures. The end goal of both things is the same but the way of reaching to goal is different. A creative person refers to identifying a new way of doing the work to find something new. On the other side people who prefer knowledge always follow a predefined way to achieve the end goal.

Both things are applicable to all fields and help a person grow. But there is some philosopher who thinks that in order to achieve true creativity a person needs to detach himself from knowledge. Where some people argue without having knowledge about something how you can achieve pure creativity? For example ” A person wants to create a new dish but without the knowledge of cooking, spices how he or she will able to create a dish?” Now let’s find out which one is more important creativity or knowledge.

Read About:- Group Discussion

What is knowledge.

All of us possess some kind of knowledge whether it’s related to education, art, sports, or any other domain. Knowledge can be defined as the information or fact that we have learned about a thing. It is the most basic but the most important need of a person’s life. Knowledge is the application of the information which is already known to the person. For example, solving a math problem by using predefined formulas. Acquiring Knowledge is an ongoing process it starts from birth and remains till the last breath. In-can be gained from two sources mentioned below

Many times people confused knowledge with reading books or having a classroom education. But it is more than that, “ a lifelong journey without any stop “. It can be earned in many ways – from education, from videos, from friends, from mistakes, and from the experiences of others. Knowledge not only teaches us what to do, and how to do it but also what not to do.

Also Read:- Online Education Group Discussion | Cryptocurrency As Investment in India

Why having Knowledge is essential?

“ There is no wealth like knowledge, no poverty like ignorance. ” – Buddha

  • Having knowledge helps a person grow as a person and makes us gentle human beings.
  • Gaining new knowledge developed new skills and opens the gate to new opportunities for us.
  • In comparison to creativity using knowledge is reduce the chances of risk. The reason being the knowledgeable approach uses facts and figures and previously used information to find the solution.
  • Knowledge provides quicker solutions in comparison to creativity.
  • Having a good amount of knowledge in a particular subject will also improve the ability of thinking of a person.
  • As all of us know that knowledge is the basic need of every creature for survival. Like human beings, animals also acquire knowledge from their parents.
  • For getting the success we need to face new challenges every day and knowledge helps us in developing a zeal to learn.

What is Creativity?

Creativity can be defined as the process of creating or generating something new or capable provide new solutions to problems. It does not have any boundaries and also the outcome of creativity is not predictable. In order to become a creative person, one needs to see things from a different perspective. Creative skills not only required how many solutions or ideas you can provide but the uniqueness of each idea or solution. Also, one does not need any knowledge to become a creative person but it’s better to have it.

Creativity is something that makes people say “wow” reason it offers something new to us in a unique way. Imaginative and innovative skills make a person playful, curious, and responsible but also put them in an uneasy state. It does not guarantee success but the ideas or solutions generated from creativity have more impact. Creativity is the only way to find solutions that are unknown to us.

Why Do People Favoring the Creativity over Knowledge?

“ Creativity doesn’t wait for that perfect moment. It fashions its own perfect moments out of ordinary ones.”  – Bruce Garrabrandt

  • Creativity provides you with a way to express yourself in a different way. It helps us stand apart from the crowd of people.
  • It removes anxiety and stress, according to some psychological reports creative people are happier than others.
  • Solutions that come from creativity are more feasible and have a great impact on others.
  • Creative skills help all of us to find the things which are unknown to us. And that’s why the creative person survives easily in the toughest situations.
  • It creates a limitless world for you as all of us know there is no boundary for creativity. It enables the imagination beyond knowledge to find solutions.

Which is More Important Creativity or Knowledge?

As said earlier in this article both things have their own impact and help a person to grow. Based on the nature of the problem both creativity and knowledge are used. If a person wants to create a painting then creativity skills are a must for him on the other side if a scientist wants to create a rocket then he or she needs in-depth knowledge of rocket science. In most cases, both things are used together in order the get the best result. Knowledge will help you with all the information and creativity will use that available information to create a new solution. It’s like inventing a new bike for an engineering student after gathering information about it through formal education.

Knowledge may limit the world for you but it’s the best tool to find the answer to the question of what not to do. While creativity may not guarantee success but the ideas, and innovation are way more impactful than existing solutions. Both can be used separately but for reaching new heights in creativity one needs to gain proper knowledge. And for the best use of knowledge, you need creative skills. So both things are significant and complete each other.

May 12, 2014

The Philosophy of Creativity

There is little that shapes the human experience as profoundly and pervasively as creativity. Creativity drives progress in every human endeavor, from the arts to the sciences, business, and technology.

By Scott Barry Kaufman

This article was published in Scientific American’s former blog network and reflects the views of the author, not necessarily those of Scientific American


There is little that shapes the human experience as profoundly and pervasively as creativity. Creativity drives progress in every human endeavor, from the arts to the sciences, business, and technology. We celebrate and honor people for their creativity, identifying eminent individuals, as well as entire cultures and societies, in terms of their creative achievements. Creativity is the vehicle of self-expression and part of what makes us who we are. One might therefore expect creativity to be a major topic in philosophy, especially since it raises such a wealth of interesting philosophical questions, as we will soon see. Curiously, it isn’t.

To be sure, some of the greatest philosophers in history have been taken with the wonder of creativity. To name just few examples: Plato has Socrates say, in certain dialogues, that when poets produce truly great poetry, they do it not through knowl- edge or mastery, but rather by being divinely “inspired”—literally, breathed into— by the Muses, in a state of possession that exhibits a kind of madness. Aristotle, in contrast, characterized the work of the poet as a rational, goal-directed activity of making (poeisis), in which the poet employs various means (such as sympathetic characters and plots involving twists of fate) to achieve an end (of eliciting various emotions in the audience). Kant conceived of artistic genius as an innate capacity to produce works of “exemplary originality” through the free play of the imagination, a process which does not consist in following rules, can neither be learned nor taught, and is mysterious even to geniuses themselves. Schopenhauer stressed that the greatest artists are distinguished not only by the technical skill they employ in the production of art, but also by the capacity to “lose themselves” in the experience of what is beautiful and sublime. Nietzsche saw the greatest feats of creativity, exemplified in the tragic poetry of ancient Greece, as being born out of a rare cooperation between the “Dionysian” spirit of ecstatic intoxication, which imbues the work with vitality and passion, and the “Apollonian” spirit of sober restraint, which tempers chaos with order and form. This is just the barest glimpse of what each of these philosophers had to say about creativity, and many other figures could be added to their number.

On supporting science journalism

If you're enjoying this article, consider supporting our award-winning journalism by subscribing . By purchasing a subscription you are helping to ensure the future of impactful stories about the discoveries and ideas shaping our world today.

Nevertheless, while some of the topics explored by earlier thinkers have come to occupy a central place in philosophy today—such as freedom, justice, conscious- ness, and knowledge—creativity is not among them. Philosophy has seen some very important work on creativity in the last few decades, but not nearly at the rate that we see for subjects of comparable range and importance. Indeed, “the philosophy of creativity” is still a neologism in most quarters—just as, for example, “the philosophy of action” and “the philosophy of music” were not too long ago.

In contrast, psychology has seen a definite surge of interest in creativity. In 1950, J. P. Guilford gave a presidential address at the American Psychological Association calling for research on the topic. And the field soon took off with waves of research investigating the traits and dispositions of creative personalities; the cognitive and neurological mechanisms at play in creative thought; the motivational determinants of creative achievement; the interplay between individual and collective creativity; the range of institutional, educational, and environmental factors that enhance or inhibit creativity; and more. Today, the blossoming of this field can be seen in the flurry of popular writing reporting on its results; an official division of the American Psychological Association on the psychology of aesthetics, creativity, and the arts (Division 10); numerous academic conferences; multiple peer-reviewed journals; several textbooks; and a growing number of undergraduate and graduate courses all devoted to the psychology of creativity. According to one historical overview, creativity has been studied by nearly all of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, and “the field can only be described as explosive.”

The swell of interest in the science of creativity is an inspiring example for the philosophy of creativity, but more importantly, it offers a resource that philosophers should be mindful of as they pursue this effort. Unfortunately, philosophers writing on creativity have sometimes tended to ignore the scientific literature. In some cases, they have gone so far as to claim—after citing just a few studies—that creativity is by its very nature unpredictable and therefore beyond the scope of science. Although the question of whether creativity is explicable is a philosophical question, it is not one that is impervious to empirical work. After all, anyone who declares from the armchair that something cannot be explained is liable to be refuted in the event that researchers do find ways to uncover explanations. The question of whether creativity can be explained empirically is itself, at least partly, an empirical question.

In fact, a number of issues arise at the nexus between philosophy and psychology and are handled best with contributions from both. This interdisciplinary approach is embraced by a new school of creativity researchers who are part of much broader trend toward dialogue and collaboration between scientifically-minded philosophers and philosophically-minded scientists. And the essays in this volume illustrate numerous ways in which the exchange can be fruitful, as philosophers draw on scientific research and scientific work is informed by philosophical perspectives. Below, we present a bird’s-eye view of these chapters and the themes and issues they explore.

The Concept of Creativity

Perhaps the most fundamental question for any study of creativity, philosophical or otherwise, is What is creativity? The term “creative” is used to describe three kinds of things: a person, a process or activity, or a product, whether it is an idea in someone’s mind or an observable performance or artifact. There is an emerging consensus that a product must meet two conditions in order to be creative. It must be new, of course, but since novelty can be worthless (as in a meaningless string of letters), it must also be of value. (Researchers sometimes express this second condition by saying a product must be “useful,” “appropriate,” or “effective.”) This definition is anticipated, in a way, by Immanuel Kant, who viewed artistic genius as an ability to produce works that are not only original—“since there can be original nonsense”— but also “exemplary.”

In chapter 1, Bence Nanay argues that creativity is primarily an attribute not of products, but of mental processes. Some have suggested that what makes a mental process creative is the use of a certain kind of functional or computational mecha- nism, such as the recombination of old ideas or the transformation of one’s concep- tual space. Against this view, Nanay offers what he calls an experiential account of creativity. He contends that what is distinctive about the creative mental process is not any functional/computational mechanism, but the way in which it is experienced. In particular, the process yields an idea that the creator experiences as one she hadn’t taken to be possible before.

Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art

One might suppose that if creativity has been understudied in philosophy at large, this couldn’t be so when philosophers are focused on art in particular. Art was long thought to have a monopoly on human creativity; it is still the paradigm of a creative domain, as “creative” is sometimes used more or less as a synonym for “artistic” and, at least in modern times, artists are disparaged when seen as derivative and praised for originality. But while the philosophy of art has been concerned with such issues as the definition, interpretation, and ontology of art, it has tended not to reflect on the artist as a creator, or the artist’s labors as a creative process, or the work of art as an expression of creativity. Thus Gaut and Livingston observe that “[a]lthough the creation of art is a topic that should be a central one for aesthetics, it has been comparatively neglected in recent philosophical writing about art.”

Gregory Currie brings the issue of creativity to the fore in chapter 2, where he examines the popular idea that eminently creative works of literature provide insight into the workings of the human mind. Many advocates of this view write as if its truth were self-evident. Currie suggests that it is not, that indeed there is little evidence in its favor, and he considers how the claim might be tested. Recent experi- mental studies by Oatley and colleagues look promising in this regard, but Currie suggests that their results so far provide very weak evidence at best. In the absence of better evidence, Currie puts a new spin on the debate by emphasizing the creativ- ity that goes into producing such great works of fiction. Are there aspects of literary creativity that should reliably lead to insights about the mind? He considers two such aspects—the institutions of literary production and the psychology of literary creativity—and suggests that in both cases, there are some grounds for thinking that literary creativity is not reliably connected with the production of insight.

Noël Carroll brings another dimension of creativity into view in chapter 3. Although he agrees that we should attend to the creative activities of the artist, he suggests that we should also acknowledge the contribution of the audience. For in order for the artist to accomplish the effects to which she aspires, Carroll argues, the audience must creatively cooperate with what the artist has initiated. He explores how audiences co-create artworks through the play of imagination. Rather than treating the imagination as if it were a single monolithic phenomenon, however, he identifies and analyzes several different imaginative activities that are engaged in response to a variety of artworks, such as reasoning counterfactually, filling-in unspecified content, constructing story-worlds around fictional objects, mentally simulating characters’ experiences and points of view, and freely devising and play- ing with different meanings, interpretations, and unifying themes. By means of these activities, Carroll suggests, it is ultimately the audience’s contribution that makes a work of art “work.”

In chapter 4, Christopher Peacocke raises interesting questions for aesthetics that bear upon the study of creativity. While philosophers have long debated the question of what makes something a work of art, Peacocke asks: What makes a work an example of a particular artistic style? He suggests that answering this question is a precondition for research on creativity in musical composition. Just as researchers who study perception understand that we cannot account for how the content of a perception is computed without specifying what the content is, Peacocke suggests that we cannot explain how a composer creates in his particular style unless we identify what is distinctive about that musical style. Using the example of the Romantic style of music, Peacocke’s approach draws on the perception of expressive action in combination with an account of what is involved in hearing emotion and other mental states in music. The account can link the phenomenology of musi- cal perception with the ideas and ideals of the Romantic movement. He notes that by changing various parameters in the account, we can explain what is variously distinctive about impressionist music, expressionist music, and some neoclassical composing in the style of Stravinsky.

Ethics and Value Theory

One thing that makes creativity such a gripping topic is that we cannot fully under- stand ourselves without taking it into account. Creativity seems to be linked to our very identity; it is part of what makes us who we are both as human beings and individuals. With regard to the latter, each of us can ask, “What makes me who I am (as an individual)?” and we might wonder whether the answer has something to do with creativity.

According to an ancient and still influential view, the self (one’s life) is some kind of dramatic or artistic performance. Exploring this idea in chapter 5, Owen Flanagan notes that there are metaphysical and logical questions about whether and how self-creation and self-constitution are possible. But he points out that there are also normative questions associated with the idea that life is a performance and the self is something that both emerges in and is constituted by that performance. Are there norms or standards that apply to self-constituting performances, and if so, what are they? Flanagan examines three contemporary psychopoetic conceptions of person—“day-by-day persons,” “ironic persons,” and “strong poetic persons”—in order to explore potential normative constraints on “performing oneself.” Flanagan’s provocative paper has implications for a number of diverse views in philosophy and psychology, from Jerome Bruner’s narrative theory of “self-making stories” to David Velleman’s paradox of self-constitution.

In chapter 6, Matthew Kieran asks what it is to be a creative person, and whether it involves a kind of virtue or excellence of character. He notes that there is a minimal sense according to which being creative means nothing more than having the ability to produce novel and worthwhile artifacts. Yet, he argues, there is a richer sense of the term that presupposes agential insight, mastery, and sensitivity to reasons in bringing about what is aimed at. A stroke victim who reliably produces beautiful patterns as a byproduct of his actions is not creative in the richer sense in which an artist who aims to produce them and could have done so differently is. Is creativity in this richer sense ever more than just a skill? In the light of suggestive empirical work, Kieran argues that motivation is central to exemplary creativity. Exemplary creativity, he argues, involves intrinsic motivation and is a virtue or excellence of character. We not only praise and admire individuals whose creative activity is born from a passion for what they do but, other things being equal, we expect them to be more reliably creative across different situations than those who are extrinsically motivated. This is consistent with the recognition that intrinsic motivation is not required to be creative and people’s creative potentials differ. Creativity in people will flourish when intrinsic motivation is foregrounded, with the relevant values and socioeconomic structures lining up appropriately. It tends to wither when they do not (unless a person’s creativity, like Van Gogh’s, is exceptionally virtuous).

Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science

In chapter 7, Simon Blackburn briefly remarks on the history of the idea—voiced by Plato, echoed by philosophers and artists in the Romantic tradition, and still present in the popular imagination—that creativity involves something mystical or supernatural. Against this notion, Blackburn draws on findings of modern psy- chology to offer a tamer view. He argues that even the most extraordinary creative achievements are the result of ordinary cognitive processes.

In chapter 8, Dustin Stokes ventures to clarify exactly what the relation is between creativity and imagination. In his view, imagination is important for even the most minimally creative thought processes. This would be a pointless tautology if “imagination” just means (the capacity for) creativity. The key, then, is to identify what imagination is such that it is not the same thing as creativity but still essential for it nonetheless. As Stokes notes, few philosophers have thought through the distinction between imagination and creativity, and few psychologists have directly tested the difference between the two constructs. While grounding his paper in contemporary philosophy, Stokes also draws on cognitive and developmental psy- chology to identify the architectural features common to genius-level creativity, as well as more everyday forms of creativity. He starts by making a distinction between “truth-boundedness”—cognitive states that function to accurately represent the world—and “non truth-bound” states that do not function to accurately represent the world, but instead facilitate the manipulation of the information they represent. He argues that richly creative achievements in the arts and sciences, as well as more everyday breakthroughs, draw on cognitive manipulation processes. Stokes concludes that imagination serves the cognitive manipulation role and is typified by four features: It is non truth-bound, under immediate voluntary control, engages with affective and motivational systems, and drives inference and decision- making. Stokes’s essay has implications for a number of philosophical problems relating to imagination and fiction, as well as psychological issues relating to the role of conscious, deliberate thought in creativity.

On the latter question, there is a tendency that appears in various forms through- out intellectual and artistic history to regard conscious thought as irrelevant or even inimical to creativity. In the classical story where creative inspiration comes to an artist from an external muse, the artist’s consciousness is not the source, but rather the recipient, of creative work. The same is true when an insight is said to emerge from the unconscious mind, showing up in consciousness as a kind of pleasant surprise (Eureka!). There is also the popular perception that conscious thought impedes creativity; thus the familiar accounts of artists using drugs, alcohol, or other trance-inducing practices as a means of surrendering conscious control and giving free rein to the creative unconscious.

In chapter 9, however, psychologists Roy Baumeister, Brandon Schmeichel, and C. Nathan DeWall suggest that consciousness deserves more creative credit. They present evidence to support the notion that creativity requires an interactive collaboration of conscious and unconscious processes. In their view, creative impulses originate in the unconscious but require conscious processing to edit and integrate them into a creative product. They review psychological experiments showing that creativity declines sharply when consciousness is preoccupied (for example, improvising jazz guitar while counting backward by six, or drawing with colored pencils while listening closely to music). They conclude that the research contradicts the popular view in both psychology and philosophy that consciousness is irrelevant or an impediment to the creative process. Instead, they believe that the research fits well with recently emerging understandings of the special capabilities of conscious thought.

Earlier, when we discussed the potential connection between creativity and self-understanding, we were concerned with what makes each of us who we are as individuals. But we can also ask, more generally, what makes us who we are as a species, and there is a long tradition of Western thought that seeks to understand what makes us human in terms of what makes us distinctively human, and set apart from other animals in particular. Whatever we think of the existing proposals that highlight our allegedly unique possession of reason, language, and metacognition, creativity seems as good a candidate as any. The tricky question, of course, is how did creativity evolve in humans?

In chapter 10, Elizabeth Picciuto and Peter Carruthers provide an integrated evolutionary and developmental account of the emergence of distinctively human creative capacities. Their main thesis is that childhood pretend play (e.g., imagining battling spaceship invaders) is a uniquely human adaptation that functions in part to enhance adult forms of creativity.

In support of their view, they draw on a wide literature spanning evolutionary, cognitive, and developmental psychology. They begin by reviewing evolutionary accounts of what makes humans unique, including our language, enhanced working memory, culture, and convergent and divergent thinking. They consider pretend play as a distinctively human ability, noting its universality, and showing that nearly all children, cross-culturally, engage in it. They review existing views of the func- tional roles of pretend play, including the facilitation of social schemata and theory of mind. Unconvinced by these accounts, they argue instead that pretend play facilitates creative thought—a process that involves both defocused attention and cogni- tive control. They review a number of common capacities of both pretend play and creativity, including generativity, supposing, bypassing the obvious, and selection of valuable but less obvious ideas. They conclude that childhood pretense paves the way for creativity in adulthood. This chapter is a fine example of how philosophers can contribute to our understanding of issues that are also pursued by scientists, in this case concerning the emergence of the capacities we have as human beings to pretend and create.

In our technologically driven age, it is not uncommon to think of what makes us human in contrast not only to other animals but also to machines, computers, and robots. Artificial intelligence is becoming ever more sophisticated, and some programs already display certain marks of creativity, appearing in major art galleries and garnering patents. These are machines whose products are both valuable and new. In addition to these two standard conditions, Margaret Boden maintains in chapter 11 that a creative product is one that is surprising as a result of the combina- tion, exploration, or transformation involved in producing it. She gives examples of artificial intelligence systems that fit all of these criteria, and raises this intriguing question: Could a computer-based system ever “really” be creative? This leads to interesting philosophical issues about what constitutes “real” creativity. With some qualification, she argues that real creativity involves autonomy, intentionality, valu- ation, emotion, and consciousness. But as she points out, the problem is that each one of these elements is controversial in itself, even if we don’t consider it in rela- tion to creativity and/or artificial intelligence. Boden concludes that we will not be able to understand whether creativity and artificial intelligence are contradictions in terms until we have clear and credible accounts of all these matters. Her chapter thus highlights the important role that philosophy can play in both psychology and artificial intelligence by further clarifying the constructs involved.

Philosophy of Science

Today, it’s understood that creativity can be at work in virtually every human pursuit. In the past, however, thinking about creativity tended to be much less inclu- sive. Once again, Kant is a telling example. Having defined genius as the capacity to produce ideas that are both original and exemplary (i.e., “creative” in our terms), he asserted that genius could only be manifested in the fine arts.20 Scientists were not geniuses because they follow the set procedures of the scientific method rather than giving free rein to their imaginations. Even Isaac Newton, whom Kant called the “great man of science,” was not deemed to be a creative genius. Nor, for that matter, was Kant himself!

Despite the much broader scope that we now accord to creativity, there is still a remnant of the Kantian intuition in popular stereotypes of the creative person that are more strongly associated with the artist than with anyone else. In chapter 12, psychologist Dean Keith Simonton argues, in effect, that there is something right about this Kantian tendency, as he explores the question: How does creativity differ between domains? In so doing, he integrates two philosophical traditions. The first tradition, stemming back to Auguste Comte, is concerned with whether the sciences can be arrayed into a hierarchy. The second tradition, which includes Alexander Bain and William James, concerns whether creativity and discovery involve a pro- cess of blind-variation and selective-retention (BVSR). The key part for this issue is blind-variation. Roughly, a process is “blind” to the extent that the probability of it’s generating a certain idea is not a function of that idea’s utility or value. A completely random procedure would be an example, though not the only example, of a blind process. Drawing on psychological research, Simonton shows that a valid hierarchy can be formed based on objective criteria regarding creative ideas, products, and persons. In place of Kant’s stark dichotomy between the sciences and the fine arts, Simonton’s hierarchy comprises a wide range of disciplines in the sciences, the humanities, and the arts. Where a discipline falls in the hierarchy depends on the extent to which practitioners need to engage in BVSR processes in order to make contributions that are creative (new and useful). Domains at the top of the hierarchy (i.e., sciences) rely more on sighted variations, whereas domains at the bottom (i.e., arts) depend more on blind variations. Simonton also shows that a discipline’s position in the hierarchy depends on the characteristics and developmental experi- ences of the creator. Simonton’s chapter is an intriguing synthesis of issues in both psychology and philosophy regarding the classification of creativity across domains.

Philosophy of Education (and Education of Philosophy)

Our final two chapters deal with the teaching and learning of creativity. It is not unusual to find people who assume that creativity is an innate capacity that cannot be taught or learned. Edward Young and Immanuel Kant were part of a long tradi- tion of thinkers who held such a view, and in arguing for it, they did us the service of exposing the kinds of assumptions that make it seem compelling. In chapter 13, Berys Gaut identifies two key arguments: The first is that learning requires imitation, which is incompatible with creativity; the second is that learning consists in following rules, which is incompatible with creativity. After criticizing these arguments, Gaut develops a positive case for the teachability of creativity, based on the teachability of the kinds of abilities and motivations that are involved in creativity. There is a sense in which Gaut’s question can be settled empirically: We can show that creativity can be taught simply by pointing to cases where it has been taught. Gaut himself discusses such examples as they occur in mathematics and fiction writing, noting in particular how heuristics or rules of thumb are used in these domains. But while such cases may suffice to show that creativity can be taught, Gaut further enriches our understanding by explaining how this is possible despite the common misconceptions that may seem to rule it out. Having given a philosophical account of how creativity can be taught, he ends by applying his analysis to the teaching of creativity within philosophy itself.

With this last theme, Gaut has a kindred spirit in Alan Hájek, the author of our final chapter. In fact, between the two of them, we have an instance of “multiples” in creativity research, cases where people working independently arrive at the same discoveries at about the same time.21 Although Gaut and Hájek were unaware of each other’s essays before submitting them for this volume, they converged on an interesting proposal—that by using various heuristics, philosophers can enhance their abilities to make valuable contributions to their field, including ideas that are distinctively creative.

As Hájek notes, it is said that anyone of average talent can become a strong chess player by learning and internalizing certain chess heuristics—“castle early,” “avoid isolated pawns,” and so on. Analogously, Hájek suggests, philosophy has a wealth of heuristics—philosophical heuristics—although they have not been nearly so well documented and studied. Sometimes these take the form of useful heuristics for generating counterexamples, such as “check extreme cases.” Sometimes they sug- gest ways of generating new arguments out of old ones, as in “arguments involving possibility can often be recast as arguments involving time, or space.” Sometimes they provide templates for positive arguments (e.g., ways of showing that something is possible). Hájek offers this chapter partly as an introduction to a larger project of identifying and evaluating philosophical heuristics, illustrating them with numer- ous examples from the philosophical literature. This work is a creative contribution to the philosophy of education. And it offers insights for the philosophy of creativity too, as it shows in fine detail how, contrary to a common assumption, creativity can be compatible with and even enhanced by the following of rules.

We are thankful for the input, encouragement, and support of Taylor Carmen, Tamara Day, Michael Della Rocca, Milena Fisher, Eugene Ford, Nancy France, Don Garrett, Tamar Szabó Gendler, Lydia Goehr, Joy Hanson, Markus Labude, Rebecca McMillan, John Morrison, Emily Downing Muller, Fred Neuhouser, Carol Rovane, and our wonderful colleagues and students at Barnard College, Columbia University, and New York University. Special thanks to Liz Boylan, former provost of Barnard College, for generously sponsoring the conference we held on the philosophy of creativity in preparation for this volume. We thank film director Tao Ruspoli for making a video of the event, artists Jill Sigman and Paul D. Miller (a.k.a. “D.J. Spooky”) for their participation as special guests, and Geovanna Carrasco, Melissa Flores, and Emily Neil for their excellent work as research assistants. We thank Peter Ohlin, Lucy Randall, Stacey Victor, and their colleagues at Oxford University Press for helping us see this book to print. Last but not least, we are very grateful to our contributors for illustrating the value of interdisciplinary exchange, the intellectual richness of the philosophy of creativity, and the exciting possibilities for how this field can grow. We hope this volume helps to stimulate new insights, questions, and collaborations—new ways to illuminate (and perhaps even to exemplify) this magnificent facet of human life.

This was an excerpt from The Philosophy of Creativity, edited by Elliot Samuel Paul and Scott Barry Kaufman , now available on Amazon .

Group Discussion Ideas

Which one is more important – Creativity or Knowledge?

creativity vs knowledge essay

  • . Update: May 5, 2019 6:33 pm

creativity vs knowledge

Knowledge is the information that we have through the experiences of our predecessors and our own at present. Information of all things discovered or experienced is knowledge. But, creativity is needed to put that information together to come up with new results and solutions.

Albert Einstein said “Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.”

Knowledge, no doubt has a role to play. Without knowledge, creativity does not have any substance to work with. Creativity puts together already available information in a manner to come up with new solutions to new problems. Without the 2 working in tandem, nothing new could have been created.

Let’s discuss a simple example that all of us must have surely come across: In school, we all knew that one guy/girl who would mug-up the whole book from top to bottom. No question would be left in the book which was not known to him/her. And there would be another guy/girl who would not toil so much. He/she would only understand how to solve the questions, the methodology, and the reasoning behind all of it. Come maths exam. Let’s say a few questions were asked which were not in the book. The first guy/girl would cry foul over not being able to solve the questions since they were “out of syllabus”. While the other guy/girl, though slower in speed, would solve all the questions(even the new ones) and get a better score than the latter.

Now the question arises, who among the above 2 is truly educated? Definitely not the rote learner! This points to the fact that creativity trumps knowledge in solving new problems. Knowledge can get you through old problems easily, but only creativity can help you tackle new problems.

In light of the above discussion, it can be concluded that knowledge is definitely required but only knowledge in isolation cannot help us. Knowledge has to be accompanied by creativity in order to make true progress in life. These rules apply to every sphere of our life.

Image by Rudy and Peter Skitterians from Pixabay

Which one will you choose in between creativity and knowledge? Express your thoughts on this topic through the comment section below. And subscribe to our blog to read answers to the trending GD topics.

Copyright @ Group Discussion Ideas.

Want to listen to this instead?

Subscribe to our YouTube channel . We upload videos on GD topics regularly.


creativity vs knowledge essay

Olivia, Jan 6, 2024 @ 11:57 am Reply

I will choose the creativity. Without the creativity , our society will stop going forward and merely rely on the kownledge that we have already owned.Without creativity , we will never improve and create the ideas in our mind.Therefore, creaivity is so significant that we can’t ignore it.

P. Kolandasamy, KMGIPSR,, Puducherry, Jul 3, 2021 @ 4:04 pm Reply

Creativity can be improved by practice. There are proverbs in this regard. For creativity self-realization, loving nature and humanity is essential .

Anjali S, Dec 12, 2020 @ 3:09 pm Reply

I personally feel that in today’s world of competition where all people are found to possess the same level of knowledge, it is only by the creativity that individuals can be distinguished, be it in a graduate attending an interview or a student attending an exam.Talking about business, making a product involves knowledge about it but selling it requires creativity because it is the way how the product is presented that attracts customers- the art of marketing.

Priya, May 26, 2020 @ 8:04 pm Reply

With knowledge one can get a job and with creativity one can give a job…Since Jeff bezos was creative he found amazon and hiring many graduates.. Graduates who are good in academics are doing job..

chakrith, Feb 10, 2020 @ 10:25 pm Reply

I think creativity is more important than knowledge because even we have knowledge we need an creativity idea to express it like Edison has knowledge but without his creativity mind how he could express it as bulb and and which stood like now king of inventions thank you …….

Shivani, Oct 11, 2019 @ 9:48 am Reply

Knowledge is more important than creativity because if I have no knowledge. I am nothing. But if I have knowledge I do creative. Creativity is also important role play of presence of knowledge but without knowledge I didnt do anything.. For example :- in examination student give answer but some questions comes from outside of book some student is only give answer because they are using presence of mind. Knowledge comes from creativity.

João Augusto, Nov 27, 2019 @ 3:49 am Reply

but later, with creativity we can create new things that can be absorbed as knowledge, it’s like a paradox, the first human beings in the world knew nothing, they needed creativity to make a new knowledge for future generations, so we cannot say which one is better, they fit together!

Sneha 😁, Feb 21, 2020 @ 12:02 pm Reply

Creativity is more important than knowledge this I can tell. Without creativity we can not make knowledge isn’t it.

Rk_rohit, Mar 14, 2023 @ 6:32 pm Reply

As you mention that creativity is the most essential thing rather than knowledge , so iam going to add my point iam not against you but i believe that , first of all we should know the proper meaning of knowledge and creativity, so knowledge means some things or facts which we know and we are still getting it day to day and creativity means something wich we will create . So as A. P. J abdul kalam sir said that ” Learning gives information, information gives knowledge, and knowledge leads to creativity ” !! .. So we can create something because of pre-informaformati and it is happen because of knowledge.. So it is my perception on this subject….

Ravi, Jan 28, 2020 @ 9:20 pm Reply

Creativity increases the knowledge like Thomas Alva Edison was creative man with the experiment with creativity the knowledge keeps increasing I believe creativity is more important than knowledge though both are dependent on each other

Payal, Aug 24, 2019 @ 10:21 pm Reply

According to me in this modern days of society creativity is the most important can earn knowledge by reading books , newspaper and journal.he might gain theoretical knowledge but not practical knowledge.but creativity comes from inner potential.what I think creatively is the thing that develops the practical a days the people are getting the facilities who want to develop their creativity.. creativity is always praiseworthy because people always want to see the innovative things and the innovation comes from creativity.. Thank you

Rohit luhach, May 13, 2019 @ 11:39 am Reply

Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.” … Take it that way – there are professions in the practice where imagination and creativity is not important at all.

Tinku Paul, May 13, 2019 @ 7:09 am Reply

According to me knowledge is very essential , without knowledge even we can’t manage our day to day life. When we read we gather our knowledge , nowadays competition world everybody has to learn and gather knowledge but creativity is important. First ,student or anybody they have to gather knowledge then he/she will be make it creative from his own brain. For example in examination some of the student read thoroughly and give answer but any question comes out side text book he/she will not be able to give answer but some of the student they know the basics I e they are able to prepare the answer from their brain. First people has to gather the basic knowledge then they can make it creative.

Pranav Kumar, May 8, 2019 @ 11:19 am Reply

In my opinion basically knowledge is important in our day to day life, because without it we can’t survive in today’s competitive world.. But in other ways creativity is also important in life too, so because creativity helps our brain to think in a different and in unique way.. So at the conclusion I can say that everyone should having knowledge but it’s the human perception that how he or she uses his or her knowledge in a creative manner..

Nirupam, May 6, 2019 @ 11:51 am Reply

Life without knowledge is just like a ship which sails adrift. In todays competetive enviornment of cut throat competetion, knowledge is an oxygen to enable us survive. Creativity is branch of knowledge which lifts up the veals and peeps into the mystries and new provides new look, views, approach etc. A creativity added to knowledge would be a feather in the cap.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

Related Posts

green card reforms

Green Card reforms – Beneficial for Indians?

should India ban Chinese goods

Should Chinese products be banned in India?

Yoga in schools

Compulsory Yoga in schools – Pros and Cons

movies breed crime

Movies breed crime

Group Discussion Ideas

  • Privacy Overview
  • Strictly Necessary Cookies
  • 3rd Party Cookies

This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.

Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings.

If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again.

This website uses Google Analytics to collect anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages.

Keeping this cookie enabled helps us to improve our website.

Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences!

creativity vs knowledge essay

  • Search Menu

Sign in through your institution

  • Browse content in Arts and Humanities
  • Browse content in Archaeology
  • Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Archaeology
  • Archaeological Methodology and Techniques
  • Archaeology by Region
  • Archaeology of Religion
  • Archaeology of Trade and Exchange
  • Biblical Archaeology
  • Contemporary and Public Archaeology
  • Environmental Archaeology
  • Historical Archaeology
  • History and Theory of Archaeology
  • Industrial Archaeology
  • Landscape Archaeology
  • Mortuary Archaeology
  • Prehistoric Archaeology
  • Underwater Archaeology
  • Zooarchaeology
  • Browse content in Architecture
  • Architectural Structure and Design
  • History of Architecture
  • Residential and Domestic Buildings
  • Theory of Architecture
  • Browse content in Art
  • Art Subjects and Themes
  • History of Art
  • Industrial and Commercial Art
  • Theory of Art
  • Biographical Studies
  • Byzantine Studies
  • Browse content in Classical Studies
  • Classical History
  • Classical Philosophy
  • Classical Mythology
  • Classical Literature
  • Classical Reception
  • Classical Art and Architecture
  • Classical Oratory and Rhetoric
  • Greek and Roman Epigraphy
  • Greek and Roman Law
  • Greek and Roman Papyrology
  • Greek and Roman Archaeology
  • Late Antiquity
  • Religion in the Ancient World
  • Digital Humanities
  • Browse content in History
  • Colonialism and Imperialism
  • Diplomatic History
  • Environmental History
  • Genealogy, Heraldry, Names, and Honours
  • Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing
  • Historical Geography
  • History by Period
  • History of Emotions
  • History of Agriculture
  • History of Education
  • History of Gender and Sexuality
  • Industrial History
  • Intellectual History
  • International History
  • Labour History
  • Legal and Constitutional History
  • Local and Family History
  • Maritime History
  • Military History
  • National Liberation and Post-Colonialism
  • Oral History
  • Political History
  • Public History
  • Regional and National History
  • Revolutions and Rebellions
  • Slavery and Abolition of Slavery
  • Social and Cultural History
  • Theory, Methods, and Historiography
  • Urban History
  • World History
  • Browse content in Language Teaching and Learning
  • Language Learning (Specific Skills)
  • Language Teaching Theory and Methods
  • Browse content in Linguistics
  • Applied Linguistics
  • Cognitive Linguistics
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Forensic Linguistics
  • Grammar, Syntax and Morphology
  • Historical and Diachronic Linguistics
  • History of English
  • Language Acquisition
  • Language Evolution
  • Language Reference
  • Language Variation
  • Language Families
  • Lexicography
  • Linguistic Anthropology
  • Linguistic Theories
  • Linguistic Typology
  • Phonetics and Phonology
  • Psycholinguistics
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Translation and Interpretation
  • Writing Systems
  • Browse content in Literature
  • Bibliography
  • Children's Literature Studies
  • Literary Studies (Asian)
  • Literary Studies (European)
  • Literary Studies (Eco-criticism)
  • Literary Studies (Romanticism)
  • Literary Studies (American)
  • Literary Studies (Modernism)
  • Literary Studies - World
  • Literary Studies (1500 to 1800)
  • Literary Studies (19th Century)
  • Literary Studies (20th Century onwards)
  • Literary Studies (African American Literature)
  • Literary Studies (British and Irish)
  • Literary Studies (Early and Medieval)
  • Literary Studies (Fiction, Novelists, and Prose Writers)
  • Literary Studies (Gender Studies)
  • Literary Studies (Graphic Novels)
  • Literary Studies (History of the Book)
  • Literary Studies (Plays and Playwrights)
  • Literary Studies (Poetry and Poets)
  • Literary Studies (Postcolonial Literature)
  • Literary Studies (Queer Studies)
  • Literary Studies (Science Fiction)
  • Literary Studies (Travel Literature)
  • Literary Studies (War Literature)
  • Literary Studies (Women's Writing)
  • Literary Theory and Cultural Studies
  • Mythology and Folklore
  • Shakespeare Studies and Criticism
  • Browse content in Media Studies
  • Browse content in Music
  • Applied Music
  • Dance and Music
  • Ethics in Music
  • Ethnomusicology
  • Gender and Sexuality in Music
  • Medicine and Music
  • Music Cultures
  • Music and Religion
  • Music and Media
  • Music and Culture
  • Music Education and Pedagogy
  • Music Theory and Analysis
  • Musical Scores, Lyrics, and Libretti
  • Musical Structures, Styles, and Techniques
  • Musicology and Music History
  • Performance Practice and Studies
  • Race and Ethnicity in Music
  • Sound Studies
  • Browse content in Performing Arts
  • Browse content in Philosophy
  • Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art
  • Epistemology
  • Feminist Philosophy
  • History of Western Philosophy
  • Metaphysics
  • Moral Philosophy
  • Non-Western Philosophy
  • Philosophy of Science
  • Philosophy of Language
  • Philosophy of Mind
  • Philosophy of Perception
  • Philosophy of Action
  • Philosophy of Law
  • Philosophy of Religion
  • Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic
  • Practical Ethics
  • Social and Political Philosophy
  • Browse content in Religion
  • Biblical Studies
  • Christianity
  • East Asian Religions
  • History of Religion
  • Judaism and Jewish Studies
  • Qumran Studies
  • Religion and Education
  • Religion and Health
  • Religion and Politics
  • Religion and Science
  • Religion and Law
  • Religion and Art, Literature, and Music
  • Religious Studies
  • Browse content in Society and Culture
  • Cookery, Food, and Drink
  • Cultural Studies
  • Customs and Traditions
  • Ethical Issues and Debates
  • Hobbies, Games, Arts and Crafts
  • Natural world, Country Life, and Pets
  • Popular Beliefs and Controversial Knowledge
  • Sports and Outdoor Recreation
  • Technology and Society
  • Travel and Holiday
  • Visual Culture
  • Browse content in Law
  • Arbitration
  • Browse content in Company and Commercial Law
  • Commercial Law
  • Company Law
  • Browse content in Comparative Law
  • Systems of Law
  • Competition Law
  • Browse content in Constitutional and Administrative Law
  • Government Powers
  • Judicial Review
  • Local Government Law
  • Military and Defence Law
  • Parliamentary and Legislative Practice
  • Construction Law
  • Contract Law
  • Browse content in Criminal Law
  • Criminal Procedure
  • Criminal Evidence Law
  • Sentencing and Punishment
  • Employment and Labour Law
  • Environment and Energy Law
  • Browse content in Financial Law
  • Banking Law
  • Insolvency Law
  • History of Law
  • Human Rights and Immigration
  • Intellectual Property Law
  • Browse content in International Law
  • Private International Law and Conflict of Laws
  • Public International Law
  • IT and Communications Law
  • Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law
  • Law and Politics
  • Law and Society
  • Browse content in Legal System and Practice
  • Courts and Procedure
  • Legal Skills and Practice
  • Primary Sources of Law
  • Regulation of Legal Profession
  • Medical and Healthcare Law
  • Browse content in Policing
  • Criminal Investigation and Detection
  • Police and Security Services
  • Police Procedure and Law
  • Police Regional Planning
  • Browse content in Property Law
  • Personal Property Law
  • Study and Revision
  • Terrorism and National Security Law
  • Browse content in Trusts Law
  • Wills and Probate or Succession
  • Browse content in Medicine and Health
  • Browse content in Allied Health Professions
  • Arts Therapies
  • Clinical Science
  • Dietetics and Nutrition
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Operating Department Practice
  • Physiotherapy
  • Radiography
  • Speech and Language Therapy
  • Browse content in Anaesthetics
  • General Anaesthesia
  • Neuroanaesthesia
  • Browse content in Clinical Medicine
  • Acute Medicine
  • Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Genetics
  • Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
  • Dermatology
  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Gastroenterology
  • Genito-urinary Medicine
  • Geriatric Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medical Toxicology
  • Medical Oncology
  • Pain Medicine
  • Palliative Medicine
  • Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology
  • Rheumatology
  • Sleep Medicine
  • Sports and Exercise Medicine
  • Clinical Neuroscience
  • Community Medical Services
  • Critical Care
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Haematology
  • History of Medicine
  • Browse content in Medical Dentistry
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Paediatric Dentistry
  • Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics
  • Surgical Dentistry
  • Browse content in Medical Skills
  • Clinical Skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Nursing Skills
  • Surgical Skills
  • Medical Ethics
  • Medical Statistics and Methodology
  • Browse content in Neurology
  • Clinical Neurophysiology
  • Neuropathology
  • Nursing Studies
  • Browse content in Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Gynaecology
  • Occupational Medicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Otolaryngology (ENT)
  • Browse content in Paediatrics
  • Neonatology
  • Browse content in Pathology
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics
  • Histopathology
  • Medical Microbiology and Virology
  • Patient Education and Information
  • Browse content in Pharmacology
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Browse content in Popular Health
  • Caring for Others
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Self-help and Personal Development
  • Browse content in Preclinical Medicine
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology and Genetics
  • Reproduction, Growth and Development
  • Primary Care
  • Professional Development in Medicine
  • Browse content in Psychiatry
  • Addiction Medicine
  • Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Old Age Psychiatry
  • Psychotherapy
  • Browse content in Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health
  • Browse content in Radiology
  • Clinical Radiology
  • Interventional Radiology
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Browse content in Surgery
  • Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Gastro-intestinal and Colorectal Surgery
  • General Surgery
  • Neurosurgery
  • Paediatric Surgery
  • Peri-operative Care
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Surgical Oncology
  • Transplant Surgery
  • Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Vascular Surgery
  • Browse content in Science and Mathematics
  • Browse content in Biological Sciences
  • Aquatic Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Ecology and Conservation
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Genetics and Genomics
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Natural History
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry
  • Research Methods in Life Sciences
  • Structural Biology
  • Systems Biology
  • Zoology and Animal Sciences
  • Browse content in Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Computational Chemistry
  • Crystallography
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Industrial Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Mineralogy and Gems
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Polymer Chemistry
  • Study and Communication Skills in Chemistry
  • Theoretical Chemistry
  • Browse content in Computer Science
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Architecture and Logic Design
  • Game Studies
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mathematical Theory of Computation
  • Programming Languages
  • Software Engineering
  • Systems Analysis and Design
  • Virtual Reality
  • Browse content in Computing
  • Business Applications
  • Computer Security
  • Computer Games
  • Computer Networking and Communications
  • Digital Lifestyle
  • Graphical and Digital Media Applications
  • Operating Systems
  • Browse content in Earth Sciences and Geography
  • Atmospheric Sciences
  • Environmental Geography
  • Geology and the Lithosphere
  • Maps and Map-making
  • Meteorology and Climatology
  • Oceanography and Hydrology
  • Palaeontology
  • Physical Geography and Topography
  • Regional Geography
  • Soil Science
  • Urban Geography
  • Browse content in Engineering and Technology
  • Agriculture and Farming
  • Biological Engineering
  • Civil Engineering, Surveying, and Building
  • Electronics and Communications Engineering
  • Energy Technology
  • Engineering (General)
  • Environmental Science, Engineering, and Technology
  • History of Engineering and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering and Materials
  • Technology of Industrial Chemistry
  • Transport Technology and Trades
  • Browse content in Environmental Science
  • Applied Ecology (Environmental Science)
  • Conservation of the Environment (Environmental Science)
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Environmental Science)
  • Management of Land and Natural Resources (Environmental Science)
  • Natural Disasters (Environmental Science)
  • Nuclear Issues (Environmental Science)
  • Pollution and Threats to the Environment (Environmental Science)
  • Social Impact of Environmental Issues (Environmental Science)
  • History of Science and Technology
  • Browse content in Materials Science
  • Ceramics and Glasses
  • Composite Materials
  • Metals, Alloying, and Corrosion
  • Nanotechnology
  • Browse content in Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Biomathematics and Statistics
  • History of Mathematics
  • Mathematical Education
  • Mathematical Finance
  • Mathematical Analysis
  • Numerical and Computational Mathematics
  • Probability and Statistics
  • Pure Mathematics
  • Browse content in Neuroscience
  • Cognition and Behavioural Neuroscience
  • Development of the Nervous System
  • Disorders of the Nervous System
  • History of Neuroscience
  • Invertebrate Neurobiology
  • Molecular and Cellular Systems
  • Neuroendocrinology and Autonomic Nervous System
  • Neuroscientific Techniques
  • Sensory and Motor Systems
  • Browse content in Physics
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
  • Biological and Medical Physics
  • Classical Mechanics
  • Computational Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electromagnetism, Optics, and Acoustics
  • History of Physics
  • Mathematical and Statistical Physics
  • Measurement Science
  • Nuclear Physics
  • Particles and Fields
  • Plasma Physics
  • Quantum Physics
  • Relativity and Gravitation
  • Semiconductor and Mesoscopic Physics
  • Browse content in Psychology
  • Affective Sciences
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Criminal and Forensic Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Educational Psychology
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • History and Systems in Psychology
  • Music Psychology
  • Neuropsychology
  • Organizational Psychology
  • Psychological Assessment and Testing
  • Psychology of Human-Technology Interaction
  • Psychology Professional Development and Training
  • Research Methods in Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Browse content in Social Sciences
  • Browse content in Anthropology
  • Anthropology of Religion
  • Human Evolution
  • Medical Anthropology
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Regional Anthropology
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology
  • Theory and Practice of Anthropology
  • Browse content in Business and Management
  • Business Strategy
  • Business Ethics
  • Business History
  • Business and Government
  • Business and Technology
  • Business and the Environment
  • Comparative Management
  • Corporate Governance
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Health Management
  • Human Resource Management
  • Industrial and Employment Relations
  • Industry Studies
  • Information and Communication Technologies
  • International Business
  • Knowledge Management
  • Management and Management Techniques
  • Operations Management
  • Organizational Theory and Behaviour
  • Pensions and Pension Management
  • Public and Nonprofit Management
  • Strategic Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Browse content in Criminology and Criminal Justice
  • Criminal Justice
  • Criminology
  • Forms of Crime
  • International and Comparative Criminology
  • Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice
  • Development Studies
  • Browse content in Economics
  • Agricultural, Environmental, and Natural Resource Economics
  • Asian Economics
  • Behavioural Finance
  • Behavioural Economics and Neuroeconomics
  • Econometrics and Mathematical Economics
  • Economic Systems
  • Economic History
  • Economic Methodology
  • Economic Development and Growth
  • Financial Markets
  • Financial Institutions and Services
  • General Economics and Teaching
  • Health, Education, and Welfare
  • History of Economic Thought
  • International Economics
  • Labour and Demographic Economics
  • Law and Economics
  • Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics
  • Microeconomics
  • Public Economics
  • Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics
  • Welfare Economics
  • Browse content in Education
  • Adult Education and Continuous Learning
  • Care and Counselling of Students
  • Early Childhood and Elementary Education
  • Educational Equipment and Technology
  • Educational Strategies and Policy
  • Higher and Further Education
  • Organization and Management of Education
  • Philosophy and Theory of Education
  • Schools Studies
  • Secondary Education
  • Teaching of a Specific Subject
  • Teaching of Specific Groups and Special Educational Needs
  • Teaching Skills and Techniques
  • Browse content in Environment
  • Applied Ecology (Social Science)
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of the Environment (Social Science)
  • Environmentalist Thought and Ideology (Social Science)
  • Natural Disasters (Environment)
  • Social Impact of Environmental Issues (Social Science)
  • Browse content in Human Geography
  • Cultural Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Browse content in Interdisciplinary Studies
  • Communication Studies
  • Museums, Libraries, and Information Sciences
  • Browse content in Politics
  • African Politics
  • Asian Politics
  • Chinese Politics
  • Comparative Politics
  • Conflict Politics
  • Elections and Electoral Studies
  • Environmental Politics
  • European Union
  • Foreign Policy
  • Gender and Politics
  • Human Rights and Politics
  • Indian Politics
  • International Relations
  • International Organization (Politics)
  • International Political Economy
  • Irish Politics
  • Latin American Politics
  • Middle Eastern Politics
  • Political Methodology
  • Political Communication
  • Political Philosophy
  • Political Sociology
  • Political Behaviour
  • Political Economy
  • Political Institutions
  • Political Theory
  • Politics and Law
  • Politics of Development
  • Public Administration
  • Public Policy
  • Quantitative Political Methodology
  • Regional Political Studies
  • Russian Politics
  • Security Studies
  • State and Local Government
  • UK Politics
  • US Politics
  • Browse content in Regional and Area Studies
  • African Studies
  • Asian Studies
  • East Asian Studies
  • Japanese Studies
  • Latin American Studies
  • Middle Eastern Studies
  • Native American Studies
  • Scottish Studies
  • Browse content in Research and Information
  • Research Methods
  • Browse content in Social Work
  • Addictions and Substance Misuse
  • Adoption and Fostering
  • Care of the Elderly
  • Child and Adolescent Social Work
  • Couple and Family Social Work
  • Direct Practice and Clinical Social Work
  • Emergency Services
  • Human Behaviour and the Social Environment
  • International and Global Issues in Social Work
  • Mental and Behavioural Health
  • Social Justice and Human Rights
  • Social Policy and Advocacy
  • Social Work and Crime and Justice
  • Social Work Macro Practice
  • Social Work Practice Settings
  • Social Work Research and Evidence-based Practice
  • Welfare and Benefit Systems
  • Browse content in Sociology
  • Childhood Studies
  • Community Development
  • Comparative and Historical Sociology
  • Economic Sociology
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Gerontology and Ageing
  • Health, Illness, and Medicine
  • Marriage and the Family
  • Migration Studies
  • Occupations, Professions, and Work
  • Organizations
  • Population and Demography
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • Social Theory
  • Social Movements and Social Change
  • Social Research and Statistics
  • Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility
  • Sociology of Religion
  • Sociology of Education
  • Sport and Leisure
  • Urban and Rural Studies
  • Browse content in Warfare and Defence
  • Defence Strategy, Planning, and Research
  • Land Forces and Warfare
  • Military Administration
  • Military Life and Institutions
  • Naval Forces and Warfare
  • Other Warfare and Defence Issues
  • Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution
  • Weapons and Equipment

The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays

The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays

The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays

Assistant Professor of Philosophy

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology

  • Cite Icon Cite
  • Permissions Icon Permissions

Creativity pervades human life. It is the mark of individuality, the vehicle of self-expression, and the engine of progress in every human endeavor. It also raises a wealth of philosophical questions, but curiously, it hasn’t been a major topic in contemporary philosophy. The Philosophy of Creativity ventures to change that. Illustrating the value of interdisciplinary exchange, this is a series of new essays from some of today’s leading thinkers integrating philosophical insights with empirical research. Join them as they explore such issues as the role of consciousness in the creative process, the role of the audience in the creation of art, the emergence of creativity through childhood pretending, whether great works of literature give us insight into human nature, whether a computer program can really be creative, the definition of creativity, whether creativity is a virtue, the difference between creativity in science and art, and whether creativity can be taught—both in general and within philosophy itself.

Signed in as

Institutional accounts.

  • GoogleCrawler [DO NOT DELETE]
  • Google Scholar Indexing

Personal account

  • Sign in with email/username & password
  • Get email alerts
  • Save searches
  • Purchase content
  • Activate your purchase/trial code
  • Add your ORCID iD

Institutional access

Sign in with a library card.

  • Sign in with username/password
  • Recommend to your librarian
  • Institutional account management
  • Get help with access

Access to content on Oxford Academic is often provided through institutional subscriptions and purchases. If you are a member of an institution with an active account, you may be able to access content in one of the following ways:

IP based access

Typically, access is provided across an institutional network to a range of IP addresses. This authentication occurs automatically, and it is not possible to sign out of an IP authenticated account.

Choose this option to get remote access when outside your institution. Shibboleth/Open Athens technology is used to provide single sign-on between your institution’s website and Oxford Academic.

  • Click Sign in through your institution.
  • Select your institution from the list provided, which will take you to your institution's website to sign in.
  • When on the institution site, please use the credentials provided by your institution. Do not use an Oxford Academic personal account.
  • Following successful sign in, you will be returned to Oxford Academic.

If your institution is not listed or you cannot sign in to your institution’s website, please contact your librarian or administrator.

Enter your library card number to sign in. If you cannot sign in, please contact your librarian.

Society Members

Society member access to a journal is achieved in one of the following ways:

Sign in through society site

Many societies offer single sign-on between the society website and Oxford Academic. If you see ‘Sign in through society site’ in the sign in pane within a journal:

  • Click Sign in through society site.
  • When on the society site, please use the credentials provided by that society. Do not use an Oxford Academic personal account.

If you do not have a society account or have forgotten your username or password, please contact your society.

Sign in using a personal account

Some societies use Oxford Academic personal accounts to provide access to their members. See below.

A personal account can be used to get email alerts, save searches, purchase content, and activate subscriptions.

Some societies use Oxford Academic personal accounts to provide access to their members.

Viewing your signed in accounts

Click the account icon in the top right to:

  • View your signed in personal account and access account management features.
  • View the institutional accounts that are providing access.

Signed in but can't access content

Oxford Academic is home to a wide variety of products. The institutional subscription may not cover the content that you are trying to access. If you believe you should have access to that content, please contact your librarian.

For librarians and administrators, your personal account also provides access to institutional account management. Here you will find options to view and activate subscriptions, manage institutional settings and access options, access usage statistics, and more.

Our books are available by subscription or purchase to libraries and institutions.

  • About Oxford Academic
  • Publish journals with us
  • University press partners
  • What we publish
  • New features  
  • Open access
  • Rights and permissions
  • Accessibility
  • Advertising
  • Media enquiries
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford Languages
  • University of Oxford

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide

  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • Cookie settings
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy
  • Legal notice

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

Understanding Creativity

  • Posted June 25, 2020
  • By Emily Boudreau

Teens with laptops and a chalk drawing of lightbulb

Understanding the learning that happens with creative work can often be elusive in any K–12 subject. A new study from Harvard Graduate School of Education Associate Professor Karen Brennan , and researchers Paulina Haduong and Emily Veno, compiles case studies, interviews, and assessment artifacts from 80 computer science teachers across the K–12 space. These data shed new light on how teachers tackle this challenge in an emerging subject area.

“A common refrain we were hearing from teachers was, ‘We’re really excited about doing creative work in the classroom but we’re uncertain about how to assess what kids are learning, and that makes it hard for us to do what we want to do,’” Brennan says. “We wanted to learn from teachers who are supporting and assessing creativity in the classroom, and amplify their work, and celebrate it and show what’s possible as a way of helping other teachers.”

Create a culture that values meaningful assessment for learning — not just grades

As many schools and districts decided to suspend letter grades during the pandemic, teachers need to help students find intrinsic motivation. “It’s a great moment to ask, ‘What would assessment look like without a focus on grades and competition?’” says Veno.

Indeed, the practice of fostering a classroom culture that celebrates student voice, creativity, and exploration isn’t limited to computer science. The practice of being a creative agent in the world extends through all subject areas.

The research team suggests the following principles from computer science classrooms may help shape assessment culture across grade levels and subject areas.

Solicit different kinds of feedback

Give students the time and space to receive and incorporate feedback. “One thing that’s been highlighted in assessment work is that it is not about the teacher talking to a student in a vacuum,” says Haduong, noting that hearing from peers and outside audience members can help students find meaning and direction as they move forward with their projects.

  • Feedback rubrics help students receive targeted feedback from audience members. Additionally, looking at the rubrics can help the teacher gather data on student work.

Emphasize the process for teachers and students

Finding the appropriate rubric or creating effective project scaffolding is a journey. Indeed, according to Haduong, “we found that many educators had a deep commitment to iteration in their own work.” Successful assessment practices conveyed that spirit to students.

  • Keeping design journals can help students see their work as it progresses and provides documentation for teachers on the student’s process.
  • Consider the message sent by the form and aesthetics of rubrics. One educator decided to use a handwritten assessment to convey that teachers, too, are working on refining their practice.

Scaffold independence

Students need to be able to take ownership of their learning as virtual learning lessens teacher oversight. Students need to look at their own work critically and know when they’ve done their best. Teachers need to guide students in this process and provide scaffolded opportunities for reflection.

  • Have students design their own assessment rubric. Students then develop their own continuum to help independently set expectations for themselves and their work.

Key Takeaways

  • Assessment shouldn’t be limited to the grade a student receives at the end of the semester or a final exam. Rather, it should be part of the classroom culture and it should be continuous, with an emphasis on using assessment not for accountability or extrinsic motivation, but to support student learning.
  • Teachers can help learners see that learning and teaching are iterative processes by being more transparent about their own efforts to reflect and iterate on their practices.
  • Teachers should scaffold opportunities for students to evaluate their own work and develop independence.

Additional Resources

  • Creative Computing curriculum and projects
  • Karen Brennan on helping kids get “unstuck”
  • Usable Knowledge on how assessment can help continue the learning process

Usable Knowledge Lightbulb

Usable Knowledge

Connecting education research to practice — with timely insights for educators, families, and communities

Related Articles

Graduation caps being tossed

Strategies for Leveling the Educational Playing Field

New research on SAT/ACT test scores reveals stark inequalities in academic achievement based on wealth   

Schoolchildren holding U.S. flag

How to Help Kids Become Skilled Citizens

Active citizenship requires a broad set of skills, new study finds

Man with watering cans illustration by Nate Williams

Extra Credit

  • How to recruit?
  • Internship calendars
  • Post an offer
  • How to give
  • Ways to give
  • 2019-2024 campaign
  • News and publications
  • Annual Report
  • Build your brand
  • Work with our students
  • Become a partner
  • Our corporate partners

How knowledge can stimulate but also impede creativity

An insightful study provides a response to the long-standing question of why people's creativity varies over time. It shows that the ability to generate new ideas is related to knowledge depth, knowledge breadth, and cognitive complexity and flexibility. The prominence of each of these factors varies over time, so fostering creativity depends on adapting stimuli accordingly.

How knowledge can stimulate but also impede creativity. Pier Vittorio Mannucci - ©Fotolia - Elxeneize

Research in a broad range of fields has repeatedly demonstrated that individual creativity — the ability to generate new ideas — varies over time. However, until now, there has been no compelling explanation as to why this is the case. In a longitudinal study of individuals working in the animated film industry, Pier Vittorio Mannucci shows that at different stages of their careers, different types of knowledge enhance people's creativity. They also highlight the role of cognitive flexibility or rigidity in this dynamic. 

Specialization is a core component of creativity

Mannucci explains that people's ability to generate new and innovative ideas varies across their careers because of two core types of knowledge that may be alternately developed and sustained or neglected as people advance professionally. The first type is specialized knowledge, and the second is diverse knowledge, which broadens a person's knowledge base. Although it may seem counterintuitive, the first type is more essential to generating new ideas than the second. The study shows that to use a new idea productively, a person must possess specialized knowledge, which acts as a sort of discriminating lens through which to consider ideas. Mannucci comments, "Without specialized knowledge, new ideas remain scattered. This is what happens in the case of writer's block. The problem is not a lack of ideas but rather too many ideas that make it virtually impossible to produce one good idea." Specialized knowledge helps people situate an idea and figure out how to carry it through to a productive end.

Beginners may have a lot of enthusiasm, but they do not necessarily possess the deeper knowledge of their field that is necessary to distinguish between what's new and innovative, and what is simply new to them. Mannucci relates that Pixar Studios deals with this issue by requiring new hires to take courses directly related to their position. In this way, people in this creativity-dependent business are deliberately put in a position to build the deeper knowledge they need to contribute effectively. "The more specialized knowledge a person develops, the more he or she also builds his or her capacity for complexity. This too has a positive impact on creativity." There is nonetheless also a downside to deep knowledge: over time, it can foster cognitive rigidity. "The more you know about something, the more it becomes the only thing you see," says Mannucci. In short, specialization is a requisite for creativity, but it must be prevented from fostering narrow-mindedness. 

Specialization is a requisite for creativity, but it must be prevented from fostering narrow-mindedness.

Diversification is a means to counterbalance specialization

To prevent knowledge from evolving into an inflexible, airless mass, it is important for people who have developed specialized know-how to also take interest elsewhere. Focusing on areas outside of your specific field or activity helps to keep your cognitive processes flexible. "It is actually relatively easy to keep your mind flexible," Mannucci comments. "Even indirect stimuli like attending conferences or reading articles can effectively counterbalance cognitive rigidity." At Pixar, once an animator has sufficiently specialized, he or she is encouraged to take a step beyond that specialty, by, for example, taking courses on film direction or production.

After that, the door is thrown wide open, and the company supports every category of interest, offering courses on subjects as varied as violin and belly-dancing. As the Pixar example suggests, timing is essential to fostering and sustaining creativity. "It takes four to five years to build specialized knowledge," says Mannucci. “During these years, we found it to have a positive impact on creativity." According to his findings, specialized knowledge is a required baseline and remains so after the five-year "formative" period, but it stops having a positive effect. It does not actually have any significant impact on creativity again until a person has spent 30 years in a career.

From this point on, if nothing is done to counterbalance the rigidity that tends to build up naturally over the years, excessively specialized knowledge is likely to have a negative effect and hinder creativity. The effects of broad knowledge follow a different time frame. The positive, offsetting impact of building broader knowledge is not significant until a person has spent 10 years in a career. This is the point when over-specialization emerges as a genuine risk, and new perspectives are essential to keeping people's minds flexible and open. "Interestingly, 10 years is also what HR research shows to be the time when people are likely to leave their company or position. This suggests that continued specialization and lack of diversity are not only negative for creativity but also for motivation."  

Sustaining creativity over time

"Researchers used to think creativity followed a curvilinear path over a career, peaking mid-career, but our study shows that creativity is possible at any point," says Mannucci. The ability to generate new ideas is a matter of balance between specialized and diverse knowledge, and varying degrees of cognitive flexibility. The optimal amount of each changes over time and the balance must be readjusted accordingly. "Filmmaker Quentin Tarentino and Apple's Steve Jobs are often considered to have been very creative straight away, but in fact, before holding key creative roles, they both developed their knowledge base extensively through university courses, assistantships, short films, and so on."

Moreover, Mannucci comments that by neglecting to take the evolution of people's knowledge characteristics into account, many companies are losing valuable human capital. New input can stimulate older people and enable them to keep contributing to the company. As more and more businesses rely on creativity to be competitive, they need to respond to the challenge of figuring out how long to spend on building specialized knowledge and when to diversify. According to Mannucci, the task and client-rotation schemes often used in consulting firms are an effective means to develop a productive balance of knowledge. 

Practical Applications

Image - Social Networks



Pier Vittorio Mannucci was a PhD student at HEC Paris and is now an Assistant Professor of Organisational Behaviour at London Business School. His...

Related content on Organizational Behavior

Anne-Sophie Chaxel

How Storytelling Can Increase Support for Whistleblowers

By Hervé Stolowy, Luc Paugam

©photon_photo e-government HEC Paris Shirish Srivastava

How E-Government Curbs Corruption

By Shirish Srivastava

Guillaume Alliel

When your CV doesn’t interfere with strategic job hopping

By Roxana Barbulescu

Subscribe button for Knowledhe@HEC newsletter

Newsletter knowledge

A monthly brief in your email box and 3 issues of the book per year.

Insights @HECParis School of #Management

Support Research

Our articles are produced thanks to our reader's support no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail


Profile image of Daniele  Giampaoli

It is common opinion that knowledge management practices and creativity are very important factors for firms facing a turbulent and dynamic environment. Knowledge and creativity in fact are a helpful support for managers that have to make decisions under uncertain and complex conditions: they are not only complementary but also synergic in the problem solving process. This paper aims to shed light on the benefits that knowledge and creativity are able to produce for organizational decision making, underlining differences and analogies between them. Only once certain aspects have been clarified it will be easier to judge the opportunity of investing in KM infrastructure or, in the case it already exists, what kind of changes are needed to improve creativity and/or decision-making speed.

Related Papers


The main purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of nomadic organizations in tourism sector. In this study, data which was acquired from the interviews made with the owners of small enterprises was analyzed. At the end of the analysis, it was found out that there was a potential of nomadic organization in simple structure tourism establishments.

creativity vs knowledge essay

Pelin ARSEZEN , Sumeyra Babacan

This research analyses businesses that are classified as restaurants, cafes, bars, etc. and managed by their owners. The study is based on common properties of these businesses which are identified through empirical research on these kinds of businesses. The study also focuses on a region and uses generalization. It is original since it deals with small food and beverages businesses that did not receive enough attention in tourism literature; and it lights the way for future researches on these businesses. As a result, it is seen that the businesses subject to the research do not have competitive advantage.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for strategic governance linking international competitiveness and networking and validate the model empirically. This model will help to develop generic and systematic policy guidelines that can be used by policy makers to establish and continually improve competitiveness. A literature review is undertaken to derive the hypotheses and the included constructs. The study will test the path analytical model using partial least squares analyses on survey data from marine tourism companies located in Fethiye.


The purpose of this research is contributing to multiplying leadership practices that increase employee commitment by determining which paternalist leadership dimensions are more effective in employee commitment. Consequently, it was found that paternalism and helpful leadership had positive effect while autocratic leadership had negative effect on organizational commitment.

Riste Temjanovski

Entrepreneurial ability is a situation in which technology or changes in economic, political, social and demographic conditions create the potential for creating something new. Entrepreneurial opportunity can be utilized by creating a new product or service, opening new markets, develops new ways of organizing, using of new material, or introducing new manufacturing process. The main question is how making the possibilities in entrepreneurial world?

Tracy Logan

This study investigated the performance and reasoning of 143 Australian students who completed mathematics tasks sourced from their national test. Specifically, this study examined changed student performance and reasoning on items where the graphic component was modified. The results of the study revealed significant performance differences between the original and modified items and provided insights into how these modifications influenced student reasoning.

Daniele Giampaoli , Massimo Ciambotti

It is common opinion that knowledge management practices and creativity are very important factors for firms facing a turbulent and dynamic environment. Knowledge and creativity in fact are a helpful support for managers that have to make decisions under uncertain and complex conditions. Knowledge generates economic value when it is utilized to solve problems and making decisions and so problem solving becomes the way thanks to which it is possible to link firm knowledge to firm performance. But when facing new problems, people and organizations will have to go beyond their knowledge maps and find a new path that will allow them to find new solutions. That is why PS involves a great deal of creativity. They are not only complementary but also synergic in the problem solving process. This paper aims to shed light on the benefits that knowledge and creativity are able to produce for the problem solving process and how this, in turn, impacts on firms' performance. We collected survey data from January to March 2015 from a sample of 1525 leading Italian industrial companies. Findings confirm that work design, organizational culture and structure increase organizational creativity and, more generally, the firm's ability to solve problems (efficacy in finding and implementing new and useful solutions). Results also suggest that in order to successfully win challenges and arrive where nobody else has been before people need to rely on both their knowledge and creativity. Furthermore it seems very clear that creativity deploys its greatest potential when it rests on strong epistemic bases. It can be gathered that for a better understanding of the potential benefits deriving from knowledge and creativity it is necessary to consider the synergy they could activate. One of the main limitations of the present paper is that it has not been possible to stratify problem solving skills by hierarchical levels (i.e., strategic, tactical, operational) nor split them in to functional areas (i.e., marketing, finance, R&D, etc.). Another limitation is the generalizability of results given that the data was collected from one single European country.

International Academic Conference on Law, Politics and Management

Dr.Mohamed AbdElnaby

Being the initial building block in the edifice of society, it is a must to study the family and the rules related to its safety and stability. It is a study of the principles on which we can strengthen the structure of this human edifice and setting its foundations on deep-rooted bases of good values to let its members go around constructing the world, sowing the seeds of goodness and spreading mercy and justice on the basis of coherence and not hatred and abhorrence. So, the Egyptian legislator has set up Family Courts aiming at caring for the family and protecting its members from the causes of cracking or chaos which may befall the family and settling the disputes that may arise among its members. This cannot be attained except via setting up such courts, with the same formation and specialization we are going to tackle, whose job is to end family disputes through conciliation among the disputed parties. Keyword: Family Court, Formation, Elements, Family Court Judge, Family Court Experts, Law No. 10 of 2004, Egypt. >>> Mohamed Abdelnaby Elsayed Ghanem, “The Formation of Family Courts in Egypt According to Law No. 10 of 2004” paper presented at International Academic Conference on Law, Politics and Management”, Vilnius, Lithuania, May 28- 29, 2015. (ISBN: 978-9941-0-7713-5).

Aneta Sokół (Sokol)

Hakim Othman

The paper aims at examining whether the return-future earnings relationship vary with corporate financial leverage, ownership structure and proprietary costs for a sample of 240 firms in the context of Middle Eastern and North African emerging markets. Our results emphasized first a negative association between share price anticipation of future earnings and financial leverage level. We showed also that the return-future earnings relationship is positively related to the level of institutional ownership. Findings revealed in addition and inconsistent with our assumption that insider ownership influences positively the ability of stock return to predict future earnings. Finally, proprietary costs didn’t seem to impact the return future earnings relationship in that only a positive effect on current earnings informativeness was observed.


  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

Creativity is Based on Knowledge

Author biography.

' src=


Can creativity be cultivated in our current school system?

I’ve been watching more and more TED talks lately, and what I hope to do is share one or two of them each month on my blog. This time, I’m sharing “Why real creativity is based on knowledge” by Tim Leunig  from  TEDxWhitehall .

Educationalist and historian Tim Leunig takes on Sir Ken Robinson, with a witty and erudite riposte to the famous claim that schools are killing creativity . He argues that world-changing ideas, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, are based on knowledge. This in turn is enabled by literacy, a skill passed on by parents and teachers all over the world.

Click To Tweet

There is much to agree with Leunig here. I for one believe creativity is built upon a strict discipline of knowledge and skills, but I think the key point has been missed in Leunig’s reference to Sir Ken Robinson.

The first issue is how do we define  creativity. The second, how does a national curriculum promote ‘ real creativity’  if some schools can deviate away from certain subjects as an academy or free school, yet be measured by another narrow range of subjects?

Real creativity does require knowledge. I am pleased to hear Leunig promote this. The issue I understand from Robinson’s talk, is that our schools are becoming examination factories and forms of creativity are being stifled. Whether creativity in Robinson’s view is gathering knowledge to pass tests or to be taught in a particular style, I have no idea.

The creative process is much more fluid and intertwined than just a linear process. However, with any subject discipline, a knowledge-base is required. As teachers, we cannot assume that there is no structure or form to being ‘creative’, and that creativity depends on talent and inspiration alone. It doesn’t. ( Creative Teaching and Applied Imagination .)

Freedom or Discipline?

In Professor Richard Kimbell and Professor Kay Stables’ book,  Researching Design Learning , which covers two decades on Research and Development, a linear process of designing and making is offered. “… the teacher has to reconcile two conflicting demands: giving the maximum freedom to the pupils to develop their own ideas and to pursue any approach which seems to them to offer a reasonable outcome.

[Creativity] seldom proceeds by way of a series of clearly recognisable stages to a neat solution. There is always the possibility of refinement, of coming at a solution by a better route, or revising the original intention in favour of a simpler or more effective technique …”

Of course, knowledge is required, but how can creativity be encouraged in our schools that are likened to examination factories? Teachers will often cite that they are teaching to the test rather than teaching for the love of their subject.

In a Singapore study by Tan Oon Seng (2000), Seng makes reference to the  Problem-based Creativity Learning (PBCL) programme and the emphasis on cognitive and meta-cognitive learning as the “content” and discusses the psychological development of creativity.

Seng concludes that problem-based creativity “can develop students to be flexible and creative thinkers.” On the one hand, it points to the modifiability of students’ abilities in these areas; but on the other, it points to a possible intervention to bring about this development!

Therefore, creativity has its foundations built upon a knowledge base, but with anything delivered in the classroom, it requires the skills of a good teacher to ensure outcomes are met.

Nevertheless, I have some further questions to raise about ‘real creativity’.

  • Could we assume, that to be creative requires knowledge via cognitive and meta-cognitive learning?
  •  If knowledge is required to be creative in a subject, how do we determine what that is for our students?
  • Can problem-based creativity be taught in all subjects?
  • With reduced entries in examinations in the Arts subjects , how does this support Leunig’s or Robinson’s views?
  • There are fewer language teachers entering the profession . How will the EBacc 90% measure influence GCSE options ?
  • Do we really want our students shoehorned into a particular group of subjects in order to meet government aspirations?
  • Do we still believe Arts or Science is more important than the other?
  • Do we still believe knowledge is more important than skills?
  • Can students be creative in the current national curriculum and test culture?
  • and what is creativity anyway?

Surely, we want all of our students to be creative; to use prior knowledge and skills to be able to solve problems. Isn’t that what real creativity is, regardless of what subject is being taught?


  • Education England:
  • Seng: Problem-based Creativity Learning (PBCL) programme: Problem-based Creativity Learning (PBCL) programme
  • Researching Design Learning: Stables, Kimbell. This book attempts to answer: How does the active, concrete learning tradition enable cognitive and emotional growth? What influences bear upon the process; the teacher, the environment, the task, the learners themselves?


Tim Leunig kindly got in touch and has answered my questions in this post:

  • Overwhelmingly so.
  •   The question is who is “we”. I argue that “we” should be in three parts – society as a whole (which means, de facto, the government), the school (at school and teacher level) and the pupil themselves. I think it would legitimate for government to decide (for example) that all children should study history from age M to age N, and that the curriculum should include particular items. I would be less happy with a government textbook, although these are common in many countries.
  • I can’t think of any for which this would not be true, although I would be interested in responses from teachers.
  • I don’t accept that there are reduced entries. Remember, the size of the cohort has been falling in recent times, so it doesn’t make sense to use the absolute numbers as a judge of the popularity of these subjects. There is a quality kite-marked “national statistic” covering the proportion of children taking at least one arts subject. (  table 8, page 15). The series starts in 2010, and the number has varied between 45% and 50%. There is no trend, either up or down. Arts subjects include Applied Art and Design, Art and Design, Drama, Media/Film/TV, Music, Dance and Performing Arts. The figures include GCSEs, level 1/2 certificates, and AS levels.
  • More children will take EBacc subjects, and we are working very hard to recruit more language teachers.
  • The question is, to what extent do we want shoehorning? I think that everyone thinks that everyone should do English and maths, for example. (Maybe Ken Robinson doesn’t, but if he doesn’t, he is in a small minority). Most countries have a stronger national curriculum than we do, and we know that some subjects are more useful in terms of (say) getting into university than others. I think that it is legitimate for policymakers to worry that bright kids from poorer backgrounds are less likely to do traditional subjects, and therefore less likely to get into the sorts of universities that are more likely to lead to well-paid jobs. Becky Allen at FFT writes well on this.
  • I don’t – although there are times when one is more useful than the other. If I am at a concert, I want musicians, if I am in hospital, I want a doctor. Society is clearly better for having both, and in any case, there are very few people who are dramatically better at one than the other. Few people get A*s in one group and Es in the other.
  • I see these are complementary, although I struggle to understand the difference sometimes. Is reading knowledge or a skill, for example? I think that this debate is best put to one side.
  • I see creative work every time I visit schools, so yes. But I think that is for others to tell those of us in government!
  • I have had my say on that one, in my TedX video, and will be interested in what others say.
  • Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)

4 thoughts on “ Creativity is Based on Knowledge ”

Tim Leunig celebrates knowledge and literacy and creativity and yet, seemingly without embarrassment, admits that he is incapable of comprehending a YouTube video demonstrating how he can change the oil on his car. He has someone else do it for him, and I don’t hear him celebrating that person. What does that say about his idea of “knowledge”? I suppose learning how to change the oil in one’s car is not a valued knowledge skill. I don’t think it would be hard to find many more examples of knowledgeable people whose knowledge is not considered of “worthy” social value, and yet, we depend on those people. Those in the service industry, the trades, computer programming… Creativity requires curiosity, and yes, knowledge. And knowledge can be added after someone imagines, “There must be another way to…” The cultivating of creativity requires space and opportunity for possibilities to emerge. Do we have the courage to cultivate creativity in our students when it means that we have to embrace uncertainty and the unknown in order to get to a new place of knowing?

You make a very valid point about the oil and the car garage. It’s definitely a valued knowledge, but yet not acknowledged.

A great article, drawing on some interesting sources. ‘What is creativity?’ is a crucial question to be asking – re-defining creativity to give it a broader meaning that encompasses creative thinking beyond the arts is crucial to helping schools shape the kind of creative thinkers that businesses and society are increasingly demanding.

The largest problem we see is that even if creativity requires knowledge, ‘teaching knowledge’ is not enough in and of itself to produce creative thinkers. Creativity doesn’t happen enough ‘incidentally’ in a school focusing on knowledge acquisition, and students don’t experience the reflexive focus necessary to improve their creative thinking skills.

This gap is the reason we’ve built a resource for teachers that helps them explicitly work on students’ creativity (along with other important skills beyond knowledge acquisition). (Link to advert removed by Admin)

  • Pingback: Useful links | Rhondda's Reflections - wandering around the Web

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .

Our partners

Privacy overview.

Creativity and Imagination vs Knowledge and Wisdom

poonam choudhary

poonam choudhary

creativity vs knowledge essay

If you think about these and all the great discoveries and inventions that have changed the world, you would realise that they all began with someone’s imagination. No one actually knew such things could exist until someone dreamt about them and worked towards making them a reality.

So, you see, knowledge is useful only if you can imagine what all you can do with it. No doubt that the next step is to gather all the possible knowledge, but the first step is to imagine the possibilities. Most of the scientists, entrepreneurs and artists vouch for imagination and creativity as the basis for their great work.

Albert Einstein famously said, “ Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand. ”

It is difficult to argue this statement, not just because it was said by a genius, but also because it’s true. It is the imagination and creativity that has been the driving the engine of our civilization. That said, knowledge and wisdom have helped man transform his imagination into reality. Once you have a vision of what you want to create, you need to acquire knowledge, dig into your experiences and seek the existing wisdom to make it happen.

Entrepreneurs are often referred to as creators because they are in the business of creating and innovating so it’s almost a necessity for you to be imaginative. Unless you can imagine a new solution to an existing problem, you cannot really thrive. In fact, imagination is the first step to entrepreneurship. And just like how kids can be nurtured to become artists or athletes or scientists, you can train yourself to be more imaginative. Many people fail to recognise this first step when they set off to become an entrepreneur and face roadblocks midway in their journey. Knowledge of market, competitors, customers can only take you so far, but it takes imagination to do something more inimitable and disruptive.

As I said before, we cannot discount the importance of knowledge, and more so, of wisdom. When knowledge, experience and common sense come together, it becomes wisdom. Unfortunately, knowledge and wisdom are often used interchangeably but you need to understand that knowledge is a part of wisdom. For example, any one with the knowledge of market can identify the potential markets in your industry but it takes wisdom to go after the right one. Wisdom gives you the power to make right judgement at the right time. While you can gather knowledge through education, reading and even googling, wisdom comes from gathering experiences.

Wisdom is the bridge between imagination and reality. So, the debate is not really of imagination and creativity vs knowledge and wisdom, it is how you can bring all these four elements together to create something that adds value and helps you in solving a real problem.

In today’s digital age, there is no dearth of ways to seek knowledge. In fact, we are constantly bombarded with information and facts which has moved us further away from imagination and creativity. We feel that reading more articles or keeping yourself updated with tweets or taking up online courses will help us achieve all are goals. But, clearly, that’s not true. If you wish to develop wonderful things and transform the way you live, you need to widen your vision and imagination. Good news is that if you feel that you are not creative enough or lack imagination, there are ways in which you can develop it.

To be able to imagine new possibilities, you need to start by questioning the existing ones. You need to ask why anything is being done the way it is being done. Curiosity is the single most important trait of creative and imaginative people. Questioning opens up doors for innumerable likelihoods and gradually from asking “why”, you start thinking in terms of “what-if”. Right there, in “what-ifs” lies limitless possibilities to imagine somethings that have never been thought of before.

Also, take your own offering, whatever it is that you are building, into consideration and ask questions like – what if I changed the design or the model, what if this product was still to be used after 10 years, what if I received 2 million in investment. These questions would set your mind free from the limited thinking that you have adopted and let you imagine new things for your own business.

#Have thought-provoking conversations

Having stimulating conversations with other people is a great way to unleash your creativity. When I say stimulating conversation, you really need to think out of the box. So, next time you meet your friends or family, indulge them in such discussions rather than spending time watching TV or just chit chatting.

Don’t hesitate to discuss wacky situations related to different fields like politics, history, science or anything that you and your friends are into-

 – What would happen if the earth stops rotating

– If America was not a democracy, how would things be

– What would animals say if they could talk

It may seem crazy at first but when you get into these discussions, you would really start imagining things that do not exist. If you do it on regular basis then it is a sure shot way to improve your creativity. Your mind and sub-conscious start getting trained in thinking differently and without limits.

#Get involved in a creative process

Most of the time, as entrepreneurs, you are involved in taking care of operations or building strategies or something else, but you are always busy. Your mind is so involved with everyday activities that there is no space for creative ideas. Creativity and imagination cannot be achieved in haste and they need to be nurtured. So, you need to make it a point to get involved in activities which literally involve creating something. You could consider one of the activities from following list or add some of your own-

  • Decorating your house
  • Playing music
  • Painting/Sketching

All these activities require you to actually create something using your own thoughts and imagination. You may feel that they are not directly related your work, but they are great at training your brain to be more open and creative. Brain doesn’t isolate activities from each other, so it is natural that creativity that you acquire doing these activities will spill over into your work.

Our lifestyles have become so fast and stressed out that we have absolutely no time to stand and observe our surroundings. And in that, we are missing out not only on joy of living, but also on a great chance to stimulate our senses and creativity.

Develop a habit to pause down and cut your regular stream of thoughts. This will make you more attentive to what’s happening around you and to your amazement, you will see things that you never thought existed. Observe strangers, colleagues, children, nature, hawkers and not just superficially but in details. Generally, in our day-today lives, we look at everything but never observe them. You will be surprised at how observing small things can inspire you and train your brain to become more detail oriented.

Creativity is not superficial and that’s the reason you need to develop this habit of being detail-oriented. Observation is the easiest way to get inspiration from your own surrounding and see things which others fail to see.

#Learn about people who transcended boundaries

Get into the minds of people who have been able to imagine the unimaginable and turn them into reality. If you can understand how Einstein developed the theory of relativity or how Steve Jobs created iPod or how Christopher Nolan came up with Inception, it would give you some insights into how you can accomplish things like these too.

Apart from the famous personalities, you may find many such creative people around you. You should try to know them better and understand how they think. If they are someone you know then you can obviously interact with them directly. Otherwise, you should try to read as many biographies as possible or watch documentaries made on the lives of these great visionaries.

Sometimes, all we need is a little motivation to break free from our limited thoughts and explore the limitless possibilities.

Get into the habit of imagining! Yes, people may think that you are foolish in doing so but people are not always right. Imagine the things you want to do, the places you want to see and the person you want to be. All great things were once just someone’s thoughts or ideas.

Most of us used to be quite imaginative as children but as we grow up we lose that habit. We start to think in more “practical” terms and that’s where we start losing the power of imagination. People start telling us that day dreaming is a bad thing and we believe them. Well, that’s not true.

The bottom line is that that you already understand the importance of knowledge and wisdom, but imagination is like the unsung hero. Knowledge can help you accomplish many things, but imagination and creativity will help you accomplish great things. So, it’s time that you develop your creativity and imagination, if not more, then as much as you are focussed on gathering knowledge, skills and information.

  • What can I learn here?
  • Why do I need this app?
  • Get iOS App
  • Get Android App

How knowledge can stimulate creativity?

Improve knowledge to increase your creativity

How knowledge can stimulate creativity?

It turns out that knowledge and creativity are not rivals but friends. Moreover, their relationship is co-dependent.

What is creativity?

Creativity is often considered a skill connected with art, architecture, design, etc. Judging from this site, if we are not in the movie industry, don`t paint beautiful artworks, or do anything from scratch, we are not creative, right? Well, that`s not entirely true.

In the broader sense, creativity is the new combination of knowledge we already have. Its main function lies in discovering new ideas or modifying existing concepts. 

Creativity vs. knowledge

Where knowledge is facts and information, creativity is how we use them. 

To produce new ideas, implement effective solutions, build strategies and see things from fresh perspectives, we need to know much. 

Think of knowledge as a house construct and creativity as an architectural design for more metaphoric images. Without a profound understanding of how to build the house, you won`t be able to implement any original concept. That`s why knowledge is the basis for creative thinking skills.

Becoming more intelligent is necessary to boost creativity because it provides us with a wide range of information and connections between things we might use to make something new. Without a solid knowledge base, it is impossible to pursue a career, have a reputation as a skillful worker, or feel more confident in daily conversations. Knowledge is restricted with rules, facts, and deep research. It has a foundation of millions of people`s minds and has been time-proofed. 

On the other hand, creativity is limited only by your imagination, for there is no string attached. There is a saying that creativity is intelligence having fun, and well, that`s quite true. Without knowledge and creativity working in tandem, nothing new can appear.

Why do we need to be creative?

If we are smart, we know many facts, grasp much information, can quickly multiply 25×25, that`s great. There is but, though. Living in the Google era, everyone has information at their fingertips, but only by enhancing creativity can we transform it into new ideas and use it in a non-conventional way. 

Creativity enables non-linear thinking to see things from the other angle and make unusual decisions to solve problems. It pushes us to think out of the box, makes us curious and less judgmental, more innovative, and open to new experiences.

As a cherry on the top, creativity decreased mortality risk. According to Scientific American, being engaged in a creative process helps reduce stress, let go of negative emotions, and feel less anxiety.

How to increase creativity?

Creativity is not a talent; it is a skill that demands training and challenge. We want to highlight five tips on how to acquire knowledge and, as a result, how to improve creativity. The starting point, of course, is boosting your intelligence.

Use Nerdish

Research-based learning can advance our knowledge to a higher level ASAP. That`s why we created Nerdish. Our app provides you with cutting-edge information on everything on Earth, from technology, history, and science to everyday things, health, and art. To get information is one thing, but to know how to connect those dots requires a wide life frame, so Nerdish here provides you with those instruments. Apart from articles, we prepared quizzes to make sure new information is stuck in your head for good. If you need a magic kick, we added a tracker to measure time spent on reading.

Nerdish: bite-sized knowledge about everything in the world

Get the app with educational topics about everything in the World

Nerdish app to learn something new: screenshot #9

Try new things

Suppose you are a pro in your job, like super Python-developer, accounter, or a chef at a restaurant. Surely, you are primarily interested in your field and try to keep up. However, when we do the same things, read the same journals\news channels, interact with the same people, we might find ourselves in the informational bubble so that we run over and over the same ideas all the time. To push those boundaries, we should try something new every day. Listen to podcasts instead of just music, read about Mental Health Guide in addition to your regular news update, watch “How to” videos, and try to learn something unusual, like playing an instrument, making pottery, or a foreign language. The more new things we try, the more insights of different kinds we get. And by connecting and rethinking those insights, we can create new senses.

Learn through collaboration

Working in teams helps us find the best solutions through communication and collaboration. Old but good brainstorming technique proves to be efficient in discovering creative ideas in teamwork. Working hand-to-hand can boost your creativity immensely because you are interacting with others, seeing things from their point of view. Moreover, we interact with people from different countries with diverse cultural backgrounds and life positions in our globalized world. So, teamwork is one of the best ways to stimulate creativity.

Read quality literature and watch movies

Stories, even fictional ones, are powerful instruments to stimulate creativity and innovation. They plunge us into the other reality, send us through time and space, teach us life lessons in a harmless way, give us opportunities to understand characters better, and, consequently, know about ourselves as well. Books and movies are unlimited sources of inspiration that show how creative minds think and provide us with new ideas and patterns.

Improve Knowledge To Increase Your Creativity #2

Stay curious

Staying curious is the inner fuel that drives you to explore the unknown and look for new information. As we learn something about one topic, we find out about other things that we still don`t know. Consequently, our curiosity pushes us to close that gap. 

Staying curious is closely connected with open-mindedness. It allows us to learn from others` experiences, listen to different points of view, see another side of the medal (actually, many-many sides). Simply speaking, being open-minded leads us to new opportunities and solutions unseen before, which helps us stimulate creativity.

There is no place for debates over what is more important: creativity or knowledge? Both things are closely connected and important to gain success in all life aspects.

More on this story

11 ways to become smarter that work for us, wondering “how long should i read a day” here is an answer., 8 ways to improve your personal development skills, learn something new every week.

Nerdish app to learn something new: screenshot #6

  • Factorium: Daily History Facts
  • Virtuoso on Google Play
  • Virtuoso on AppStore
  • Factorium on Google Play
  • Factorium on AppStore
  • Nerdish Topics
  • About Nerdish
  • Controlled Substances DEA Compliance Digital Logbook
  • Privacy Policy
  • Term of Use
  • Cookie Policy (EU)
  • [email protected]

creativity vs knowledge essay

We will let you know when Android version is ready

TV Acres

Knowledge vs. Creativity

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

It is more important to learn knowledge from studying than to develop creativity.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


My teachers are always encouraging the students to memorize lots of different facts. However, I feel this is the wrong approach to education. Instead, it is more important to develop students’ creativity than to learn knowledge from studying.

For one thing, creative people are often more successful. It does not take intelligence to do well in life. In fact, many of the most successful people were the most creative. One example is Henry Ford. He did not invent the assembly line. Instead, he used his creativity to adapt it to make cars on it. That made his company incredibly profitable. Additionally, there are many artists and other individuals who lack “book learning.” Instead, they have huge amounts of creativity. These people range from Pablo Picasso to Steven Spielberg, but they all have two things in common: They were highly creative and highly successful.

Additionally, creative people can dramatically change the world. This is possible because they think “outside the box.” They are open to new ways of seeing the world and are willing to explore them. Bill Gates is one such example. He never graduated from college. Instead, he quit school to help form Microsoft. His creativity made Microsoft a world leader in computer technology, and now the great majority of people in the world use its software products on their computers. Steve Jobs of Apple is another success story through creativity. He too never graduated from college. Thanks to his creative mind, however, he has led Apple to success after success. Thanks to Jobs, people listen to music on their iPods and call their friends on their iPhones today. Creative people like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs have improved the world by introducing new ideas and products.

Therefore, developing creativity is more important than learning knowledge from studying. Creative people usually have more success and can also change the world in a positive way. I would much rather be creative than have lots of book knowledge.

(327 Words)

Related posts:

  • Knowledge gained from experience vs. knowledge gained from books
  • School Teach for Careers or General Knowledge?
  • Teachers: Relate Well or Pass on Knowledge? – TOEFL Essays Score 27 +
  • Updating Teachers’ Knowledge


  1. Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge? Essay

    creativity vs knowledge essay

  2. Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge? Essay

    creativity vs knowledge essay

  3. Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge? Essay

    creativity vs knowledge essay

  4. The Difference Between Creativity and Knowledge: Why It Matters

    creativity vs knowledge essay

  5. Knowledge Vs Creativity PowerPoint Template and Google Slides Theme

    creativity vs knowledge essay

  6. Importance of Creativity Essay Example

    creativity vs knowledge essay


  1. Money Vs Knowledge , Help Victor🤑😢

  2. Demand-driven creativity vs. free creativity. 🎨🔓 #CreativeExpression

  3. What is Creativity? (with Tyra Banks, David Guetta, & Avishai Abrahami)

  4. What happened to Poppy Playtime's CUT Antagonist?

  5. Creativity Vs efficiency

  6. Как развить креативность


  1. The Difference Between Creativity and Knowledge: Why It Matters

    Imagination spans the world.". It gives a sense of the scope of creativity as opposed to that of knowledge. Knowledge is limited to what's already happened or been discovered, whereas creativity is unlimited in time and place. Creative minds relish the chance to explore the unknown and come up with innovative ideas.

  2. Which Is More Important: Creativity or Knowledge?

    While knowledge is limited to one's skills, creativity has no boundaries since it goes as far as one's imagination can reach. Knowledge hardly goes beyond one's training or experience in a certain field, whereas creativity/imagination follows intuition and transcends one's acquired skills (Ox and van der Elst 84).

  3. The science behind creativity

    4. Go outside: Spending time in nature and wide-open spaces can expand your attention, enhance beneficial mind-wandering, and boost creativity. 5. Revisit your creative ideas: Aha moments can give you a high—but that rush might make you overestimate the merit of a creative idea.

  4. Creativity

    Creativity. Few things shape the human experience as profoundly or as pervasively as creativity does. And creativity raises a wealth of philosophical issues. Since art is such a salient domain of creativity, you might assume, at first, that the philosophy of creativity is the philosophy of art or aesthetics, or a branch thereof.

  5. What Is Creativity?

    Only creativity, he says, is about making something new, rather than merely applying or discovering something new. "Creative solutions are insightful, they're novel, they're simple, they're elegant, and they're generative," he says. "When you find one creative idea, more often than not it triggers other ideas in the same fashion.".

  6. Creativity or Knowledge

    Creativity and knowledge are like two rooms the creative side is filled with ideas, thoughts, and imagination while the other room is having information, a set of facts, and figures. The end goal of both things is the same but the way of reaching to goal is different. A creative person refers to identifying a new way of doing the work to find ...

  7. PDF Chapter 4: Innovation and creativity

    creatively. Creativity represents a balance between knowledge and freeing oneself of that knowledge' (Johnson-Laird, 1988, p.207, cited by Sternberg, 2012, p.4). For creative thinking to deepen and extend learning, rather than be an enjoyable but superficial activity, it must be grounded in understanding of the content being investigated.

  8. The Philosophy of Creativity

    By Scott Barry Kaufman on May 12, 2014. 5. There is little that shapes the human experience as profoundly and pervasively as creativity. Creativity drives progress in every human endeavor, from ...

  9. Why Creativity is More Important than Knowledge

    Lastly, one can use creativity (along with knowledge in other fields) to solve a lot of real-world problems that are currently quite difficult to approach. Many examples of this would involve the ...

  10. 12

    An important component of research in creativity has been the development of theories concerning the mechanisms underlying creative thinking. Modern theories of creative thinking have been advanced from many different viewpoints, ranging from Guilford's pioneering psychometric theory (e.g., 1950; see also Runco, 1991) to those developing out of clinical interests, broadly conceived (e.g ...

  11. Full article: The Role of Knowledge in Creative Thinking

    The associative theory of creativity argues that higher creative individuals have a richer semantic memory structure that facilitates broader associative search processes, that leads to the combination of remote concepts into novel and appropriate ideas. Based on this theory, in my research I investigate the role of knowledge - or semantic ...

  12. Which one is more important

    15. Knowledge is the information that we have through the experiences of our predecessors and our own at present. Information of all things discovered or experienced is knowledge. But, creativity is needed to put that information together to come up with new results and solutions. Albert Einstein said "Imagination is more important than ...

  13. The Philosophy of Creativity: New Essays

    Abstract. Creativity pervades human life. It is the mark of individuality, the vehicle of self-expression, and the engine of progress in every human endeavor. It also raises a wealth of philosophical questions, but curiously, it hasn't been a major topic in contemporary philosophy. The Philosophy of Creativity ventures to change that.

  14. Understanding Creativity

    Understanding Creativity. New research provides insight for educators into how to effectively assess creative work in K-12 classrooms. Understanding the learning that happens with creative work can often be elusive in any K-12 subject. A new study from Harvard Graduate School of Education Associate Professor Karen Brennan, and researchers ...

  15. How knowledge can stimulate but also impede creativity

    An insightful study provides a response to the long-standing question of why people's creativity varies over time. It shows that the ability to generate new ideas is related to knowledge depth, knowledge breadth, and cognitive complexity and flexibility. The prominence of each of these factors varies over time, so fostering creativity depends on adapting stimuli accordingly.


    Knowledge and creativity in fact are a helpful support for managers that have to make decisions. ... That's why in the last few years knowledge management (KM) discipline and many papers and journals (Journal ok Knowledge Management, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, etc.) have been increasing. ...

  17. Creativity and Knowledge

    The creative process is much more fluid and intertwined than just a linear process. However, with any subject discipline, a knowledge-base is required. As teachers, we cannot assume that there is no structure or form to being 'creative', and that creativity depends on talent and inspiration alone. It doesn't.

  18. Creativity and Imagination vs Knowledge and Wisdom

    Wisdom gives you the power to make right judgement at the right time. While you can gather knowledge through education, reading and even googling, wisdom comes from gathering experiences. Wisdom is the bridge between imagination and reality. So, the debate is not really of imagination and creativity vs knowledge and wisdom, it is how you can ...

  19. Improve knowledge to increase your creativity

    Creativity vs. knowledge. Where knowledge is facts and information, creativity is how we use them. To produce new ideas, implement effective solutions, build strategies and see things from fresh perspectives, we need to know much. Think of knowledge as a house construct and creativity as an architectural design for more metaphoric images.

  20. Knowledge vs. Creativity

    Creative people like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs have improved the world by introducing new ideas and products. Therefore, developing creativity is more important than learning knowledge from studying. Creative people usually have more success and can also change the world in a positive way. I would much rather be creative than have lots of book ...

  21. Creativity and Imagination vs Knowledge and Wisdom

    Albert Einstein famously said, " Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all ...