why tourism industry essay

Why is tourism so important to the economy?


Tourism isn’t just about holidays and new adventures on distant shores. This incredible industry, quite literally, makes the world go round. From supporting local businesses to making up trillions of dollars of the global GDP, the importance of tourism on the economy is simply massive. And with the COVID-19 pandemic crushing the tourism industry this year, the damage has been felt across the world. In celebration of World Tourism Day on 27 September, we take a look at why tourism is so important to the economy and why it’s crucial this industry makes a comeback. 

What is the importance of travel and tourism?

iconic red bus old buildings London

In 2019 alone, the tourism industry contributed 10.3% of the global GDP – that’s US$8.9 trillion! It also provided 330 million jobs, or one in 10 jobs around the world, while over the past five years the tourism industry created one in four new jobs. The sector also experienced a 3.5% growth in 2019, exceeding the global economic growth of 2.5% for the ninth year in a row. 

Those are some impressive stats, painting a stark picture of the importance of tourism to the economy. So what happens when there is no tourism? 

2020 was the year that travel really did stop, with COVID-19 bringing the tourism industry to a devastating halt. By April 2020, at least 7.1 billion people, or 91% of the global population , were living with COVID-19 related travel restrictions.

traditional Balinese dancers Indonesia

Six months later, many countries are beginning to emerge from local lockdowns and re-open borders. But the tourism industry has been dealt a heavy blow.

Countless businesses have been forced to close, from local family stores to multinational companies. Millions of people have lost their jobs and livelihoods. However, a loss of jobs and income is just the beginning of the losses the world would face without tourism.

RELATED CONTENT: 6 ways your travels directly impact the lives of others for the better

What are the impacts of tourism?

farmer and her child in lush green rice fields Vietnam

The advantages of tourism go beyond creating billions of dollars and hundreds of millions of jobs and business opportunities. A booming tourism industry helps to build infrastructure such as roads, parks, hospitals, schools and community areas.

It also helps to preserve heritage sites, natural wonders, and precious cultures, by creating space for people to showcase their cultural traditions and protect sacred areas. Your travels can have a direct positive impact when you stay in locally-owned accommodation, shop in artisan markets, take part in traditional festivals, and tour with local guides. 

The tourism industry also helps to protect the environment and its wildlife, with many tourism businesses offering eco-friendly services and encouraging tourists to respect the lands and communities they visit.

koala and baby on a tree Australia

Dozens of natural areas are gaining protection because of their importance to the tourism industry. There are also many inspiring cases of change, such as former poachers turning into safari guides or gamekeepers, as the income from tourists wanting to see wildlife means that protecting the animals is a far more valuable venture. Your trip can have a direct positive impact when you pay entry fees for national parks to ensure ongoing preservation. You should also always make sure you leave only footprints and take only photos from the natural areas you visit.

These positive impacts of the tourism industry are all part of a move towards responsible tourism. It’s all about having a beneficial effect on the communities we visit, protecting our wildlife, and caring for our planet. 

RELATED CONTENT: Travelling in today’s world: Your COVID-19 travel questions and concerns, answered

Why is responsible tourism important?

Indigenous man playing the didgeridoo Australia

Without responsible tourism, many communities, cultures, animals and lands will suffer. Since tourism income provides a huge incentive to preserve areas of natural and cultural importance, removing this incentive puts these precious places at a higher risk of extinction. They’re more likely to be destroyed to make way for more profitable, and often harmful, developments such as mass agriculture .

RELATED CONTENT: Never again shall we take for granted how truly interconnected we all are

Responsible tourism also means more tourism businesses are using sustainable practices and promoting eco-friendly and culturally sensitive trips. This leaves less space for unethical businesses using tourism to damage the environment and exploit people and wildlife.

group of people learning to surf on the beach

Responsible tourism is the way to go

The good news is, responsible tourism – and its big impact on the economy – is on the rise. As the tourism industry gradually makes a comeback in the wake of COVID-19, we’re likely to see changes in the way we travel. Travel trends like domestic travel, getting out into nature, and small group travel will all become more popular in 2021. 

RELATED CONTENT: From domestic travel to nature getaways, these are the 2021 travel trends we are seeing right now

After experiencing this global crisis together, we’re also feeling more interconnected than ever, and we’re more conscious of our impact on the environment. As a result, we’re more likely to take responsible holidays that celebrate our beautiful planet and connect with real people.

You can travel responsibly with Trafalgar with our JoinTrafalgar initiative, powered by the not-for-profit TreadRight Foundation . It was launched over a decade ago with a mission to use the positive power of travel to make a difference on our trips.

RELATED CONTENT: Now is the time to explore your own country, for you and the economy

How can my next trip help the economy?

local bakery Australia importance of tourism

So we’ve talked about the advantages of tourism to the economy and millions of people around the world… But how can we help the tourism industry make a comeback?

Since domestic travel will drive the recovery of tourism, the best place to travel first is your own backyard. Take it as a golden opportunity to explore some hidden gems in your own country!

You’ll get to reconnect with your local culture, history and nature, all while helping local businesses closer to home. When you spend money in small businesses like restaurants, hotels, shops and farms, you’re doing your part to support local families, revive the economy and bring travel back.

RELATED CONTENT: Aussies, here’s how your travels can directly boost the local economy

The wonders of local travel

Discovery Rottnest Island eco tent on beach

You can embrace domestic travel with Trafalgar’s new ‘Near Not Far’ trips. They’re offering amazing local adventures in countries like the USA , Canada , Australia and New Zealand . 

You can choose from local experiences like visiting a real working sheep farm in southern New Zealand , or staying in a seaside eco-tent on the stunning Rottnest Island. Take part in a special Navajo cookout in Monument Valley , or sleep like royalty in the gorgeous châteaux of Quebec and Ontario.

While we don’t know how long it will take for the economy to recover, we do know that tourism is a crucial part of its revival. So once travel restrictions ease and borders reopen, why not think about taking a trip? It will do wonders for the world. 

What is the importance of tourism to you? Let us know in the comments below…


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Reviving tourism industry post-COVID-19: A resilience-based framework

Gagan deep sharma.

a University School of Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16C, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

Asha Thomas

b Jagan Institute of Management Studies, Sector 5, Rohini, New Delhi, India

Justin Paul

c University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the tourism industry severely. Based on the review of 35 papers that studied the tourism industry in the wake of the pandemic, we propose a resilience-based framework for reviving the global tourism industry post-COVID-19. Our framework outlines four prominent factors for building resilience in the industry: government response, technology innovation, local belongingness, and consumer and employee confidence. We argue that using such inclusive resilience; the tourism industry may transform into a new global economic order characterized by sustainable tourism, society's well-being, climate action, and the involvement of local communities. We also offer directions for future research in the area.

1. Introduction

The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed critical health challenges worldwide. The pandemic is one of the most highly contagious outbreaks in recent human history, with more than 46 million cases and 1.2 million deaths (as on 31st October 2020) ( https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ ). Given the high speed of transmission of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), governments worldwide have had no other option but to impose lockdowns. The spread of the virus has severely threatened lives, and measures such as lockdowns have posed a critical risk to the masses' livelihoods ( Sharma & Mahendru, 2020 ). The economic shocks of the pandemic are being observed across all industries and sectors worldwide. While some industries can adapt to digital platforms and continue their struggle for survival ( Mehrolia, Alagarsamy, & Solaikutty, 2020 ), a few industries have encountered unprecedented failures due to travel restrictions and social distancing, thereby finding it extremely difficult to survive the pandemic. Tourism is one industry that cannot hold its ground without the mobility of tourists. The fall of 22% in tourist numbers in the first quarter of 2020 (compared to the same quarter of 2019), and the threat of 60% to 80% fall throughout 2020 (compared to 2019), are some indications of the havoc that the COVID-19 pandemic can cause for the global tourism industry ( World Tourism Organization, 2020 ). Tourism is one of the most labour-intensive sectors. Such a slowdown for the industry may put millions of jobs at risk, thereby threatening to roll back the progress made on the front of sustainable development goals ( World Tourism Organization, 2020 ).

As indicated by Rivera (2020) , examining the hospitality and tourism industries in the pandemic context is of paramount importance. Researchers have started to focus on this area, yet there is only limited work available so far. A search query on the Web of Science database yielded no more than 45 results that studied the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry. These studies are also observed to be all over the place, which poses a directional challenge for scholarship in the area. Such variance in studies fails to significantly enrich the body of knowledge, thereby proving to be of limited use to policymakers and practitioners.

The WHO (2017) recommends rapid reviews to provide timely evidence for policymakers to respond to the emergency. Since the COVID-19 pandemic threatens to be particularly fatal for the tourism industry, a rapid review of the available literature is highly recommended. Such a review will not merely consolidate the findings of the existing studies but also provide insights and directions for future researchers to focus on the appropriate problems plaguing the sector.

The above discussion drives our motivation to perform a review of the challenges being faced by the global tourism industry in the wake of COVID-19. The research questions for our study are set as follows:

To observe the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry by studying the emerging body of knowledge in the field;

To suggest a policy framework that enables market players and governments worldwide to cope with the challenges emerging for the global tourism industry from the outbreak of the pandemic.

Out of the 47 papers found on the Web of Science database, we discovered that 10 do not meet the inclusion criteria (detailed in the methodology section). We rigorously reviewed 37 papers to synthesize their findings and propose a framework for further advancement of the scholarship in this area. Our results reveal that the pandemic has created severe roadblocks for the tourism industry, and the way ahead seems to be rocky. We learn that this challenge may open the doors for local tourism, eco-tourism, and sustainable tourism, which have long been part of the discussion but have failed to take any tangible shape so far. Four significant themes emerge from our work, namely, sustainable tourism, climate action, transformation to the new global economic order, and resilience. We make a significant theoretical and practical contribution to the field by suggesting a coping-up mechanism, which revolves around resilience. Our framework includes resilience from market players, governments, non-government agencies, and all other stakeholders.

The remainder of our paper is organized as follows: The next section discusses the methodology of our work, the third section presents the thematic discussion, the fourth section highlights the future research agenda, and the last section concludes by outlining the policy framework to deal with the challenges emerging from COVID-19 for the tourism industry.

2. Methodology

The systematic reviewing methodology is followed in this paper. The advent of this methodology in the field of management is recent ( Paul & Criado, 2020 ; Tranfield, Denyer, & Smart, 2003 ). This methodology is driven by its merits in the form of systematic, transparent, and replicable review ( Cook, Greengold, Ellrodt, & Weingarten, 1997 ; Cook, Mulrow, & Haynes, 1997 ; Hao & al, 2019 ; Wolf, Shea, & Albanese, 2001 ). It is also inspired by prior review articles ( Bansal, Garg, & Sharma, 2019 ; Dhaliwal, Singh, & Paul, 2020 ; Gilal, Zhang, Paul, & Gilal, 2019 ; Jain, Sharma, & Mahendru, 2019 ; Paul & Feliciano-Cestero, 2020 ; Paul & Mas, 2020 ; Rosado-Serrano, Paul, & Dikova, 2018 ; Talan & Sharma, 2019 ; Thomas & Paul, 2019 ).

Records were searched employing the Web of Science database. The usage of this database ensures a consistent standard for the articles. Using keywords like “COVID-19,” “tourism,” “hospitality,” and “coronavirus,” we found 47 records. Since the problem of COVID-19 pertains to 2020, the records are fewer in number. Nevertheless, given the mandate of the WHO for rapid reviews, we consider it worthwhile to conduct a review in this pivotal field. These records were then screened through titles and abstracts. It was discovered that 37 papers fell within our theme, while the remaining 10 did not. These 37 papers were selected for further analysis. These papers are shown in Table 1 .

Reviewed papers.

To arrive at the appropriate themes studied in the selected papers, we ran a cluster analysis on these papers' keywords through the VOS viewer project developed by Leiden University, the Netherlands. Through this approach, we came up with four clusters, namely, sustainable tourism, climate action, transformation to the new global economic order, and resilience. We use these clusters as the themes for our work, and group the keywords of the 35 records within these themes, which drive the thematic discussion of our study.

This analysis leads to the development of three clusters as detailed in Table 2 .

Keywords and clusters.

3. Thematic discussion

Fig. 1 exhibits the prominent keywords clustered into three groups. First, the focus of research has been around the future of tourism, wherein the body of knowledge is concerned about the future of tourism sector, specifically in the context of communities and the cause of sustainability. Second, the scholarship is engaged in deliberating on the issues of resilience, mobility, degrowth, and sustainable tourism. Finally, there is an ongoing discussion around geopolitics, climate change, and transformation to the new situation through a reset of the sector. We use these keywords to draw two major themes, comprising four sub-themes, as exhibited in Fig. 2 . This thematic discussion is presented below.

Fig. 1

Clusters of keywords used by the reviewed literature.

Fig. 2

Thematic framework.

3.1. Resilience

The business world recognizes resilience as a crisis management tool/strategy for business stability and adaptability to all types of risks, during natural disasters and emergencies. Furthermore, business resilience is linked to the organization's ability to adapt to the environment and new circumstances to mitigate the effects of the incident ( Supardi, Kudus, Hadi, & Indonesia, 2020 ). Resilience strategies require coordination, various crisis management techniques, good relationships (among all stakeholders), a comprehensive network, recognition of risks and opportunities, and timely and scalable intervention ( Alves, Lok, Luo, & Hao, 2020 ; Fitriasari, 2020 ). The literature on resilience identifies proactive, absorptive/adaptive, reactive, or dynamic attributes of resilience ( Supardi et al., 2020 ).

Historically, the tourism industry has quickly bounced back after disasters, pandemics, and epidemics like Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Local, regional, or national governments are aiding in the industry's recovery by luring investors through tax breaks, lenient land-use rules, etc. ( Brouder, 2020 ; Ioannides & Gyimóthy, 2020 ). Before international travel can resume, domestic tourism will boost the resumption of the tourism industry in the wake of the pandemic. Other factors, including technological resilience, local belongingness, and customer and employee confidence, may help build industry resilience, which is the need of the hour.

3.1.1. Governments' response to COVID-19: A new outlook

Businesses across industries are looking forward to “business as usual”, and the tourism industry is no exception. All the industries are banking largely upon “government stimulus packages and interventions” to improve their productivity. For instance, TUI, the world's most prominent multinational tourism organization, is taking the UK and German governments' aid and has announced cost reduction in its operations across the world ( Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 ). The government has become a significant role player in the economy of tourism ( Table 3 ). This has resulted in the re-nationalization of airlines, tourism firms, and networks like airports. This is something different in comparison to earlier crises, which created curiosity in research and institutions and had no “policy impact,” particularly in the tourism industry ( Hall et al., 2020 ). Tsionas (2020) discusses post-COVID-19 problems and mentions that “opening at limited capacity” of almost 33% is a good option. He proposes that government subsidies would be needed to support such lower capacities. There has been massive government intervention in the working and operation of the tourism industry during the COVID-19 crisis ( Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 ). Discussing Macao's reaction to the pandemic in a “3-wave analogy,” McCartney (2020) observes that the wave of recovery will push toward “public-private partnership and cooperation.” In future, the effect of such governmental response on tourism will create a novel outlook.

Government response to COVID-19. (Source : OEDC, 2020)

3.1.2. Technology innovation

Technology is a major force in creating flexibility in the tourism industry ( Hall et al., 2020 ). Disasters help in speeding up changes in technology. During COVID-19, people have taken massive aid from technology experts. There are instances of robots replacing people, applications on mobiles being employed to track people's contacts, or Big Data analytics forecasting COVID-19 spread among the masses. Robot, automation technologies, and artificial intelligence can reduce cost, improve liquidity, and enhance flexibility. This will also help maintain social distancing ( Assaf & Scuderi, 2020 ; Thomas & Chopra, 2020 ), as technology can connect people without any physical contact. Thus, technology can handle pandemic-specific problems such as screening travellers, discovering COVID-19 cases and tracking contacts, ensuring online education for students, etc. ( Hall et al., 2020 ). Many reports show a surge in the public's trust in technology, their readiness to connect, and their willingness to change their attitudes toward technology. People have now started ignoring privacy issues to get a more significant technology benefit ( Stankov et al., 2020 ). Gretzel et al. (2020) has presented the “six transformative e-tourism research pillars” for bringing in changes in e-tourism by proactively using IT resources for short-term and long-term purposes.

3.1.3. Local belongingness

The global aspect seems broken that calls for local belongingness to come to the rescue ( Brouder et al., 2020 ; Chang et al., 2020 ). During the pandemic and post-COVID-19, domestic tourism is poised to dominate the scene with most travellers coming from nearby areas ( Haywood, 2020 ). In many places, domestic travel is limited to visiting friends and relatives, but this will expand to leisure tourism soon. International travel will gradually revive when the borders open and international flights are permitted to operate without any hindrances ( Baum & Hai, 2020 ). Many countries and regions have restricted movements by imposing bans and other stringent requirements on entry and exit, which has subtly impacted the global tourism industry. According to Higgins-Desbiolles (2020) and Baum and Hai (2020) , the right to travel or enjoy gainful employment in the hospitality and tourism industry will not be allowed in the near-immediate future. “Tourism bubbles,” or local links built during the disaster, will act as a flexible plan. Future travel will depend on combined self-care, such as the suggestion to open the Trans-Tasman bubble between Australia and New Zealand ( Carr, 2020 ), or the potential fast-tracking of immigration clearance between the Republic of Korea and China ( Mostafanezhad et al., 2020 ). The feeling of belongingness among locals will dictate terms for the revival of the tourism industry.

3.1.4. Consumer and employee confidence

It is essential to gain consumer confidence to restart the halted industry of tourism. Learning from disaster planning and fighting the drive to turn away from failures experienced in the future are the critical pathways to be followed ( Rivera, 2020 ). The revival of the tourism industry will depend on boosting confidence in travelling and lessening the perception of risk involved ( Assaf & Scuderi, 2020 ). The impact of COVID-19 influences consumers' perception of tourism product and services ( Yu et al., 2020 ). Mao et al. (2020) focuses on human capital and gaining employee confidence.

3.2. Transformation to the new global economic order

Transformations like restarting, reorganizing, and assimilating the tourism industry according to the latest standards and rules are required to revive the industry ( Lew et al., 2020 ). The renewal will be impacted by the government's response to climate change and the need for a carbon-free economy. After the pandemic, the global economic and political systems will encompass changing patterns concerning climate change mitigation, sustainable tourism, local communities, and society's well-being.

3.2.1. Sustainable tourism

The present times are the most appropriate to promote a sustainable and equitable tourism industry ( Benjamin et al., 2020 ). As per Carr (2020) , original cultural sites suggest happiness, physical condition, environmental responsibility, and conventional ecological information. Such sites form the future of “cultural sustainability” and it is essential to manage these prudently for the development of the economy. In the aftermath of COVID-19, the tourism industry is bound to be reorganized based on actual planning and not just paperwork. The industry needs to be oriented toward education, environmental and social justice, and racial healing. There is a need for wary people (For instance, tourists, local communities, SMEs, Government) to take advantage of the present grave situation as it will allow more tourist experiences. The industry's service providers need to be encouraged to push a new demand by changing their unsustainable product offers. Such measures can connect, support, and take care of the whole tourism industry to everyone's advantage ( Stankov et al., 2020 ). The market players should also confront the means and systems that will prevent and transform harmful and weak tourism ( Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 ). There is an essential requirement for a charter for setting up a stable and sustainable tourism industry. There is a disconnect between what UNWTO (World Tourism Organization) is preaching (sustainability) and what is exercising (growth expansion). These disconnects need to be understood and repaired before considering tourism's future ( Brouder et al., 2020 ; Nepal, 2020 ). The ongoing impermanent process of deglobalization has presented the tourism industry with a unique opportunity to recreate sustainability by leaving aside the “dark sides” of recent years, such as environmental deprivation, economic abuse, or congestion ( Niewiadomski, 2020 ). Sustainability is a continuous procedure to attain positive outcomes and is defined by changing beliefs, wishes, information, skills, and public awareness ( Galvani et al., 2020 ). Expert knowledge and experience ( Chang et al., 2020 ; Prideaux et al., 2020 ) need to be put into practice for shifting toward sustainable tourism.

3.2.2. Well-being of society

The South American concept Buen Vivir was examined by Everingham and Chassagne (2020) . This is a non-Western alternative to neoliberal capitalism for moving tourism priorities from economic growth to the welfare of, and meaningful connections in, the society at large and covering the ecological balance. The impact of COVID-19 is such that how people live and travel has changed completely. Preferences are now shifting toward connecting and shopping locally. The virus has offered an opportunity to the tourism industry to recreate and contribute to society's welfare ( Benjamin et al., 2020 ; Rowen, 2020 ). Life, health, environment, etc., are the focused areas during disasters. According to Benjamin et al. (2020) , it is essential to select a program that encourages sustainable and equitable development where people can acknowledge the planet and shift their current unsustainable views on tourism. In addition, Benjamin et al. (2020) point out that the change should concentrate on equity. This will necessitate positive and slow changes relating to systems' interconnectedness, where economic growth is not considered a default parameter of social and ecological well-being ( Cheer, 2020 ). The scholarship in the field of tourism needs to acknowledge tourism as an industry with a focus on societal well-being ( Benjamin et al., 2020 ).

3.2.3. Climate action

The pandemic's effect is worsening due to global climate changes ( Sharma et al., 2020 ; Sharma & Mahendru, 2020 ; Sharma, Talan, Srivastava, Yadav, & Chopra, 2020 ). Crossley (2020) studies the connection between pandemic and climate change and explores how the damage done to the environment can be repaired and can be attached to ecological grief. Emotional dynamics can further help understand tourists' behavior, covering the constant “attitude-behavior” gap concerning sustainable tourism. COVID-19 offers an opportunity to tackle the impact of climate change by shifting from the present model of “high resource consumption” to one that is “environmentally friendly” ( Gössling et al., 2020 ; Prideaux et al., 2020 ).

3.2.4. Local communities – the centres of transformation.

Local communities are the centres of transformation for the tourism industry during this pandemic. There may be future disagreements in local areas as tourists take the help of these local communities and governments for their business. Changes being considered by tourist destinations relating to modifications in a carbon-free economy are significant (Rideau et al., 2020). Changes at the local level may help restore neocolonial and neoliberal biases ( Everingham & Chassagne, 2020 ; Renaud, 2020 ; Tremblay-Huet, 2020 ).

Since the tourism industry has come to a halt and social distancing acts are relevant, even small-scale local-level activity is considered harmful. People have to think about the local community at large ( Lapointe, 2020 ). According to Renaud (2020) , the industry of cruise tourism should approve a “local mobility” model, which means that large cruise ships will be forbidden, but a fleet of smaller ships will be allowed. During the pandemic, social unity, self-sacrifice, and a sympathetic attitude are as significant as wearing a face mask to protect oneself and others. Post-COVID-19 times will allow service providers to rethink and reset the tourism industry for the future. There is a need for a “community-centered tourism framework” with responsible approaches to reset, redescribe, and refamiliarize the tourism industry in the interest of local communities. A deeper understanding of remote communities' challenges and acts may help transform the sector ( Tremblay-Huet, 2020 ). Some research studies consider these times as a defining moment for resetting the industry of tourism ( Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 ). Developed countries are considering domestic or “proximity tourism” based on local thought and local acting theory.

4. A resilience-based framework for the new global economic order

Based on literature review, we propose a resilience-based framework for the new global economic order ( Fig. 3 ). This framework stems from the challenges posed by COVID-19 and the containment measures (such as lockdown) to the global tourism industry. The advisories issued to the tourists by various governments have further added fuel to the fire, resulting in the decline of revenues ( World Tourism Organization, 2020 ). The tourism industry seems to have moved from “over-tourism” to “non-tourism” at once ( Gössling et al., 2020 ). The increasing unemployment in other sectors of the global economy will also reflect in the number of tourist visits in the coming years. Segments of the tourism industry, including airlines, hospitality, sports events, restaurants, and cruises, are bound to be hammered by the pandemic. The proposed resilience-based framework can help transform the industry both during and after COVID-19.

Fig. 3

Resilience-based framework for the new global economic order.

Organizational studies are focusing on sustainable change deal with resilience and deployment of adaptive capabilities by providing insights into recovery responses. Crises and emergencies such as COVID-19 also extend global visibility and understanding. This pandemic will contribute to creating new business models, which will essentially determine the industry's chances of survival by transforming it into a much more sustainable form. The tourism industry needs to demonstrate resilience from several sides. We broadly propose that three segments, namely, governments, market players, and local communities, need to get their act together to lend resilience to the industry. Technological innovations need to rise to a higher level for speeding up creations in tourism and hospitality. Artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of things (IoT), and technologies relating to location, navigation, drones, and robotics, are a few areas that need enhancements. This can promote flexible thinking within the tourism industry. This pandemic has compelled industry leaders to explore and analyze other better-suited technologies to reboot the industry and regain consumer confidence. Existing literature notes that the tourism industry has previously been quick to bounce back from the shocks of epidemics, pandemics, and global crises. However, governments realize that the shock of COVID-19 is unique since it is not possible to market the unsold capacity in coming years, causing a permanent setback for the industry. Governments should strive to build an atmosphere in which they attract investors through a variety of opportunities in the prevalent spirit of neoliberalism, such as offering tax breaks, relaxing strict land-use laws, etc. ( Brouder, 2020 ). Governments may promote the local embeddedness of tourism businesses to improve the element of belongingness. Supporting these arguments, Di Domenico, Haugh, and Tracey (2010) observe that local economies react to crises by working together and through social work, and Johannisson and Olaison (2007) note that rural firms have better prospects of recovery than their urban counterparts. Henceforth, the support from the government, coupled with local belongingness, may pave the way for the transformation of the tourism industry. The challenge is different for large-scale multinational players in the industry, focusing on local supply chains to minimize the costs. They may need to review their activities and rely on narrower and sub-national supply chains. This may include sourcing more resources locally, be it food, raw materials, service providers, or the composition of the workforce. Post-pandemic times may entail a long-term decrease in the appeal of certain growth spots now deemed too risky. Such a situation may augur well for less popular, less populated regions by providing them the opportunity to improve their appeal as potential tourism destinations.

Resilience from all sides of the value-chain may transform the tourism industry into the new global economic order characterized by sustainable tourism, climate action, societal well-being, and involvement of local communities. Studies have observed that the tourism industry indirectly contributes to pandemics in multiple ways, including food wastages leading to industrialized food production ( Hall & Gössling, 2013 ), human interference with wildlife and deforestation ( Barlow et al., 2016 ; Lade et al., 2020 ), and climate change conditions ( Scott, Hall, & Gössling, 2019 ). The lockdown in many countries and the adoption of significant restrictions on borders has also drastically affected the tourism economy worldwide. The movement from “over-tourism” to “under-tourism” is bound to reverse the scene of climate change to a large extent ( Hall & Gössling, 2013 ). COVID-19 is leading to some positive outcomes for the tourism industry. Declined demand in the aviation industry is already causing airlines to phase out outdated aircraft. Restrictions on overseas travel for international students, business travellers, political leaders, etc., are leading to increased leverage from video-conferencing ( Banister & Stead, 2004 ; Cohen, Hanna, & Gössling, 2018 ). These changes are bound to reorient the global tourism industry in a “sustainable” way, which focuses more on inclusive development, rather than the abstract notion of “growth.” Carbon footprint reductions may gain more traction worldwide, as is already seen across main tourist destinations. Similarly, the mobility of visitors could transform significantly, not only in the immediate future but over a long period. The relentless neophilia and the disturbing desire for (often irresponsible) exploration in distant places may be replaced by recreation and travel much closer to home.

5. Future research agenda

COVID-19 has triggered unprecedented casualties for mankind in life-changing circumstances. The shock and effect of this pandemic are so strong that research work across all fields is subject to pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 classifications. The post-COVID-19 research is bound to be characterized by economic, environmental, and social setbacks, and the policy suggestions to counter those. Given the tourism industry's sensitivity to this pandemic situation, the body of knowledge in the field of tourism needs some quick and sound work to prepare for the future. Following most downloaded review articles ( Dhaliwal et al., 2020 ; Paul & Benito, 2018 ), we provide directions for future research in this section to set up an interesting future research agenda for the research in the tourism industry in the post-COVID-19 period. It is important to examine how businesses can translate this crisis chaos into transformative innovation. Never before has tourism research felt the need to hold its purpose as much as today.

Post-crisis tourism research must align academic and corporate interests. We present the future research agenda in two segments. One, based on the gaps in the existing literature, we present the research questions for tourism research to explore different sub-topics in the context of COVID-19. Two, we present a research agenda to test our resilience-based framework ( Table 4 ) and derive propositions which can be used as testable hypotheses in future studies by others.

Themes and research questions for future scholarship in tourism and COVID-19.

Future researchers may test the resilience-based framework in line with Fig. 3 . Using the tenets included in the resilience framework, we derive propositions in this study which can be used as either research questions or hypotheses in future studies.

Tourism industry has to resort to internal measures, including technology innovation and building consumer and employee confidence, to build resilience to fight COVID-19;

External factors, including government measures and local belongingness, significantly contribute to the tourism industry's quest for resilience to revive from the COVID-19 shock;

Resilience strategies based on internal and external factors mediate the revival of the tourism industry from the shock of COVID-19 by transforming it to the new global economic order, which comprises sustainable tourism, the well-being of society, mitigating climate change, and strengthening of local communities.

These topical ideations can be actualized by applying versatile methodologies. The case-study method is by far the most prominently used method in tourism research in the context of a crisis. However, as suggested by most of the related works ( Haywood, 2020 ; Nepal, 2020 ; Rivera, 2020 ; Tsionas, 2020 ), it would be advisable to employ conceptual, quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods to inform the questions about the contemporary tourism industry.

6. Conclusion

The tourism industry was seen as a major cause and carrier of the novel coronavirus that triggered the outbreak of COVID-19. The unsustainable practices of the industry didn't help the cause of sustainable living worldwide. The pandemic has nearly brought the global tourism industry to a halt. All stakeholders in the industry must work together to make the industry sufficiently resilient to deal with the crisis. Based on the studies conducted to understand the tourism industry in the context of COVID-19, we propose a resilience-based framework for the industry. Through our framework, we argue that with the help of the resilient approach from governments, market players, technology innovators, and the workforce employed in the industry, the tourism sector may end up evolving in a much more sustainable way post-pandemic. The involvement of local communities is going to be immensely critical in this journey, as the restrictions on international travel may stay longer than anticipated. Such developments would widen not only the base of the tourism industry but also present opportunities for less-developed tourism spots to grow further. Large-scale tourism players would need a reboot to survive in post-pandemic times. Still, acting in line with our resilience-based framework, small-scale players certainly can emerge victorious and ensure the well-being of the society at large while also facilitating sustainable tourism.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

The authors declare that no funding were received for this research.


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Gagan Deep Sharma is an Associate Professor at the University School of Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India. His fields of research interest includes Systematic reviewing, Sustainable development, Resliience-based strategy, Neuroeconomics, and Behavioural economics.

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Asha Thomas is Assistant Professor at Jagan Institute of Management Studies (JIMS), New Delhi. Her areas of research interest include knowledge management, Organizational behavior, Marketing. She has about 12 years of experience in teaching, as well as over 3 years of experience in IT and Telecom Industry. She is currently pursuing Doctorate program as a Part-time Research Scholar from the prestigious Delhi Technological University. She has several national and international research papers to her credit. She has also presented papers in National and International Conferences. She also serves as reviewer for several top international journals.

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Justin Paul , serves as Editor-in-chief of International Journal of Consumer studies and as an Associate Editor of Journal of Business Research. He is a full professor of PHD & MBA programs, University of Puerto Rico, USA. He holds three honorary titles as ‘Distinguished Professor’ with three reputed universities- Indian Institute of Management (IIM—K) and SIBM, Pune and MS university in TN state of India. He has published over 100 articles in SSCI listed journals. He is an author of 8 books. He has served as a faculty member with University of Washington and Rollins college, Florida, USA. His website is drjustinpaul.com.

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Chapter 14. Back to the Big Picture: Globalization and Trends

14.1 Globalization and the Tourism Industry

A toy airplane sits on a table in the dark. Behind it is a glowing globe.

In today’s integrated and interdependent world, multiple forces represent both opportunities and threats to tourism. This chapter explores the topic of globalization and how it relates to tourism, and then examines trends (political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental influences — PESTLE ). The chapter closes with a reflection on what all this means for tourism in British Columbia.

Depending on the focus of the discussion, globalization can be defined in several ways. One broad definition is:

A complex web of social processes that intensify and expand worldwide economic, cultural, political and technological exchanges and connections (Campbell, MacKinnon, & Stevens, 2011, p. 4).

Globalization can also be simply described as the movement of goods, ideas, values, and people around the world. The term was first used in the early 1950s to recognize the increasing interdependence of economies and societies around the world. Globalization, however, has existed for centuries by way of evolving trade routes, including the slave trade, colonization, and immigration.

Narrow boats filled with food, clothes, hats, and much more float in a canal alongside a market.

Today, we are divided into separate countries, each looking out for its own national self-interest, with all its flaws and benefits. At the same time, other entities such as multinational corporations cross borders, which leads to global economic and political integration. Many benefits can result from global integration and interdependence, but we also need to heed its negative effects.

We can look at the relationship between globalization and tourism in several ways. For the purposes of this chapter, we will consider the impact of tourism and travel on globalization, and the impact of globalization on tourism. But first, let’s keep in mind why it is important for a local tour operator, general manager, or tourism business owner to think about globalization. More importantly, let’s consider where we should be looking to understand globalization and future trends. The rest of this chapter will address these topics.

The Impact of Globalization on Tourism

We can assess the impact of globalization on tourism from a number of perspectives. Here, we will discuss five examples: global mobility and ease of travel; population and demographic trends; terrorism, safety, and security; increased awareness of new destinations; and poverty.

Global Mobility and Ease of Travel

The advances made in transportation that have enabled global mobility are particularly significant. Modern aircraft, cruise ships, trains, and other modes of transport allow people to move quickly and relatively cheaply. Aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner have opened new routes by creating an aircraft capable of flying “long haul” distances with a smaller passenger load. Fast trains, road systems, and even city bike rental programs enable people to move, tour, and explore the world. These changes have allowed more people to travel more often in less time.

Black-and-white panorama of people lined up along a runway, near several airplanes and a hangar.

Ease of travel has also helped to overcome the barriers of fear, frustration, and expense. For example, an international banking system allows access to money almost anywhere in the world. Multinational corporations, which provide flights, local transportation, and accommodation and food, have allowed for “one-stop shopping” for travel bookings. Mobile devices have also changed the nature of travel in terms of what travellers do and how they interact with a destination, making it easier to, for example, select a restaurant, navigate a big city, or translate a foreign language. As a result, there are fewer unexplored places in the world anymore.

The ease of travel has also facilitated the rapid global transfer of viruses. While spread owing to global air travel has occurred in other outbreaks such as SARS in 2003, the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 illustrates the new challenges faced by the air transportation system. The willingness for quick action to contain future viruses means that airlines will need to be ready, willing and able to terminate travel routes upon any notice of health concerns.

Population and Demographic Trends

According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2019a), the world population reached 7.7 billion in 2019 and is projected to exceed 9.7 billion by 2050. The population continues to increase, but not uniformly across the world. The overall global population rate of increase is slowing but birth and death rates are vastly different between developed and developing nations (UNDESA, 2019b). For instance, among developed countries, there is a growing percentage of people over 65 that will reach 25% by 2050 (UNDESA 2019a). With a smaller percentage engaged in the workforce, there will be implications on social and health services. Globally, the people under the age of 24 will decline in every region of the world. Among developing countries, half the global growth between 2019 and 2050 will come from Sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, Nigeria will double its population to 4 million by 2050 (UNDESA 2019b). The two most populous countries, India and China will also experience different trajectories; India will surpass China as the most populous country in the world by 2027 (UNDESA 2019b).

Other critical population trends affecting global development and tourism include the following (UNDESA 2019c; UNDESA 2019d):

  • By 2100, approximately 40% of the world’s total population is expected to be African. While birth rates are tending to fall around the world, they are still higher across Africa than in most other parts of the globe. This could result in a youth dividend or further exacerbate problems on the African continent.
  • More people are migrating than ever before, with 272 million recent migrants in 2019 alone compared with about 175 million in 2000. The top five destinations are the United States, Germany, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, and the United Kingdom.
  • Some 55% of the global population is urban, and the urbanization trend is expected to continue as people search for more jobs, more social and health services, and more activities. Not everyone benefits equally though, as housing and other infrastructure struggles to keep up with the growing urban population.

To keep up with all of these changes in demographics, destinations will need to provide products and services to suit the older, culturally diverse, multi-generational travellers as well as the adventurous youth. Additionally, hiring and retaining staff will require a rethinking of human resource policies and procedures, compensation, and other aspects for the changing population of employees.

Terrorism, Safety, and Security

Terrorist attacks and political unrest globally have certainly disrupted tourism, but not halted it. The areas most affected, of course, are those where unrest has occurred and has been the focus of extensive media attention. A global terrorism index produced by the Institute of Economics and Peace (2019) shows that while fatalities from terrorism have declined since 2015, the number of affected countries, 71, is the highest since 2002. Of note is the rise in far-right terrorism in western countries, with an increase of 320% over the past five years (p. 4).

The 2020 global pandemic for COVID-19 resulted in a massive and sudden transformation in the relationship between safety and travel. Starting in early March, 2020, the Canadian government moved toward closing the borders and curtailing outbound and inbound travel. These efforts were to, at first, contain the spread of the virus internationally, evolving toward a national quarantine to “flatten the curve” of number of people effected. Clearly, the pandemic has changed how we travel, and how we define safety of travel in a global setting.

While safety and security may not be the driving reasons for tourists selecting a particular destination, certainly a lack of safety and security often eliminates a location from travellers’ “wish lists.” Safety and security for travellers is becoming more important as countries move to protect their citizens. Government agencies around the world produce advisories and warnings for their citizens to stay away from dangerous locations and political unrest.

Take a Closer Look: Travel Advisories

Travel advisories serve as warning systems for people from specific countries to avoid particular destinations because of actual or potential threats to citizens. To learn more about advisories for specific countries, see the Canadian government web page at Canada’s Travel Advisories and compare them to Australia’s Travel Advisories , the United States’ Travel Advisories , and the United Kingdom’s Travel Advisories .

The focus on safety and security has had several impacts on travellers. Most notably, security at most airports has been increased in an effort to protect people and planes (Flight Global, 2015). Screening procedures can take longer and some items are no longer allowed on board. Other security requirements, such as showing passports and providing fingerprints, have been implemented for entry into some countries. While all acts of terrorism cannot be stopped, the tourism industry is attempting to provide as much safety and security as it can.

Increased Awareness of New Destinations

Another influence of globalization on tourism is a greater awareness of destinations and the range of leisure activities, sites, and cultures to visit around the world. Generating knowledge of a destination is obviously a key first step in marketing a destination, and this is achieved by way of travel shows, films, social media, and other forms of communication. The competition to attract visitors is fierce considering the sheer number of places available for travel; it can be easy to get lost in the noise of global competition.

A small child with cloth wrapped around their head plays with debris in the street.

Globalization has contributed to increased demand for goods and services and overall economic growth, with the result of global poverty having decreased over the years. However, at the same time, the gap between the richest and poorest has expanded. A significant portion of the world’s population is simply unable to participate in, or benefit from, tourism. The economic gains from a tourism economy in a developing country such as Honduras versus a developed country such as Canada is unequal. Simply put, not everyone has the same opportunities to profit. Environmental costs are also unevenly distributed in the world, with poor countries lacking the resources to adapt to impacts (such as droughts, increased disease, soil erosion), and shouldering the majority of the repercussions of phenomena such as global warming.

Another way to analyze the interplay between tourism and globalization is to consider the reverse view: the impact of tourism on globalization.

Impact of Tourism on Globalization

In this section, we will look at tourism as a global force — for peace, for cultural homogenization, for commodifying cultures, and for shaping the way we see the world.

Tourism as a Force for Peace

In the 1980s, a popular hypothesis was that tourism supported global peace by allowing travellers to learn about other cultures and meet people from other nations, as well as offering benefits accrued from international business. Peace is an obvious requirement for tourism if the industry is to be robust and sustainable. However, to date, there is little empirical evidence to support the claim that tourism fosters peace, however attractive as the idea may be. However, there is a growing body of research on the relationship between tourism, social justice, and human security, both negative and positive. Clearly, the simple presence of tourism does not immediately equate to societal benefit. Careful planning and a focus on policies supporting community well-being and sustainability are required.

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are important for tourism organizations to take into account. They help in guiding the evolution of tourism and travel toward a more positive and hopeful form of tourism as well as enabling a more sustainable, and peaceful, future.

Tourism as Cultural Homogenizer

People dressed in classic Disney character costumes perform for a crowd of children.

Nevertheless, tourism does offer the opportunity to teach people about how to respect other cultures. Whereas some argue that globalization has a homogenizing effect on cultures, as Western values are spread through music, fashion, film, and food, rendering one culture indistinguishable from the next. But tourism cannot be viewed as the only means of transmitting western values.

Some beliefs and values, such as embracing equality, inclusion, and diversity, or the need to protect children from harm, should be shared around the world. In the context of tourism and travel, these values are significant. For instance, companies need to ensure that their human resource practices are consistent and fair throughout the world. Exploiting children for sex is illegal, punishable in both the country visited and the home country of the tourist; some airlines and hotels are actively involved in supporting the prohibition of child sex tourism. Travellers are expected not to deface heritage sites or take rare or endangered natural or cultural objects as souvenirs. Such regulations speak to the universality of certain values and beliefs, which we all are required to follow as global citizens.

Tourism as Commodifier

Dancers in grass skirts, board shorts, and leis perform on a stage.

Another possible influence of tourism on globalization is the process of cultural commodification , which refers to the drive toward putting a monetary value on every aspect of culture, from buying a sculpture stolen from an ancient temple, to buying endangered objects such as ivory and coral, or buying a T-shirt that desecrates a symbol or object important to another culture. This trend results in the degradation or devaluing of cultural values and beliefs and was explored in Chapter 12 on Indigenous tourism.

As one of the world’s largest industries, tourism impacts local, regional, and global economies. Resorts dot coastlines around the world and offer a welcome respite from colder climates to anyone wishing to experience a tropical beach, as well as the local culture and nature. While benefit comes to the community in the form of jobs, more often than not the larger share of the wealth leaks offshore. In response, local entrepreneurs and aid organizations have helped with initiatives that embrace local ownership in order for the wealth generated from tourism to stay in country . Community-based tourism, responsible tourism, and social entrepreneurship all aim to bring greater benefit to local communities.

Tourism As a World View

Tourism is also a major influence in how we see and understand the world. Keith Hollinshead (2019) refers to it as tourism world-making , or the way in which a place or culture is marketed and/or presented to tourists. Unlike local people, travellers experience a place for a few days, with limited knowledge of the culture and local way of life. Some visitors rely on available tourist information to make the most of the experience and to see the highlights. Others turn away and attempt to “go local” in search of the authentic experience with the belief that they can truly understand a place by avoiding the tourist sites.

An elephant lies in a stream while a person washes his body with a brush.

If tourists stay in their resort in a given country, their only interaction with a local culture may be the staff at the hotel. In many cases, visitors experience a place in a fragmented, disconnected way, seeing only a portion of a place. How much can be gained from such short and transient experiences? This debate leads to one of the often discussed, if not hotly debated, topics in tourism, that of authenticity of experience . In 1976, Dean MacCannell released his book  The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class , in which he argued that even those events that seem to be authentic are in some way staged for the visitor.

Take a Closer Look: Cannibal Tours

In 1988, Dean O’Rourke shot a documentary profiling the experiences of jet-set travellers as they encountered locals in Papua New Guinea. The movie highlights the challenges that happen when visitors meet with “the other,” in that their expectations shape the behaviours of the locals. The movie features interviews with the locals as well as tourists. Watch the movie Cannibal Tours .

As a quick review before leaving here, drag the following factors to the correct description between globalization and tourism.

Now let’s look at some predominant trends in the industry.

An acronym for political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental forces.

The movement of goods, ideas, values, and people around the world.

Making the same, i.e., the effect of tourism helping to spread Western values, rendering one culture indistinguishable from the next.

The drive toward putting a monetary value on aspects of a culture.

A term to describe using a local-ownership approach in order for the wealth generated from tourism to stay in a destination.

The way in which a place or culture is marketed and/or presented to tourists.

A hot topic in tourism that started with MacCannell in 1976 and continues to today; discussion of the extent to which experiences are staged for visitors.

Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC - 2nd Edition by Morgan Westcott and Wendy Anderson, Eds is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Tourism Essay: Topics, Writing Tips, & Essay Samples [2024]

Tourism essay title picture.

Do you like traveling?

Adventures, meeting new people, and trying local foods are always exciting.

Tourism can be different, involving various purposes and characteristics. Besides just relaxing, you can travel on business, to improve your health or help the locals. Tourism has also changed significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Today, we will discuss the types of traveling and think of how to write about them. You will find writing prompts for an essay on tourism, writing samples, and over 100 topics.

Let’s begin our journey!

📋 Tourism Essay Prompts

  • 🛫 137 Tourism Topics
  • ✍️ Tourism Essay Samples

Traveling might involve enjoying new sights, seeking career and educational opportunities, or pursuing other goals. There are countless reasons for people to travel.

Here are different types of tourism and their main features.

Essay on Tourism during Pandemic

Lockdowns and restrictions made it hard for many companies to provide their services successfully. The sphere of tourism experienced one of the biggest hits. In 2020, the number of tourists worldwide went down by 84%. You can discuss the changes and their effects in your paper.

The number of tourist arrivals.

As a result, representatives of the field had to invent new rules. Rules should’ve protected the industry from the crash and made traveling safe. Some include obligatory vaccination or taking a COVID-test, limiting the number of people in a plane, and the requirement to wear face masks. You can discuss these precautions in your essay on tourism.

Niche Tourism Essay

Niche tourism is a definition of specific types of tourism that meet particular needs.

We will describe some examples of niche tourism below.

  • Leisure Tourism The primary goal of such travel is to rest and have fun. It might be your vacation or just a small break from daily life. Most of the things you do during leisure tourism is for pleasure.
  • Business Tourism It means you still work with or without getting paid for your trip. Traveling to meetings, conferences, or international events connected with your work are all examples of business tourism.
  • Wellness Tourism It is all about maintaining or enhancing your physical, mental, and social wellbeing. You can do it with sports, alternative medicine, healthy nutrition, meditation, and other activities.
  • Medical Tourism Mostly, the primary purpose of this travel is to get medical or dental procedures at a lower price. Also, some tourists might look for alternative medicine that is not legal in the United States.
  • Cultural Tourism Cultural tourism is about immersing in the culture of the place you visit. This might include local cuisine, traditions, features of a society, spiritual and historical heritage, arts, modern lifestyle, etc.
  • Ecotourism Ecotourism is sustainable traveling that includes taking care, observing, and preserving nature or local communities. It should minimize all the negative impacts on the environment and contain educational or interpretation features.

The picture provides six examples of niche tourism.

Tourism Seasonality Essay

Seasonal tourism means that some destinations are more attractive to tourists due to weather conditions or other factors during a particular season.

For example, most Mediterranean countries become popular destinations when the temperature is high enough to swim in the sea. Some places do not depend on the weather, but there are still more tourists during the summer and winter holidays.

Here are the matters you can discuss in your paper:

  • Employment of the locals.
  • Environmental impact of tourism.
  • Businesses and countries’ economies.
  • Peak seasons and their frequency.

Digital Nomadism Essay

Digital nomads are people who travel to various places and continue working remotely.

They choose extended stays instead of short trips and are not attached to any specific place. As more and more people select remote jobs during the pandemic, we will see more and more digital nomads over the years.

Space Tourism Essay

Space traveling is only an evolving industry with possible growth in the next decade. Blue Origin , owned by Amazon, and Virgin Galactic have already launched multiple private suborbital flights.

Describe the economic, scientific, and other benefits of space travel. Discuss the prospects, opportunities, and risks of the industry.

🛫 137 Tourism Essay Topics

Take a look at our selection of topics on all types of travel:

  • What is the place of your dream? Explain your motivation.
  • Contemporary tourism business growth in the UAE .
  • Describe your best traveling experience.
  • Forecasting Taiwan’s medical tourism .
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of traveling alone.
  • The intercontinental hotels group: hospitality management.
  • What dangers might you face due to cultural differences as a tourist?
  • How would your life be different without traveling?
  • Hotel industry performance & environmental consciousness.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of traveling with family.
  • What popular destinations are overrated? Explain your position and include your experience.
  • Radisson Blu hotel quality management.
  • What should people do to become a part of sustainable tourism?
  • Is there any difference between a traveler and a tourist?
  • Paris major tourist attractions: artwork, architecture, sceneries.
  • What are the ways for the traveling industry to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • Obscuro business in the tourism market .
  • What do you need to know if you travel to Africa for the first time?
  • Customer service department management on the example of Etihad Airways.
  • How to spend less money without losing your comfort while traveling?
  • WeChat e-marketing tool prospects in the tourism industry .
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of traveling in a van?
  • How to plan your time wisely on a short trip?
  • International hospitality development: how do hotels and restaurants use marketing principles?
  • What are the pros and cons of tourism for the environment?
  • The prospect and constraint of ecotourism in Malaysia .
  • Why is tourism important for the world economy?
  • Branding Abu Dhabi as a tourist destination .
  • What European countries depend on tourism the most?
  • Airline industry and customer satisfaction: how to deliver quality service?
  • Would you rather spend on clothes or on traveling?
  • What are the most critical factors that define a good traveling experience?
  • Restaurant review on a business trip.
  • The most well-known destinations for medical tourists from the United States.
  • The international tourism hotel for elderly service: Internal marketing practices .
  • Why do you travel? Describe your goals and motivation.
  • What are the things you need to consider when choosing a traveling destination?
  • Studying abroad: how to maintain a good environment between domestic and international students?
  • How can you use your traveling experiences in daily life?
  • Total logistics costs and strategic planning in tourism .
  • What is the essential life lesson traveling has taught you?
  • Descriptive analysis of Pacific Palms Hotel, Los Angeles.
  • What kind of traveling suits you the best and why?
  • The role of gastronomy in tourism development .
  • How to survive jet lag and recover after a long flight?
  • As an ecotourist, what place would you choose to visit?
  • Comparative analysis of two vacation destinations: Dubai and Cape Town.
  • How did digitalization change our traveling experiences?
  • What are the possible outcomes of time traveling?
  • Effects of ecotourism on Eskimos in Canada.
  • Is space-traveling a safe experience for ordinary people?
  • The impact of social media on the tourism industry .
  • What role does traveling play in your life?
  • What are three things essential for all tourists?
  • Emirates Airlines: operations and high quality of one of the most luxurious airlines.
  • Describe the worst experience you had while traveling.
  • Empowering leadership practices and job satisfaction in tourism .
  • If time travel was possible, what epoch would you choose to visit?
  • Tourists’ trends in the Albaha region in Saudi Arabia .
  • What is your favorite transport for traveling and why?
  • Comparison of all-inclusive hotels in Turkey and Greece.
  • Internal marketing practices of the international tourism hotel for elderly service .
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal tourism?
  • Human resource management in the Saudi tourism sector .
  • If a tourist wants to see your town, what would you recommend them to do?
  • Sustainability and responsible tourism in Dubai .
  • The positive and negative effects of traveling on the human mind.
  • Abu Dhabi’s brand as a tourists’ destination .
  • How are traveling experiences different for adults and children?
  • Tell about the traveling experience you will never forget.
  • Strategies employed by Fairmont Mayakoba Riviera Maya Resort management.
  • What do you need to know to make traveling easier?
  • Medical tourism in Tunisia and Morocco .
  • How does knowing foreign languages help while traveling?
  • The positive and negative effects of tourism for a country.
  • How do airlines satisfy customers? Emirates Airlines case study.
  • What is the riskiest thing you have done while traveling?
  • Terrorism effects on tourism in the United Kingdom .
  • How has world tourism changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • What do you feel when you get home after traveling?
  • The influence of globalization on tourism in France.
  • Describe the longest journey that you made while traveling.
  • Concepts of tourism in the UAE .
  • How to make your traveling less harmful to nature?
  • Why do people tend to spend more money while traveling?
  • Human resource management as a core success factor in airlines industry.
  • What are the famous tourist destinations that you would not like to visit?
  • The Hong Kong tourism industry .
  • Describe your first traveling experience in a foreign country.
  • Location planning for tourist attractions .
  • The evolution of tourism as an industry.
  • Innovations in the tourism sector: hospitality management.
  • How does seasonal tourism affect the economy of a country?
  • How does hospitality differ in different cultures?
  • Intercultural communication and staff in tourism .
  • Are low-cost airlines harmful to the environment?
  • H1N1 in the elderly and its impact on the tourism industry .
  • The reasons why traveling is always a good topic for discussion.
  • What are the easiest ways to save money while traveling?
  • The UAE hotel industry: quality management strategies.
  • Is traveling a luxury or a natural need of a human?
  • What are the main dangers of traveling for a developing country?
  • Taiwan: Tourism industry for the elderly .
  • What is the most exciting thing about traveling to you?
  • The typical types of tourists in the United States.
  • Environmental management in the hospitality industry.
  • Lifehacks for students: the things to need to know to travel smartly.
  • The reasons why you should study a country’s culture before you visit it.
  • Effects of tourism industry innovation on elderly care .
  • How to become a digital nomad and combine tourism and work?
  • The most exciting professions in the tourism industry.
  • American Airlines’ environment and strategies.
  • Top of the most useful mobile applications for tourists.
  • Indian and Hungarian medical tourism .
  • Do geography lessons help you in real life when you travel?
  • Innovations and changes in the hospitality industry .
  • What is the best traveling destination to heal your soul?
  • Emirates Airlines customer need analysis.
  • How do you see the future of the space tourism industry?
  • Would you like to work in tourism? Why or why not?
  • The sex tourism industry in Thailand.
  • How to know that you need to visit a new place?
  • Have you ever wanted to move to a place you’ve visited before?
  • The Ritz-Carlton Hotel quality management system.
  • Discuss the ecological effects of seasonality on seaside areas.
  • Influenza in the elderly and tourism demand in Asia .
  • What is the next place you want to see and why?
  • Would you like to try space traveling?
  • Medical tourism in Jordan and international competition.
  • What are the prevalent stereotypes about American tourists?
  • The potential for community-based ecotourism development .
  • Where would you like to go on your honeymoon?
  • If you had unlimited money and time, where would you go?
  • Causes and effects of employee turnover in hospitality industry.
  • Why do people want to travel to new places?
  • What precautions ensure your safety while traveling alone?
  • Health services and medical tourism in Taiwan .

✍️ Essay on Tourism – 2 Samples

And here are a couple of essay samples to get a general idea of the essay about tourism.

Tourism in Pakistan Essay

The British Backpacker Society marked Pakistan as the best adventure destination of 2018 . It might not be a prominent place for a vacation, but it is definitely worth attention. Pakistan is an attractive traveling destination for cultural tourism and nature lovers. While Pakistan’s potential in tourism is just developing, it is an excellent opportunity to visit a beautiful and not overcrowded place. Pakistan’s mountain ranges are rich with spectacular views, flora, and fauna. Various activities are available for tourists that will let you interact with nature. Everyone can find something to do depending on their preferences. You can choose from extreme sports such as mountain climbing and white water rafting or quiet time spending such as fishing and birdwatching. Located in South Asia, Pakistan is home to Indus Valley Civilization various dynasties. This country was part of several empires that made its cultural legacy unique. Pakistan is also a country where several UNESCO world heritage sites are located. Some of them are Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta, Rohtas Fort and Taxila, Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro, and Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi. Avoiding big crowds and long queues is one of the advantages of traveling to Pakistan. Enjoying virgin nature and seeing sights without any distractions is something that many tourists look for. This country is not on everyone’s bucket list. That is why your experience of visiting Pakistan becomes unique and sacred. Being among the firsts to discover something worthy is always a pleasure. Pakistan is a perfect traveling destination for those who like to explore nature and enrich their cultural knowledge. If you are a fan of unusual places and beautiful scenery, Pakistan will win your heart.
Space tourism might have sounded like a fantasy a couple of decades ago. While it is still not a cheap adventure, progress makes it more and more accessible to people. Space tourism has massive potential as a business and stimulus to scientific progress and new career opportunities. Virgin Galactic, Space X, Blue Origin, Orion Spain, and Boeing already offer commercial travel to space for recreational purposes. Each of them hopes to launch suborbital flights regularly, making it a profitable business. Virgin Galactic experienced growth in demand by 15% for suborbital flights in autumn 2021, selling a seat for $450,000. As we can see, space tourism is a promising and highly lucrative sphere. With such wealthy and innovative companies leading the market, there is no doubt that scientists will have more opportunities to conduct experiments in space . The central aspect of any space travel is power generation, making it so expensive. Space tourism might become more affordable with advancements and research on this issue. The development of space tourism also means that there will be new jobs and careers. Some of them might be completely new. Others might be like regular jobs but with adjustments and special training. For example, doctors, nurses, fitness trainers, or excursionists. These and many other professions will require special or additional education to function in space tourism successfully. Space tourism is a dream that has become a reality in the 21 st century. As for now, not so many people can afford it, but there will be more opportunities available with the development of the sphere. Rising demand stimulates the growth of companies offering space tours as well as the science and job market expansion.

Essays on tourism may seem too easy to write. However, until you have identified your topic, you cannot know how complicated is this task.

Use our free essay topic generator for more tourism essay ideas. Our expert team is also ready to help you with any kind of assignment 24/7 – feel free to contact us .

Now we wish you lots of inspiration and adventurous trips!

Tourism Essay for Students and Children

Where am I Book

500+ Words Essay on Tourism

Tourism Essay – Tourism is a major economic activity that has developed significantly over the years. It’s an activity that can be recognized in both developed and developing nations. In general terms, tourism is the movement of a person from one place to another to visit and mesmerize the beauty of that place or to have fun. Moreover, the concept of traveling is considered a luxury and only people with higher income can afford this luxury.

Tourism Essay

The Growth of Tourism

Earlier our ancestors used to travel by sea routes as it was a convenient and most affordable medium but it was time taking. Due to, technological advancement we can now easily travel to any place without wasting time we can travel thousands of miles within a few hours. Technological advancement has shrunk the earth into a global village. Besides, the modern modes are much safer than the modes that our predecessors used.

Effect of Tourism on a Country

For any country, tourism generates a lot of money especially a country like India. Due to the Taj Mahal (one of the seven wonders of the world) every year the government raise a huge sum of revenue. Also, because of tourism other industries also bloom. Such industries include transportation, wildlife, arts and entertainment, accommodation, etc.

Moreover, this ultimately leads to the creation of job and other opportunities in the area. But there are some drawbacks too which can affect the lifestyle and cultural value of the country.

Importance of Tourism

Traveling is a tiring and difficult thing and not everyone is able to travel. But at the same time, it’s a fun activity that takes your tiredness away. Travelling adds flavor to life as you travel to different places that have a different culture and lifestyle. Also, it’s an easy way to learn about the culture and tradition of a place. Besides, for many areas, tourism is their main source of income.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

India- A Tourist Attraction

The Taj Mahal is not the only destination in India that attract tourist. Likewise, there are hundreds of tourist destination that is spread over the Indian plateau. India has a large variety of Flora and Fauna. Besides, the equator divides the geographical land of India into almost two equal halves that make India a country where six seasons occurs.

Moreover, in almost every city of India, there is a historical monument made by the rulers in their time period.

Benefits of Tourism

Tourism not only benefits the government but also the people that live in the local area. It also creates a business as well as employment opportunities for the local people which ultimately help the government to earn income.

Benefits Due to Tourism

As we know that tourism contributes a lot to the revenue of the country. Also, the government uses this income for the growth and development of the country. Likewise, they construct dams, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, Dharamshala and many more.

In conclusion, we can say that tourism is a very productive activity both for the tourist and the government. As they support each other simultaneously. Also, the government should consider improving the conditions of the country as more and more number of tourist visit their country.

Above all, tourism is one of the fastest-growing industry in the world that has changed the scenario of the world.

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Tourism Essay

An introduction.

Tourism is the largest and fastest-growing industry across the world. It is a source of revenue and employment. It also gives the opportunity for people to understand the culture, civilization, and religious aspects of a country. There are many countries whose main source of revenue is Tourism. It is an export that is not visible which earns valuable foreign exchange without any substantial or actual loss of internal resources. Tourism is a unique type of highly labor-intensive industry. It provides different services that are needed as well as expected by the incoming tourists. Tourism is one of the largest industries in terms of money spent by tourists in the countries they visit. The amount received from the Tourism industries sometimes exceeds the Gross National Product of many countries.

India is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Asia and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. India has fascinated many tourists across the globe with her secularism and her culture. The scenic landscape, hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments, beaches, and enchanting backwater, places of religious interest make India a preferred destination for tourists from all over the world. Tourism in India has immense potential of developing into a high revenue-generating industry. Better connectivity of transport and communication, improved hospitality services and standard of living and value of money to the tourists from foreign countries have led to an increase in domestic as well as international Tourism.

Tourism is one of the most important and fastest-growing industries in today’s world that creates a lot of job opportunities. It generates a lot of revenue and adds to the economy of the country. Apart from generating jobs and revenue, it gives an opportunity for people of different countries and cultures to move and mingle with other cultures and social environments for the purpose of entertainment as well as professional purposes. It is only through Tourism that the world can get closer and know each other both socially, culturally and religiously. It creates good bonding among people of different languages and cultures. It also paves the way to understand and explore the rich heritage and ancient history of an unknown place.

It is an export that is not visible which earns valuable foreign exchange without any substantial or actual loss of internal resources. Tourism is a unique type of highly labor-intensive industry. It provides different services that are needed as well as expected by the incoming tourists. Tourism is one of the largest industries in terms of money spent by tourists in the countries they visit. The amount received from the Tourism industries sometimes exceeds the Gross National Product of many countries.

India is one of the most preferred tourist destinations in Asia because of its beautiful landscape, rich cultural heritage, myriad attractions and valuable ancient history. India serves as the hub of different cultures and languages within it and has always attracted domestic and international tourists. In 2019 it has attracted 10.93 million international tourists and this contributed to almost 4.7% to India’s GDP.  India has also attracted international tourists because of the liberty it gives to different religions. The peaceful existence of people of 22 languages and 9 religions is a source of attraction for all international tourists.  India has a mosaic of enchanting hill stations, magnificent architecture and monuments, picturesque beaches, and enchanting backwater. India has always been famous for its hospitality services. Our guests are considered as God and the tourists feel quite safe in India. A lot of solo travellers prefer certain parts of India over any other place in the world. Indian Tourism gives proper value to tourists from foreign countries.

Benefits of Tourism in India

The Tourism industry gives a wide scope of employment to people. It has not only provided employment opportunities to people but also alleviated poverty and sustained human development. Tourism has promoted and benefitted small and local handicrafts and cultural activities. It has played a significant role in promoting national integrity and international understanding. The most important benefit of Tourism is to give a sense of relief and relaxation to people when they get tired and exhausted from their hectic schedules and hustle-bustle of city life. It is a pleasant gateway for people. The Tourism industry has also benefited other sectors like aviation, transport, horticulture, and handicraft. The hotel industry has immensely benefited from Tourism and provides ample employment and help in earning foreign exchange. This industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has significantly contributed to the economic development of India by improving transportation and infrastructure facilities across the country.

Tourism has played a very vital role in reviving India’s art and culture. Tourists from foreign countries show a keen interest in the rich culture and heritage of India and this boosts the morale of the small artisans and adds to their novelty.

Promotion and Development of Tourism

For better growth, the Indian Government is taking a keen interest in promoting the different sections of Tourism such as rural Tourism, eco-Tourism, and spiritual Tourism, spa Tourism, and adventure Tourism. Nowadays, medical Tourism has also become an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Many people from our neighboring countries and from our western countries are turning towards India for affordable and world-class health care services and treatment.

Indian Tourism has grown significantly over the years. The services rendered to the tourists visiting India from foreign countries are the indiscernible products of the Tourism industry.  These products like hospitality services of all kinds for tourists turn into invisible exports because these services generate a lot of earnings without leaving Indian soil. The Tourism Ministry of India has played a major role in the development of the industry. The India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) formed by the Tourism department has carried out many vital developments to encourage Tourism in India. The ITDC hotels are situated at the prime locations of important tourist destinations in India and provide comfortable and affordable boarding and lodging.

The launching of the ‘Incredible India’ campaign by the Government of India is instrumental in promoting India as a holistic tourist destination in the domestic and international markets. Other specialized international media campaigns under ‘Incredible India’ have been launched and even the celebrities of our country have been roped into making this campaign of ‘Incredible India’ a big success in foreign lands also.

The ‘Clean India’ campaign launched by the Indian Government ensures full cleanliness, which has become an indispensable norm at all the tourist destinations. The Government has also conducted regular studies to analyze the market in order to identify the key factors, income figures, holiday habits, and psychology of people. This helps them to identify the key drivers in the Tourism industry and tackle the issues that deter the scope of Tourism.

According to research reports, the medical Tourism market in the Indian healthcare sector is valued to be worth over three hundred million dollars with more than one lakh foreign patients coming every year. The Government has also gone a step further to permit foreigners to visit India on an e-Tourist Visa for attending short-term yoga programs. 

The Tourism industry is the largest service industry in India and has the potential to stimulate the economic growth of the country. It becomes important for all citizens to develop the Tourism infrastructure and maintain tourist destinations, railway stations, airports, rest houses, and hotels.


FAQs on Essay on Tourism

1. Which Countries in the World Depend on Tourism for Their National Revenue?

Countries like Maldives, Bahamas, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and many such countries depend on tourism for national revenue.

2. How does Tourism Benefit India?

Tourism in India generates mass employment and raises the income levels thereby contributing significantly to the economic development of the country. It has led to significant improvement in the transportation and infrastructure facilities across the country. The hotel industry benefits from tourism and provides ample employment and help in earning foreign exchange. This industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. Tourism has also played a very vital role in reviving India’s art and culture.

3. What Measures did the Indian Government Take to Promote Tourism?

The Indian government has taken many measures for promoting the different sections of tourism such as rural tourism, eco-tourism, and spiritual tourism, spa tourism, and adventure tourism. Nowadays, medical tourism has also become an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. The government has also taken a step to permit foreigners to visit India on an e-Tourist Visa for attending short-term yoga programs. The Government of India has launched the campaign of “Incredible India” which is instrumental in promoting India as a holistic tourist destination in the domestic and international markets. Other specialized international media campaigns under ‘Incredible India’ have been launched and even the celebrities of our country have been roped into making this campaign of ‘Incredible India’ a big success in foreign lands also. The Tourism Ministry provides financial assistance to the states, union territories, and other central agencies to develop tourism in their area and promote the culture and natural beauty of different regions and pilgrimage sites.

4. What is the ‘Clean India’ Campaign Started by the Ministry of India?

The ‘Clean India’ campaign started by the Ministry of India ensures full cleanliness, which has become an indispensable norm at all the tourist destinations.

5. What are the benefits of Indian Tourism?

Indian Tourism is one of the most important ways to add to its GDP. Tourism industry has released the excess dependency on the agricultural and manufacturing industry for employment to such a huge Indian population. It has given opportunities to the Indian craftsmen to get recognition of their work and income from their work. The Indian small scale industry has flourished mainly because of Tourism. The best part of Indian Tourism is that it has improved both national and international integration among the people. Indian Tourism has the capability to recharge, refresh and revive a tired mind with its beauty and different attractions.

6. Which is the most attractive type of Tourism in India?

India is famous for its rich cultural heritage. Variety of fairs and festivals throughout the year in different parts of the country makes it so colorful that international tourists cannot resist the attraction. Cultural heritage has been the best type of Tourism in the country. Good communication inside and outside the country makes it easily accessible also. Tourists can travel from the picturesque beaches of Goa to the great monuments of Agra and other parts of north India to great relaxing hill stations. It is definitely difficult to cover the whole of India in a month even but only a few famous parts can create such lingering memories in the mind of the tourists which they can cherish life long.

7. Why and what important measures have been taken to promote Indian Tourism?

The Tourism industry needs to be developed further to promote and strengthen national integration. It is the only way by which each and every Indian citizen is aware of their rich cultural heritage, a plethora of languages and religions. To improve the economy of the country this is one of the easiest ways to promote. Hence the Government has taken lots of measures to promote Indian Tourism. The Government has added spa Tourism and medical Tourism further to promote the Tourism industry. The India Tourism Development Corporation has taken lots of measures to encourage Tourism like the following campaigns:

Comfortable, safe and affordable hotels for tourists are not only prime locations but other areas also have been set up for the benefit of tourists.

The banner of the ‘Incredible India’ campaign by the Government of India has successfully promoted Indian Tourism among foreigners. The Indian celebrity has also taken part in this campaign to promote Indian Tourism.

The launching of the ‘Clean India’ by the Government provides a clean environment for the national and international tourists which is one of the most essential parts of Tourism.

8. How has the Tourism industry updated itself?

Tourism originated in the seventeenth century with the purpose of learning and understanding the history, civilization and rich art and cultural heritage of India. Indian international trade was also famous at that time for its huge resources. India has remained an attraction among international tourists since then. In the modern world, however, tourists are more business-oriented and commercially organized. This urges the need to promote business Tourism, sports Tourism, spa Tourism and also medical Tourism. Modern Tourism has taken a keen interest in the rich heritage of Ayurved both for medical and relaxing purposes. People who need medical help prefer India because of some good opportunities that they get in the Indian health system, comparable health infrastructure and affordable medical costs in India.

9. What are the roles of a citizen to promote the Tourism of the country?

The Indian Government has taken enough measures to promote Indian Tourism but that needs to be complemented by the people of India also. This is the responsibility of every citizen of the country to provide good hospitality and security to foreign travellers. The people of the country should always try their best to suggest the best tourist spots of the country and can give a brief outline of the country’s rich heritage. It is the responsibility of the citizens to maintain a clean environment for the travellers. The tourists should like India because of its hygiene and cleanliness also.

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Student Essays


9 Essays on Tourism [ Benefits & Importance of Tourism for a Country ]

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Tourism is one of the major sectors in the economy of countries. The number of tourists that visit different countries is much more than those who do business or take up jobs there. Tourism has become a great source for generating revenue and also provides the opportunity to people to make friends with other nations.

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It not only gives the people of different countries a chance to move around and explore their own world, but also enables people who come from different regions to know more about each other. Tourism provides even more importance when they gather in such places for international events like Olympics, Football World Cup and cultural festivals like Deepawali, Ganeshotsav etc.

Essay on Tourism | Meaning, Purpose, Benefits & Importance of Tourism

Tourism is traveling on holiday, or on a day trip, with the primary purpose of visiting one or more specific places. It includes activities such as sightseeing, exploring historic areas, visiting museums and other attractions. Tourism can be domestic or international travel.

The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go “beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only”, as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.

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Tourism typically brings large numbers of travelers into a given place, but can lead to substantial economic impacts locally. Visitors may also go to places (such as national parks) not mainly for recreation, but primarily to see the place. Tourism is often linked to other sectors such as employment, housing, and commerce.

Importance of Tourism for a Country

The tourism is important for economic development of a country because it bring large number of tourists in a country and also holds an instrument in promoting international relations. It contribute majorly to the economy and employment opportunities of a nation. Tourism has many benefits such as increase in per capita income, foreign reserves etc., Increase in education status, trade and commerce, employment opportunities, revenue for govt., Investment in various other sectors etc. Tourism can help to run the economy of a country by replacing the loss due to decrease in other source. It brings large number of visitor and investors which provide a positive impact on a country in terms of employment opportunities, import and export etc.

Benefits of Tourism

There are many benefits of tourism such as employment opportunities, increase in per capita income, foreign reserves, increase in education status, trade and commerce, investment in other sectors etc.

Tourism is a source of income because it help to improve the economy by increasing investors and tourists also help us to grow our economy by creating more jobs for unemployed people. When foreign companies expand business in our country it helps to create more jobs for unemployed people.

It creates awareness among peoples due to their intense interest, which result in more knowledge and learning about the culture of other countries. Tourism bring large number of visitors in a country which provide a positive impact on a country in terms of employment opportunities, import and export etc.

Tourism is important for economic development of a country because it brings large number of tourists in a country and also holds an instrument in promoting international relations.

Tourism has many benefits such as increase in per capita income, foreign reserves etc., Increase in education status, trade and commerce, employment opportunities, revenue for govt., Investment in various other sectors etc.

Tourism affect the lives of individuals because those who are below poverty line due to expensive traveling they can easily afford by availing tourism service which provides affordable opportunities to all people with different income level. Tourism also improves interpersonal relationship among countries because we got to know each other culture and traditions

Tourism affects life on individual level firstly it help an individual to boost their knowledge by visiting various places, attracting different cultures etc. Tourism has got various benefits on health issues like less stress, more relaxation and healthy life. Hence it helps to make a better future for themselves and others as well.

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In a nutshell, Tourism is needed by all countries to boost their economy and make themselves heard in the world. It brings large number of visitors in a country which provide a positive impact on a country in terms of employment opportunities, import and export etc.

Essay about Tourism Industry:

The tourism industry plays a significant role in the global economy, accounting for 10.4% of the world’s GDP and employing over 319 million people worldwide. It involves the movement of people from their place of residence to another destination for leisure, business, or other purposes.

One major factor driving the growth of the tourism industry is technological advancements, which have made travel more accessible and affordable. The rise of the sharing economy, with platforms such as Airbnb and Uber, has also contributed to the growth by providing travelers with alternative accommodation and transportation options.

Moreover, governments around the world have recognized the potential of tourism and have invested in developing their countries’ infrastructure to attract visitors. This includes building new hotels, improving transportation networks, and preserving cultural landmarks .

Tourism not only contributes to the economy but also promotes cultural exchange and understanding between different countries and cultures. It allows people to experience new cultures, taste exotic cuisine, and learn about different customs and traditions. This can lead to a better understanding and appreciation of diversity.

However, the tourism industry also has its downsides. Over-tourism in popular destinations can cause strain on the environment and local communities. This can lead to issues such as overcrowding, pollution, and displacement of locals.

In conclusion, the tourism industry has both positive and negative impacts on society and the economy. It is important for governments and stakeholders to work together to ensure sustainable growth in the industry while preserving the cultural and environmental integrity of popular destinations. Responsible travel practices should also be promoted to minimize the negative effects of tourism.

Short Essay on Tourism:

Tourism is the activity of visiting places for pleasure or business reasons. It plays a major role in the economy of many countries and provides employment opportunities to millions of people. Tourism includes activities such as sightseeing, hiking, camping, and cultural experiences.

One of the main benefits of tourism is that it promotes cultural exchange between different countries. Tourists get to learn about new cultures, traditions, and customs while locals get to interact with people from different parts of the world.

Moreover, tourism also contributes to the preservation of historical and cultural sites. Tourists bring in revenue which can be used for the maintenance and restoration of these sites, ensuring they are preserved for future generations.

On the downside, mass tourism can have negative impacts on the environment and local communities. Overcrowding, pollution, and destruction of natural habitats are some of the consequences of irresponsible tourism.

Therefore, it is important for both tourists and governments to practice sustainable tourism in order to minimize these negative impacts. This involves being mindful of the environment, respecting local cultures and traditions, and supporting the local economy.

In conclusion, while tourism has its pros and cons, it is an important industry that has the potential to bring people from different backgrounds together and boost economic growth. It is crucial for all stakeholders to work towards responsible and sustainable tourism in order to ensure its long-term benefits for both the local communities and the environment.

Importance of Tourism Essay:

Tourism is an industry that involves traveling to different places for leisure, pleasure or business purposes. It has become a major source of income and employment in many countries around the world. In fact, tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries globally, with millions of people traveling and exploring new destinations every year.

One of the main reasons why tourism is important is because it contributes greatly to the economy of a country. Tourists bring in revenue through spending on accommodation, food, transportation and other activities. This money then goes towards supporting local businesses and communities, creating job opportunities and improving infrastructure.

Moreover, tourism also helps preserve cultural heritage and promotes cultural exchange between different countries. When people travel to new places, they learn about different cultures, traditions and ways of life. This not only broadens their perspective but also creates understanding and appreciation for different cultures.

Another significant benefit of tourism is that it can alleviate poverty in developing countries. By providing employment opportunities, particularly in rural areas, tourism can help lift people out of poverty and improve their standard of living. It also encourages the preservation of natural resources, as tourists are more likely to support sustainable and responsible tourism practices.

Furthermore, tourism plays a crucial role in boosting international trade and investment. By attracting visitors from other countries, tourism can increase the demand for local products and services, leading to an increase in exports and foreign investment. This also helps improve the balance of payments of a country.

In conclusion, tourism is an essential industry that has numerous benefits for both the travelers and the destinations they visit. It not only contributes to economic growth but also promotes cultural exchange, preserves natural resources, and supports local communities. Hence, it is crucial for governments to invest in promoting and developing sustainable tourism practices to ensure its continued success and benefits for all involved.

Tourism Essay Advantages & Disadvantages:

Tourism is the act of traveling to a different location for leisure, recreation or business purposes. It is an important part of our economy and has become increasingly popular over the years. In this essay, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of tourism.


  • Boosts Economy: Tourism brings in revenue and creates job opportunities for local communities. The money spent by tourists on accommodation, food, and activities goes into the local economy and helps in its development.
  • Cultural Exchange: Tourism allows people from different cultures to interact with each other, promoting understanding and acceptance. It also gives locals an opportunity to showcase their customs, traditions, and way of life to visitors.
  • Preservation of Heritage Sites: Tourists often visit historical or cultural sites, which helps in their preservation and maintenance. This not only benefits the local community but also contributes to the country’s cultural identity.
  • Infrastructure Development: To cater to tourists’ needs, governments often invest in improving infrastructure such as roads, transportation, and public facilities. This infrastructure can benefit locals even after the tourist season ends.
  • Employment Opportunities: The tourism industry generates a variety of job opportunities, ranging from hotel staff to tour guides. This provides employment for locals and reduces the unemployment rate in a country.


  • Environmental Impact: The influx of tourists can have a negative impact on the environment, such as pollution and damage to natural habitats.
  • Exploitation of Local Communities: In some cases, tourism can lead to exploitation of local communities, especially in underdeveloped areas. This includes unfair wages and displacement of locals from their homes.
  • Overcrowding: Popular tourist destinations often become overcrowded, causing inconvenience for both tourists and locals. It also puts a strain on resources and can result in increased prices for essential goods and services.
  • Cultural Appropriation: Sometimes, tourists may not respect the local culture and engage in activities that are offensive or disrespectful. This can lead to a loss of cultural identity for the locals.
  • Dependence on Tourism: Some countries heavily rely on tourism as their main source of income, which makes them vulnerable to economic downturns and natural disasters.

In conclusion, while tourism brings many benefits, it also has its drawbacks. It is important for governments and locals to strike a balance between development and preservation, ensuring that tourism is sustainable and beneficial for all parties involved. As individuals, we should also be responsible tourists and respect the culture, environment, and people of the places we visit.

Essay on Tourism in Manipur:

Tourism is a major industry in Manipur, a state located in Northeast India. It is known for its scenic beauty, rich culture and traditions, and warm hospitality. Tourism has been growing steadily in Manipur over the years, thanks to the efforts of the state government and private organizations.

One of the main attractions of Manipur is its natural beauty. The state is home to many picturesque valleys, hills, lakes, and waterfalls. The Loktak Lake, which is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India, is a popular tourist spot. Tourists can also enjoy trekking in the lush green forests of Manipur or go on a wildlife safari in one of its national parks.

Apart from its natural beauty, Manipur is also known for its rich cultural heritage. The state is home to various ethnic groups, each with their own unique customs and traditions. Tourists can witness these vibrant cultures through the numerous festivals celebrated in the state, such as the Manipur Sangai Festival, which showcases the rich tradition and culture of the state.

Moreover, tourism has also played a crucial role in boosting the economy of Manipur. It has created job opportunities for the locals and generated revenue for the state. The government has taken several initiatives to promote tourism in Manipur by improving infrastructure, promoting eco-tourism, and collaborating with private organizations.

However, the tourism industry in Manipur still faces challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of promotion at the national level, and political instability. But despite these challenges, the state continues to attract tourists from all over the world.

In conclusion, tourism in Manipur has tremendous potential for growth and development. It not only showcases the natural beauty and rich culture of the state but also contributes to its economic growth. With proper planning and support from the government and private sector, Manipur can become a top tourist destination in Northeast India

Essay on Tourism in Pakistan:

Tourism is an important industry in Pakistan. It plays a significant role in the country’s economy and has great potential for growth. Pakistan offers diverse landscapes, rich culture, and historical sites that attract tourists from all over the world.

One of the most popular tourist destinations in Pakistan is the northern areas, known for its breathtaking mountain ranges, lush green valleys, and crystal clear lakes. It is also home to the world’s second-highest peak, K2.

In addition to natural beauty, Pakistan also has a rich cultural heritage that fascinates tourists. The ancient ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and Taxila are major attractions for history lovers. The country is also home to various religious sites such as the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore and the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad.

However, tourism in Pakistan has faced challenges due to security concerns and negative media portrayal. The government has taken several initiatives to promote tourism and improve security measures for tourists. These efforts have shown positive results, with an increase in the number of international visitors in recent years.

In conclusion, Pakistan has a lot to offer for tourists, from scenic landscapes to cultural and historical experiences. With proper promotion and security measures, tourism in Pakistan has the potential to become a major contributor to the country’s economy. Therefore, it is important for all stakeholders to work together to showcase the beauty of Pakistan and make it a must-visit destination for travelers.

Global Tourism Essay:

Tourism is a rapidly growing industry that has a significant impact on economies around the world. It involves the movement of people from one place to another for leisure, business, or other purposes. With increased transportation options and improved connectivity, travel has become easier and more affordable, leading to an increase in global tourism.

The growth of global tourism has brought numerous benefits to countries, including job creation, infrastructure development, and cultural exchange. Many developing countries rely heavily on tourism as a major source of income. In 2019, travel and tourism directly contributed 3.4% to the global GDP and provided employment to over 330 million people worldwide.

However, the rapid growth of global tourism also presents challenges that need to be addressed. One of the major concerns is the negative impact on the environment. The high demand for travel has led to an increase in carbon emissions, pollution, and overconsumption of resources.

Another challenge is the issue of overtourism, which occurs when there are too many tourists in a destination, leading to overcrowding, damage to local ecosystems, and strain on resources. The COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in travel restrictions and border closures, highlighted the vulnerability of the tourism industry to external factors.

To ensure sustainable growth of global tourism, it is important for countries to implement responsible tourism practices. This involves promoting cultural sensitivity, preserving natural resources, and minimizing the negative impact on local communities. Governments must also work together to develop policies that balance economic benefits with environmental protection.

Essay on Tourism in India:

India is a country known for its rich cultural heritage, diverse landscapes, and warm hospitality. It has been one of the most sought-after tourist destinations in the world due to its vibrant colors, breathtaking natural beauty, and fascinating history.

Tourism in India has played a significant role in contributing to the country’s economy and providing employment opportunities. According to a report by the World Travel and Tourism Council, India’s travel and tourism industry generated 9.2% of the country’s total GDP in 2018, creating around 42 million jobs.

The diverse landscapes of India make it a perfect destination for all kinds of travelers. From the snow-capped mountains in the North to the tranquil backwaters in South, from the bustling cities to the serene beaches, India has something to offer for every type of tourist. The country is also home to many UNESCO World Heritage Sites such as the Taj Mahal, Qutub Minar, and Hampi. These historical monuments not only attract tourists but also serve as a window into India’s rich cultural past.

Apart from its natural and cultural beauty, India is also known for its spiritual tourism. With a vast array of temples, mosques, and churches, India has been a destination for people seeking spiritual enlightenment for centuries. The ancient cities of Varanasi and Rishikesh are famous pilgrimage sites for Hindus, while the Golden Temple in Amritsar attracts thousands of Sikh devotees every year.

Another unique aspect of tourism in India is its rich cuisine. Each region in India has its distinctive flavors, aromas, and cooking techniques that will leave any food lover craving for more. From the mouth-watering chaats of Delhi to the spicy curries of South India, from the delicious seafood dishes of Goa to the exotic biryanis of Lucknow, Indian cuisine offers an explosion of taste and a gastronomic delight.

India has also emerged as a popular destination for medical tourism due to its cost-effective and advanced medical treatments. People from all over the world come to India seeking affordable medical care, making it one of the fastest-growing segments in the country’s tourism industry.

In conclusion, tourism in India is a vast and ever-growing industry that offers diverse experiences for travelers. With its rich culture, natural beauty, spiritual destinations, and delicious cuisine, India has something for everyone. It is no wonder that the country continues to attract millions of tourists each year and will continue to do so in the future. So, if you are planning your next vacation, India should definitely be on your list! Happy travels!

Essay on Tourism in Nepal:

Nepal is a country situated in South Asia and one of the most visited tourist destinations in the world. It is known for its breathtaking natural beauty, rich cultural heritage, and spiritual atmosphere. The tourism industry plays a significant role in Nepal’s economy, contributing to around 8% of the country’s GDP.

One of the main attractions of Nepal is its majestic Himalayan mountain range, including Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world. This has made Nepal a popular destination for trekking and mountaineering enthusiasts from all over the globe. The country is also home to numerous national parks and conservation areas, making it a perfect location for wildlife lovers.

Apart from its natural beauty, Nepal is famous for its diverse cultural heritage and traditions. The country has a vibrant culture, and its people are known for their warm hospitality. Nepal is home to numerous ancient temples, monasteries, and historical sites that showcase the rich history of the country. It is also a melting pot of different religions, with Hinduism and Buddhism being the major ones.

Tourism in Nepal has significantly contributed to the country’s development, providing employment opportunities to thousands of people. It has also helped in preserving and promoting the country’s culture and heritage, as tourists are drawn towards these aspects of Nepal. Tourists also contribute to the local economy by purchasing souvenirs and traditional handicrafts.

However, like any other tourist destination, Nepal also faces challenges in managing tourism sustainably. The government has taken several measures to minimize the negative impacts of tourism on the environment and local communities.

It has implemented strict regulations for trekking and mountaineering activities to preserve its fragile mountain ecosystem. The government is also promoting eco-tourism, which focuses on preserving and protecting natural areas while providing economic benefits to the local communities.

In conclusion, Nepal is a country that offers something for everyone. From its spectacular mountain ranges to its vibrant culture, there is no shortage of things to explore in this beautiful country. However, it is essential to remember the responsibility that comes with being a tourist and to travel sustainably so that future generations can also enjoy the wonders of Nepal.

Q: How do you start a tourism essay?

A: Start a tourism essay with an engaging introduction that presents the topic and its relevance, often with a hook or a brief overview of what the essay will cover.

Q: How do you write a tourist essay?

A: To write a tourist essay, choose a specific aspect of tourism to focus on, such as its economic impact, cultural significance, or environmental consequences. Research your topic and present a clear argument or analysis.

Q: What is tourism in 100 words?

A: Tourism is a global industry encompassing the travel of people to destinations away from their usual place of residence. It involves various activities, such as sightseeing, recreation, and cultural experiences. Tourism plays a crucial role in many economies, promoting cultural exchange, creating jobs, and generating revenue. However, it can also have negative environmental and social impacts, making sustainable tourism practices important.

Q: What is the meaning of tourism in an essay?

A: In an essay, the meaning of tourism refers to the comprehensive understanding and analysis of the tourism industry, encompassing its various aspects, impacts, and significance, often with a specific focus or argument related to tourism.

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Essay on Tourism

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  • Updated on  
  • May 30, 2022

How to Ace an Essay on Tourism_-07

Essay writing holds importance in various competitive exams like IELTS , TOEFL , UPSC or in general as part of your school curriculum. Being prepared for essay writing is crucial as it tests your command over English, grammar, your clarity of thoughts and how to present them in a meaningful way. Tourism and travel is one such frequently asked topic for which you should be prepared. This blog explores a few essay on tourism samples which will assist in writing on the topic of tourism.

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What is tourism, samples for essay on tourism, essay for 250 words, sample essay on tourism for 300 words, sample essay on tourism for 800 words.

Tourism, literally speaking, is the act of travelling to a place for your pleasure or business. The tourism industry is one the biggest industries in the world and is a major source of foreign exchange for any country. Tourism helps to develop a country through the generation of jobs, creation of attractions, restaurants, entertainment, better services in a community, diversification of the economy and cross-cultural diversity. However, recently the tourism industry has been greatly affected due to the pandemic. With the world being shut down, travel was completely restricted and even with everything slowly going back to normal, people are hesitant to travel. Still, the tourism industry remains important for the national economy and would bounce back. 

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Here we have structured some of the most efficient ways to write an essay on tourism. There are multiple samples related to the essay on tourism, all written in various sub-topics and ranging from different word limits.

Things have now started looking bright for the Indian tourism industry. However, the Indian tourism industry has been hit by pollution. The effluents emitted by the Mathura Refinery have led to the decolourization of the Taj Mahal in Agra. The condition of many of our monuments is deteriorating due to the negligence of the concerned authorities. On the other hand, beaches have become the dumping grounds of garbage and waste left by tourists. The natural environment and heritage sites remain a source of attraction as long as these are not damaged beyond control from their degradation or pollution. Massive tourist traffic, unless regulated, creates these mal-effects. The tourist carrying capacity of a resort needs to be matched to minimise the inconveniences of local people during the period of tourist rush. Youths of the host area are also to be saved from cultural alienation by blindly imitating the lifestyle of foreigners during days of reckless massive tourism. Planning for adopting a sequence of steps like a survey of the existing position of services, facilities needed by tourists and measures for the development of healthy and sustainable tourism, has become a dire need. At the national level, an apex body has to take stock of the status and trends of tourism in comparison with neighbouring countries. It will help appraise the future needs, the nature of various incentives for alluring tourists and the gaps to be removed for better provision as well as management of the infrastructure.

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In the era of globalization, tourism has started playing a vital role in the development of economies. Nowadays, tourism makes significant contributions to the economy of a nation; however, it has some drawbacks too. The two major advantages of tourism are the augmentation of the national economy and the generation of employment for local people. Firstly, tourists use a wide range of services which includes hotel bookings, tourist guides, food and transportation. This results in additional income which in turn contributes to the nation’s economy. For example, tourism increases the consumption of domestic products which have a significant impact on the overall GDP growth of the country. Secondly, tourism creates a significant number of job opportunities as without people tour operators, restaurants, hotels and transport services cannot operate. Hence, tourism brings significant benefits such as a boost in the national economy and employment for local people. However, there are various disadvantages associated with tourism such as the destruction of popular destinations and the rise in criminal and illegal activities. Firstly, the massive influx of tourists to places like historical monuments and pilgrimage centres causes significant damage to these age-old structures. In addition, to cope with the demand of tourists/tourism national resources are overexploited. Secondly, as tourists carry valuable items with them such as cash, jewellery and other expensive items, they may become the targets of thieves and other anti-social elements. Hence tourism also has many disadvantages which can be eliminated by the government if they ensure proper security measures and timely maintenance of popular tourist spots. To conclude, in spite of the fact that tourism has certain disadvantages such as destructive effects on monuments and an increase in criminal activities it has a very constructive effect on a nation’s economy and gives a plethora of new job opportunities for locals. I personally believe that the advantages of tourism outweigh its disadvantages.

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As an industry the impact of tourism is manifold. The tourism industry nourishes a country’s economy, stimulates the development process and restores the cultural heritage. This industry enjoys a major advantage over other industries of having a unique product that might differ from state to state. For example, Goa is renowned for its sunny beaches and colonial charms, palaces that are reminders of the princely era. During the 1960s great emphasis was placed on tourism as a source of foreign exchange-earners. Tourism is the one industry that earns foreign exchange for a country without exhausting natural resources and without actually exporting any material goods. The income from tourism has tended to increase at a higher rate than merchandise export in a number of countries. There is now almost a continuous flow of income from richer countries to the not-so richer and developing ones, raising the latter’s export earnings and rate of economic growth. For example in countries like India and Spain, tourism is the single largest earner of foreign exchange. According to official Spanish sources, in 1981 there were more visitor arrivals in Spain (40 million) than the actual population of the country (36 million). Tourism is thus the most important source of income for many countries. Development and improvement of infrastructure facilities is another important benefit offered by the tourism industry. Infrastructural facilities such as airports, roads, water supply and other public utilities may be widely shared by the other sectors of the economy. Development of new infrastructure and improvement in the existing infrastructure may confer benefits upon the resident population which they may have not enjoyed otherwise. Further­more, the provision of infrastructure may provide the basis or serve as an encouragement for greater economic diversification. A variety of secondary industries may be promoted which may not serve the needs of tourism. Thus, indirectly, tourist expenditure may be responsible for stimulating other economic activities of a country. Tourism development greatly benefits the underdeveloped regions of a country. These economically backward regions mostly have places of high scenic beauty, which if developed for the tourism industry, will help to bring a lot of prosperity to the local people. Money spent by tourists helps to improve the health of every business in that region. For example, roads constructed for use by tourists provide local people access to the market centres as well. Earlier, there were many backward areas but due to tourism development, these places got international recognition. For example, Khajuraho, a few years back was considered a remote and unknown small village, but today, it is an internationally famous tourist place of interest and also generates employment for hundreds of local people in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, handicraft shops etc. Without tourism development, Khajuraho would have remained a remote and unknown village till today. The tourism industry is a highly labour-intensive service industry that generates employment for highly skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labourers in sectors like hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, tourism offices, shops etc. One additional room in a hotel helps at least 8 to 9 people in getting jobs. Not only that, tourism creates employment outside the industry as well, for example, the basic infrastructure like roads, airport, water supply etc. The construction industry creates jobs for thousands of both skilled and unskilled workers. Tourism remains basically a cultural phenomenon. Tourism has always stood as a unique vehicle for cultural promotion. In the past, travel was based on cultural interest. Even today a large number of people travel to foreign countries to learn about their culture and tradition. Tourism indirectly preserves the environment by discouraging large scale industrialisation in places where natural beauty has to be kept intact. It thus helps a country to restore its ancient monuments and archaeological treasures. Most of the developing countries which possess an ancient civilization can benefit greatly from tourism. Tourists visiting these countries have a great urge to become acquainted with ancient civilizations. As a result of cultural shopping, which forms an important part of any tourist itinerary, local handicraft is still surviving. Tourism has also given a new lease of life to the traditional customs, costumes, festivals and dances which generates employment for the weaker section in the remote areas of the country. Hence, tourism can contribute unique benefits to a nation by exploring its cultural heritage and can serve indirectly to improve the individual cultural levels of both national and foreign tourists. Tourism plays an important role in promoting international goodwill. It creates awareness and appreciation of other countries cultures and traditions and makes possible cultural exchange and enrichment. Tourism can be a vehicle for international understanding by way of bringing diverse people from different cultures and traditions face to face. The best way of getting to know another country is to go there and when a vast number of people travel, the prejudices, barriers and suspicions that exist between different countries breakdown the narrow, rigid boundaries that keep people away from each other, naturally tend to shrink and a positive move towards better international understanding begins to operate. Tourism can greatly enrich and promote friendship between different countries in the world. Tourism, thus, develops not only the economic condition of a country by earning foreign exchange for it, but also plays a vital role in its social, cultural and regional development and in promoting goodwill and friendship among all nations of the World.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Tourism IELTS Essay: Sample

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Updated on 27 January, 2024

Kanika Pruthi

Kanika Pruthi

Sr. content writer & study abroad expert.

Kanika Pruthi

You can readily check out the samples for the advantages and disadvantages of a tourism IELTS essay here. There are 40 minutes that you will get for completing the essay, with the minimum word count being 250. The upper limit is not present in most scenarios. Make sure that you check the samples carefully for the writing style.

Table of Contents

Advantages and disadvantages of tourism ielts essay samples - 2, download ielts sample papers, frequently asked questions, important study abroad articles, study abroad without ielts, advantages and disadvantages of tourism ielts essay samples.

Question-  Describe the advantages and disadvantages of tourism in the modern world .

Essay 1- 

In a time when globalization is sweeping the entire ecosystem, tourism has a crucial responsibility for developing global economies and nations. Nowadays, tourism is what makes widespread economic contributions to all countries, although there are a few negatives as well. This essay talks about the advantages and disadvantages of tourism before concluding with a final opinion. 

The biggest benefits of tourism are quite obvious, i.e., boosting the national GDP and economy and creating more employment for local citizens and communities. Tourists use diverse solutions while traveling, including booking hotels, flights, transportation, and guides. They also require food, shopping, and leisure while indulging in a wide gamut of other activities. This leads to extra income for thousands, which contributes handsomely to the country's economy. Tourism increases the GDP significantly and helps create more employment opportunities. People are always needed as tour guides, operators, booking agents, hotel and restaurant staff, transportation personnel, etc. Tourism thus has huge benefits to bring to the table for any country and its local population. 

Yet, there are some negatives of tourism as well. This includes the rampant damage of several well-known destinations and increased crime or illegal activities. The huge number of tourists thronging popular cultural and historical landmarks and monuments and other centers of pilgrimage lead to major structural and environmental damage. Along with this aspect, national resources are often overused and overexploited for handling this rush of tourists. At the same time, tourists bring their jewelry, money, and other expensive items, becoming targets for anti-social criminals and thieves, leading to a growth in illegal activities and crime. Hence, tourism has some disadvantages as well. However, the Government can take proactive steps to eliminate the same by providing more security and policing while maintaining popular monuments, tourist spots, and natural resources alike. 

To conclude, it can be said that while tourism does have specific disadvantages, it has a positive impact on livelihood, national economies, and overall employment. It also fosters cultural exchange, information gathering, and educational growth. Hence, while Governments may fix the negatives with proactive measures, the positives far outweigh them, in my opinion. (370 words)

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Tourism has witnessed rapid development over several decades, becoming a major industry worldwide. The global tourism sector is responsible for generating a major percentage of economic wealth for several countries. Most developing economies are also hugely dependent upon tourism for earning national income and the smooth operation of several business sectors and industries, along with maintaining their levels of employment generation. Yet, like every other sector and institution, tourism will always have some advantages and disadvantages. Hence, in this article, we will discuss the pros and cons of tourism in detail to have a balanced insight. 

The growth and development of global tourism naturally bring myriad benefits to entire cities, countries, and communities alike. Tourism is one of the biggest foreign exchange sources and boosts the monetary positions of countries by adding to their economy and GPD alike. Whenever tourists visit any other country, they usually use various services and products that enable industries such as hotels and hospitality, airlines, transportation, leisure, food and beverages, souvenirs, apparel, and more. Other benefits of tourism include better relationships and political equations amongst nations, easier travel regulations, and inter-cultural and socio-economic exchange, which fosters better understanding, knowledge, and education overall. Heritage is also promoted and understood by every country at a global level. 

However, there are several disadvantages of tourism as well. Growth in tourism means a higher chance of illegal activities and crime, especially theft, since tourists bring valuables in their wake. Secondly, foreign tourists often damage and vandalize places of national interest and importance. They often litter areas while damaging natural resources and beautiful spots simultaneously. They are often ignorant about social and legal conventions in foreign countries and end up violating the same in some situations. Tourism also opens up avenues for illegal migration and trading illegal items at times. However, despite all these disadvantages, I firmly believe that the advantages surpass them in every sense of the term. (339 words)

In conclusion, tourism undeniably plays a critical role in the global economy and cultural exchange, offering substantial benefits such as economic growth, cultural preservation, and international understanding. However, it also poses challenges including environmental impact, cultural commodification, and economic dependence. Balancing these advantages and disadvantages requires sustainable and responsible tourism practices that respect local cultures, protect natural environments, and promote equitable economic benefits. As the world continues to become increasingly interconnected, understanding and addressing the complexities of tourism is essential for preserving its positive impacts while mitigating its negative effects. This nuanced approach to tourism, embracing both its benefits and challenges, is key to ensuring that it remains a positive force in our global society. Read More About IELTS:

Reading sample test

What are the benefits and disadvantages of tourism in the modern world?

Tourism has many advantages in the contemporary world. It promotes global connections and cultural exchange while leading to more information dissemination and helps people experience and understand new things. It helps in new business opportunities, generates direct and indirect employment, adds to the GDP of the country and earnings of the region and its local people, promotes entrepreneurship and also works to promote the country globally. 

The disadvantages include pollution, littering, waste and a strain on the natural resources and infrastructure of the country. Tourism often leads to severe income dependency and may cause fluctuations in the future as a result. It often leads to crime going up in a country owing to the influx of different people. It may cause chaos and congestion as well. Sometimes, over-tourism makes it difficult to preserve and maintain natural and cultural heritage as well.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of tourism IELTS essay?

You will have to answer the question given in the essay which goes as follows-  Describe the advantages and disadvantages of tourism in the modern world . You will have to first provide an introduction talking about the question and your own opinion regarding the same. Then talk about the benefits of tourism in a paragraph, following it up with another paragraph on the negative aspects of tourism. You can then sign off with a conclusion.

What advantages can tourism bring to cities ielts?

You have to write about the distinct tourism advantages for cities. These include the fact that tourism infuses an economic boost for any city along with a steady flow of income and revenues for the Government. It adds to the city’s local economy, creates more jobs and entrepreneurship and also enables inter-cultural exchange and idea/information exchange. It helps a city showcase itself to the world, which brings more business and cultural collaborations in the future.

Why tourism is important for a country IELTS?

Tourism and travel have a huge contribution on the fortunes of any country. This is through not only higher employment and more revenues for the country (that it can spend on infrastructure development) but also through more entrepreneurship, global recognition of a country’s treasures, attractions and achievements and most importantly, the facilitation of cultural and social exchange amongst people of different nations. Travel and tourism plays a vital role in establishing a country’s role in the community of nations.

What are the structures for advantages and disadvantages of tourism essay?

You have to first talk about the given question in your introductory paragraph. You can then state your own opinion in brief about the advantages and disadvantages of tourism. You can then start off with a paragraph detailing the benefits offered by tourism and then talk about the disadvantages of tourism in your essay as well. Thereafter, once these two paragraphs are done, you can write a conclusion, spelling out the topic, your opinion and what you think should be the way forward. This is the basic structure that you can follow in this regard.

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Kanika has 5+ years of experience as a writer and content developer. She has written for a wide range of industry verticals, including hospitality, restaurants, non-profits, finance, IT, HR, technology, payroll, and education. She has worked as a creator for a few leading companies and has also helped brands grow through her creative writing.

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UN Tourism | Bringing the world closer

International Tourism to Reach Pre-Pandemic Levels in 2024

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International Tourism to Reach Pre-Pandemic Levels in 2024

  • All Regions
  • 19 Jan 2024

Following a strong 2023, international tourism is well on track to return to pre-pandemic levels in 2024.

According to the first UNWTO World Tourism Barometer of the year, international tourism ended 2023 at 88% of pre-pandemic levels , with an estimated 1.3 billion international arrivals . The unleashing of remaining pent-up demand, increased air connectivity, and a stronger recovery of Asian markets and destinations, are expected to underpin a full recovery by the end of 2024.

Middle East, Europe and Africa performed strongest in 2023

The latest UNWTO World Tourism Barometer provides a comprehensive overview of the sector's performance in 2023, tracking recovery by global region, sub-region and destination. Key takeaways include:

  • The Middle East led recovery in relative terms as the only region to overcome pre-pandemic levels with arrivals 22% above 2019.
  • Europe , the world's most visited region, reached 94% of 2019 levels, supported by intra-regional demand and travel from the United States.
  • Africa recovered 96% of pre-pandemic visitors and Americas reached 90%.
  • Asia and the Pacific reached 65% of pre-pandemic levels following the reopening of several markets and destinations. However, performance is mixed, with South Asia already recovering 87% of 2019 levels and North-East Asia around 55%. 

International Tourist Arrivals (% change over 2019)

Available data shows several destinations, including both large, established destinations as well as small and emerging ones, reporting double-digit growth in international arrivals in 2023 when compared to 2019. Four sub-regions exceeded their 2019 arrival levels: Southern Mediterranean Europe, Caribbean, Central America and North Africa.

UNWTO Secretary-General Zurab Pololikashvili says: "The latest UNWTO data underscores tourism's resilience and rapid recovery, with pre-pandemic numbers expected by the end of 2024. The rebound is already having a significant impact on economies, jobs, growth and opportunities for communities everywhere. These numbers also recall the critical task of progressing sustainability and inclusion in tourism development"

International tourism hit US$1.4 trillion in 2023

The latest UNWTO data also highlights the economic impact of recovery.

  • International tourism receipts reached USD 1.4 trillion in 2023 according to preliminary estimates, about 93% of the USD 1.5 trillion earned by destinations in 2019.
  • Total export revenues from tourism (including passenger transport) are estimated at USD 1.6 trillion in 2023, almost 95% of the USD 1.7 trillion recorded in 2019.
  • Preliminary estimates on the economic contribution of tourism, measured in tourism direct gross domestic product (TDGDP) point to USD 3.3 trillion in 2023, or 3% of global GDP. This indicates a recovery of pre-pandemic TDGDP driven by strong domestic and international tourism.

Several destinations reported strong growth in international tourism receipts during the first ten to twelve months of 2023, exceeding in some cases growth in arrivals. Strong demand for outbound travel was also reported by several large source markets this period, with many exceeding 2019 levels.

The sustained recovery is also reflected in the performance of industry indicators. According to the UNWTO Tourism Recovery Tracker, both international air capacity and passenger demand recovered about 90% of pre-pandemic levels through October 2023 (IATA). Global occupancy rates in accommodation establishments reached 65% in November, slightly above 62% in November 2022 (based on STR data).

Looking Ahead to 2024

International tourism is expected to fully recover pre-pandemic levels in 2024, with initial estimates pointing to 2% growth above 2019 levels. This central forecast by UNWTO remains subject to the pace of recovery in Asia and to the evolution of existing economic and geopolitical downside risks.  

The positive outlook is reflected in the latest UNWTO Tourism Confidence Index survey, with 67% of tourism professionals indicating better or much better prospects for 2024 compared to 2023. Some 28% expect similar performance, while only 6% expect tourism performance in 2024 to be worse than last year. Key considerations include:

  • There is still significant room for recovery across Asia. The reopening of several source markets and destinations will boost recovery in the region and globally.
  • Chinese outbound and inbound tourism is expected to accelerate in 2024, due to visa facilitation and improved air capacity. China is applying visa-free travel for citizens of France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Malaysia for a year to 30 November 2024.
  • Visa and travel facilitation measures will promote travel to and around the Middle East and Africa with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to implement a unified tourist visa, similar to the Schengen visa, and measures to facilitate intra-African travel in Kenya and Rwanda.
  • Europe is expected to drive results again in 2024. In March, Romania and Bulgaria will join the Schengen area of free movement, and Paris will host the Summer Olympics in July and August.
  • Strong travel from the United States, backed by a strong US dollar, will continue to benefit destinations in the Americas and beyond. As in 2023, robust source markets in Europe, the Americas and the Middle East, will continue to fuel tourism flows and spending around the world.
  • Economic and geopolitical headwinds continue to pose significant challenges to the sustained recovery of international tourism and confidence levels. Persisting inflation, high interest rates, volatile oil prices and disruptions to trade can continue to impact transport and accommodations costs in 2024.
  • Against this backdrop, tourists are expected to increasingly seek value for money and travel closer to home. Sustainable practices and adaptability will also play an increasing role in consumer choice. 
  • Staff shortages remain a critical issue, as tourism businesses face a shortfall in labor to cope with high demand.
  • The evolution of the Hamas-Israel conflict may disrupt travel in the Middle East and impact traveler confidence. Uncertainty derived from the Russian aggression against Ukraine as well as other mounting geopolitical tensions, continue to weigh on confidence.

Related links

  • Download the News Release on PDF
  • World Tourism Barometer | EXCERPT | Volume 22 • Issue 1 • January 2024
  • World Tourism Barometer | PPT Version | Volume 22 • Issue 1 • January 2024
  • UNWTO Tourism Recovery Tracker
  • UNWTO World Tourism Barometer
  • UNWTO Tourism Data Dashboard

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You are here: Home » News » Why I chose tourism: a student’s perspective

Why I chose tourism: a student’s perspective

Publish date: 4th Sep 18 26th Jun 19

why tourism industry essay

The tourism industry is the UK’s 3rd largest employer, with 3.1 million people in its workforce and accounting for 1 in 3 new jobs created since 2010. However, the industry can often be overlooked for its successful, long-term career prospects. 

UKinbound’s current intern Yasmin Ayture, explains why she has chosen to pursue a career in tourism, and how her passion for the industry has helped her face some challenges and misperceptions along the way.

When asked during job interviews and by friends and family ‘so why do you want a career in tourism?’  my answer is always the same – “during geography classes at school in Year 10, I found it fascinating to learn about the huge impact of tourism on people, regions, and countries”.

Whilst also studying for my A-level and extended diploma courses, I came to see tourism as a vast phenomenon, capable of causing considerable positive (and negative) change environmentally, economically, socially and culturally. Now, my favourite description of tourism is that it’s the ‘the largest peaceful movement of people’, as well as the fastest growing industry, comprising 10.2% of world GDP.

Two years into my International Tourism Management degree, my understanding of tourism is broader, and I now engage with other subjects such as languages, research, economics and sustainability because of their relationship with tourism.  This is essential as tourism is multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary, with sub-industries such as transport and accommodation and operations spanning continents.

I love tourism for being geographically unlimited in potential and reach, which means there is an ever-present need to respond to changes in political and social movements, and fluctuating trends in demand and demographics. These captivating dynamics mean that there is no “we have always done it this way” approach in tourism, so it’s perfect for people who are open-minded and flexible! Tourism is rich in its ability to give vast opportunities to many people, provide enjoyable experiences and exposure to many different cultures whilst simultaneously bringing economic benefits at local and national level.

However, since deciding to study tourism, I have unfortunately discovered that many people think tourism careers are unambitious, low-skilled, and poorly remunerated. I have experienced criticism and disappointment from my teachers, friends and family about my subject choice. They fear that I won’t achieve my academic potential believing tourism to be an easy subject which will led to a low-paid job. Sometimes this is hurtful to hear, but I know that I have chosen the best career path for me.

When people think about a career in tourism, finance, human resources, research, business development, digital marketing, events, or communications roles do not typically come to mind. Yet, these are vital components of many tourism businesses. Highly-skilled individuals are needed within tourism but a lack of knowledge about the industry and wrong assumptions can discourage people from entering, leading to a shortfall of skilled and enthusiastic workers when people are really needed.

Those closest to me have become more open-minded to my studying of tourism as they hear that my degree includes topics like policy, economics, sustainability and ethics. They can see the experiences that tourism has lead me to, like becoming an intern at UKinbound, carrying out research in Morocco on women’s rights and roles in tourism, or finding a weekend job in my university town’s tourist information centre. I have learnt that people will support you if they see you studying a subject which maintains your unwavering interest.

To anyone in the industry or looking to join, my view is to be proud of this study or career choice! In the UK, travelling is a part of many peoples’ lives and something which consistently binds people from all ages and professions. Tourism has done this for centuries before aeroplanes – originating from nomadic lifestyles and religious pilgrimages. Tourism nowadays is a catalyst for large-scale employment worldwide, with 3.1m jobs provided by tourism in the UK in 2017 alone. An industry with such significance to people, businesses, regions and countries irrefutably deserves appreciation and, with time, perceptions of the industry will hopefully change to reflect its meaningful, exciting, and forward-thinking nature.

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Answer Woman: How much does a wedding cost in Asheville? Themed bridal parties downtown?

why tourism industry essay

ASHEVILLE - A reader asks about Asheville’s wedding tourism industry and the celebratory outings of wedding parties. Got a question for the Asheville Answer Man or Answer Woman? Email Executive Editor Karen Chávez at [email protected] and your question could appear in an upcoming column.

Question: I feel like I’m seeing more and more gaggles of women in bridal parties around Asheville, dressed in matching T-shirts, or tiaras, downtown, in restaurants and even on hiking trails. Does Asheville advertise in national bridal magazines as a good place to get married? How many weddings are there each year in Asheville? How much does a wedding cost in Asheville?

Answer: Before answering the questions, let’s address “gaggles of women.”

According to Merriam-Webster, a “gaggle” is 1. “a flock of geese when not in flight”; 2. “a group, aggregation, or cluster lacking organization” or 3. “an indefinite number.”

The second or third definition may be what you’re going for but it’s definition No. 1 that’s ruffling my feathers.

Also, it’s more than women who embark on pre-wedding adventures en masse and in themed fashions, like the flock of Guy Fieri lookalikes I spotted at Ben’s Tune-Up on the South Slope.

Pre-wedding entertainment

Kyle Samples, general manager at LaZoom Tours, has seen bevies of bridal parties and platoons of grooms come through the city to celebrate couples' impending nuptials since he began working with the local sightseeing bus tour company in 2017.

He said the company, founded in 2007, is a top choice for bachelor and bachelorette parties, and most guests are from out of town.

For LaZoom’s Fender Bender: Asheville Beer Tour, a live band plays for riders as they are chauffeured to multiple local craft beer taprooms throughout the city before returning to LaZoom’s lounge on Biltmore Avenue.

Bachelor and bachelorette party trends continue to evolve and become more creative, he said. And coed parties have become popular. Earlier this month, Samples said a couple rented out an entire LaZoom bus tour and hosted a joint bachelor and bachelorette party.

“We see all kinds of fun stuff. We’ve seen bachelorette parties dressed as little old ladies with wigs. We’ll see more classic styles where everybody wears the same flannel shirt,” Samples said. “The best one I think I’ve seen was when everyone dressed as their favorite ‘Michael’ ― Michael Scott, Michael Jordan, Michael Jackson ― it went on and on. It was pretty wild. The groom’s name was Mike.”

Downtown is a go-to destination for a concentration of social settings, but the fun doesn’t end there. Many are choosing engaging entertainment on hiking trails and at restaurants, bars and breweries across the city and region to celebrate the last days of singlehood with friends and family.

“We have a pretty good nightlife in the South Slope around Ben’s Tune-Up. You can’t beat it to come here and have your celebration,” Samples said.

On the low end, there may be one to two bachelor and bachelorette parties every weekend and the number increases to about five or six in peak season, he said.

Peak season is in the warmer months and runs through October for wedding groups, but Samples said business stays steady even in the winter, which is a slower tourism season for Asheville.

On the weekend of Jan. 23, Samples said there were two to three bachelor and bachelorette parties booked with the tour group.

“Our bus holds up to 40, so on a public Fender Bender tour on Saturday we can have as many as five bachelor/bachelorette parties on one bus,” Samples said. “It’s a lot of fun especially when there are different themes going on.”

Why are wedding parties flocking to Asheville?

Shay Brown, founder and owner of Shay & Company, offers all-encompassing wedding planning and event services from day of to full planning, including assistance with booking, producing and decorating venues for events and venues.

Shay & Company, founded 23 years ago, manages bookings and tours, and other events for eight venues in the area.

Brown said about 60% of clients are from out-of-town, primarily from Florida, New York, California and Chicago. And 40% of clients are local.

People come to Asheville for the views, the mountains and the fall leaves.

“We are so booked between September and November. It’s a destination paradise for everybody to come here,” Brown said. “The local food scene has also created a buzz in Asheville, so people are wanting to get married and have great food at the venues, as well.”

The city’s popular venues include Biltmore Estate and The Omni Grove Park Inn due to their “amazing views,” she said. People also gravitate toward venues that can host all wedding-related events, including the ceremony and reception.

Asheville’s vast brewing industry is a leading attraction. Brown said many welcome and rehearsal parties are hosted at breweries, distilleries and cideries downtown and citywide, including Highland Brewing, The Mule, Pleb Urban Winery and Urban Orchard Cider. Co.

Golf outings and hiking are group activities that Shay & Company organize for clients, and Brown said her team often works with Explore Asheville to coordinate things to do. However, many clients desire to stay downtown.

Wedding tourism and marketing

Asheville is often featured in national publications as a wedding destination. Brown and Samples both said they’ve been interviewed, and their companies have been featured in national publications regarding weddings.

Brown said Shay & Company is featured in Explore Asheville and the Chamber of Commerce's wedding destination guides, and that the organizations do a lot for destination weddings in the area.

Other print and digital marketing campaigns are ongoing, too.

Explore Asheville has a webpage dedicated to assisting with wedding planning in the city with complimentary services including reserving guest accommodations, recommending wedding guest gifts, promoting local businesses and creatives, and providing travel guides to distribute to guests to help them navigate the city.

"While more than 90% of visitors to Asheville and Buncombe County come for vacation, groups including weddings, milestone gatherings, conferences, and events also play an important role in our overall visitor economy,” Vic Isley, president and CEO of Explore Asheville, said in an email. “Explore Asheville has a sales manager dedicated to weddings and social events; weddings are one of the top segments. Our team connects destination weddings with local businesses, from florists, photographers, makeup artists, and musicians to hotels, restaurants, caterers, and unique venues like museums and farms.”

Isley said that according to the organization’s most recent visitor profile data from Longwoods, an international market research consultancy, “7% of overnight visitors and 4% of day-trip visitors to Asheville and Buncombe County mentioned attending a wedding as one of their activities while in Asheville."

Wedding tourism's economic impact

Brown and Samples agreed that destination wedding tourism in Asheville has a great economic impact locally. Brown called it a “huge driver.”

According to Wedding Report, a research company that collects wedding statistics for the wedding industry, there were 4,324 weddings in metro Asheville in 2022.

The company reported that the average wedding cost $23,285 and the average number of guests was 125-135 in the same year.  

According to Explore Asheville’s Public Information Manager Ashley Greenstein, “that would contribute more than $100 million to our economy annually.”

However, Brown calculates wedding costs at a significantly higher cost.

Brown said a wedding with about 50 guests may cost $25,000-27,000.

For a wedding with 100-150 guests, the lowest cost may be about $37,000.

Most weddings are between $47,000-50,000, which is all-inclusive of services including décor, band/deejay, floral, catering, cake, venue, transportation and officiant, Brown said.  

Samples said the volume of bachelor and bachelorette parties has declined in 2023 compared to 2022 at LaZoom.

“The reason is that in 2022 we were still getting through a lot of backlogs of delayed weddings due to COVID so the number of bachelor or bachelorette parties, they dropped significantly, probably by 50% from 2022 to 2023,” he said.

Samples said 2023 may have evened out to pre-2020 COVID-19 pandemic booking volumes for the company.

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Tiana Kennell is the food and dining reporter for the Asheville Citizen Times, part of the USA Today Network. Email her at [email protected] or follow her on Instagram @PrincessOfPage. Please support this type of journalism with a subscription to the Citizen Times .

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Guest Essay

Boeing Made a Change to Its Corporate Culture Decades Ago. Now It’s Paying the Price.

An illustration of a paper airplane made from a dollar bill that has hit the ground, its tip crumpled. The ground is represented by a blue sky interspersed with a few clouds.

By Bill Saporito

Mr. Saporito is a journalist who has covered airline operations.

We often use the word “iconic” to describe companies such as Xerox, U.S. Steel and General Electric when we really mean “no longer great.” And Boeing no longer is.

That company’s already turbulent reputation suffered another jolt this month when a door plug — a fake door that replaces a real one in some airliner configurations — on an Alaska Airlines Boeing 737 Max 9 blew out at about 16,000 feet. The gaping hole in the fuselage terrified passengers, but the pilots calmly landed the aircraft. Max 9s with that configuration were grounded temporarily, and Congress demanded answers. Investigations have commenced into the 737 Max 9, a fairly new jet freighted with Boeing’s penchant for producing flawed aircraft.

With flights already full, the system can ill afford the grounding of 171 737 Max 9s. Neither can Boeing, which is now paying the price for a shift in its corporate culture made decades ago.

Aerospace was the West Coast’s original geek technology: Hughes Aircraft, Douglas Aircraft, Northrop, North American, Lockheed and others in California and Boeing in Seattle. These companies thrived during World War II, churning out aircraft for the military. The postwar era was also kind, with the Cold War, the space program and the expansion of commercial aviation providing ample customers. But by the 1970s, aerospace was being supplanted by semiconductors, and the military business sagged after the Vietnam War ebbed. Hughes, Douglas and North American disappeared in acquisitions and mergers.

Boeing survived and thrived, sustained by an engineering culture steeped in designing superior aircraft built to demanding tolerances. Its airplanes were industry-changing. The 707 in 1958 replaced prop engines and led the early jet age; the twin-deck, 360-seat 747, the industry’s first wide-body, democratized overseas air travel in 1970. The 737, introduced in 1967, is arguably the most successful short-haul airliner in aviation history. This stubby, single-aisle original proved so reliable that it got stretched, repowered and redesigned repeatedly.

By 2020, Boeing itself had in a way been stretched, redesigned and repowered in a series of corporate restructurings that each yielded its own defects. Since the mid-1990s, the company has bought out McDonnell Douglas, a domestic rival, moved its headquarters twice, shifted some assembly to the East Coast (which allowed the company to sidestep the unions) and changed chief executives the way you would planes in Atlanta.

What got lost in all this shuffling is a corporate culture that once prized engineering and safety, replaced by one that seemed to be more focused on delivering profits over perfection. The Boeing community in Seattle has been vocal about attributing this slide to the acquisition of McDonnell Douglas , whose leaders took over Boeing’s top jobs and reshaped the culture around cost control.

Boeing has labeled the Alaska Air incident a “quality escape,” as if someone’s pet got loose in the cargo hold. Quality jailbreak is more like it, one that has been tied to the company’s increasing reliance on outsourced work over the past two decades — in this case, Spirit AeroSystems, which builds the 737 Max fuselage. Once part of Boeing, Spirit was formed in 2005 as a component maker and counts both Boeing and Airbus — Boeing’s chief competitor — as customers. Spirit has said that it remains “focused on the quality of each aircraft structure” and will assist with the National Transportation Safety Board’s investigation into the flight.

Internally, Boeing’s engineers had warned that quality control could slip as more work was done by other entities. Like many others, Boeing chose to outsource more and more components, based on the popular theory that companies should concentrate on core competencies and let others make the parts that they’re good at. That entails the ability to work with and closely manage a growing network of suppliers, something that Japanese firms mastered in their famed keiretsu system. American companies have their own versions of it, too.

What Boeing has missed, as it tried to dump costs and speed production, was the chance to ensure that safety was a cultural core and a competitive advantage. Corporations can choose to push back against the Wall Street-driven notion that safety equals cost and thus lower profits. In the late 1980s and ’90s, the aluminum giant Alcoa, under its chief executive Paul O’Neill, made safety the top priority, demonstrating that a culture built around safety can actually be efficient, because accidents and defects decrease when employees know the company cares about their well-being. While assembling an airframe isn’t as dangerous as working with molten metal, when employees know they’ll be supported in building the safest possible aircraft as opposed to the cheapest, the end product will benefit — and buyers will have more confidence.

Choices made by Boeing’s leaders also had consequences. In 2011 the chief executive at the time, W. James McNerney Jr., made what became a fateful decision by greenlighting the 737 Max rather than investing billions in developing a new short-haul aircraft. His decision wasn’t necessarily a bad one — there was looming competition from the Airbus A320neo — but it committed Boeing to a flight path the company proved unable to navigate.

Mr. McNerney’s decision meant rushing development of the 737 Max while managing the Federal Aviation Administration so that the certification of the redesigned jet — whose engines had been physically moved forward — would not require retraining of pilots, thus saving customers time and money. Being good at managing the agency charged with ensuring your product’s safety can put the whole process at cross-purposes. That, combined with the decline in the company’s other competencies, contributed to the two fatal crashes in 2018 and 2019 that prompted the 737 Max’s grounding for nearly two years. And even before the Alaska Airlines 737 Max 9 incident, Boeing had been having significant problems assembling its 787 Dreamliner on its South Carolina production line.

And just when Boeing needed experienced employees the most, it suffered a brain drain. In late 2022 many Boeing engineers started heading for the door to lock in pension payouts (which could be hurt by rising interest rates) they had accumulated. When full airframe production returned after the pandemic, a lot of the talent didn’t.

Safety and production problems have put Boeing well behind Airbus, which delivered 735 aircraft in 2023 to Boeing’s 528. Boeing’s chief executive, David Calhoun, has promised full transparency during the investigation into what caused the plug blowout on the Alaska Airlines flight, although the company doesn’t seem to have lost any orders. That’s because there are two major airframe makers in the world; Boeing is one of them. The company still has strengths, among them the ability to integrate complex systems — avionics, powertrain, electric, hydraulics, landing gear, flaps, elevators and even your seat-back entertainment system — into a functioning passenger plane.

Moreover, demand for passenger jets continues to gain altitude. The aviation analytics firm Cirium predicts that the world is going to need 45,200 new airliners through 2042; the current production runway could stretch for decades. Meaning that if Boeing can right itself, it can redefine what it means to be a manufacturing icon.

Bill Saporito is an editor at large at Inc.

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An earlier version of this article misspelled the name of an aerospace company. It was Northrop, not Northrup.

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Has the war on Gaza hurt Israel’s economy?

Employees of Pyramid Analytics hi-tech company work at their office in Ramat Gan, Israel

Israel’s war on Gaza, now well into its fourth month, has taken a toll on its own economy with many industries pausing business even as a few continue to get new investments.

Since October, Israel’s government has subsidised the salaries of reportedly 360,000 mobilised reservists deployed to Gaza – many of whom are high-tech industry workers in finance, artificial intelligence, pharmaceuticals and agriculture.

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In November, the Bank of Israel put the war’s “ gross effects ” on Israel at 198 billion shekels ($53bn) and pared back its estimates for economic growth to 2 percent per year for 2023 and 2024, down from 2.3 percent and 2.8 percent.

In December, Israel’s Finance Ministry said that the war will likely cost Israel approximately $13.8bn this year if its high-intensity phase concludes during the first quarter of 2024.

In the midst of that, experts are watching to see how business is doing on the ground.

One of the industries that have continued to do well is the high-tech sector, its fastest-growing area for several years, which today accounts for close to 20 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 14 percent of jobs.

Since the Israeli start-up scene exploded in the 1990s, Israel has established itself as the largest tech centre in the world, second only to Silicon Valley. More than 500 multinational corporations – from Google to Apple, IBM to Meta, and Microsoft to Intel Corp – operate in Israel.

And while there are concerns if companies would continue investing in a nation at war, for the moment at least, there’s no evidence to say that’s a real threat.

Show of support

Shoppers carry their groceries through Mahane Yehuda market in Jerusalem

Within one week of October 7, more than 220 venture capital firms, including Bain Capital Ventures, 8VC, Bessemer Venture Partners, and GGV Capital, signed a public statement to express solidarity with Israel and called on investors worldwide to continue to support its tech ecosystem.

From December 17-20, dozens of senior executives from US-based venture capital, tech and private equity firms took part in the Israel Tech Mission, entailing meetings in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv between these executives and top Israeli government officials. Essentially, it was a high-profile delegation showing the Israeli tech sector support amid this war.

Ron Miasnik is an investor for Bain Capital Ventures who co-organised the Israel Tech Mission with David Siegel, the CEO of Meetup.com.

“We are longtime investors in the Israeli startup ecosystem, and have made it a priority to visit the region and meet with teams there to continue to support stability and economic prosperity in the area,” Miasnik told Al Jazeera. “In the long term, we believe in the resilience of the Israeli startup ecosystem and are committed to not only continuing but deepening our focus on the area,” he added.

Hillel Fuld, a tech columnist and startup adviser based in Beit Shemesh, Israel, pointed out that in December, US chipmaker Intel Corp confirmed its plans to build a $25bn chipmaking factory in southern Israel – a development hailed by Netanyahu as the “largest investment ever” in Israeli history. With a $3.2bn grant from the Israeli government, Intel’s planned investment is a big boost to Israel’s tech sector amid this war.

In the final quarter of last year, Israeli startups managed to raise $1.5bn and “out of those deals, high-risk ‘seed’ funding was $220m in 31 rounds”, Fuld said.

Palo Alto Networks, a Santa Clara, California-headquartered multinational cybersecurity company founded by American-Israeli entrepreneur Nir Zuk, has a history of acquisitions in Israel. On October 29, it acquired Dig Security for roughly $300m, then it acquired Talon Cyber Security for $615m.

But the picture is slightly mixed, said Benjamin Bental, a principal researcher and economics policy programme chair at the Jerusalem-based Taub Center for Social Policy Studies. “When one looks at the number of players, one sees a decline. When one looks at the sums invested, one sees basically stability, meaning that those who stay invest more,” he said.

Israeli officials face the challenge of needing to restore confidence and a sense of security – which will not prove easy – to boost investments.

“Beyond a clear military and political outcome both in the Gaza Strip and along the Lebanese border, and a repatriation of the hostages, this requires a clear and goal-oriented economic policy. It is not yet clear how this will eventually be addressed,” Bental told Al Jazeera.

Tens of thousands of people have been displaced in the last few weeks on both sides of the Israel-Lebanon border as Israeli troops and Hezbollah fighters have fired missiles at each other.

Tourism nosedives

tourists in Jerusalem

Perhaps the sector of the Israeli economy that has suffered the most amid this war is tourism which accounted for 2.6 percent of GDP before the pandemic in 2019, before falling to 1.1 percent in 2021. Both foreign and domestic tourism in Israel have flatlined since the start of the war.

Across Israel, restaurants and stores remain empty. Soon after Hamas’s incursion into southern Israel and the eruption of the war on Gaza, a long list of airlines cancelled or suspended the majority of their flights to Tel Aviv, and many tourists cancelled their plans to visit Israel.

Nonetheless, some major airlines such as Lufthansa and some of its subsidiaries, including Swiss International Air Lines and Austrian Airlines, resumed their flights to Israel earlier this month.

Prior to Operation Al Aqsa Flood, visitors to Israel numbered above 300,000 each month. In November, that figure reportedly sank to 39,000.

“War is not only tragic, it’s also expensive. The impact on tourism, for example, is a very real one and there is no ignoring it,” Fuld told Al Jazeera.

Hard-hit construction industry

Construction in Israel

Construction, accounting for 14 percent of Israel’s GDP, has taken a huge hit since this war began. Across Israel, construction projects have been paused since October and Israel indefinitely froze worker permits for Palestinians who make up 65-70 percent of the workforce in Israel’s construction sector.

Consequently, industry in Israel and the West Bank’s economy have taken a huge hit. Of the 110,000 Palestinians who had permits to work either in Israel-proper or on illegal settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, most were working in construction.

The gap has not been filled by Israeli workers, given how the reservists have been called to fight in the war, nor by foreign workers who have, in large numbers, fled Israel amid this conflict.

In November, the Israel Builders Association said that Israel’s construction industry was operating at roughly 15 percent of its pre-October 7 capacity. A month later 8,000-10,000 Palestinian workers were permitted to resume work on Israeli settlements in the West Bank – a decision the government made after it came under significant pressure from business and factory owners hit hard by “supply shocks”.

But that’s far from sufficient and to fill the gap, Israel plans to bring in approximately 70,000 construction workers from China, India , Moldova and Sri Lanka.

The Gaza war’s ripple effects throughout the greater Middle East are also negatively impacting Israel’s economy.

Israel imports diamonds, cars, petroleum, and broadcasting equipment, among other things, goods that come via the Red Sea. The recent Houthi missile and drone attacks in this body of water in retaliation for Israel’s attack on Gaza have not only disrupted global trade but also impacted Israel’s imports. Many of Israel’s imports from Asia are now being rerouted around Africa, bumping up costs.

The road ahead

Roughly 20 percent of the Israeli public reports their household income being hit to a “large” or “very large” extent since the start of their country’s war on Gaza.

In a recent survey, aid organisation “Latet” (“to give”) found that more than 45 percent of the public fear that economic hardship awaits them either later on in this war or after the war finishes. What is clear is that those Israeli families who were already living in poverty or who qualified as food insecure prior to October 7 will suffer the most from the economic problems stemming from this war.

“It’s hard to know what’s going on in the minds of our politicians, but Netanyahu and his government are facing unprecedented global diplomatic pressure to end the war and the economics of the war is playing less of a role in the decision-making,” said Fuld.


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