The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Developing a Thesis Statement

Many papers you write require developing a thesis statement. In this section you’ll learn what a thesis statement is and how to write one.

Keep in mind that not all papers require thesis statements . If in doubt, please consult your instructor for assistance.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement . . .

  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be “proven” within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the introduction ; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that you are using to support your argument.

Not all papers require thesis statements! Ask your instructor if you’re in doubt whether you need one.

Identify a topic

Your topic is the subject about which you will write. Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic; or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper.

Consider what your assignment asks you to do

Inform yourself about your topic, focus on one aspect of your topic, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts, generate a topic from an assignment.

Below are some possible topics based on sample assignments.

Sample assignment 1

Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II.

Identified topic

Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis

This topic avoids generalities such as “Spain” and “World War II,” addressing instead on Franco’s role (a specific aspect of “Spain”) and the diplomatic relations between the Allies and Axis (a specific aspect of World War II).

Sample assignment 2

Analyze one of Homer’s epic similes in the Iliad.

The relationship between the portrayal of warfare and the epic simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64.

This topic focuses on a single simile and relates it to a single aspect of the Iliad ( warfare being a major theme in that work).

Developing a Thesis Statement–Additional information

Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic, or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper. You’ll want to read your assignment carefully, looking for key terms that you can use to focus your topic.

Sample assignment: Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II Key terms: analyze, Spain’s neutrality, World War II

After you’ve identified the key words in your topic, the next step is to read about them in several sources, or generate as much information as possible through an analysis of your topic. Obviously, the more material or knowledge you have, the more possibilities will be available for a strong argument. For the sample assignment above, you’ll want to look at books and articles on World War II in general, and Spain’s neutrality in particular.

As you consider your options, you must decide to focus on one aspect of your topic. This means that you cannot include everything you’ve learned about your topic, nor should you go off in several directions. If you end up covering too many different aspects of a topic, your paper will sprawl and be unconvincing in its argument, and it most likely will not fulfull the assignment requirements.

For the sample assignment above, both Spain’s neutrality and World War II are topics far too broad to explore in a paper. You may instead decide to focus on Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis , which narrows down what aspects of Spain’s neutrality and World War II you want to discuss, as well as establishes a specific link between those two aspects.

Before you go too far, however, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts. Try to avoid topics that already have too much written about them (i.e., “eating disorders and body image among adolescent women”) or that simply are not important (i.e. “why I like ice cream”). These topics may lead to a thesis that is either dry fact or a weird claim that cannot be supported. A good thesis falls somewhere between the two extremes. To arrive at this point, ask yourself what is new, interesting, contestable, or controversial about your topic.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times . Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Derive a main point from topic

Once you have a topic, you will have to decide what the main point of your paper will be. This point, the “controlling idea,” becomes the core of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the unifying idea to which you will relate all your sub-theses. You can then turn this “controlling idea” into a purpose statement about what you intend to do in your paper.

Look for patterns in your evidence

Compose a purpose statement.

Consult the examples below for suggestions on how to look for patterns in your evidence and construct a purpose statement.

  • Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis
  • Franco turned to the Allies when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from the Axis

Possible conclusion:

Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: Franco’s desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power.

Purpose statement

This paper will analyze Franco’s diplomacy during World War II to see how it contributed to Spain’s neutrality.
  • The simile compares Simoisius to a tree, which is a peaceful, natural image.
  • The tree in the simile is chopped down to make wheels for a chariot, which is an object used in warfare.

At first, the simile seems to take the reader away from the world of warfare, but we end up back in that world by the end.

This paper will analyze the way the simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64 moves in and out of the world of warfare.

Derive purpose statement from topic

To find out what your “controlling idea” is, you have to examine and evaluate your evidence . As you consider your evidence, you may notice patterns emerging, data repeated in more than one source, or facts that favor one view more than another. These patterns or data may then lead you to some conclusions about your topic and suggest that you can successfully argue for one idea better than another.

For instance, you might find out that Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis, but when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from them, he turned to the Allies. As you read more about Franco’s decisions, you may conclude that Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: his desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power. Based on this conclusion, you can then write a trial thesis statement to help you decide what material belongs in your paper.

Sometimes you won’t be able to find a focus or identify your “spin” or specific argument immediately. Like some writers, you might begin with a purpose statement just to get yourself going. A purpose statement is one or more sentences that announce your topic and indicate the structure of the paper but do not state the conclusions you have drawn . Thus, you might begin with something like this:

  • This paper will look at modern language to see if it reflects male dominance or female oppression.
  • I plan to analyze anger and derision in offensive language to see if they represent a challenge of society’s authority.

At some point, you can turn a purpose statement into a thesis statement. As you think and write about your topic, you can restrict, clarify, and refine your argument, crafting your thesis statement to reflect your thinking.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Compose a draft thesis statement

If you are writing a paper that will have an argumentative thesis and are having trouble getting started, the techniques in the table below may help you develop a temporary or “working” thesis statement.

Begin with a purpose statement that you will later turn into a thesis statement.

Assignment: Discuss the history of the Reform Party and explain its influence on the 1990 presidential and Congressional election.

Purpose Statement: This paper briefly sketches the history of the grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party and analyzes how it influenced the economic and social ideologies of the two mainstream parties.

Question-to-Assertion

If your assignment asks a specific question(s), turn the question(s) into an assertion and give reasons why it is true or reasons for your opinion.

Assignment : What do Aylmer and Rappaccini have to be proud of? Why aren’t they satisfied with these things? How does pride, as demonstrated in “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” lead to unexpected problems?

Beginning thesis statement: Alymer and Rappaccinni are proud of their great knowledge; however, they are also very greedy and are driven to use their knowledge to alter some aspect of nature as a test of their ability. Evil results when they try to “play God.”

Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.

Main idea: The reason some toys succeed in the market is that they appeal to the consumers’ sense of the ridiculous and their basic desire to laugh at themselves.

Make a list of the ideas that you want to include; consider the ideas and try to group them.

  • nature = peaceful
  • war matériel = violent (competes with 1?)
  • need for time and space to mourn the dead
  • war is inescapable (competes with 3?)

Use a formula to arrive at a working thesis statement (you will revise this later).

  • although most readers of _______ have argued that _______, closer examination shows that _______.
  • _______ uses _______ and _____ to prove that ________.
  • phenomenon x is a result of the combination of __________, __________, and _________.

What to keep in mind as you draft an initial thesis statement

Beginning statements obtained through the methods illustrated above can serve as a framework for planning or drafting your paper, but remember they’re not yet the specific, argumentative thesis you want for the final version of your paper. In fact, in its first stages, a thesis statement usually is ill-formed or rough and serves only as a planning tool.

As you write, you may discover evidence that does not fit your temporary or “working” thesis. Or you may reach deeper insights about your topic as you do more research, and you will find that your thesis statement has to be more complicated to match the evidence that you want to use.

You must be willing to reject or omit some evidence in order to keep your paper cohesive and your reader focused. Or you may have to revise your thesis to match the evidence and insights that you want to discuss. Read your draft carefully, noting the conclusions you have drawn and the major ideas which support or prove those conclusions. These will be the elements of your final thesis statement.

Sometimes you will not be able to identify these elements in your early drafts, but as you consider how your argument is developing and how your evidence supports your main idea, ask yourself, “ What is the main point that I want to prove/discuss? ” and “ How will I convince the reader that this is true? ” When you can answer these questions, then you can begin to refine the thesis statement.

Refine and polish the thesis statement

To get to your final thesis, you’ll need to refine your draft thesis so that it’s specific and arguable.

  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis

Consult the example below for suggestions on how to refine your draft thesis statement.

Sample Assignment

Choose an activity and define it as a symbol of American culture. Your essay should cause the reader to think critically about the society which produces and enjoys that activity.

  • Ask The phenomenon of drive-in facilities is an interesting symbol of american culture, and these facilities demonstrate significant characteristics of our society.This statement does not fulfill the assignment because it does not require the reader to think critically about society.
Drive-ins are an interesting symbol of American culture because they represent Americans’ significant creativity and business ingenuity.
Among the types of drive-in facilities familiar during the twentieth century, drive-in movie theaters best represent American creativity, not merely because they were the forerunner of later drive-ins and drive-throughs, but because of their impact on our culture: they changed our relationship to the automobile, changed the way people experienced movies, and changed movie-going into a family activity.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast-food establishments, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize America’s economic ingenuity, they also have affected our personal standards.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast- food restaurants, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize (1) Americans’ business ingenuity, they also have contributed (2) to an increasing homogenization of our culture, (3) a willingness to depersonalize relationships with others, and (4) a tendency to sacrifice quality for convenience.

This statement is now specific and fulfills all parts of the assignment. This version, like any good thesis, is not self-evident; its points, 1-4, will have to be proven with evidence in the body of the paper. The numbers in this statement indicate the order in which the points will be presented. Depending on the length of the paper, there could be one paragraph for each numbered item or there could be blocks of paragraph for even pages for each one.

Complete the final thesis statement

The bottom line.

As you move through the process of crafting a thesis, you’ll need to remember four things:

  • Context matters! Think about your course materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • As you go through the process described in this section, always keep your assignment in mind . You will be more successful when your thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • Your thesis statement should be precise, focused, and contestable ; it should predict the sub-theses or blocks of information that you will use to prove your argument.
  • Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your paper evolves, because you do not want your thesis to promise more than your paper actually delivers.

In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool to help you sharpen your focus, limit material and establish the paper’s purpose. When your paper is finished, however, the thesis statement becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the reader what you have learned about your topic and what evidence led you to your conclusion. It keeps the reader on track–well able to understand and appreciate your argument.

what are the two components of a thesis statement

Writing Process and Structure

This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.

Getting Started with Your Paper

Interpreting Writing Assignments from Your Courses

Generating Ideas for

Creating an Argument

Thesis vs. Purpose Statements

Architecture of Arguments

Working with Sources

Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources

Using Literary Quotations

Citing Sources in Your Paper

Drafting Your Paper

Generating Ideas for Your Paper

Introductions

Paragraphing

Developing Strategic Transitions

Conclusions

Revising Your Paper

Peer Reviews

Reverse Outlines

Revising an Argumentative Paper

Revision Strategies for Longer Projects

Finishing Your Paper

Twelve Common Errors: An Editing Checklist

How to Proofread your Paper

Writing Collaboratively

Collaborative and Group Writing

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How to write a thesis statement, what is a thesis statement.

Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement.

Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement?

  • to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two
  • to better organize and develop your argument
  • to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument

In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores.

How Can You Write a Good Thesis Statement?

Here are some helpful hints to get you started. You can either scroll down or select a link to a specific topic.

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned

Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question. Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. For example, if your assignment is, “Write a report to the local school board explaining the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class,” turn the request into a question like, “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” After you’ve chosen the question your essay will answer, compose one or two complete sentences answering that question.

Q: “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” A: “The potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class are . . .”
A: “Using computers in a fourth-grade class promises to improve . . .”

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the essay.

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How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned

Even if your assignment doesn’t ask a specific question, your thesis statement still needs to answer a question about the issue you’d like to explore. In this situation, your job is to figure out what question you’d like to write about.

A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes:

  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment
  • express one main idea
  • assert your conclusions about a subject

Let’s see how to generate a thesis statement for a social policy paper.

Brainstorm the topic . Let’s say that your class focuses upon the problems posed by changes in the dietary habits of Americans. You find that you are interested in the amount of sugar Americans consume.

You start out with a thesis statement like this:

Sugar consumption.

This fragment isn’t a thesis statement. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Furthermore, your reader doesn’t know what you want to say about sugar consumption.

Narrow the topic . Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy.

You change your thesis to look like this:

Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children.

This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it. You should note that this fragment is not a thesis statement because your reader doesn’t know your conclusions on the topic.

Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.

You revise your thesis statement to look like this:

More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children.

This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague.

Use specific language . You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices , so you write:

Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.

This statement is specific, but it isn’t a thesis. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion.

Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:

Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

Notice how the thesis answers the question, “What should be done to reduce sugar consumption by children, and who should do it?” When you started thinking about the paper, you may not have had a specific question in mind, but as you became more involved in the topic, your ideas became more specific. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights.

How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

1. a strong thesis statement takes some sort of stand..

Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements:

There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.

This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague.

Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand, and because it's specific.

2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion.

Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:

My family is an extended family.

This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. Your reader won’t be able to tell the point of the statement, and will probably stop reading.

While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.

3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea.

Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:

Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.

This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or Web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:

Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.

This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because , since , so , although , unless , and however .

4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:

World hunger has many causes and effects.

This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:

Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.

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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.

A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.

A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.

When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.

Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.

Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.  

Descriptive thesis (not arguable)  

While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)  

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim  

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim  

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis  

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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Writing a paper: thesis statements, basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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Developing Strong Thesis Statements

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These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.

The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable

An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people.

Example of a non-debatable thesis statement:

This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution implies that something is bad or negative in some way. Furthermore, all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of the problem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution is unambiguously good.

Example of a debatable thesis statement:

This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagree with it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nation's money. Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education. Still others could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying to limit pollution.

Another example of a debatable thesis statement:

In this example there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals. Some citizens might think focusing on recycling programs rather than private automobiles is the most effective strategy.

The thesis needs to be narrow

Although the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generally the narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right.

Example of a thesis that is too broad:

There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what is included in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use, recreational drug use (which might include alcohol and cigarettes), or all uses of medication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental? Is drug use causing deaths (and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths from drug related violence)? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing the economy to decline? Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is the author referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author make any distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too many questions that the claim leaves open. The author could not cover all of the topics listed above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open to debate.

Example of a narrow or focused thesis:

In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and the detriment has been narrowed down to gang violence. This is a much more manageable topic.

We could narrow each debatable thesis from the previous examples in the following way:

Narrowed debatable thesis 1:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount of money used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution.

Narrowed debatable thesis 2:

This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focus of a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriate focus.

Qualifiers such as " typically ," " generally ," " usually ," or " on average " also help to limit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to the rule.

Types of claims

Claims typically fall into one of four categories. Thinking about how you want to approach your topic, or, in other words, what type of claim you want to make, is one way to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of your broader topic.

Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact. Example:

Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur. Example:

Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Example:

Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem. Example:

Which type of claim is right for your argument? Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on your position and knowledge of the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper. You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on this topic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be. Even if you start with one type of claim you probably will be using several within the paper. Regardless of the type of claim you choose to utilize it is key to identify the controversy or debate you are addressing and to define your position early on in the paper.

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  • What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples

Published on September 14, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master’s program or a capstone to a bachelor’s degree.

Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation , it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete. It relies on your ability to conduct research from start to finish: choosing a relevant topic , crafting a proposal , designing your research , collecting data , developing a robust analysis, drawing strong conclusions , and writing concisely .

Thesis template

You can also download our full thesis template in the format of your choice below. Our template includes a ready-made table of contents , as well as guidance for what each chapter should include. It’s easy to make it your own, and can help you get started.

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Table of contents

Thesis vs. thesis statement, how to structure a thesis, acknowledgements or preface, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations, introduction, literature review, methodology, reference list, proofreading and editing, defending your thesis, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about theses.

You may have heard the word thesis as a standalone term or as a component of academic writing called a thesis statement . Keep in mind that these are two very different things.

  • A thesis statement is a very common component of an essay, particularly in the humanities. It usually comprises 1 or 2 sentences in the introduction of your essay , and should clearly and concisely summarize the central points of your academic essay .
  • A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to complete. It is generally a degree requirement for Master’s programs, and is also sometimes required to complete a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts colleges.
  • In the US, a dissertation is generally written as a final step toward obtaining a PhD.
  • In other countries (particularly the UK), a dissertation is generally written at the bachelor’s or master’s level.

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The final structure of your thesis depends on a variety of components, such as:

  • Your discipline
  • Your theoretical approach

Humanities theses are often structured more like a longer-form essay . Just like in an essay, you build an argument to support a central thesis.

In both hard and social sciences, theses typically include an introduction , literature review , methodology section ,  results section , discussion section , and conclusion section . These are each presented in their own dedicated section or chapter. In some cases, you might want to add an appendix .

Thesis examples

We’ve compiled a short list of thesis examples to help you get started.

  • Example thesis #1:   “Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807” by Suchait Kahlon.
  • Example thesis #2: “’A Starving Man Helping Another Starving Man’: UNRRA, India, and the Genesis of Global Relief, 1943-1947″ by Julian Saint Reiman.

The very first page of your thesis contains all necessary identifying information, including:

  • Your full title
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date.

Sometimes the title page also includes your student ID, the name of your supervisor, or the university’s logo. Check out your university’s guidelines if you’re not sure.

Read more about title pages

The acknowledgements section is usually optional. Its main point is to allow you to thank everyone who helped you in your thesis journey, such as supervisors, friends, or family. You can also choose to write a preface , but it’s typically one or the other, not both.

Read more about acknowledgements Read more about prefaces

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what are the two components of a thesis statement

An abstract is a short summary of your thesis. Usually a maximum of 300 words long, it’s should include brief descriptions of your research objectives , methods, results, and conclusions. Though it may seem short, it introduces your work to your audience, serving as a first impression of your thesis.

Read more about abstracts

A table of contents lists all of your sections, plus their corresponding page numbers and subheadings if you have them. This helps your reader seamlessly navigate your document.

Your table of contents should include all the major parts of your thesis. In particular, don’t forget the the appendices. If you used heading styles, it’s easy to generate an automatic table Microsoft Word.

Read more about tables of contents

While not mandatory, if you used a lot of tables and/or figures, it’s nice to include a list of them to help guide your reader. It’s also easy to generate one of these in Word: just use the “Insert Caption” feature.

Read more about lists of figures and tables

If you have used a lot of industry- or field-specific abbreviations in your thesis, you should include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations . This way, your readers can easily look up any meanings they aren’t familiar with.

Read more about lists of abbreviations

Relatedly, if you find yourself using a lot of very specialized or field-specific terms that may not be familiar to your reader, consider including a glossary . Alphabetize the terms you want to include with a brief definition.

Read more about glossaries

An introduction sets up the topic, purpose, and relevance of your thesis, as well as expectations for your reader. This should:

  • Ground your research topic , sharing any background information your reader may need
  • Define the scope of your work
  • Introduce any existing research on your topic, situating your work within a broader problem or debate
  • State your research question(s)
  • Outline (briefly) how the remainder of your work will proceed

In other words, your introduction should clearly and concisely show your reader the “what, why, and how” of your research.

Read more about introductions

A literature review helps you gain a robust understanding of any extant academic work on your topic, encompassing:

  • Selecting relevant sources
  • Determining the credibility of your sources
  • Critically evaluating each of your sources
  • Drawing connections between sources, including any themes, patterns, conflicts, or gaps

A literature review is not merely a summary of existing work. Rather, your literature review should ultimately lead to a clear justification for your own research, perhaps via:

  • Addressing a gap in the literature
  • Building on existing knowledge to draw new conclusions
  • Exploring a new theoretical or methodological approach
  • Introducing a new solution to an unresolved problem
  • Definitively advocating for one side of a theoretical debate

Read more about literature reviews

Theoretical framework

Your literature review can often form the basis for your theoretical framework, but these are not the same thing. A theoretical framework defines and analyzes the concepts and theories that your research hinges on.

Read more about theoretical frameworks

Your methodology chapter shows your reader how you conducted your research. It should be written clearly and methodically, easily allowing your reader to critically assess the credibility of your argument. Furthermore, your methods section should convince your reader that your method was the best way to answer your research question.

A methodology section should generally include:

  • Your overall approach ( quantitative vs. qualitative )
  • Your research methods (e.g., a longitudinal study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., interviews or a controlled experiment
  • Any tools or materials you used (e.g., computer software)
  • The data analysis methods you chose (e.g., statistical analysis , discourse analysis )
  • A strong, but not defensive justification of your methods

Read more about methodology sections

Your results section should highlight what your methodology discovered. These two sections work in tandem, but shouldn’t repeat each other. While your results section can include hypotheses or themes, don’t include any speculation or new arguments here.

Your results section should:

  • State each (relevant) result with any (relevant) descriptive statistics (e.g., mean , standard deviation ) and inferential statistics (e.g., test statistics , p values )
  • Explain how each result relates to the research question
  • Determine whether the hypothesis was supported

Additional data (like raw numbers or interview transcripts ) can be included as an appendix . You can include tables and figures, but only if they help the reader better understand your results.

Read more about results sections

Your discussion section is where you can interpret your results in detail. Did they meet your expectations? How well do they fit within the framework that you built? You can refer back to any relevant source material to situate your results within your field, but leave most of that analysis in your literature review.

For any unexpected results, offer explanations or alternative interpretations of your data.

Read more about discussion sections

Your thesis conclusion should concisely answer your main research question. It should leave your reader with an ultra-clear understanding of your central argument, and emphasize what your research specifically has contributed to your field.

Why does your research matter? What recommendations for future research do you have? Lastly, wrap up your work with any concluding remarks.

Read more about conclusions

In order to avoid plagiarism , don’t forget to include a full reference list at the end of your thesis, citing the sources that you used. Choose one citation style and follow it consistently throughout your thesis, taking note of the formatting requirements of each style.

Which style you choose is often set by your department or your field, but common styles include MLA , Chicago , and APA.

Create APA citations Create MLA citations

In order to stay clear and concise, your thesis should include the most essential information needed to answer your research question. However, chances are you have many contributing documents, like interview transcripts or survey questions . These can be added as appendices , to save space in the main body.

Read more about appendices

Once you’re done writing, the next part of your editing process begins. Leave plenty of time for proofreading and editing prior to submission. Nothing looks worse than grammar mistakes or sloppy spelling errors!

Consider using a professional thesis editing service or grammar checker to make sure your final project is perfect.

Once you’ve submitted your final product, it’s common practice to have a thesis defense, an oral component of your finished work. This is scheduled by your advisor or committee, and usually entails a presentation and Q&A session.

After your defense , your committee will meet to determine if you deserve any departmental honors or accolades. However, keep in mind that defenses are usually just a formality. If there are any serious issues with your work, these should be resolved with your advisor way before a defense.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

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The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation , you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .

If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimizing confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.

When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)

A thesis is typically written by students finishing up a bachelor’s or Master’s degree. Some educational institutions, particularly in the liberal arts, have mandatory theses, but they are often not mandatory to graduate from bachelor’s degrees. It is more common for a thesis to be a graduation requirement from a Master’s degree.

Even if not mandatory, you may want to consider writing a thesis if you:

  • Plan to attend graduate school soon
  • Have a particular topic you’d like to study more in-depth
  • Are considering a career in research
  • Would like a capstone experience to tie up your academic experience

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How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement

A thesis can be found in many places—a debate speech, a lawyer’s closing argument, even an advertisement. But the most common place for a thesis statement (and probably why you’re reading this article) is in an essay.

Whether you’re writing an argumentative paper, an informative essay, or a compare/contrast statement, you need a thesis. Without a thesis, your argument falls flat and your information is unfocused. Since a thesis is so important, it’s probably a good idea to look at some tips on how to put together a strong one.

Guide Overview

What is a “thesis statement” anyway.

  • 2 categories of thesis statements: informative and persuasive
  • 2 styles of thesis statements
  • Formula for a strong argumentative thesis
  • The qualities of a solid thesis statement (video)

You may have heard of something called a “thesis.” It’s what seniors commonly refer to as their final paper before graduation. That’s not what we’re talking about here. That type of thesis is a long, well-written paper that takes years to piece together.

Instead, we’re talking about a single sentence that ties together the main idea of any argument . In the context of student essays, it’s a statement that summarizes your topic and declares your position on it. This sentence can tell a reader whether your essay is something they want to read.

2 Categories of Thesis Statements: Informative and Persuasive

Just as there are different types of essays, there are different types of thesis statements. The thesis should match the essay.

For example, with an informative essay, you should compose an informative thesis (rather than argumentative). You want to declare your intentions in this essay and guide the reader to the conclusion that you reach.

To make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, you must procure the ingredients, find a knife, and spread the condiments.

This thesis showed the reader the topic (a type of sandwich) and the direction the essay will take (describing how the sandwich is made).

Most other types of essays, whether compare/contrast, argumentative, or narrative, have thesis statements that take a position and argue it. In other words, unless your purpose is simply to inform, your thesis is considered persuasive. A persuasive thesis usually contains an opinion and the reason why your opinion is true.

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are the best type of sandwich because they are versatile, easy to make, and taste good.

In this persuasive thesis statement, you see that I state my opinion (the best type of sandwich), which means I have chosen a stance. Next, I explain that my opinion is correct with several key reasons. This persuasive type of thesis can be used in any essay that contains the writer’s opinion, including, as I mentioned above, compare/contrast essays, narrative essays, and so on.

2 Styles of Thesis Statements

Just as there are two different types of thesis statements (informative and persuasive), there are two basic styles you can use.

The first style uses a list of two or more points . This style of thesis is perfect for a brief essay that contains only two or three body paragraphs. This basic five-paragraph essay is typical of middle and high school assignments.

C.S. Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia series is one of the richest works of the 20th century because it offers an escape from reality, teaches readers to have faith even when they don’t understand, and contains a host of vibrant characters.

In the above persuasive thesis, you can see my opinion about Narnia followed by three clear reasons. This thesis is perfect for setting up a tidy five-paragraph essay.

In college, five paragraph essays become few and far between as essay length gets longer. Can you imagine having only five paragraphs in a six-page paper? For a longer essay, you need a thesis statement that is more versatile. Instead of listing two or three distinct points, a thesis can list one overarching point that all body paragraphs tie into.

Good vs. evil is the main theme of Lewis’s Narnia series, as is made clear through the struggles the main characters face in each book.

In this thesis, I have made a claim about the theme in Narnia followed by my reasoning. The broader scope of this thesis allows me to write about each of the series’ seven novels. I am no longer limited in how many body paragraphs I can logically use.

Formula for a Strong Argumentative Thesis

One thing I find that is helpful for students is having a clear template. While students rarely end up with a thesis that follows this exact wording, the following template creates a good starting point:

___________ is true because of ___________, ___________, and ___________.

Conversely, the formula for a thesis with only one point might follow this template:

___________________ is true because of _____________________.

Students usually end up using different terminology than simply “because,” but having a template is always helpful to get the creative juices flowing.

The Qualities of a Solid Thesis Statement

When composing a thesis, you must consider not only the format, but other qualities like length, position in the essay, and how strong the argument is.

Length: A thesis statement can be short or long, depending on how many points it mentions. Typically, however, it is only one concise sentence. It does contain at least two clauses, usually an independent clause (the opinion) and a dependent clause (the reasons). You probably should aim for a single sentence that is at least two lines, or about 30 to 40 words long.

Position: A thesis statement always belongs at the beginning of an essay. This is because it is a sentence that tells the reader what the writer is going to discuss. Teachers will have different preferences for the precise location of the thesis, but a good rule of thumb is in the introduction paragraph, within the last two or three sentences.

Strength: Finally, for a persuasive thesis to be strong, it needs to be arguable. This means that the statement is not obvious, and it is not something that everyone agrees is true.

Example of weak thesis:

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are easy to make because it just takes three ingredients.

Most people would agree that PB&J is one of the easiest sandwiches in the American lunch repertoire.

Example of a stronger thesis:

Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are fun to eat because they always slide around.

This is more arguable because there are plenty of folks who might think a PB&J is messy or slimy rather than fun.

Composing a thesis statement does take a bit more thought than many other parts of an essay. However, because a thesis statement can contain an entire argument in just a few words, it is worth taking the extra time to compose this sentence. It can direct your research and your argument so that your essay is tight, focused, and makes readers think.

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What are the common elements of a thesis statement?

what are the two components of a thesis statement

This is the second of three chapters about Thesis Statements . To complete this short reader, read each chapter carefully and then unlock and complete our materials to check your understanding.   

– Introduce the concept of thesis statement elements

– Explore the four different thesis-statement elements

– Provide examples to help guide and inform the reader

Chapter 1: What are thesis statements and why are they important?

Chapter 2: What are the common elements of a thesis statement?

Chapter 3: How can I write an effective thesis statement?

Before you begin reading...

  • video and audio texts
  • knowledge checks and quizzes
  • skills practices, tasks and assignments

Now that we’ve discussed what a thesis statement is and why it’s important to include one in the introduction of an academic assignment , this chapter next focuses on exploring the elements of two example thesis statements. Once students have a good understanding of the mandatory and optional elements of a thesis statement, it should become a fairly easy process to change the variables of a thesis and rebuild their statements in a similar and accurate way each time.

1. Task Language and Task Type

The first two elements that all thesis statements should possess is some use of task language and some mention of the task type. The language provided below works to inform the reader both of the format of the essay as well as the particular essay type – and any experienced reader will then be able to (based on this type) predict the likely structure of the content. In combination, task language and task type create what is known as a ‘purpose statement’.

Thesis Statements 2.1 Task Language

2. Topic and Arguments

While the purpose statement may be fairly formulaic, the majority of a thesis statement is composed of the essay topic (often created from the essay question) and the writer’s key arguments (also known as main ideas). With an inclusion of the previously mentioned purpose statement, the following table deconstructs our first thesis statement example (for an informative essay) into its key components. 

Thesis Statements 2.2 Example A Elements

Sometimes, however, and particularly with persuasive essays , a student may be required to provide both arguments and counter arguments. Such a structure can be seen in the table below, which uses our second thesis-statement example:

Thesis Statements 2.3 Example B Elements

Another aspect that’s often required when writing persuasively such as in an evaluative essay is the inclusion of the writer’s stance . In short, stance is the author’s opinion about the overall argument of the essay. Does the writer, for example, agree or disagree with the essay question? When writing persuasively, such stance should usually be clear and apparent in an essay’s thesis statement and restatement , as well as in the body paragraph topic sentences . The figures below indicate the stance that exists in both of our example thesis statements:

Thesis Statements 2.4 Stance A

4. Outlines

One final element of a thesis statement that should generally be included in an academic essay  is what’s known as the outline (or roadmap). An outline is intended to inform the reader of (1) the essay’s key arguments ( main ideas ), and (2) the order in which those arguments will appear in the essay. We’ve provided our two example thesis statements for you below with each main idea underlined:

Thesis Statements 2.6 Outline A

From these thesis statement outlines, the reader can presume the following essay structure if this were a five-paragraph essay. However, please note that there may in reality be some variation between the outline and the essay structure as the writer may decide to combine two main ideas into one body paragraph , perhaps including also a paragraph of counter argument.

Thesis Statements 2.8 Body Structure A

Having now discussed the four key elements of a thesis statement, the final chapter of this topic provides examples, tips and advice for how to write effective thesis statements every time.

To reference this reader:

Academic Marker (2022) Thesis Statements . Available at: https://academicmarker.com/essay-writing/introductory-paragraphs/thesis-statements/ (Accessed: Date Month Year).

  • Indiana University Bloomington
  • University of North Carolina Writing Center
  • Walden University Writing Center

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Once you’ve completed all three chapters about thesis statements , you might also wish to download our beginner, intermediate and advanced worksheets to test your progress or print for your students. These professional PDF worksheets can be easily accessed for only a few Academic Marks .

Our thesis statements guidance sheet (including all three chapters about this topic) can be accessed here at the click of a button.

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what are the two components of a thesis statement

3 Components to Writing an Effective Thesis Statement

What is a thesis statement.

Every paper you write—expository, analytical, argumentative—should have a main point or central message. Your thesis statement states that main point. (If you are writing an argumentative paper, check out my blog on claims.)

Components of a Good Thesis Statement

  • Does not use language such as “I am going to show you,” “This paper is about,” “In this paper”…etc.
  • Avoids vague language
  • Gives clear direction for the paper

Let’s break each of those components down.

If you would rather learn how to write the career summary through watching a video tutorial, check out my YouTube tutorial on this topic. 

1. does not use inappropriate phrases.

Do not use:

x I am going to show you

x This paper is about

x In this paper

Writing your thesis statement with one of these phrases is a tell-tale sign for weak writing .

Plus, it is a bit offensive . Yes, offensive.

  • I will show/tell you.  Oh, you are going to show me? I thought your mom was. If you didn’t tell me,  I would have no idea you were the author. And this paper is actually going to show/tell me something? Cool, I thought you had written it without a point.
  • In this paper.  Oh, in this actual paper? I thought you were telling me the main idea for a different paper.

See offensive. You have insulted your readers’ intelligence when you write like that.

If I had a dollar every time a student began with “I will show you” or “In this paper, I will tell you” and all such similar phrases, I would not need to write this blog and run Beacon Point.

Just kidding . . . I only had about 1,500 students throughout my teaching career, but hey, I would take a free $900 anytime.

Yes, you did the math correctly: only about 600 students (40%) wrote a thesis statement without those tiresome, boring phrases before I taught them not to.

2. Avoids vague language

Yes, you do not want to insult your readers’ intelligence.

However, you don’t want to assume they know your intended meaning. Just think how sometimes poetry can annoy you because you have no idea what the author actually intended.

Hint: “The Road Less Traveled” is NOT about choosing the unbeaten path in life and not conforming.

And lest I have offended you poetry lovers, I must state I can appreciate the beauty of poetry. It’s just not my favorite.

So leave technical jargon and flowery language out of your thesis statement. It works in poetry, but readers of your essay do not want to guess what you’re talking about.

3. Gives clear direction for the paper

Along with avoiding vague words, you must also express a clear, specific, narrowed idea . In other words, do not give a broad statement. This narrowed idea provides focus and direction for your paper.

Example of a vague, broad thesis: There are serious problems with education.

This thesis statement doesn’t have a narrowed, specific focus. What problems?

Revision Options:

  • Because students display learning differently, these one size fits all standardized tests aren’t accurate.
  • Passing students on to the next grade when they aren’t ready causes effective teachers to struggle with teaching students who are below the rest of the class.
  • When administrators cater to government restrictions or parents’ demands, teachers’ hands are often tied, making them less effective.

The 5 paragraph essay

For those of you required to follow the standard five paragraph essay, your teacher may expect you to outline the sub-topic for each of your body paragraphs. (I did when I taught this structure to beginning or junior high writers.)

Example #1: The Spanish Inquisition, which brought terror to the Iberian peninsula, began as a quest to convert the heathens, but it had more materialistic, racial, and political motives.

This thesis states the topic for each paragraph:

  •  the materialistic motives
  •  the racial motives
  •  the political motives

Example #2:  The most serious problems with education today are the standardized tests, students being passed on despite readiness, and catering to government restrictions and parents demands.

This is a combination of the three thesis statements in the section on being specific.

A more advanced essay will just focus on one sub-point in depth. However, this works for a standard five paragraph essay written in junior high, and perhaps, even in high school.

Examples of Analytical Thesis Statements

Literary analysis.

O’Connor illustrates the duality of goodness and the hypocrisy in the saving grace through the use of characterization and plot development.

(Clear focus: analyze how the author conveys that message through characterization and plot)

“In a Tale of Two Cities , Charles Dickens shows the process by which a wasted life can be redeemed. Sidney Carton, through his love for Lucie Manette, is transformed from a hopeless, bitter man into a hero whose life and death have meaning” (  Writing with Style ).

(Clear focus: analyze how the author showed that message through the love Sidney had for Lucie)

Analytical essay

“An analysis of the college admission process reveals challenges facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds” ( Purdue OWL ).

(Clear focus:  analyze the college admission process and how this shows that particular challenge)

Rhetorical analysis

Mitt Romney criticized President Obama’s presidency and built up his own political experiences. His main purpose in this speech was to sway voters away from Obama through the usage of ethos, Ad Hominem attacks, and anaphora.

(Clear Focus: analyze how Mitt Romney used 3 specific rhetorical devices to meet his purpose)

Examples of Expository Thesis Statements

Expository essay.

In an effort to ground my ethical criticism–so as to not make it too abstract and simplistic as to say whatever does not offend or grate my personal standards–I have created five criteria for ethical consideration: (1)contains a message intended to enrich societal values and life, (2) presents all actions with subsequent consequences, (3) demonstrates role-models or examples readers can follow and learn from, (4) advocates the beauty and wonder of life, and (5) portrays each individual passage as distinct and valuable parts of the whole.

(Clear Focus: inform reader of the writer’s five criteria when determining if a literary work is ethical or not)

“The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers”( Purdue OWL ).

(Clear Focus: explain how students spend time studying, attending class, and socializing)

Compare & contrast essay

“Although both chefs and cooks can prepare fine meals, chefs differ from cooks in education, commitment, and artistry”  (  Kean University ).

Anecdotal essay

“A first white water rafting experience can challenge the body and spirit and transform an adolescent into an adult”( Kean University).

Now that you have a great thesis statement, you will want to ensure your entire introduction is strong. Check out my blog on how to write an effective introductory paragraph. 

Katie Chambers, owner of Beacon Point, is a nonfiction and fiction substantive (developmental) editor and copy editor for independent authors, content writer and editor for business professionals, online teacher, and professional speaker. ​ As an editor, she acts as a beacon by building partnerships with authors and encouraging them.

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What Are the Two Parts of an Effective Thesis?

A thesis statement informs the reader the point of your composition. An effective thesis contains two parts: your argument proposal and support for your claim. The first part declares your argument, and the second part states the point of the paper. Your thesis argument statement lets the reader know you are trying to persuade him to your point of view. The reader is not convinced yet but interested to understand how he might be persuaded. Writing your solid thesis statement idea will force you to think of the thesis in more logical, succinct and clear terms. The final draft form of this thesis statement will take shape as your paper evolves.

The Effective Thesis Offers Your Viewpoint

Place the most significant concept of your expository writing, the thesis statement, at the end of the introductory paragraph to focus your paper ideas. An effective two-part thesis argument statement offers the reader your viewpoint or insight in a mere sentence or two that reflects your main idea. Not only does the thesis allow the reader a good grasp of the paper's intent, but it helps the writer fully comprehend the thesis concept to demonstrate the logical structure and order for support that follows.

Inform the Reader What You Are Arguing About

Identify the two basics of an effective thesis: what the composition's ideas concern--indicating the type of required support--and what the composition's ideas are, which include the order of that support with problems explained. The thesis proposal informs the reader what you are arguing about, and the thesis angle ascertains what your ideas are about this proposal.

The Thesis Expresses the Main Idea of Your Composition

Assure that the thesis expresses the main idea of your paper and answers all questions posed by your essay. A thesis is not a fact, opinion or topic that can be answered with simply yes or no. An effective thesis has an arguable, well-thought-out and definable claim that refrains from overused general terms and abstractions.

Maintain the Thesis' Important Characteristics Throughout Your Essay

Revise the adjustable working thesis as you write the composition while maintaining the thesis' significant characteristics. If you come up with a fundamental, essential or organizing question about your composition, an effective two-part thesis must answer that question. The two parts of an effective thesis provide a definable and arguable claim that simply incorporates discussion relevant to your paper supported with specific evidence.

  • Writing Center at Harvard University; Developing a Thesis; Maxine Rodburg, et al.; 1999
  • Essay Town Academic Writing Blog; Art Thesis; 2011
  • Empire State College; Shaping Information; Cathy Copley, et al.; 1996

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  • What are the two parts of a thesis statement?

What are the two parts of a thesis statement?

General Thesis Statement Suggestions A thesis statement usually consists of two parts: your topic and your analysis, explanation, or claim about it. These two parts are often separated by commas.

Specific Thesis Statement Examples A specific thesis statement tells us exactly what issue or issues concern you as an author and how you plan to resolve them. It provides clarity and direction for your essay while keeping it free of unnecessary detail.

Using the following example , our writer has stated his or her purpose very clearly with a specific thesis statement : "In my paper, I will discuss the importance of sports in society today because athletics teach us many valuable lessons about cooperation and discipline." This sentence tells us exactly what aspect of today's society the writer plans to explore and offers a clear outline for the essay.

It is important to note that although this statement is specific, it is not limited to just one topic. As long as your essay offers a clear perspective on any subject matter, it will be effective.

Examples of useful specific thesis statements include: "The purpose of this essay will be to examine reasons why students fail the English test" or "I will analyze how the lack of diversity among television news producers affects news coverage of minorities."

Table of Contents

What is the thesis of the letter, what is the thesis of an argument, what did you learn about thesis statements, why is a thesis statement integral to my writing, what is the thesis used to communicate.

A thesis statement is a phrase or two that clearly establishes the core idea , or central theme, of your piece of writing. A thesis statement expresses your perspective on your selected issue and assists your readers in following your arguments. It should be concise and clear.

A good thesis statement should be specific and broad enough to include most, if not all, of the material in your essay but not so narrow that it limits your argumentative space. It should also be true and relevant to the topic at hand.

For example, if you were writing about the dangers of smoking, your thesis statement might be "Smoking is harmful to one's health." This statement tells us exactly what side of the debate you are coming down on and serves as a guide for the rest of the essay. It is narrow yet broad enough to cover an entire topic , and it is true since even smokers themselves acknowledge that smoking is indeed harmful to one's health.

Now, your essay may very well contain discussions of other forms of tobacco use (such as chewing), alternatives to smoking (such as vaping), the benefits of smoking (if applicable), etc., which would make your thesis statement even more specific and accurate. But regardless of how much or how little discussion there is around a particular subject, it is necessary to include a statement that puts your own point of view on it.

A thesis statement is a phrase in which you present an argument on a topic and then discuss quickly how you intend to support your point. You state your case by using logic and evidence from the text or outside sources.

Every essay should have a clear thesis statement . This allows readers know what argument you are making about the topic and helps them decide if you successfully supported it.

Writing a good thesis statement is one of the most important steps in writing an effective essay . If you do not include a clear main idea in your essay, it will be difficult for the reader to follow your reasoning and arguments will seem disjointed.

So what is so important about having a clear thesis statement ? Well, because it provides clarity of purpose and direction to your essay, it makes it much easier for readers to follow your arguments and ideas. This means that they will understand your paper better after reading it!

Some students think that including their thesis statement at the beginning of their essays gives them more time to talk about other topics within the essay. However, this is not always the case. Because the thesis statement is such an important part of any essay, writing one that clearly states what you are going to argue lets you focus exclusively on that topic.

Your thoughts are condensed into one or two phrases in a thesis statement . Its function is to inform your readers of the topic or claim you want to establish in your essay . A thesis statement is often included at the conclusion of the first paragraph in an essay.

The best thesis statements identify and explain a problem or gap in knowledge while proposing a solution. They should be concise yet comprehensive, raising many questions about the topic presented in contrast to answering one central question.

For example, "Americans have a love affair with cars; they idolize the driver and celebrate the automobile. Why do we feel the need to live our lives through machines?" This statement raises several questions about Americans' relationship with cars that the author answers in the essay by discussing the importance of autonomy in modern life and how the car has become an extension of the American identity .

It's helpful to think of a thesis statement as a sentence in the body of the essay that states an argument or idea for which you seek support. It can be a complete thought or just a hint at a position you will take in the paper. Thesis statements are used by academic editors to ensure that essays remain focused on their topics while still offering new information or perspectives. Because there is only one main idea in each essay, only one thesis statement is needed.

A thesis statement, from the writer's perspective, puts her key assertion into focus, making it clear how to structure the rest of the article. A solid thesis statement assists the writer in determining which arguments and evidence are required to illustrate her point . It also helps the reader understand what role each section of the essay will play.

Without a strong thesis statement, your essay may seem disjointed with no clear direction or purpose. The reader may even think that you are just throwing ideas at the wall to see what sticks - which isn't a good idea when you are trying to persuade someone to take action or make a judgment about something.

With a strong thesis statement, your essay has a clear beginning and end. Additionally, it provides a framework that allows you to integrate relevant facts and examples into your argument without getting off track.

Finally, a strong thesis statement enables you to address any counterarguments that may arise during the editing process. If you can't back up your claim with evidence, then you shouldn't be making it! Before submitting your piece for publication, make sure that you have clearly stated your argument and demonstrated its strength by providing relevant examples and statistics.

A thesis statement is often included at the end of a paper's first paragraph. It provides a succinct overview of the essay's, research paper's, etc. key thesis or claim. It is normally stated in a single sentence, although it may be repeated elsewhere. It includes the topic as well as the governing notion. The thesis statement forms the central idea of the piece.

Without a clear message communicated through an effective medium (in this case, the written word), your readers will have little reason to continue reading. Make sure that you are clearly stating what role media has played in communicating important information during selected historical periods. You could start your essay by explaining this itself!

Historical examples abound when it comes to illustrating the importance of communication technologies . From Gutenberg's Bible to Twitter, here are 10 important messages that have been communicated through various mediums over time:

1. Important information needs to be communicated quickly so that people can make use of any possible remedies before something bad happens. This is why newspapers exist - to disseminate news quickly. Before the advent of newspapers, other means were used including messengers and pamphlets.

2. People should know who is responsible for their safety and security. This is where police stations come into play. Before police stations, people looked to religious figures or others who they believed could protect them.

About Article Author

Colleen Tuite

Colleen Tuite

Colleen Tuite is a professional editor and writer. She loves books, movies, and all things literary. She graduated from Boston College summa cum laude where she studied English with Creative Writing Concentration.

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what are the two components of a thesis statement

Components of a Thesis

You must be at the end of your academic life as you are looking for a reliable source that can tell you how to write a thesis . Don’t worry! You have come to the right place! This article will tell you about the various elements of a thesis and all things to be kept in mind as you start writing one!

So, what is a thesis? 

A thesis is a long dissertation or research paper. It starts with a thesis statement which is the main point of your thesis paper . It can be a question, a statement, or an assessment. You will need to prove the thesis statement in your thesis with the help of the data that you collect and the analysis you come up with. These are part of the course requirement for university students, particularly those in the US. 

There are different kinds of these- expository, analytical, and persuasive . An expository thesis paper explains a particular topic to the reader. An analytical thesis relies on your analysis of the theme or topic addressed, based on the detailed data you collect. A persuasive thesis paper argues to make and justify depending on your stance on a topic. Choose a suitable type of thesis paper, depending on your theme and thesis statement. 

The format for writing a thesis is not usually very subjective; however, a few technical changes can occur in these by students of different institutes. Guidelines are specified by the university/advisor/professor/institute. Go over them before you start writing your thesis. 

Here are a few of the essential components that you need to include in a thesis no matter what

what are the two components of a thesis statement

A person should be able to get information about the topic of a thesis and its author just by looking at the thesis. The title page of a thesis should include your name, the name of your course, institute, professor, or advisor along with your ID number and the title of your thesis. Write these things in bold letters and space them appropriately. Your details are as important as your thesis. 

Table of Contents

An index of all the contents of a thesis is like a good skeleton of the thesis, given at the very beginning. It includes the sections and subsections in the proper order of their occurrence in the thesis. Each heading should be a part of the table of contents along with the page numbers it starts and ends on respectively. The title and its respective page numbers need to be in the same horizontal line or row.

Acknowledgements

Here, you can mention all those who have helped you in your efforts to create an impressionable thesis. We would suggest describing how your colleagues supported you, your advisors guided you and your family looked after you as you worked on your thesis. Make sure you do not miss out on mentioning important people in your life.

Literature Review

The literature review is a list of all the sources of information that you used for reference. It can be substituted with a ‘References’ section at the end of your thesis. However, it is important to cite sources in a section dedicated to references. Specify the particular sections of research papers, articles, and journal entries you referred to in your thesis. The authors, page numbers, editors, publishers, and organizations need to be mentioned. In-text citations are required as well. The format of citation should be the one mentioned by your university/institute/advisor. The different citation formats are APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. 

Thesis statement

The introduction should include the thesis statement. It is the most important thing in your thesis . It should convey the motive of your thesis. Restate the thesis statement in the conclusion. Your thesis statement can be creative, but not complex. You cannot work on something already worked on unless you want to disprove a theory or refer to it as you come up with a different argument. Every point that you explain in your thesis should be related to your thesis statement and should work towards proving the same. 

Eg- There is a rise in mental health issues among university students who graduated between 2015 and 2022.

An abstract is like a summary of the thesis at the beginning of your thesis. It gives a reader an idea of what you would be covering in your thesis. Detailed explanations are not needed in the abstract. But it is important to state the main points from most of the sections- methodology, results, analysis, and conclusion. The abstract should not give away your research. It should just be like a concentration of your thesis.

Methodology

Your thesis starts getting detailed from here. A proper description of the methods you will be used to collect information and data relevant to your thesis should be stated in the ‘methodology’. Be sure to use methods that are suitable for your research and not those that are redundant. They need to be feasible. You should be able to execute the methods on your own. 

Observations or results

This is one of the most important parts of your thesis. Following your methodology, come up with results that support your thesis statement. They need to be organized logically and, in a point-wise format. Highlight the keywords as you explain your results. You can also have a summary of your results if your results are too many and stretch over several pages. This will help readers remember important details. 

This is a crucial part of your thesis. Your analysis shows how much you apply your knowledge to the data and come up with interesting implications. The points in the analysis need to be explained well and logically in order. Do not jump from one point to the other. Do not spring up new information out of the blue. Make sure that the explanations are easy to follow for a reader.

A conclusion includes a brief summary of your thesis . It should restate your thesis statement, followed by your findings and what you deciphered from the data you collected. Write down how the research you conducted impacts your field or humankind at large. Convey whether the point you started your thesis with was achieved or not. Did you come across something unexpected? Did your argument or thesis statement change as you started conducting research? 

All the extra information and subsidiary data should go in the appendices at the end of your thesis. They should include details that are not directly connected to your thesis in a systematic format. Create different appendices to organize the contents logically. State the subheading along with its page number that contains the point that you are referring to in your appendix. The elements in the appendix should follow the order of their occurrence in the thesis. One should not be on top of the other if the latter comes before the former in the main thesis.

You can also include the following elements in case the format of your thesis is not rigid:

Contributor’s Page

This is a list of people who have worked on the thesis. If you are part of a group working on a single thesis, it would be better to include a contributor’s page. You can also include the credentials of the group members and the parts covered by them. Any personal details need to be edited before they can be included as part of a contributor’s credentials. Only those that are relevant would be better to consider. 

Extra information

It is always better to make your thesis rich with details and evidence. Do not hesitate to include as much information as you want. The relevant details can be included in the main body of your thesis. However, subsidiary information needs to go in the appendices at the end of your thesis. Remember to explain each point in your thesis thoroughly. But do not bombard a reader with irrelevant information that can very well go in the appendices. It includes dates, days, and time frames that do not impact the thesis.

Tables, graphs, charts

To make your thesis interesting and inclusive of all forms of information, add graphs, tables, diagrams, images, and/or charts that are relevant to your research. Label these elements properly and insert them wherever necessary. They can be referred to further in your thesis to make a point. You will have to cite these elements in-text and add the citation to the references section of your thesis. Explain the elements properly in your thesis either before or after you have inserted them. They need to be clear to a reader. Extra charts and tables can go in the appendix. 

A Final Thesis Checklist

what are the two components of a thesis statement

Writing a thesis is no piece of cake. It requires months and at times years of dedication. The compilation can be difficult considering the large volume of information to be included in the thesis. It is easy to get overwhelmed by the work and the sections to be covered. You can take months to complete it. Don’t worry if you miss out on writing a particular section. You can always refer to this article and go over the basic elements of a thesis. Cross-check them with the sections and elements in your thesis. Edit your thesis properly before you submit it. Just stop procrastinating and start working! And don’t forget to enjoy the process!

-Masha Evans

what are the two components of a thesis statement

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  • Thesis Statement

Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

two part thesis statement examples

What is a Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement? – Definition

What is an example of a two-part (claim + reason) thesis statement, 100 two-part (claim + reason) thesis statement examples.

two part claim reason thesis statement examples

  • Claim: “Social media platforms have revolutionized communication.” Reason: “Their instant connectivity and vast user base facilitate global interactions, transforming how people connect and share information.”
  • Claim: “Artificial intelligence is shaping the future of industries.” Reason: “Its ability to analyze massive data sets and automate complex tasks boosts efficiency and innovation across sectors.”
  • Claim: “Climate change demands urgent attention and action.” Reason: “Mounting evidence of rising temperatures and extreme weather events underscores the critical need to mitigate environmental risks.”
  • Claim: “Literature plays a pivotal role in fostering empathy.” Reason: “Engaging with diverse characters’ experiences cultivates understanding and compassion among readers.”
  • Claim: “Diversity in the workplace enhances creativity and innovation.” Reason: “A range of perspectives fuels dynamic discussions and encourages fresh approaches to problem-solving.”
  • Claim: “Higher education is a gateway to socioeconomic mobility.” Reason: “Access to advanced knowledge and skill development equips individuals to access better job opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Government surveillance threatens individual privacy rights.” Reason: “Mass surveillance infringes on personal liberties and erodes the balance between security and freedom.”
  • Claim: “Renewable energy sources are the solution to the climate crisis.” Reason: “Harnessing solar, wind, and hydro power reduces reliance on fossil fuels, curbing greenhouse gas emissions.”
  • Claim: “Mandatory voting promotes a more engaged and informed citizenry.” Reason: “Compulsory participation ensures broader representation and encourages citizens to stay informed.”
  • Claim: “Cultural diversity enriches a society’s social fabric.” Reason: “Different backgrounds and traditions contribute to a vibrant tapestry of experiences and perspectives.”
  • Claim: “Online learning is revolutionizing education.” Reason: “Flexible schedules and interactive platforms enhance accessibility and engagement for learners worldwide.”
  • Claim: “Gender equality is essential for societal progress.” Reason: “Empowering women in all spheres fosters innovation, economic growth, and social harmony.”
  • Claim: “Space exploration drives technological advancements.” Reason: “The pursuit of cosmic knowledge inspires breakthroughs in engineering, materials science, and communication.”
  • Claim: “Censorship of artistic expression hampers creative freedom.” Reason: “Limiting artistic freedom stifles cultural innovation and inhibits open dialogue on societal issues.”
  • Claim: “Critical thinking is a crucial skill for modern education.” Reason: “Nurturing critical thinking abilities empowers students to analyze information, solve problems, and make informed decisions.”
  • Claim: “Universal healthcare ensures equitable access to medical services.” Reason: “Healthcare for all reduces disparities, provides preventative care, and promotes overall well-being.”
  • Claim: “The digital age has transformed the way we consume information.” Reason: “Instant access to online content and personalized algorithms reshape information consumption patterns.”
  • Claim: “Financial literacy is essential for personal financial well-being.” Reason: “Understanding money management empowers individuals to make informed financial decisions.”
  • Claim: “Technology addiction poses a significant societal concern.” Reason: “Excessive screen time impairs mental health, interpersonal relationships, and overall productivity.”
  • Claim: “The preservation of natural habitats is crucial for biodiversity.” Reason: “Conserving ecosystems maintains species diversity and supports ecological balance.”
  • Claim: “Ethical consumerism drives positive social and environmental change.” Reason: “Supporting eco-friendly and socially responsible products encourages responsible business practices.”
  • Claim: “The advancement of robotics will redefine the job market.” Reason: “Automated tasks and AI technologies will reshape employment opportunities and skill requirements.”
  • Claim: “Social media fosters both connection and isolation.” Reason: “Online interactions offer global connectivity, yet excessive screen time can lead to real-world disconnection.”
  • Claim: “Youth involvement in civic activities cultivates active citizenship.” Reason: “Engaged young individuals contribute fresh perspectives and energize public discourse.”
  • Claim: “Freedom of speech should have limitations to prevent hate speech.” Reason: “Balancing free expression with societal well-being safeguards marginalized communities and social harmony.”
  • Claim: “Music therapy offers holistic healing for mental health.” Reason: “Engaging with music promotes emotional release, stress reduction, and cognitive improvement.”
  • Claim: “Urbanization poses environmental challenges and opportunities.” Reason: “Concentrated urban living accelerates innovation and necessitates sustainable infrastructure solutions.”
  • Claim: “Social inequality hinders economic growth and stability.” Reason: “Unequal distribution of resources stifles human potential and undermines social cohesion.”
  • Claim: “The arts are essential for well-rounded education.” Reason: “Cultivating creative expression enhances critical thinking, communication, and empathy.”
  • Claim: “Personalized learning empowers diverse student needs.” Reason: “Tailoring education to individual strengths fosters engagement and academic success.”
  • Claim: “Ethical considerations should guide advancements in genetic engineering.” Reason: “Prioritizing ethical guidelines ensures responsible innovation and prevents unintended consequences.”
  • Claim: “Effective communication is the cornerstone of successful relationships.” Reason: “Clear communication fosters mutual understanding, trust, and resolution of conflicts.”
  • Claim: “Social media activism has transformed modern advocacy.” Reason: “Online platforms amplify voices, mobilize communities, and raise awareness about social issues.”
  • Claim: “Multilingualism benefits cognitive development and cultural understanding.” Reason: “Learning multiple languages enhances brain function and promotes cross-cultural empathy.”
  • Claim: “Early childhood education lays the foundation for lifelong learning.” Reason: “Quality early education nurtures cognitive, social, and emotional development.”
  • Claim: “The gig economy provides flexible work options but lacks stability.” Reason: “Freelance opportunities offer autonomy, but inconsistent income poses financial challenges.”
  • Claim: “Effective time management is key to academic success.” Reason: “Balancing priorities and deadlines enhances productivity and reduces stress.”
  • Claim: “Alternative energy sources are vital for reducing carbon emissions.” Reason: “Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewables mitigates climate change and supports sustainability.”
  • Claim: “Media literacy is essential in the digital age.” Reason: “Critical analysis of media sources promotes informed decision-making and safeguards against misinformation.”
  • Claim: “Preserving indigenous languages safeguards cultural heritage.” Reason: “Language is intrinsic to identity, reflecting unique worldviews and historical legacies.”
  • Claim: “Flexible work arrangements enhance work-life balance.” Reason: “Remote work and flexible hours accommodate personal needs, leading to improved well-being.”
  • Claim: “Literacy is the foundation of lifelong learning and empowerment.” Reason: “Proficiency in reading and writing enables access to information, education, and opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Rapid technological advancements pose ethical dilemmas in AI development.” Reason: “Ensuring AI aligns with human values and respects privacy is essential for responsible innovation.”
  • Claim: “Universal basic income can address socioeconomic inequality.” Reason: “Providing a basic income cushion fosters economic security and reduces poverty.”
  • Claim: “Cultural appropriation perpetuates stereotypes and erases history.” Reason: “Appropriating elements from marginalized cultures trivializes their significance and disregards their origins.”
  • Claim: “Physical activity is crucial for overall health and mental well-being.” Reason: “Exercise releases endorphins, reduces stress, and improves cardiovascular health.”
  • Claim: “Preserving biodiversity is essential for ecological balance.” Reason: “Each species contributes to ecosystem stability and resilience against environmental changes.”
  • Claim: “Government transparency strengthens democracy and public trust.” Reason: “Open governance fosters accountability, ensures informed decisions, and curbs corruption.”
  • Claim: “Critical reflection enhances personal growth and self-awareness.” Reason: “Examining experiences and beliefs promotes continuous learning and personal development.”
  • Claim: “Technological advancements in healthcare improve patient outcomes.” Reason: “Innovations like telemedicine and precision medicine tailor treatments for better results.
  • Claim: “Early childhood vaccinations are vital for public health.” Reason: “Immunizations prevent the spread of diseases, safeguarding individual and community well-being.”
  • Claim: “Media plays a significant role in shaping public opinion.” Reason: “Information dissemination influences perspectives, leading to informed decisions and societal change.”
  • Claim: “Globalization fosters cultural exchange and interconnectedness.” Reason: “Cross-cultural interactions promote understanding, collaboration, and shared values.”
  • Claim: “Animal testing should be replaced with alternative research methods.” Reason: “Ethical considerations demand the use of cruelty-free testing methods that yield accurate results.”
  • Claim: “Financial literacy education empowers responsible money management.” Reason: “Teaching budgeting and investment basics ensures informed financial decision-making.”
  • Claim: “Promoting gender diversity in STEM fields drives innovation.” Reason: “Inclusive environments harness diverse perspectives, fostering creative problem-solving.”
  • Claim: “Education empowers individuals to break the cycle of poverty.” Reason: “Access to quality education equips individuals with skills to overcome economic challenges.”
  • Claim: “Cybersecurity measures are essential to protect digital assets.” Reason: “Preventing cyber threats safeguards personal information and prevents cybercrime.”
  • Claim: “Economic growth should prioritize environmental sustainability.” Reason: “Balancing growth with conservation ensures future generations’ access to resources.”
  • Claim: “Healthy eating habits contribute to overall well-being.” Reason: “Nutrient-rich diets support physical health, energy levels, and disease prevention.
  • Claim: “Empathy is crucial for fostering harmonious interpersonal relationships.” Reason: “Understanding others’ perspectives cultivates compassion, reduces conflicts, and builds trust.”
  • Claim: “Economic inequality hampers social mobility and undermines democracy.” Reason: “Unequal distribution of resources perpetuates disparities and limits equal opportunities.”
  • Claim: “Online education offers accessible and flexible learning opportunities.” Reason: “Virtual learning platforms cater to diverse schedules and geographical constraints.”
  • Claim: “Historical preservation maintains cultural heritage and identity.” Reason: “Preserving artifacts and landmarks ensures future generations connect with their past.”
  • Claim: “Social entrepreneurship addresses societal challenges while generating profits.” Reason: “Innovative business models prioritize social impact, driving positive change and sustainability.”
  • Claim: “Effective parenting strategies shape children’s emotional development.” Reason: “Nurturing emotional intelligence fosters resilience, empathy, and healthy relationships.”
  • Claim: “Ethical fashion practices promote sustainable clothing production.” Reason: “Supporting ethically produced garments reduces environmental impact and supports fair labor practices.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive education benefits students with diverse learning needs.” Reason: “Adapting curriculum and teaching methods empowers all students to thrive academically.”
  • Claim: “Cultural preservation is integral to indigenous identity and rights.” Reason: “Preserving cultural traditions upholds sovereignty and protects indigenous ways of life.”
  • Claim: “Volunteering enhances personal well-being and community resilience.” Reason: “Contributing time and skills fosters a sense of purpose and strengthens social ties.
  • Claim: “A balanced work-life routine improves overall productivity and satisfaction.” Reason: “Prioritizing personal well-being and leisure time enhances focus and reduces burnout.”
  • Claim: “Cultural diversity fosters innovation and global collaboration.” Reason: “Combining perspectives from different backgrounds sparks creative problem-solving and mutual understanding.”
  • Claim: “Literacy rates correlate with socioeconomic development and empowerment.” Reason: “High literacy levels enhance access to education, employment opportunities, and civic engagement.”
  • Claim: “Sustainable tourism preserves natural and cultural resources.” Reason: “Responsible travel practices protect fragile ecosystems and local traditions.”
  • Claim: “Quality healthcare is a fundamental human right.” Reason: “Access to medical services promotes well-being and ensures equal opportunities for health.”
  • Claim: “Community engagement enhances neighborhood safety and cohesion.” Reason: “Involved residents collectively address concerns and create a strong sense of belonging.”
  • Claim: “Ethical considerations should guide AI’s role in decision-making.” Reason: “Responsible AI use prevents biased outcomes and respects human values.”
  • Claim: “The arts promote emotional expression and healing.” Reason: “Creating and engaging with art facilitates catharsis and emotional release.”
  • Claim: “Cultural sensitivity is vital for effective global communication.” Reason: “Understanding cultural nuances fosters mutual respect and minimizes misunderstandings.”
  • Claim: “Social media’s impact on mental health warrants ethical guidelines.” Reason: “Balancing online engagement with mental well-being safeguards against digital stressors.
  • Claim: “Economic globalization accelerates income inequality.” Reason: “Transnational corporations exploit cheap labor, exacerbating disparities between affluent and impoverished regions.”
  • Claim: “Investing in early childhood education yields long-term societal benefits.” Reason: “Early learning programs enhance cognitive development and reduce future educational disparities.”
  • Claim: “Active participation in local governance strengthens democracy.” Reason: “Engaging citizens in decision-making promotes accountability and responsive policies.”
  • Claim: “Promoting mental health initiatives in schools benefits student well-being.” Reason: “Early support and awareness campaigns address psychological challenges and reduce stigma.”
  • Claim: “Technology integration in education enhances student engagement.” Reason: “Interactive digital tools cater to diverse learning styles, encouraging active participation.”
  • Claim: “Criminal justice reform is necessary for equitable legal outcomes.” Reason: “Eliminating biases in sentencing and addressing systemic flaws ensures fair justice.”
  • Claim: “Sustainable agriculture practices are essential for food security.” Reason: “Regenerative farming methods preserve soil health and mitigate climate change impacts.”
  • Claim: “Freedom of the press is integral to a functioning democracy.” Reason: “Unbiased journalism informs public discourse and holds authorities accountable.”
  • Claim: “Intercultural education fosters global understanding and cooperation.” Reason: “Teaching cultural awareness cultivates empathy and prepares individuals for a diverse world.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive urban planning improves accessibility and quality of life.” Reason: “Designing cities for all residents accommodates diverse needs and enhances urban livability.

Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples for Essay

  • Claim: “Exploring diverse cultures enriches personal growth.” Reason: “Cultural exposure broadens perspectives, fostering tolerance and empathy.”
  • Claim: “Effective time management enhances academic success.” Reason: “Balancing study and leisure optimizes focus and reduces stress.”
  • Claim: “Mindfulness practices improve mental well-being.” Reason: “Mindful techniques cultivate self-awareness, reducing anxiety and enhancing emotional balance.”
  • Claim: “Literature is a powerful tool for social commentary.” Reason: “Fictional narratives offer insights into societal issues, prompting reflection and dialogue.”
  • Claim: “Personalized learning caters to individual student needs.” Reason: “Tailoring education to learning styles boosts engagement and comprehension.”
  • Claim: “Responsible social media usage preserves mental health.” Reason: “Setting boundaries online reduces comparison and fosters authentic connections.”
  • Claim: “Community service fosters a sense of belonging.” Reason: “Volunteering connects individuals to their surroundings, enhancing civic engagement.”
  • Claim: “Promoting eco-friendly habits protects the environment.” Reason: “Green choices like recycling and energy conservation reduce carbon footprint.”
  • Claim: “Inclusive workplaces enhance employee morale.” Reason: “Valuing diversity creates a positive environment that promotes collaboration and creativity.”
  • Claim: “Critical thinking skills are essential for informed decisions.” Reason: “Analytical thinking empowers individuals to evaluate information and make reasoned choices.”

Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples for Argumentative Essay

  • Claim: “Government surveillance infringes on individual privacy rights.” Reason: “Mass monitoring undermines civil liberties, opening doors to abuse of power.”
  • Claim: “Social media platforms should implement stricter content moderation.” Reason: “Addressing harmful content reduces misinformation and protects user well-being.”
  • Claim: “Mandatory voting promotes active citizenship and representative democracy.” Reason: “Compulsory participation ensures diverse voices are heard in political decisions.”
  • Claim: “Gun control measures are necessary to prevent mass shootings.” Reason: “Stricter regulations reduce access to firearms, curbing potential violence.”
  • Claim: “Access to quality healthcare is a fundamental human right.” Reason: “Affordable medical services ensure equitable well-being and protect lives.”
  • Claim: “Climate change is a result of human activity.” Reason: “Scientific evidence links rising emissions to global temperature increases.”
  • Claim: “Animal testing should be replaced with humane alternatives.” Reason: “Ethical considerations demand cruelty-free research methods that yield accurate results.”
  • Claim: “Social media has negative effects on mental health.” Reason: “Excessive usage correlates with increased anxiety, depression, and social isolation.”
  • Claim: “School dress codes infringe on students’ freedom of expression.” Reason: “Restrictive policies limit individuality and discourage self-confidence.”
  • Claim: “Capital punishment should be abolished as it violates human rights.” Reason: “Irreversible consequences and the potential for wrongful convictions oppose ethical principles.”

Two-Part Thesis Statement Examples for Research Paper

  • Claim: “AI-driven healthcare innovations enhance medical diagnostics.” Reason: “Machine learning algorithms analyze complex data, aiding accurate disease identification.”
  • Claim: “Economic globalization impacts income distribution within nations.” Reason: “Global trade can lead to unequal wealth distribution among different socioeconomic groups.”
  • Claim: “Gender pay gap persists despite progress in workplace equality.” Reason: “Societal norms and biases contribute to unequal compensation between genders.”
  • Claim: “Urbanization affects mental health and well-being.” Reason: “City living can lead to increased stress levels due to noise and social pressures.”
  • Claim: “Digital media’s influence on children’s development warrants scrutiny.” Reason: “Excessive screen time can hinder cognitive and social skills during formative years.”
  • Claim: “Artificial intelligence has transformative potential in education.” Reason: “AI-powered personalized learning adapts to individual student needs, enhancing outcomes.”
  • Claim: “Effects of climate change impact vulnerable populations disproportionately.” Reason: “Marginalized communities suffer more from environmental changes due to resource disparities.”
  • Claim: “The role of genetics in mental disorders requires further exploration.” Reason: “Genetic factors contribute to mental health conditions, prompting research for targeted treatments.”
  • Claim: “Criminal justice reform is needed to address racial disparities.” Reason: “Biased sentencing and profiling lead to unequal treatment within the justice system.”
  • Claim: “Ethical implications of gene editing demand regulatory frameworks.” Reason: “CRISPR technology raises concerns about unintended consequences and responsible usage.”

Can you have a two point thesis?

How to write a two part thesis statement – step by step guide.

  • Choose a Specific Topic: Select a topic for your essay that is focused and manageable. Your thesis statement should address a specific aspect of the topic.
  • Identify Two Key Points: Determine the two main points or arguments you want to make about the topic. These points should be distinct and complementary, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of the subject.
  • Create a Claim for Each Point: Develop a clear and concise claim for each of the two points. These claims should represent the main ideas you will be discussing in your essay.
  • Provide Reasons or Evidence: For each claim, outline the reasons or evidence that support your point. These reasons will help you elaborate on each point in your essay.
  • Arrange the Structure: Organize your Two-Part Thesis Statement by presenting both claims in a logical order. You can choose to present one claim before the other or arrange them based on their significance.
  • Concise Language: Write your Two-Part Thesis Statement in clear and concise language. Avoid unnecessary jargon or complex sentence structures.
  • Revise and Refine: Review your Two-Part Thesis Statement for clarity and coherence. Make sure that each part is distinct and contributes to the overall argument.
  • Alignment with Essay Content: Ensure that the points you’ve identified in your Two-Part Thesis Statement are directly related to the content of your essay. This alignment helps maintain a focused and organized essay.

How do you split a thesis statement?

  • Claim: “Online education offers numerous benefits.”
  • Reason: “It provides flexible scheduling and access to a variety of courses.”

Tips for Writing a Two Part Thesis Statement

  • Be Clear and Specific: Ensure that your claims and reasons are clear, specific, and focused on the main points you want to discuss.
  • Balance the Two Points: Choose two points that are relevant to your topic and provide a well-rounded perspective on the subject.
  • Logical Order: Present your claims in a logical order that flows well and contributes to the coherence of your essay.
  • Support with Evidence: Make sure you have enough evidence or reasoning to support each claim. This strengthens the credibility of your arguments.
  • Avoid Overcomplication: Keep your language simple and straightforward. Avoid overly complex sentence structures that might confuse the reader.
  • Consider Counterarguments: Anticipate potential counterarguments to your claims and address them in your essay to strengthen your position.
  • Stay Focused: Each part of your thesis statement should relate directly to the points you’ll discuss in your essay. Avoid including unnecessary information.
  • Revise and Edit: Like any other part of your essay, revise and edit your Two-Part Thesis Statement to ensure it effectively conveys your intended message.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 1: Start with a question Step 2: Write your initial answer Step 3: Develop your answer Step 4: Refine your thesis statement Types of thesis statements Other interesting articles Frequently asked questions about thesis statements What is a thesis statement? A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay.

  2. Parts of a Thesis Statement

    A basic thesis statement has two main parts: Topic: What you're writing about Angle: What your main idea is about that topic Sample Thesis #1 Sample Thesis #2 Sample Thesis #3 Previous Next Grumble... Applaud... Please give us your feedback!

  3. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Write with Grammarly What is a thesis statement? The goal of a thesis statement is to let your reader know what your paper or essay is about. It helps your reader understand the greater context and scope of your topic, plus it lets your readers know what to expect from the rest of the work.

  4. Thesis Statements

    A thesis statement: tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself.

  5. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper.

  6. PDF Writing a Strong Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement generally consists of two parts: your topic, followed • by analysis, explanation(s), or assertion(s) that you're making about the topic. • A thesis statement is a specific statement. It should cover only what you want to discuss in your paper and must be supported with specific evidence.

  7. Creating a Thesis Statement, Thesis Statement Tips

    1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing: An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience. An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.

  8. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion. Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements: My family is an extended family.

  9. Thesis

    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

  10. Writing a Thesis Statement

    The kind of thesis statement you write will depend on the type of paper you are writing. Here is how to write the different kinds of thesis statements: Argumentative Thesis Statement: Making a Claim. Analytical Thesis Statement: Analyzing an Issue. Expository Thesis Statement: Explaining a Topic.

  11. Academic Guides: Writing a Paper: Thesis Statements

    The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper.

  12. Strong Thesis Statements

    Using paper checkers responsibly Pollution is bad for the environment. This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution implies that something is bad or negative in some way. Furthermore, all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of the problem.

  13. What Is a Thesis?

    It relies on your ability to conduct research from start to finish: choosing a relevant topic, crafting a proposal, designing your research, collecting data, developing a robust analysis, drawing strong conclusions, and writing concisely. Thesis template You can also download our full thesis template in the format of your choice below.

  14. How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement

    It does contain at least two clauses, usually an independent clause (the opinion) and a dependent clause (the reasons). You probably should aim for a single sentence that is at least two lines, or about 30 to 40 words long. Position: A thesis statement always belongs at the beginning of an essay. This is because it is a sentence that tells the ...

  15. Thesis Statement ⇒ Definition, Types, and Writing Guide with Examples

    A thesis statement is a clear and concise sentence (usually at the end of your first paragraph, the introduction) that tells the reader what your paper is about. A thesis statement is also known as a thesis statement, thesis claim, thesis topic sentence, or the controlling idea of an essay. It outlines the main argument or claim of your essay ...

  16. Components of a Thesis Statement

    Thesis statements are one of the most important elements of an essay, so it is vital to know the components of an effective thesis statement. Thesis Should Be Specific According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab, there are different types of essays: analytical (evaluates an issue), expository (explains an issue to the audience) and argumentative ...

  17. What are the common elements of a thesis statement?

    1. Task Language and Task Type The first two elements that all thesis statements should possess is some use of task language and some mention of the task type.

  18. 3 Components to Writing an Effective Thesis Statement

    3 Components to Writing an Effective Thesis Statement - Beacon Point - Writing Services 3 Components to Writing an Effective Thesis Statement Posted on January 7, 2018 What Is a Thesis Statement? Every paper you write—expository, analytical, argumentative—should have a main point or central message. Your thesis statement states that main point.

  19. What Are the Two Parts of an Effective Thesis?

    An effective thesis contains two parts: your argument proposal and support for your claim. The first part declares your argument, and the second part states the point of the paper. Your thesis argument statement lets the reader know you are trying to persuade him to your point of view. The reader is not convinced yet but interested to ...

  20. What Are the Two Parts of a Thesis Statement?

    General Thesis Statement Suggestions A thesis statement usually consists of two parts: your topic and your analysis, explanation, or claim about it. These two parts are often separated by commas.

  21. Components of a Thesis

    There are different kinds of these- expository, analytical, and persuasive. An expository thesis paper explains a particular topic to the reader. An analytical thesis relies on your analysis of the theme or topic addressed, based on the detailed data you collect.

  22. Two-Part (Claim + Reason) Thesis Statement Examples, How to Write, Tips

    By splitting the thesis statement, you clearly separate the main claim from the reason that supports it. This structure sets the foundation for a Two-Part Thesis Statement. Tips for Writing a Two Part Thesis Statement. Be Clear and Specific: Ensure that your claims and reasons are clear, specific, and focused on the main points you want to discuss.

  23. Are The Two Components Of A Thesis Statement

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