Statistics Made Easy

## Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests: 3 Example Problems

In statistics, we use hypothesis tests to determine whether some claim about a population parameter is true or not.

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms:

H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter = ≤, ≥ some value

H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value

There are two types of hypothesis tests:

- One-tailed test : Alternative hypothesis contains either < or > sign
- Two-tailed test : Alternative hypothesis contains the ≠ sign

In a two-tailed test , the alternative hypothesis always contains the not equal ( ≠ ) sign.

This indicates that we’re testing whether or not some effect exists, regardless of whether it’s a positive or negative effect.

Check out the following example problems to gain a better understanding of two-tailed tests.

## Example 1: Factory Widgets

Suppose it’s assumed that the average weight of a certain widget produced at a factory is 20 grams. However, one engineer believes that a new method produces widgets that weigh less than 20 grams.

To test this, he can perform a one-tailed hypothesis test with the following null and alternative hypotheses:

- H 0 (Null Hypothesis): μ = 20 grams
- H A (Alternative Hypothesis): μ ≠ 20 grams

This is an example of a two-tailed hypothesis test because the alternative hypothesis contains the not equal “≠” sign. The engineer believes that the new method will influence widget weight, but doesn’t specify whether it will cause average weight to increase or decrease.

To test this, he uses the new method to produce 20 widgets and obtains the following information:

- n = 20 widgets
- x = 19.8 grams
- s = 3.1 grams

Plugging these values into the One Sample t-test Calculator , we obtain the following results:

- t-test statistic: -0.288525
- two-tailed p-value: 0.776

Since the p-value is not less than .05, the engineer fails to reject the null hypothesis.

He does not have sufficient evidence to say that the true mean weight of widgets produced by the new method is different than 20 grams.

## Example 2: Plant Growth

Suppose a standard fertilizer has been shown to cause a species of plants to grow by an average of 10 inches. However, one botanist believes a new fertilizer causes this species of plants to grow by an average amount different than 10 inches.

To test this, she can perform a one-tailed hypothesis test with the following null and alternative hypotheses:

- H 0 (Null Hypothesis): μ = 10 inches
- H A (Alternative Hypothesis): μ ≠ 10 inches

This is an example of a two-tailed hypothesis test because the alternative hypothesis contains the not equal “≠” sign. The botanist believes that the new fertilizer will influence plant growth, but doesn’t specify whether it will cause average growth to increase or decrease.

To test this claim, she applies the new fertilizer to a simple random sample of 15 plants and obtains the following information:

- n = 15 plants
- x = 11.4 inches
- s = 2.5 inches
- t-test statistic: 2.1689
- two-tailed p-value: 0.0478

Since the p-value is less than .05, the botanist rejects the null hypothesis.

She has sufficient evidence to conclude that the new fertilizer causes an average growth that is different than 10 inches.

## Example 3: Studying Method

A professor believes that a certain studying technique will influence the mean score that her students receive on a certain exam, but she’s unsure if it will increase or decrease the mean score, which is currently 82.

To test this, she lets each student use the studying technique for one month leading up to the exam and then administers the same exam to each of the students.

She then performs a hypothesis test using the following hypotheses:

- H 0 : μ = 82
- H A : μ ≠ 82

This is an example of a two-tailed hypothesis test because the alternative hypothesis contains the not equal “≠” sign. The professor believes that the studying technique will influence the mean exam score, but doesn’t specify whether it will cause the mean score to increase or decrease.

To test this claim, the professor has 25 students use the new studying method and then take the exam. He collects the following data on the exam scores for this sample of students:

- t-test statistic: 3.6586
- two-tailed p-value: 0.0012

Since the p-value is less than .05, the professor rejects the null hypothesis.

She has sufficient evidence to conclude that the new studying method produces exam scores with an average score that is different than 82.

## Additional Resources

The following tutorials provide additional information about hypothesis testing:

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing What is a Directional Hypothesis? When Do You Reject the Null Hypothesis?

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## Hypothesis Testing for Means & Proportions

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## Hypothesis Testing: Upper-, Lower, and Two Tailed Tests

Type i and type ii errors.

All Modules

Z score Table

t score Table

The procedure for hypothesis testing is based on the ideas described above. Specifically, we set up competing hypotheses, select a random sample from the population of interest and compute summary statistics. We then determine whether the sample data supports the null or alternative hypotheses. The procedure can be broken down into the following five steps.

- Step 1. Set up hypotheses and select the level of significance α.

H 0 : Null hypothesis (no change, no difference);

H 1 : Research hypothesis (investigator's belief); α =0.05

- Step 2. Select the appropriate test statistic.

The test statistic is a single number that summarizes the sample information. An example of a test statistic is the Z statistic computed as follows:

When the sample size is small, we will use t statistics (just as we did when constructing confidence intervals for small samples). As we present each scenario, alternative test statistics are provided along with conditions for their appropriate use.

- Step 3. Set up decision rule.

The decision rule is a statement that tells under what circumstances to reject the null hypothesis. The decision rule is based on specific values of the test statistic (e.g., reject H 0 if Z > 1.645). The decision rule for a specific test depends on 3 factors: the research or alternative hypothesis, the test statistic and the level of significance. Each is discussed below.

- The decision rule depends on whether an upper-tailed, lower-tailed, or two-tailed test is proposed. In an upper-tailed test the decision rule has investigators reject H 0 if the test statistic is larger than the critical value. In a lower-tailed test the decision rule has investigators reject H 0 if the test statistic is smaller than the critical value. In a two-tailed test the decision rule has investigators reject H 0 if the test statistic is extreme, either larger than an upper critical value or smaller than a lower critical value.
- The exact form of the test statistic is also important in determining the decision rule. If the test statistic follows the standard normal distribution (Z), then the decision rule will be based on the standard normal distribution. If the test statistic follows the t distribution, then the decision rule will be based on the t distribution. The appropriate critical value will be selected from the t distribution again depending on the specific alternative hypothesis and the level of significance.
- The third factor is the level of significance. The level of significance which is selected in Step 1 (e.g., α =0.05) dictates the critical value. For example, in an upper tailed Z test, if α =0.05 then the critical value is Z=1.645.

The following figures illustrate the rejection regions defined by the decision rule for upper-, lower- and two-tailed Z tests with α=0.05. Notice that the rejection regions are in the upper, lower and both tails of the curves, respectively. The decision rules are written below each figure.

Rejection Region for Lower-Tailed Z Test (H 1 : μ < μ 0 ) with α =0.05

The decision rule is: Reject H 0 if Z < 1.645.

Rejection Region for Two-Tailed Z Test (H 1 : μ ≠ μ 0 ) with α =0.05

The decision rule is: Reject H 0 if Z < -1.960 or if Z > 1.960.

The complete table of critical values of Z for upper, lower and two-tailed tests can be found in the table of Z values to the right in "Other Resources."

Critical values of t for upper, lower and two-tailed tests can be found in the table of t values in "Other Resources."

- Step 4. Compute the test statistic.

Here we compute the test statistic by substituting the observed sample data into the test statistic identified in Step 2.

- Step 5. Conclusion.

The final conclusion is made by comparing the test statistic (which is a summary of the information observed in the sample) to the decision rule. The final conclusion will be either to reject the null hypothesis (because the sample data are very unlikely if the null hypothesis is true) or not to reject the null hypothesis (because the sample data are not very unlikely).

If the null hypothesis is rejected, then an exact significance level is computed to describe the likelihood of observing the sample data assuming that the null hypothesis is true. The exact level of significance is called the p-value and it will be less than the chosen level of significance if we reject H 0 .

Statistical computing packages provide exact p-values as part of their standard output for hypothesis tests. In fact, when using a statistical computing package, the steps outlined about can be abbreviated. The hypotheses (step 1) should always be set up in advance of any analysis and the significance criterion should also be determined (e.g., α =0.05). Statistical computing packages will produce the test statistic (usually reporting the test statistic as t) and a p-value. The investigator can then determine statistical significance using the following: If p < α then reject H 0 .

- Step 1. Set up hypotheses and determine level of significance

H 0 : μ = 191 H 1 : μ > 191 α =0.05

The research hypothesis is that weights have increased, and therefore an upper tailed test is used.

- Step 2. Select the appropriate test statistic.

Because the sample size is large (n > 30) the appropriate test statistic is

- Step 3. Set up decision rule.

In this example, we are performing an upper tailed test (H 1 : μ> 191), with a Z test statistic and selected α =0.05. Reject H 0 if Z > 1.645.

We now substitute the sample data into the formula for the test statistic identified in Step 2.

We reject H 0 because 2.38 > 1.645. We have statistically significant evidence at a =0.05, to show that the mean weight in men in 2006 is more than 191 pounds. Because we rejected the null hypothesis, we now approximate the p-value which is the likelihood of observing the sample data if the null hypothesis is true. An alternative definition of the p-value is the smallest level of significance where we can still reject H 0 . In this example, we observed Z=2.38 and for α=0.05, the critical value was 1.645. Because 2.38 exceeded 1.645 we rejected H 0 . In our conclusion we reported a statistically significant increase in mean weight at a 5% level of significance. Using the table of critical values for upper tailed tests, we can approximate the p-value. If we select α=0.025, the critical value is 1.96, and we still reject H 0 because 2.38 > 1.960. If we select α=0.010 the critical value is 2.326, and we still reject H 0 because 2.38 > 2.326. However, if we select α=0.005, the critical value is 2.576, and we cannot reject H 0 because 2.38 < 2.576. Therefore, the smallest α where we still reject H 0 is 0.010. This is the p-value. A statistical computing package would produce a more precise p-value which would be in between 0.005 and 0.010. Here we are approximating the p-value and would report p < 0.010.

In all tests of hypothesis, there are two types of errors that can be committed. The first is called a Type I error and refers to the situation where we incorrectly reject H 0 when in fact it is true. This is also called a false positive result (as we incorrectly conclude that the research hypothesis is true when in fact it is not). When we run a test of hypothesis and decide to reject H 0 (e.g., because the test statistic exceeds the critical value in an upper tailed test) then either we make a correct decision because the research hypothesis is true or we commit a Type I error. The different conclusions are summarized in the table below. Note that we will never know whether the null hypothesis is really true or false (i.e., we will never know which row of the following table reflects reality).

Table - Conclusions in Test of Hypothesis

In the first step of the hypothesis test, we select a level of significance, α, and α= P(Type I error). Because we purposely select a small value for α, we control the probability of committing a Type I error. For example, if we select α=0.05, and our test tells us to reject H 0 , then there is a 5% probability that we commit a Type I error. Most investigators are very comfortable with this and are confident when rejecting H 0 that the research hypothesis is true (as it is the more likely scenario when we reject H 0 ).

When we run a test of hypothesis and decide not to reject H 0 (e.g., because the test statistic is below the critical value in an upper tailed test) then either we make a correct decision because the null hypothesis is true or we commit a Type II error. Beta (β) represents the probability of a Type II error and is defined as follows: β=P(Type II error) = P(Do not Reject H 0 | H 0 is false). Unfortunately, we cannot choose β to be small (e.g., 0.05) to control the probability of committing a Type II error because β depends on several factors including the sample size, α, and the research hypothesis. When we do not reject H 0 , it may be very likely that we are committing a Type II error (i.e., failing to reject H 0 when in fact it is false). Therefore, when tests are run and the null hypothesis is not rejected we often make a weak concluding statement allowing for the possibility that we might be committing a Type II error. If we do not reject H 0 , we conclude that we do not have significant evidence to show that H 1 is true. We do not conclude that H 0 is true.

The most common reason for a Type II error is a small sample size.

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## What Is a Two-Tailed Test?

Understanding a two-tailed test, special considerations, two-tailed vs. one-tailed test.

- Two-Tailed Test FAQs
- Corporate Finance
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## What Is a Two-Tailed Test? Definition and Example

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A two-tailed test, in statistics, is a method in which the critical area of a distribution is two-sided and tests whether a sample is greater than or less than a certain range of values. It is used in null-hypothesis testing and testing for statistical significance . If the sample being tested falls into either of the critical areas, the alternative hypothesis is accepted instead of the null hypothesis.

## Key Takeaways

- In statistics, a two-tailed test is a method in which the critical area of a distribution is two-sided and tests whether a sample is greater or less than a range of values.
- It is used in null-hypothesis testing and testing for statistical significance.
- If the sample being tested falls into either of the critical areas, the alternative hypothesis is accepted instead of the null hypothesis.
- By convention two-tailed tests are used to determine significance at the 5% level, meaning each side of the distribution is cut at 2.5%.

A basic concept of inferential statistics is hypothesis testing , which determines whether a claim is true or not given a population parameter. A hypothesis test that is designed to show whether the mean of a sample is significantly greater than and significantly less than the mean of a population is referred to as a two-tailed test. The two-tailed test gets its name from testing the area under both tails of a normal distribution , although the test can be used in other non-normal distributions.

A two-tailed test is designed to examine both sides of a specified data range as designated by the probability distribution involved. The probability distribution should represent the likelihood of a specified outcome based on predetermined standards. This requires the setting of a limit designating the highest (or upper) and lowest (or lower) accepted variable values included within the range. Any data point that exists above the upper limit or below the lower limit is considered out of the acceptance range and in an area referred to as the rejection range.

There is no inherent standard about the number of data points that must exist within the acceptance range. In instances where precision is required, such as in the creation of pharmaceutical drugs, a rejection rate of 0.001% or less may be instituted. In instances where precision is less critical, such as the number of food items in a product bag, a rejection rate of 5% may be appropriate.

A two-tailed test can also be used practically during certain production activities in a firm, such as with the production and packaging of candy at a particular facility. If the production facility designates 50 candies per bag as its goal, with an acceptable distribution of 45 to 55 candies, any bag found with an amount below 45 or above 55 is considered within the rejection range.

To confirm the packaging mechanisms are properly calibrated to meet the expected output, random sampling may be taken to confirm accuracy. A simple random sample takes a small, random portion of the entire population to represent the entire data set, where each member has an equal probability of being chosen.

For the packaging mechanisms to be considered accurate, an average of 50 candies per bag with an appropriate distribution is desired. Additionally, the number of bags that fall within the rejection range needs to fall within the probability distribution limit considered acceptable as an error rate. Here, the null hypothesis would be that the mean is 50 while the alternate hypothesis would be that it is not 50.

If, after conducting the two-tailed test, the z-score falls in the rejection region, meaning that the deviation is too far from the desired mean, then adjustments to the facility or associated equipment may be required to correct the error. Regular use of two-tailed testing methods can help ensure production stays within limits over the long term.

Be careful to note if a statistical test is one- or two-tailed as this will greatly influence a model's interpretation.

When a hypothesis test is set up to show that the sample mean would be higher or lower than the population mean, this is referred to as a one-tailed test . The one-tailed test gets its name from testing the area under one of the tails (sides) of a normal distribution. When using a one-tailed test, an analyst is testing for the possibility of the relationship in one direction of interest, and completely disregarding the possibility of a relationship in another direction.

If the sample being tested falls into the one-sided critical area, the alternative hypothesis will be accepted instead of the null hypothesis. A one-tailed test is also known as a directional hypothesis or directional test.

A two-tailed test, on the other hand, is designed to examine both sides of a specified data range to test whether a sample is greater than or less than the range of values.

## Example of a Two-Tailed Test

As a hypothetical example, imagine that a new stockbroker , named XYZ, claims that their brokerage fees are lower than that of your current stockbroker, ABC) Data available from an independent research firm indicates that the mean and standard deviation of all ABC broker clients are $18 and $6, respectively.

A sample of 100 clients of ABC is taken, and brokerage charges are calculated with the new rates of XYZ broker. If the mean of the sample is $18.75 and the sample standard deviation is $6, can any inference be made about the difference in the average brokerage bill between ABC and XYZ broker?

- H 0 : Null Hypothesis: mean = 18
- H 1 : Alternative Hypothesis: mean <> 18 (This is what we want to prove.)
- Rejection region: Z <= - Z 2.5 and Z>=Z 2.5 (assuming 5% significance level, split 2.5 each on either side).
- Z = (sample mean – mean) / (std-dev / sqrt (no. of samples)) = (18.75 – 18) / (6/(sqrt(100)) = 1.25

This calculated Z value falls between the two limits defined by: - Z 2.5 = -1.96 and Z 2.5 = 1.96.

This concludes that there is insufficient evidence to infer that there is any difference between the rates of your existing broker and the new broker. Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Alternatively, the p-value = P(Z< -1.25)+P(Z >1.25) = 2 * 0.1056 = 0.2112 = 21.12%, which is greater than 0.05 or 5%, leads to the same conclusion.

## How Is a Two-Tailed Test Designed?

A two-tailed test is designed to determine whether a claim is true or not given a population parameter. It examines both sides of a specified data range as designated by the probability distribution involved. As such, the probability distribution should represent the likelihood of a specified outcome based on predetermined standards.

## What Is the Difference Between a Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Test?

A two-tailed hypothesis test is designed to show whether the sample mean is significantly greater than and significantly less than the mean of a population. The two-tailed test gets its name from testing the area under both tails (sides) of a normal distribution. A one-tailed hypothesis test, on the other hand, is set up to show that the sample mean would be higher or lower than the population mean.

## What Is a Z-score?

A Z-score numerically describes a value's relationship to the mean of a group of values and is measured in terms of the number of standard deviations from the mean. If a Z-score is 0, it indicates that the data point's score is identical to the mean score whereas Z-scores of 1.0 and -1.0 would indicate values one standard deviation above or below the mean. In most large data sets, 99% of values have a Z-score between -3 and 3, meaning they lie within three standard deviations above and below the mean.

San Jose State University. " 6: Introduction to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing ."

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## Hypothesis Testing (cont...)

Hypothesis testing, the null and alternative hypothesis.

In order to undertake hypothesis testing you need to express your research hypothesis as a null and alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis are statements regarding the differences or effects that occur in the population. You will use your sample to test which statement (i.e., the null hypothesis or alternative hypothesis) is most likely (although technically, you test the evidence against the null hypothesis). So, with respect to our teaching example, the null and alternative hypothesis will reflect statements about all statistics students on graduate management courses.

The null hypothesis is essentially the "devil's advocate" position. That is, it assumes that whatever you are trying to prove did not happen ( hint: it usually states that something equals zero). For example, the two different teaching methods did not result in different exam performances (i.e., zero difference). Another example might be that there is no relationship between anxiety and athletic performance (i.e., the slope is zero). The alternative hypothesis states the opposite and is usually the hypothesis you are trying to prove (e.g., the two different teaching methods did result in different exam performances). Initially, you can state these hypotheses in more general terms (e.g., using terms like "effect", "relationship", etc.), as shown below for the teaching methods example:

Depending on how you want to "summarize" the exam performances will determine how you might want to write a more specific null and alternative hypothesis. For example, you could compare the mean exam performance of each group (i.e., the "seminar" group and the "lectures-only" group). This is what we will demonstrate here, but other options include comparing the distributions , medians , amongst other things. As such, we can state:

Now that you have identified the null and alternative hypotheses, you need to find evidence and develop a strategy for declaring your "support" for either the null or alternative hypothesis. We can do this using some statistical theory and some arbitrary cut-off points. Both these issues are dealt with next.

## Significance levels

The level of statistical significance is often expressed as the so-called p -value . Depending on the statistical test you have chosen, you will calculate a probability (i.e., the p -value) of observing your sample results (or more extreme) given that the null hypothesis is true . Another way of phrasing this is to consider the probability that a difference in a mean score (or other statistic) could have arisen based on the assumption that there really is no difference. Let us consider this statement with respect to our example where we are interested in the difference in mean exam performance between two different teaching methods. If there really is no difference between the two teaching methods in the population (i.e., given that the null hypothesis is true), how likely would it be to see a difference in the mean exam performance between the two teaching methods as large as (or larger than) that which has been observed in your sample?

So, you might get a p -value such as 0.03 (i.e., p = .03). This means that there is a 3% chance of finding a difference as large as (or larger than) the one in your study given that the null hypothesis is true. However, you want to know whether this is "statistically significant". Typically, if there was a 5% or less chance (5 times in 100 or less) that the difference in the mean exam performance between the two teaching methods (or whatever statistic you are using) is as different as observed given the null hypothesis is true, you would reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. Alternately, if the chance was greater than 5% (5 times in 100 or more), you would fail to reject the null hypothesis and would not accept the alternative hypothesis. As such, in this example where p = .03, we would reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. We reject it because at a significance level of 0.03 (i.e., less than a 5% chance), the result we obtained could happen too frequently for us to be confident that it was the two teaching methods that had an effect on exam performance.

Whilst there is relatively little justification why a significance level of 0.05 is used rather than 0.01 or 0.10, for example, it is widely used in academic research. However, if you want to be particularly confident in your results, you can set a more stringent level of 0.01 (a 1% chance or less; 1 in 100 chance or less).

## One- and two-tailed predictions

When considering whether we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, we need to consider the direction of the alternative hypothesis statement. For example, the alternative hypothesis that was stated earlier is:

The alternative hypothesis tells us two things. First, what predictions did we make about the effect of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable(s)? Second, what was the predicted direction of this effect? Let's use our example to highlight these two points.

Sarah predicted that her teaching method (independent variable: teaching method), whereby she not only required her students to attend lectures, but also seminars, would have a positive effect (that is, increased) students' performance (dependent variable: exam marks). If an alternative hypothesis has a direction (and this is how you want to test it), the hypothesis is one-tailed. That is, it predicts direction of the effect. If the alternative hypothesis has stated that the effect was expected to be negative, this is also a one-tailed hypothesis.

Alternatively, a two-tailed prediction means that we do not make a choice over the direction that the effect of the experiment takes. Rather, it simply implies that the effect could be negative or positive. If Sarah had made a two-tailed prediction, the alternative hypothesis might have been:

In other words, we simply take out the word "positive", which implies the direction of our effect. In our example, making a two-tailed prediction may seem strange. After all, it would be logical to expect that "extra" tuition (going to seminar classes as well as lectures) would either have a positive effect on students' performance or no effect at all, but certainly not a negative effect. However, this is just our opinion (and hope) and certainly does not mean that we will get the effect we expect. Generally speaking, making a one-tail prediction (i.e., and testing for it this way) is frowned upon as it usually reflects the hope of a researcher rather than any certainty that it will happen. Notable exceptions to this rule are when there is only one possible way in which a change could occur. This can happen, for example, when biological activity/presence in measured. That is, a protein might be "dormant" and the stimulus you are using can only possibly "wake it up" (i.e., it cannot possibly reduce the activity of a "dormant" protein). In addition, for some statistical tests, one-tailed tests are not possible.

## Rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis

Let's return finally to the question of whether we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.

If our statistical analysis shows that the significance level is below the cut-off value we have set (e.g., either 0.05 or 0.01), we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. Alternatively, if the significance level is above the cut-off value, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and cannot accept the alternative hypothesis. You should note that you cannot accept the null hypothesis, but only find evidence against it.

- 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
- Introduction
- 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
- 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
- 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
- 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
- 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
- 1.6 Sampling Experiment
- Chapter Review
- Bringing It Together: Homework
- 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
- 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
- 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
- 2.4 Box Plots
- 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
- 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
- 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
- Formula Review
- 3.1 Terminology
- 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
- 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
- 3.4 Contingency Tables
- 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
- 3.6 Probability Topics
- Bringing It Together: Practice
- 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
- 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
- 4.3 Binomial Distribution (Optional)
- 4.4 Geometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.6 Poisson Distribution (Optional)
- 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
- 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
- 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
- 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
- 5.3 The Exponential Distribution (Optional)
- 5.4 Continuous Distribution
- 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
- 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
- 6.3 Normal Distribution—Lap Times
- 6.4 Normal Distribution—Pinkie Length
- 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
- 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums (Optional)
- 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
- 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
- 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
- 8.1 A Single Population Mean Using the Normal Distribution
- 8.2 A Single Population Mean Using the Student's t-Distribution
- 8.3 A Population Proportion
- 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
- 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
- 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
- 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
- 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
- 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
- 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
- 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
- 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
- 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
- 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
- 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
- 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
- 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
- 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
- 11.3 Test of Independence
- 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
- 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
- 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
- 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
- 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
- 12.1 Linear Equations
- 12.2 The Regression Equation
- 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
- 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
- 12.5 Outliers
- 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
- 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
- 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
- 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
- 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
- 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
- 13.4 Test of Two Variances
- 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
- A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
- B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
- C | Data Sets
- D | Group and Partner Projects
- E | Solution Sheets
- F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
- G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 , the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

H a —, the alternative hypothesis: a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are reject H 0 if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or do not reject H 0 or decline to reject H 0 if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30 H a : More than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 66
- H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take fewer than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 45
- H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

An article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third of the students pass. The same article stated that 6.6 percent of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4 percent pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40 percent pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40 percent pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p __ 0.40
- H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some internet articles. In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

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## 8.4: Hypothesis Test Examples for Proportions

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- In a hypothesis test problem, you may see words such as "the level of significance is 1%." The "1%" is the preconceived or preset \(\alpha\).
- The statistician setting up the hypothesis test selects the value of α to use before collecting the sample data.
- If no level of significance is given, a common standard to use is \(\alpha = 0.05\).
- When you calculate the \(p\)-value and draw the picture, the \(p\)-value is the area in the left tail, the right tail, or split evenly between the two tails. For this reason, we call the hypothesis test left, right, or two tailed.
- The alternative hypothesis, \(H_{a}\), tells you if the test is left, right, or two-tailed. It is the key to conducting the appropriate test.
- \(H_{a}\) never has a symbol that contains an equal sign.
- Thinking about the meaning of the \(p\)-value: A data analyst (and anyone else) should have more confidence that he made the correct decision to reject the null hypothesis with a smaller \(p\)-value (for example, 0.001 as opposed to 0.04) even if using the 0.05 level for alpha. Similarly, for a large p -value such as 0.4, as opposed to a \(p\)-value of 0.056 (\(\alpha = 0.05\) is less than either number), a data analyst should have more confidence that she made the correct decision in not rejecting the null hypothesis. This makes the data analyst use judgment rather than mindlessly applying rules.

## Full Hypothesis Test Examples

Example \(\PageIndex{7}\)

Joon believes that 50% of first-time brides in the United States are younger than their grooms. She performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 50% . Joon samples 100 first-time brides and 53 reply that they are younger than their grooms. For the hypothesis test, she uses a 1% level of significance.

Set up the hypothesis test:

The 1% level of significance means that α = 0.01. This is a test of a single population proportion .

\(H_{0}: p = 0.50\) \(H_{a}: p \neq 0.50\)

The words "is the same or different from" tell you this is a two-tailed test.

Calculate the distribution needed:

Random variable: \(P′ =\) the percent of of first-time brides who are younger than their grooms.

Distribution for the test: The problem contains no mention of a mean. The information is given in terms of percentages. Use the distribution for P′ , the estimated proportion.

\[P' - N\left(p, \sqrt{\frac{p-q}{n}}\right)\nonumber \]

\[P' - N\left(0.5, \sqrt{\frac{0.5-0.5}{100}}\right)\nonumber \]

where \(p = 0.50, q = 1−p = 0.50\), and \(n = 100\)

Calculate the p -value using the normal distribution for proportions:

\[p\text{-value} = P(p′ < 0.47 or p′ > 0.53) = 0.5485\nonumber \]

where \[x = 53, p' = \frac{x}{n} = \frac{53}{100} = 0.53\nonumber \].

Interpretation of the \(p\text{-value})\: If the null hypothesis is true, there is 0.5485 probability (54.85%) that the sample (estimated) proportion \(p'\) is 0.53 or more OR 0.47 or less (see the graph in Figure).

\(\mu = p = 0.50\) comes from \(H_{0}\), the null hypothesis.

\(p′ = 0.53\). Since the curve is symmetrical and the test is two-tailed, the \(p′\) for the left tail is equal to \(0.50 – 0.03 = 0.47\) where \(\mu = p = 0.50\). (0.03 is the difference between 0.53 and 0.50.)

Compare \(\alpha\) and the \(p\text{-value}\):

Since \(\alpha = 0.01\) and \(p\text{-value} = 0.5485\). \(\alpha < p\text{-value}\).

Make a decision: Since \(\alpha < p\text{-value}\), you cannot reject \(H_{0}\).

Conclusion: At the 1% level of significance, the sample data do not show sufficient evidence that the percentage of first-time brides who are younger than their grooms is different from 50%.

The \(p\text{-value}\) can easily be calculated.

Press STAT and arrow over to TESTS . Press 5:1-PropZTest . Enter .5 for \(p_{0}\), 53 for \(x\) and 100 for \(n\). Arrow down to Prop and arrow to not equals \(p_{0}\). Press ENTER . Arrow down to Calculate and press ENTER . The calculator calculates the \(p\text{-value}\) (\(p = 0.5485\)) and the test statistic (\(z\)-score). Prop not equals .5 is the alternate hypothesis. Do this set of instructions again except arrow to Draw (instead of Calculate ). Press ENTER . A shaded graph appears with \(\(z\) = 0.6\) (test statistic) and \(p = 0.5485\) (\(p\text{-value}\)). Make sure when you use Draw that no other equations are highlighted in \(Y =\) and the plots are turned off.

The Type I and Type II errors are as follows:

The Type I error is to conclude that the proportion of first-time brides who are younger than their grooms is different from 50% when, in fact, the proportion is actually 50%. (Reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true).

The Type II error is there is not enough evidence to conclude that the proportion of first time brides who are younger than their grooms differs from 50% when, in fact, the proportion does differ from 50%. (Do not reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false.)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{7}\)

A teacher believes that 85% of students in the class will want to go on a field trip to the local zoo. She performs a hypothesis test to determine if the percentage is the same or different from 85%. The teacher samples 50 students and 39 reply that they would want to go to the zoo. For the hypothesis test, use a 1% level of significance.

First, determine what type of test this is, set up the hypothesis test, find the \(p\text{-value}\), sketch the graph, and state your conclusion.

Since the problem is about percentages, this is a test of single population proportions.

- \(H_{0} : p = 0.85\)
- \(H_{a}: p \neq 0.85\)
- \(p = 0.7554\)

Because \(p > \alpha\), we fail to reject the null hypothesis. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest that the proportion of students that want to go to the zoo is not 85%.

Example \(\PageIndex{8}\)

Suppose a consumer group suspects that the proportion of households that have three cell phones is 30%. A cell phone company has reason to believe that the proportion is not 30%. Before they start a big advertising campaign, they conduct a hypothesis test. Their marketing people survey 150 households with the result that 43 of the households have three cell phones.

Set up the Hypothesis Test:

\(H_{0}: p = 0.30, H_{a}: p \neq 0.30\)

Determine the distribution needed:

The random variable is \(P′ =\) proportion of households that have three cell phones.

The distribution for the hypothesis test is \(P' - N\left(0.30, \sqrt{\frac{(0.30 \cdot 0.70)}{150}}\right)\)

Exercise 9.6.8.2

a. The value that helps determine the \(p\text{-value}\) is \(p′\). Calculate \(p′\).

a. \(p' = \frac{x}{n}\) where \(x\) is the number of successes and \(n\) is the total number in the sample.

\(x = 43, n = 150\)

\(p′ = 43150\)

Exercise 9.6.8.3

b. What is a success for this problem?

b. A success is having three cell phones in a household.

Exercise 9.6.8.4

c. What is the level of significance?

c. The level of significance is the preset \(\alpha\). Since \(\alpha\) is not given, assume that \(\alpha = 0.05\).

Exercise 9.6.8.5

d. Draw the graph for this problem. Draw the horizontal axis. Label and shade appropriately.

Calculate the \(p\text{-value}\).

d. \(p\text{-value} = 0.7216\)

Exercise 9.6.8.6

e. Make a decision. _____________(Reject/Do not reject) \(H_{0}\) because____________.

e. Assuming that \(\alpha = 0.05, \alpha < p\text{-value}\). The decision is do not reject \(H_{0}\) because there is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the proportion of households that have three cell phones is not 30%.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{8}\)

Marketers believe that 92% of adults in the United States own a cell phone. A cell phone manufacturer believes that number is actually lower. 200 American adults are surveyed, of which, 174 report having cell phones. Use a 5% level of significance. State the null and alternative hypothesis, find the p -value, state your conclusion, and identify the Type I and Type II errors.

- \(H_{0}: p = 0.92\)
- \(H_{a}: p < 0.92\)
- \(p\text{-value} = 0.0046\)

Because \(p < 0.05\), we reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that fewer than 92% of American adults own cell phones.

- Type I Error: To conclude that fewer than 92% of American adults own cell phones when, in fact, 92% of American adults do own cell phones (reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true).
- Type II Error: To conclude that 92% of American adults own cell phones when, in fact, fewer than 92% of American adults own cell phones (do not reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false).

The next example is a poem written by a statistics student named Nicole Hart. The solution to the problem follows the poem. Notice that the hypothesis test is for a single population proportion. This means that the null and alternate hypotheses use the parameter \(p\). The distribution for the test is normal. The estimated proportion \(p′\) is the proportion of fleas killed to the total fleas found on Fido. This is sample information. The problem gives a preconceived \(\alpha = 0.01\), for comparison, and a 95% confidence interval computation. The poem is clever and humorous, so please enjoy it!

Example \(\PageIndex{9}\)

My dog has so many fleas,

They do not come off with ease. As for shampoo, I have tried many types Even one called Bubble Hype, Which only killed 25% of the fleas, Unfortunately I was not pleased.

I've used all kinds of soap, Until I had given up hope Until one day I saw An ad that put me in awe.

A shampoo used for dogs Called GOOD ENOUGH to Clean a Hog Guaranteed to kill more fleas.

I gave Fido a bath And after doing the math His number of fleas Started dropping by 3's! Before his shampoo I counted 42.

At the end of his bath, I redid the math And the new shampoo had killed 17 fleas. So now I was pleased.

Now it is time for you to have some fun With the level of significance being .01, You must help me figure out

Use the new shampoo or go without?

\(H_{0}: p \leq 0.25\) \(H_{a}: p > 0.25\)

In words, CLEARLY state what your random variable \(\bar{X}\) or \(P′\) represents.

\(P′ =\) The proportion of fleas that are killed by the new shampoo

State the distribution to use for the test.

\[N\left(0.25, \sqrt{\frac{(0.25){1-0.25}}{42}}\right)\nonumber \]

Test Statistic: \(z = 2.3163\)

Calculate the \(p\text{-value}\) using the normal distribution for proportions:

\[p\text{-value} = 0.0103\nonumber \]

In one to two complete sentences, explain what the p -value means for this problem.

If the null hypothesis is true (the proportion is 0.25), then there is a 0.0103 probability that the sample (estimated) proportion is 0.4048 \(\left(\frac{17}{42}\right)\) or more.

Use the previous information to sketch a picture of this situation. CLEARLY, label and scale the horizontal axis and shade the region(s) corresponding to the \(p\text{-value}\).

Indicate the correct decision (“reject” or “do not reject” the null hypothesis), the reason for it, and write an appropriate conclusion, using complete sentences.

Conclusion: At the 1% level of significance, the sample data do not show sufficient evidence that the percentage of fleas that are killed by the new shampoo is more than 25%.

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the true mean or proportion. Include a sketch of the graph of the situation. Label the point estimate and the lower and upper bounds of the confidence interval.

Confidence Interval: (0.26,0.55) We are 95% confident that the true population proportion p of fleas that are killed by the new shampoo is between 26% and 55%.

This test result is not very definitive since the \(p\text{-value}\) is very close to alpha. In reality, one would probably do more tests by giving the dog another bath after the fleas have had a chance to return.

Example \(\PageIndex{11}\)

In a study of 420,019 cell phone users, 172 of the subjects developed brain cancer. Test the claim that cell phone users developed brain cancer at a greater rate than that for non-cell phone users (the rate of brain cancer for non-cell phone users is 0.0340%). Since this is a critical issue, use a 0.005 significance level. Explain why the significance level should be so low in terms of a Type I error.

We will follow the four-step process.

- \(H_{0}: p \leq 0.00034\)
- \(H_{a}: p > 0.00034\)

If we commit a Type I error, we are essentially accepting a false claim. Since the claim describes cancer-causing environments, we want to minimize the chances of incorrectly identifying causes of cancer.

- We will be testing a sample proportion with \(x = 172\) and \(n = 420,019\). The sample is sufficiently large because we have \(np = 420,019(0.00034) = 142.8\), \(nq = 420,019(0.99966) = 419,876.2\), two independent outcomes, and a fixed probability of success \(p = 0.00034\). Thus we will be able to generalize our results to the population.

Figure 9.6.11.

Figure 9.6.12.

- Since the \(p\text{-value} = 0.0073\) is greater than our alpha value \(= 0.005\), we cannot reject the null. Therefore, we conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the claim of higher brain cancer rates for the cell phone users.

Example \(\PageIndex{12}\)

According to the US Census there are approximately 268,608,618 residents aged 12 and older. Statistics from the Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network indicate that, on average, 207,754 rapes occur each year (male and female) for persons aged 12 and older. This translates into a percentage of sexual assaults of 0.078%. In Daviess County, KY, there were reported 11 rapes for a population of 37,937. Conduct an appropriate hypothesis test to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the local sexual assault percentage and the national sexual assault percentage. Use a significance level of 0.01.

We will follow the four-step plan.

- We need to test whether the proportion of sexual assaults in Daviess County, KY is significantly different from the national average.
- \(H_{0}: p = 0.00078\)
- \(H_{a}: p \neq 0.00078\)

Figure 9.6.13.

Figure 9.6.14.

- Since the \(p\text{-value}\), \(p = 0.00063\), is less than the alpha level of 0.01, the sample data indicates that we should reject the null hypothesis. In conclusion, the sample data support the claim that the proportion of sexual assaults in Daviess County, Kentucky is different from the national average proportion.

The hypothesis test itself has an established process. This can be summarized as follows:

- Determine \(H_{0}\) and \(H_{a}\). Remember, they are contradictory.
- Determine the random variable.
- Determine the distribution for the test.
- Draw a graph, calculate the test statistic, and use the test statistic to calculate the \(p\text{-value}\). (A z -score and a t -score are examples of test statistics.)
- Compare the preconceived α with the p -value, make a decision (reject or do not reject H 0 ), and write a clear conclusion using English sentences.

Notice that in performing the hypothesis test, you use \(\alpha\) and not \(\beta\). \(\beta\) is needed to help determine the sample size of the data that is used in calculating the \(p\text{-value}\). Remember that the quantity \(1 – \beta\) is called the Power of the Test . A high power is desirable. If the power is too low, statisticians typically increase the sample size while keeping α the same.If the power is low, the null hypothesis might not be rejected when it should be.

- Data from Amit Schitai. Director of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. LBCC.
- Data from Bloomberg Businessweek . Available online at http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011- 09-15/nyc-smoking-rate-falls-to-record-low-of-14-bloomberg-says.html.
- Data from energy.gov. Available online at http://energy.gov (accessed June 27. 2013).
- Data from Gallup®. Available online at www.gallup.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Data from Growing by Degrees by Allen and Seaman.
- Data from La Leche League International. Available online at www.lalecheleague.org/Law/BAFeb01.html.
- Data from the American Automobile Association. Available online at www.aaa.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Data from the American Library Association. Available online at www.ala.org (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online at http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes291111.htm .
- Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at www.cdc.gov (accessed June 27, 2013)
- Data from the U.S. Census Bureau, available online at quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Data from the United States Census Bureau. Available online at www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/language/.
- Data from Toastmasters International. Available online at http://toastmasters.org/artisan/deta...eID=429&Page=1 .
- Data from Weather Underground. Available online at www.wunderground.com (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Federal Bureau of Investigations. “Uniform Crime Reports and Index of Crime in Daviess in the State of Kentucky enforced by Daviess County from 1985 to 2005.” Available online at http://www.disastercenter.com/kentucky/crime/3868.htm (accessed June 27, 2013).
- “Foothill-De Anza Community College District.” De Anza College, Winter 2006. Available online at research.fhda.edu/factbook/DA...t_da_2006w.pdf.
- Johansen, C., J. Boice, Jr., J. McLaughlin, J. Olsen. “Cellular Telephones and Cancer—a Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark.” Institute of Cancer Epidemiology and the Danish Cancer Society, 93(3):203-7. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11158188 (accessed June 27, 2013).
- Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. “How often does sexual assault occur?” RAINN, 2009. Available online at www.rainn.org/get-information...sexual-assault (accessed June 27, 2013).

## Contributors and Attributions

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics > unit 10.

- Idea behind hypothesis testing

## Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

- Writing null and alternative hypotheses
- P-values and significance tests
- Comparing P-values to different significance levels
- Estimating a P-value from a simulation
- Estimating P-values from simulations
- Using P-values to make conclusions

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## Video transcript

## Module 9: Hypothesis Testing With One Sample

Null and alternative hypotheses, learning outcomes.

- Describe hypothesis testing in general and in practice

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis : It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make adecision. There are two options for a decision . They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

H a : More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 66 H a : μ __ 66

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 45 H a : μ __ 45

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U.S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p __ 0.40 H a : p __ 0.40

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

## Concept Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with H 0 . The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with H a or H 1 , using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., (≠, >, or <). If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

- OpenStax, Statistics, Null and Alternative Hypotheses. Provided by : OpenStax. Located at : http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:58/Introductory_Statistics . License : CC BY: Attribution
- Introductory Statistics . Authored by : Barbara Illowski, Susan Dean. Provided by : Open Stax. Located at : http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] . License : CC BY: Attribution . License Terms : Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]
- Simple hypothesis testing | Probability and Statistics | Khan Academy. Authored by : Khan Academy. Located at : https://youtu.be/5D1gV37bKXY . License : All Rights Reserved . License Terms : Standard YouTube License

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## One and Two Tailed Tests

Suppose we have a null hypothesis H 0 and an alternative hypothesis H 1 . We consider the distribution given by the null hypothesis and perform a test to determine whether or not the null hypothesis should be rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis.

There are two different types of tests that can be performed. A one-tailed test looks for an increase or decrease in the parameter whereas a two-tailed test looks for any change in the parameter (which can be any change- increase or decrease).

We can perform the test at any level (usually 1%, 5% or 10%). For example, performing the test at a 5% level means that there is a 5% chance of wrongly rejecting H 0 .

If we perform the test at the 5% level and decide to reject the null hypothesis, we say "there is significant evidence at the 5% level to suggest the hypothesis is false".

One-Tailed Test

We choose a critical region. In a one-tailed test, the critical region will have just one part (the red area below). If our sample value lies in this region, we reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative.

Suppose we are looking for a definite decrease. Then the critical region will be to the left. Note, however, that in the one-tailed test the value of the parameter can be as high as you like.

Suppose we are given that X has a Poisson distribution and we want to carry out a hypothesis test on the mean, l , based upon a sample observation of 3.

Suppose the hypotheses are: H 0 : l = 9 H 1 : l < 9

We want to test if it is "reasonable" for the observed value of 3 to have come from a Poisson distribution with parameter 9. So what is the probability that a value as low as 3 has come from a Po(9)?

P(X < 3) = 0.0212 (this has come from a Poisson table)

The probability is less than 0.05, so there is less than a 5% chance that the value has come from a Poisson(3) distribution. We therefore reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 5% level.

However, the probability is greater than 0.01, so we would not reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 1% level.

Two-Tailed Test

In a two-tailed test, we are looking for either an increase or a decrease. So, for example, H 0 might be that the mean is equal to 9 (as before). This time, however, H 1 would be that the mean is not equal to 9. In this case, therefore, the critical region has two parts:

Lets test the parameter p of a Binomial distribution at the 10% level.

Suppose a coin is tossed 10 times and we get 7 heads. We want to test whether or not the coin is fair. If the coin is fair, p = 0.5 . Put this as the null hypothesis:

H 0 : p = 0.5 H 1 : p =(doesn' equal) 0.5

Now, because the test is 2-tailed, the critical region has two parts. Half of the critical region is to the right and half is to the left. So the critical region contains both the top 5% of the distribution and the bottom 5% of the distribution (since we are testing at the 10% level).

If H 0 is true, X ~ Bin(10, 0.5).

If the null hypothesis is true, what is the probability that X is 7 or above? P(X > 7) = 1 - P(X < 7) = 1 - P(X < 6) = 1 - 0.8281 = 0.1719

Is this in the critical region? No- because the probability that X is at least 7 is not less than 0.05 (5%), which is what we need it to be.

So there is not significant evidence at the 10% level to reject the null hypothesis.

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## Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Educator, Researcher

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

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A research hypothesis, in its plural form “hypotheses,” is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method .

Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding

## Some key points about hypotheses:

- A hypothesis expresses an expected pattern or relationship. It connects the variables under investigation.
- It is stated in clear, precise terms before any data collection or analysis occurs. This makes the hypothesis testable.
- A hypothesis must be falsifiable. It should be possible, even if unlikely in practice, to collect data that disconfirms rather than supports the hypothesis.
- Hypotheses guide research. Scientists design studies to explicitly evaluate hypotheses about how nature works.
- For a hypothesis to be valid, it must be testable against empirical evidence. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.
- Hypotheses are informed by background knowledge and observation, but go beyond what is already known to propose an explanation of how or why something occurs.

Predictions typically arise from a thorough knowledge of the research literature, curiosity about real-world problems or implications, and integrating this to advance theory. They build on existing literature while providing new insight.

## Types of Research Hypotheses

Alternative hypothesis.

The research hypothesis is often called the alternative or experimental hypothesis in experimental research.

It typically suggests a potential relationship between two key variables: the independent variable, which the researcher manipulates, and the dependent variable, which is measured based on those changes.

The alternative hypothesis states a relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable affects the other).

A hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a key component of the scientific method. Some key points about hypotheses:

- Important hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested empirically. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.

In summary, a hypothesis is a precise, testable statement of what researchers expect to happen in a study and why. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

An experimental hypothesis predicts what change(s) will occur in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated.

It states that the results are not due to chance and are significant in supporting the theory being investigated.

The alternative hypothesis can be directional, indicating a specific direction of the effect, or non-directional, suggesting a difference without specifying its nature. It’s what researchers aim to support or demonstrate through their study.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable does not affect the other). There will be no changes in the dependent variable due to manipulating the independent variable.

It states results are due to chance and are not significant in supporting the idea being investigated.

The null hypothesis, positing no effect or relationship, is a foundational contrast to the research hypothesis in scientific inquiry. It establishes a baseline for statistical testing, promoting objectivity by initiating research from a neutral stance.

Many statistical methods are tailored to test the null hypothesis, determining the likelihood of observed results if no true effect exists.

This dual-hypothesis approach provides clarity, ensuring that research intentions are explicit, and fosters consistency across scientific studies, enhancing the standardization and interpretability of research outcomes.

## Nondirectional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis, also known as a two-tailed hypothesis, predicts that there is a difference or relationship between two variables but does not specify the direction of this relationship.

It merely indicates that a change or effect will occur without predicting which group will have higher or lower values.

For example, “There is a difference in performance between Group A and Group B” is a non-directional hypothesis.

## Directional Hypothesis

A directional (one-tailed) hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. It predicts in which direction the change will take place. (i.e., greater, smaller, less, more)

It specifies whether one variable is greater, lesser, or different from another, rather than just indicating that there’s a difference without specifying its nature.

For example, “Exercise increases weight loss” is a directional hypothesis.

## Falsifiability

The Falsification Principle, proposed by Karl Popper , is a way of demarcating science from non-science. It suggests that for a theory or hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and irrefutable.

Falsifiability emphasizes that scientific claims shouldn’t just be confirmable but should also have the potential to be proven wrong.

It means that there should exist some potential evidence or experiment that could prove the proposition false.

However many confirming instances exist for a theory, it only takes one counter observation to falsify it. For example, the hypothesis that “all swans are white,” can be falsified by observing a black swan.

For Popper, science should attempt to disprove a theory rather than attempt to continually provide evidence to support a research hypothesis.

## Can a Hypothesis be Proven?

Hypotheses make probabilistic predictions. They state the expected outcome if a particular relationship exists. However, a study result supporting a hypothesis does not definitively prove it is true.

All studies have limitations. There may be unknown confounding factors or issues that limit the certainty of conclusions. Additional studies may yield different results.

In science, hypotheses can realistically only be supported with some degree of confidence, not proven. The process of science is to incrementally accumulate evidence for and against hypothesized relationships in an ongoing pursuit of better models and explanations that best fit the empirical data. But hypotheses remain open to revision and rejection if that is where the evidence leads.

- Disproving a hypothesis is definitive. Solid disconfirmatory evidence will falsify a hypothesis and require altering or discarding it based on the evidence.
- However, confirming evidence is always open to revision. Other explanations may account for the same results, and additional or contradictory evidence may emerge over time.

We can never 100% prove the alternative hypothesis. Instead, we see if we can disprove, or reject the null hypothesis.

If we reject the null hypothesis, this doesn’t mean that our alternative hypothesis is correct but does support the alternative/experimental hypothesis.

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

## How to Write a Hypothesis

- Identify variables . The researcher manipulates the independent variable and the dependent variable is the measured outcome.
- Operationalized the variables being investigated . Operationalization of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression, you might count the number of punches given by participants.
- Decide on a direction for your prediction . If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis. If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
- Make it Testable : Ensure your hypothesis can be tested through experimentation or observation. It should be possible to prove it false (principle of falsifiability).
- Clear & concise language . A strong hypothesis is concise (typically one to two sentences long), and formulated using clear and straightforward language, ensuring it’s easily understood and testable.

Consider a hypothesis many teachers might subscribe to: students work better on Monday morning than on Friday afternoon (IV=Day, DV= Standard of work).

Now, if we decide to study this by giving the same group of students a lesson on a Monday morning and a Friday afternoon and then measuring their immediate recall of the material covered in each session, we would end up with the following:

- The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
- The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

## More Examples

- Memory : Participants exposed to classical music during study sessions will recall more items from a list than those who studied in silence.
- Social Psychology : Individuals who frequently engage in social media use will report higher levels of perceived social isolation compared to those who use it infrequently.
- Developmental Psychology : Children who engage in regular imaginative play have better problem-solving skills than those who don’t.
- Clinical Psychology : Cognitive-behavioral therapy will be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety over a 6-month period compared to traditional talk therapy.
- Cognitive Psychology : Individuals who multitask between various electronic devices will have shorter attention spans on focused tasks than those who single-task.
- Health Psychology : Patients who practice mindfulness meditation will experience lower levels of chronic pain compared to those who don’t meditate.
- Organizational Psychology : Employees in open-plan offices will report higher levels of stress than those in private offices.
- Behavioral Psychology : Rats rewarded with food after pressing a lever will press it more frequently than rats who receive no reward.

Six Sigma Study Guide

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## Tailed Hypothesis Tests

Posted by Ted Hessing

A tailed hypothesis tests is an assumption about a population parameter. The assumption may or may not be true. Hypothesis testing is a key procedure in inferential statistics used to make statistical decisions using experimental data. It is basically an assumption that we make about the population parameter.

## Null and alternative hypothesis

Null hypothesis (H 0 ): A statistical hypothesis assumes that the observation is due to the chance factor. In other words, the null hypothesis states that there is no (statistical significance) difference or effect.

Alternative hypothesis (H 1 ): The complementary hypothesis of the null hypothesis is an alternative hypothesis. In other words, the alternative hypothesis shows that observations are the results of a real effect.

## What are the tails in a hypothesis test?

A tail in hypothesis testing refers to the tail at either end of a distribution curve. Generally, in hypothesis tests, test statistic means to obtain all of the sample data and convert it to a single value. For example, Z-test calculates Z statistics, t-test calculates t-test statistic, and F-test calculates F values etc., are the test statistics. Test statistics need to compare to an appropriate critical value. A decision can then be made to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

In probability distribution plots, the shaded area in the plot (one side in one-tailed hypothesis and two sides in a two-tailed hypothesis) indicates the probability of a value falls within that range.

Critical region: In a hypothesis test, critical regions are ranges of the distributions where the values represent statistically significant results. If the test statistic falls in the critical region, reject the null hypothesis.

## Types of tailed hypothesis tests

There are three basic types of ‘tails’ that hypothesis tests can have:

- Right-tailed test: where the alternative hypothesis includes a ‘>’ symbol.
- Left-tailed test: where the alternative hypothesis includes a ‘<’ symbol.
- Two-tailed test: where the alternative hypothesis includes a ≠.

## One-tailed hypothesis tests

A test of hypothesis where the area of rejection is only in one direction. In other words, when change is expected to have occurred in one direction, i.e expecting output either increase or to decrease.

If the level of significance is 0.05, a one-tail test allots the entire alpha (α) in the one direction to test the statistical significance. Since the statistical significance in the one direction of interest, it is also known as a directional hypothesis.

Reject the null hypothesis; If the test statistic falls in the critical region, that means the test statistic has a greater value than the critical value (for the right-tailed test) and the test statistic has a lesser value than the critical value (for the left tailed test).

Generally, one-tailed tests are more powerful than two-tailed tests; because of that, one-tailed tests are preferred.

The basic disadvantage of a one-tailed test is it considers effects in one direction only. There is a chance that an important effect may miss in another direction. For example, a new material used in the production and checking whether the yield improved over the existing material. There is a possibility that new material may give less yield than the current material.

One tailed tests are further divided into

## Right-tailed test

Left-tailed test.

Right tailed test is also called the upper tail test. A hypothesis test is performed if the population parameter is suspected to be greater than the assumed parameter of the null hypothesis.

- H 0 : The sampling mean (x̅) is less than are equal to µ
- H 1 : The sampling mean (x̅) is greater than µ.

Example: The average weight of an iron bar population is 90lbs. Supervisor believes that the average weight might be higher. Random samples of 5 iron bars are measured, and the average weight is 110lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. With a 95% confidence level, is there enough evidence to suggest the average weight is higher?

Population average score (µ) = 90

- Sample average (x̅) = 110
- number of samples (n) = 5
- Level of significance α=0.05

H 0 : The average weight is equal to 90, µ=90.

H 1 : The average score is higher than 90, µ>90

Since supervisor is keen to check the average weight is higher, it is a right-tailed test.

Compute the critical value: For 95% confidence level t value with a degrees of freedom n-1= 2.132

Critical value =2.132

Calculate the test statistics t = x̅-µ/(s/√n) = 110-90/(18/√5)=2.484.

Conclusion: Test statistic is greater than the critical value, and it is in the rejection region. Hence, we can reject the null hypothesis. So the average weight of the iron bar is may be higher than the 90lbs.

Left-tailed test is also known as a lower tail test. A hypothesis test is performed if the population parameter is suspected to be less than the assumed parameter of the null hypothesis.

- H 0 : The sampling mean (x̅) is greater than are equal to µ
- H 1 : The sampling mean (x̅) is less than µ.

Example: The average weight of an iron bar population is 90lbs. Supervisor believes that the average weight might be lower. Random samples of 6 iron bars are measured, and the average weight is 82lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. With a 95% confidence level, is there enough evidence to suggest the average weight is lower?

- Sample average (x̅) = 82
- number of samples (n) = 6

H 1 : The average score is less than 90, µ<90

Since the supervisor is keen to check the average weight is lower, hence it is a left-tailed test.

Compute the critical value: For 95% confidence level t value with a degrees of freedom n-1= -2.015

Critical value =-2.015

Calculate the test statistics t = x̅-µ/(s/√n) = 82-90/(18/√6)=-1.088

Conclusion: Test statistic is not in the rejection region. Hence, we failed to reject the null hypothesis. So the average weight of the iron bar is 90lbs.

## Two-tailed hypothesis tests

A test of hypothesis where the area of rejection is on both sides of the sampling distribution.

If level of significance is 0.05 of a two-tailed test, it distributes the alpha (α) into two equal parts (α/2 & α/2) on both sides to test the statistical significance.

- H 0 : The sampling mean (x̅) is equal to µ
- H 1 : The sampling mean (x̅) is not equal to µ

Two-tailed tests also known as two-sided or non-directional test, as it tests the effects on both sides. In a two-tailed test, extreme values above or below are evidence against the null hypothesis.

Reject the null hypothesis if test statistics fall on either side of the critical region.

Example: The average score for the mean population is 80, with a standard deviation of 10. With a new training method, the professor believes that the score might change. Professor tested randomly 36 students’ scores. The average score of the sample is 88. With a 95% confidence level, is there enough evidence to suggest the average score changed?

Population average score (µ) = 80

- Sample average (x̅) = 88
- number of samples (n) = 36

H 0 : The average score is equal to 80, µ=80.

H 1 : The average score is not equal to 80, µ≠80

Since the professor is keen to check the change in average score, it is a two tail test

Compute the critical value: For 95% confidence level Z value = 1.96

Critical value =±1.96

Calculate the test statistics Z = x̅-µ/(σ/√n) = 88-80/(10/√36)=4.8

Conclusion: The test statistic is greater than the critical value, which means the test statistic is in the rejection region. So, we can reject the null hypothesis.

## Few more Example

For Example, consider a null hypothesis that states that cars traveling on a particular road have a mean velocity of 40 miles/hour:

- A right-tailed test would state that cars traveling on a particular road have a mean velocity greater than 40 miles/hour.
- A left-tailed test would state that cars traveling on a particular road have a mean velocity less than 40 miles/hour.
- A two-tailed test would state that cars traveling on a particular road have a mean velocity greater than or less than 40 miles/hour.

## Additional Resources:

- https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/how-to-decide-if-a-hypothesis-test-is-a-left-tailed-test-or-a-right-tailed-test/

## Important Videos

## Comments (8)

I believe you have the right tail and left tails mixed up in this article. It conflicts with other articles you have written and also with my separate findings. In general, the right tailed test is when the alternative hypothesis is > null hypothesis. Putting you on the right side of the bell curve, hence the “right tailed” name.

You’re absolutely correct, Montgomery. The article has been updated. Thanks for bringing this to my attention!

Good Day Ted,

Just brushing up a little while on my break at work. Has the following below been updated yet? When looking at an actual graph it’s otherwise.

-When performing a right-tailed test, we reject the null hypothesis if the test statistics are less than the critical value.

-When performing a left-tailed test, we reject the null hypothesis if the test statistics are greater than the critical value.

We should be all set now with our current re-write, Lemarcus.

Thank you for the note!

What is the difference btw z statistic and t statistic ?

I have seen on your content that, for a right tailed test

For Z statistic, reject null hypothesis if p value is less than critical value

For t statistic, reject null hypothesis if t value is more than critical value

Also, in the two-tailed test, you chose Z instead of t statistic. Why ?

Hello Rahul,

A t-test is used to compare the mean of two given samples. Like a z-test, a t-test also assumes a normal distribution of the sample. A t-test is used when the population parameters (mean and standard deviation) are not known.

Since we know the population mean and standard deviation, selected the z test instead of t test

Your explanations are better and easier to follow than those of my Statistics profs… Thanks

Thanks, Ben. That’s high praise!

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- Key Differences

Know the Differences & Comparisons

## Difference Between One-tailed and Two-tailed Test

To test the hypothesis, test statistics is required, which follows a known distribution. In a test, there are two divisions of probability density curve, i.e. region of acceptance and region of rejection. the region of rejection is called as a critical region .

In the field of research and experiments, it pays to know the difference between one-tailed and two-tailed test, as they are quite commonly used in the process.

## Content: One-tailed Test Vs Two-tailed Test

Comparison chart, definition of one-tailed test.

One-tailed test alludes to the significance test in which the region of rejection appears on one end of the sampling distribution. It represents that the estimated test parameter is greater or less than the critical value. When the sample tested falls in the region of rejection, i.e. either left or right side, as the case may be, it leads to the acceptance of alternative hypothesis rather than the null hypothesis. It is primarily applied in chi-square distribution; that ascertains the goodness of fit.

In this statistical hypothesis test, all the critical region, related to α , is placed in any one of the two tails. One-tailed test can be:

- Left-tailed test : When the population parameter is believed to be lower than the assumed one, the hypothesis test carried out is the left-tailed test.
- Right-tailed test : When the population parameter is supposed to be greater than the assumed one, the statistical test conducted is a right-tailed test.

## Definition of Two-tailed Test

The two-tailed test is described as a hypothesis test, in which the region of rejection or say the critical area is on both the ends of the normal distribution. It determines whether the sample tested falls within or outside a certain range of values. Therefore, an alternative hypothesis is accepted in place of the null hypothesis, if the calculated value falls in either of the two tails of the probability distribution.

In this test, α is bifurcated into two equal parts, placing half on each side, i.e. it considers the possibility of both positive and negative effects. It is performed to see, whether the estimated parameter is either above or below the assumed parameter, so the extreme values, work as evidence against the null hypothesis.

## Key Differences Between One-tailed and Two-tailed Test

The fundamental differences between one-tailed and two-tailed test, is explained below in points:

- One-tailed test, as the name suggest is the statistical hypothesis test, in which the alternative hypothesis has a single end. On the other hand, two-tailed test implies the hypothesis test; wherein the alternative hypothesis has dual ends.
- In the one-tailed test, the alternative hypothesis is represented directionally. Conversely, the two-tailed test is a non-directional hypothesis test.
- In a one-tailed test, the region of rejection is either on the left or right of the sampling distribution. On the contrary, the region of rejection is on both the sides of the sampling distribution.
- A one-tailed test is used to ascertain if there is any relationship between variables in a single direction, i.e. left or right. As against this, the two-tailed test is used to identify whether or not there is any relationship between variables in either direction.
- In a one-tailed test, the test parameter calculated is more or less than the critical value. Unlike, two-tailed test, the result obtained is within or outside critical value.
- When an alternative hypothesis has ‘≠’ sign, then a two-tailed test is performed. In contrast, when an alternative hypothesis has ‘> or <‘ sign, then one-tailed test is carried out.

To sum up, we can say that the basic difference between one-tailed and two-tailed test lies in the direction, i.e. in case the research hypothesis entails the direction of interrelation or difference, then one-tailed test is applied, but if the research hypothesis does not signify the direction of interaction or difference, we use two-tailed test.

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Swati Aggarwal says

April 24, 2018 at 11:47 am

Very Informative and specifically summarised. thank you.

Aurobindo says

January 20, 2019 at 8:22 am

Amazing Surbhi. I recently started following this site and I really find it very very useful. The simplicity of language, the key distinctions, range of depth covered in giving the differences. Hats off to you for your effort. Very amazing. I have definitely bookmarked this website as ‘my favorite’ and I shall keep visiting it again and again. Keep it up. Thanks.

Marian Truehill says

July 23, 2020 at 11:48 pm

This website is very useful and easy to understand for Statistics methods and concepts.

Kuje Samson says

January 11, 2023 at 5:13 am

The website is very linear to a layman statistics. I really enjoyed visiting the site

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## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms: H0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter = ≤, ≥ some value HA (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value There are two types of hypothesis tests:

Typically, the null hypothesis states that there is no effect. As t-values move further away from zero, it represents larger effect sizes. When the null hypothesis is true for the population, obtaining samples that exhibit a large apparent effect becomes less likely, which is why the probabilities taper off for t-values further from zero.

Step 1. Set up hypotheses and select the level of significance α. H 0: Null hypothesis (no change, no difference); H 1: Research hypothesis (investigator's belief); α =0.05 Upper-tailed, Lower-tailed, Two-tailed Tests The research or alternative hypothesis can take one of three forms.

If the sample being tested falls into either of the critical areas, the alternative hypothesis is accepted instead of the null hypothesis. By convention two-tailed tests are used to...

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses. They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H0 H 0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement of no difference between the variables—they are not related.

Towards Data Science · 6 min read · Nov 27, 2019 -- In this post, we will discuss how to do hypothesis testing for a 2-tailed test. I have discussed in detail with examples about hypothesis testing and how to validate it using the Null (H0) and Alternate (H1) hypothesis in my previous post.

Hypothesis Testing One- and two-tailed predictions. When considering whether we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, we need to consider the direction of the alternative hypothesis statement. For example, the alternative hypothesis that was stated earlier is:

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses. They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H0, the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion.

The one-tailed hypothesis is rejected only if the sample proportion is much greater than \(0.5\). The alternative hypothesis in the two-tailed test is \(\pi \neq 0.5\). In the one-tailed test it is \(\pi > 0.5\). You should always decide whether you are going to use a one-tailed or a two-tailed probability before looking at the data.

A one tailed test does not leave more room to conclude that the alternative hypothesis is true. The benefit (increased certainty) of a one tailed test doesn't come free, as the analyst must know "something more", which is the direction of the effect, compared to a two tailed test. Show more...

Two-tailed hypothesis testing doesn't specify the direction of the test. For the cloud seeding example, it is more common to use a two-tailed test. Here the null and alternative hypotheses are as follows. H0: µ = 20. H1: µ ≠ 20. The reason for using a two-tailed test is that even though the experimenters expect cloud seeding to increase ...

For this reason, we call the hypothesis test left, right, or two tailed. The alternative hypothesis, \(H_{a}\), tells you if the test is left, right, or two-tailed. It is the key to conducting the appropriate test. ... Use a 5% level of significance. State the null and alternative hypothesis, find the p-value, state your conclusion, and ...

It is the opposite of your research hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis--that is, the research hypothesis--is the idea, phenomenon, observation that you want to prove. If you suspect that girls take longer to get ready for school than boys, then: Alternative: girls time > boys time. Null: girls time <= boys time.

The one-tailed hypothesis is rejected only if the sample proportion is much greater than 0.5. The alternative hypothesis in the two-tailed test is π ≠ 0.5. In the one-tailed test it is π > 0.5. You should always decide whether you are going to use a one-tailed or a two-tailed probability before looking at the data.

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

When using a two-tailed test, regardless of the direction of the relationship you hypothesize, you are testing for the possibility of the relationship in both directions. For example, we may wish to compare the mean of a sample to a given value x using a t-test. Our null hypothesis is that the mean is equal to x.

We therefore reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 5% level. However, the probability is greater than 0.01, so we would not reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative at the 1% level. Two-Tailed Test. In a two-tailed test, we are looking for either an increase or a decrease.

You would have to use a two-tailed test here because the null hypothesis is a certain value, and the alternative says that it could either be greater than or less than that value. Another example is that null hypothesis could be μ ≥ x μ ≥ x. The alternative hypothesis would be that μ < x μ < x.

A two-tailed test applied to the normal distribution. A one-tailed test, showing the p-value as the size of one tail.. In statistical significance testing, a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test are alternative ways of computing the statistical significance of a parameter inferred from a data set, in terms of a test statistic.A two-tailed test is appropriate if the estimated value is greater ...

Examples. A research hypothesis, in its plural form "hypotheses," is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

Null hypothesis (H0): A statistical hypothesis assumes that the observation is due to the chance factor. In other words, the null hypothesis states that there is no (statistical significance) difference or effect. Alternative hypothesis (H1): The complementary hypothesis of the null hypothesis is an alternative hypothesis.

Key Differences Conclusion Comparison Chart Definition of One-tailed Test One-tailed test alludes to the significance test in which the region of rejection appears on one end of the sampling distribution. It represents that the estimated test parameter is greater or less than the critical value.

Step 1. Solution: To craft null and alternative hypotheses for a two-tailed statistical test, let's first understand w... View the full answer Step 2. Unlock. Answer. Unlock. Previous question Next question.