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Education in India – A Detailed Analysis

Last updated on October 10, 2023 by ClearIAS Team

india education essay

This article is a detailed analysis of the Education System of India.

The post covers various aspects of the problems faced by the Indian Education sector, the Constitutional provisions related to education, and the education policies adopted by modern India.

Also read: Learning Poverty

Table of Contents

History of Education in India

India has a rich tradition of imparting knowledge.

The ‘gurukul’ was a type of education system in ancient India with shishya (students) living with the guru in the same house. Nalanda has the oldest university system of education in the world. Students from across the world were attracted to Indian knowledge systems.

Many branches of the knowledge system had their origin in India. Education was considered a higher virtue in ancient India.

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However, the renaissance and scientific thinking as happened in Europe didn’t happen in India at that time.

The British who took control of the Indian affairs by that time had different priorities. Education in British India initially lagged a lot.

However, later, the British established the modern education system still followed in India. They replaced age-old systems of education in the country with English ways . 

Still, the education system in India needs a lot of reforms.

Current Status of Education in India: Data from Census 2011

Literacy Rate Trend in India

  • Literacy rate in India as per Census 2011:  74%.
  • Literacy rate: Male: 82.1%; Female: 65.5%
  • Kerala tops the rankings, followed by Delhi, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Bihar is the lowest among states, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, etc., however, they are improving their position.
  • Bihar has a literacy rate of 63.8%, and that of women is 53.3%.
  • Literacy rates for both adults as well as youths have increased, still, the absolute number of illiterates in India is as much as India’s population was at the time of independence.
  • The gender gap in terms of literacy began to narrow first in 1991 and the pace has accelerated, however still lags far behind the global female literacy rate of 7% (UNESCO 2015).
  • There are large state variations in the gender gap.
  • However, during 2001 – 2011, the male literacy rate increased by 6 percentage points but female literacy increased by nearly 12 percentage points. Achievement in female literacy in Bihar is noteworthy: from 33% in 2001 to 53% in 2011.
  • Be that as it may, India is still lagging behind the world  literacy rate of 86.3%(UNESCO 2015).  A major group of states lies in the average rank i.e. just above the national level of 64.8 percent.  

Indian Education System: The Present Pyramidal Structure

The Indian education system can broadly be considered as a pyramidal structure:

  • Pre-primary level: 5-6 years of age.
  • Primary (elementary) level: 6-14 years of age. Elementary-level education is guaranteed by our constitution under Article 21 A . For this level, the government has introduced Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) under the Right To Education(RTE) Act.
  • Secondary level: Age group between 14-18. For this level, the government has extended SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan .
  • Higher education: generally of three levels: UG→ PG→ MPhil/PhD. To cater to the requirements of higher education, the government has introduced Rashtriya Uchhattar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA).

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) related to Education

Goal 4 of SDG : Education for all – ensures equitable, inclusive, and quality education along with the promotion of lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030.

Provisions in the Indian Constitution related to Education

  • Under  Article 45 in DPSP , it was mentioned that the government should provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years within 10 years from the commencement of the Constitution. As this was not achieved, Article 21A was introduced by  the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2002 , making elementary education a fundamental right rather than a directive principle. Article 45 was amended to provide for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
  • To implement Article 21A, the government legislated the RTE Act. Under this act, SSA – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – got a further impetus. SSA aims to provide Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time-bound manner.
  • SSA has been operational since 2000-2001. Its roots go back to 1993-1994 when the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched. However, under the RTE Act, it got legal backing.

RTE Act 2009

  • 86th Amendment Act 2002 introduced Article 21-A, which provides for free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right.
  • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act was enacted to implement this fundamental right.

Provisions of the RTE Act

  • ‘Compulsory education’ means an obligation of the government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance, and completion of  elementary education.
  • Provision for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age-appropriate class.
  • Rational deployment of teachers, ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in their postings.
  • Prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than services like decennial census, elections, etc.
  • It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment (b) screening procedures for admission of children (c) capitation fees (d) private tuition by teachers (e) running of schools without recognition.
  • Development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the constitution, ensuring all-around development of the child, building a system of child-friendly and child-centered learning.
  • To further inclusiveness, 25% reservation is provided for disadvantaged students in private schools.

Criticisms of the RTE Act

  • Even though the RTE + SSA have increased access to schools, resulting in a high enrollment rate, dropout rates increased in tandem. However, there is inadequate attention given to this scenario.
  • There is a fear of financial burden on the government for teacher recruitment and training.
  • The grey area of teacher transfer is also not helping the cause.
  • Since all state holidays are not relevant for all localities, such a calendar preparation by local authorities can increase attendance and can also encourage local panchayats to take ownership of schools.
  • RTE students in private schools are paying extra fees as the schools claim that the government fund provided for the same is not adequate.
  • Most private schools treat RTE as charity and demand that the onus of universalizing education should be on the government’s head rather than putting pressure on them.
  • 70% of students are in government schools. So it must be fixed in priority, by providing infrastructure , teacher quality , and targeted   learning  for children from  disadvantaged  groups to provide an equitable education system.
  • Under the RTE Act, till class 8, students should not be failed in exams. This is called the No detention policy. It had reduced dropout rates.
  • There is growing criticism of the policy resulting in reducing the quality of elementary education. Hence the RTE Act was amended to scrap the policy.
  • RTE Act prioritized schooling of children only from the age of 6, thus ignoring pre-school education. Kothari Commission had recommended the establishment of a center for the development of pre-primary education in each district.
  • District Information System for Education (DISE) report states that 30% of primary and 15% of upper primary schools have higher PTRs.
  • According to the Economic Survey 2018-19, the PTR at the national level for primary schools is 23 and 27 for secondary schools. Thus PTR appears to be satisfactory, as there are sufficient teachers. However, the main issue is a balanced deployment of teachers based on student strength.
  • Even though the Student-Classroom ratio (SCR) improved in almost all of the States, there is disparity across the country.

Modern Education in India: The Evolution of the System through various policies

Educational System in India

Radhakrishnan committee

In 1948-49, the University Education Commission was constituted under Radhakrishnan . It molded the education system based on the needs of an independent India. The pre-Independent Indian education value system was catering to colonial masters. There was a need to replace Macaulayism  with the Indian value system.  ( Macaulayism is the policy of eliminating indigenous culture through the planned substitution of the alien culture of a colonizing power via the education system). Some of the values mentioned in the commission were:

  • Wisdom and Knowledge 
  • Aims of the Social Order : the desired social order for which youths are being educated.
  • Love for higher values in life
  • Training for Leadership

The Independent Indian education system developed along the lines of this value framework. In the present times, where there are imminent threats of political ideologies hijacking the pedagogy of education and commercialization of education eroding value systems, it is appreciable to dust off the values promulgated by the commission. A recent controversial circular by the Central University of Kerala (CUK), directing that research topics for Ph.D. students must be in accordance with ‘national priorities’, and research in ‘irrelevant topics’ and ‘privilege areas’ must be discouraged, is a case in point.

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Kothari commission

If the Radhakrishnan committee charted out the value system of the Indian education system, it was the Kothari Commission that provided the basic framework of the same. The commission provided for:

  • Standardization of educational system on 10+2+3 pattern.
  • Emphasized the need to make work experience and social/national service an integral part of education.
  • Linking of colleges to several schools in the neighborhood.
  • Equalization of opportunities to all and to achieve social and national integration .
  • Neighborhood school system without social or religious segregation and a s chool complex system integrating  primary and secondary levels of education.
  • Establishment of Indian Education Service.
  • On-the-job training of the teaching staff and efforts to raise the status of the teachers to attract talents into the profession.
  • To raise expenditure on education from 2.9% of the GDP to 6% by 1985.

This committee report paved the way for the National Educational Policy 1968 which provided the base and roadmap for further development of the education system in India.

National Educational Policy 1968

  • The policy provided for “radical restructuring” and  equalization of educational opportunities to achieve national integration and greater cultural and economic development.
  • Increase public expenditure on education to 6% of GDP.
  • Provide for better training and qualification of teachers.
  • Three-language formula : state governments should implement the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi-speaking states, and of Hindi along with the regional language and English in the non-Hindi-speaking states. Hindi was encouraged uniformly to promote a common language for all Indians.

National Educational Policy 1985

  • The policy aimed at the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunities, especially for women, SC and ST.
  • Launching of “Operation Blackboard”  to improve primary schools nationwide.
  • IGNOU, the Open University, was formed.
  • Adoption of the “rural university” model , based on the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grassroots level in rural India.

T.S.R.Subramanium committee report

  • ECCE is inconsistent across states. So all government schools should have facilities for pre-primary education, which would facilitate pre-school education by the government instead of the private sector.
  • The policy of no detention should be upheld only till class five and not till class eight.
  • There is a steep rise in teacher shortage, absenteeism, and grievances.
  • Need to constitute an Autonomous Teacher Recruitment Board.
  • Four years integrated B.Ed. the course should be introduced.
  • There is an inadequate integration of information technology (IT) and the education sector.
  • The National Skills Qualification Framework should be scaled up.
  • The choice of vocational courses should be in line with local opportunities and resources . 
  • Bringing formal certification for vocational education at par with conventional education certificates.
  • All India Education Service.
  • Existing separate laws governing individual regulators in higher education should be replaced by the said act.
  • The role of existing regulatory bodies like UGC and AICTE should be revised.
  • National Accreditation Board (NAB) subsuming the existing accreditation bodies.

Kasturirangan Report On School Education (Draft National Education Policy)

New education policy of India

For restructuring the education system in India, the government is preparing to roll out a New Education Policy that will cater to Indian needs in the 4th Industrial Revolution by making use of its demographic dividend. Committee for Draft National Education Policy (chaired by Dr. K. Kasturirangan) submitted its report on May 31, 2019.

You can read about the National Education Policy 2020 in detail here .

School Education: 

  • Low accessibility.
  • The curriculum doesn’t meet the developmental needs of children.
  • Lack of qualified and trained teachers.
  • Substandard pedagogy.
  • Currently, most early childhood education is delivered through anganwadis and private preschools. However, there has been less focus on the educational aspects of early childhood.
  • Guidelines for up to three-year-old children.
  • Educational framework for three to eight-year-old children.
  • This would be implemented by improving and expanding the Anganwadi system and co-locating anganwadis with primary schools.
  • Expanding the ambit of the Act to all children between the ages of three to 18 years, thus including early childhood education and secondary school education.
  • There should be no detention of children till class eight. Instead, schools must ensure that children are achieving age-appropriate learning levels.
  • The current structure of school education is to be restructured based on the development needs of students.
  • 10+2+3 structure to be replaced by 5-3-3-4 design comprising: (i) five years of foundational stage (three years of pre-primary school and classes one and two), (ii) three years of preparatory stage (classes three to five), (iii) three years of middle stage (classes six to eight), and (iv) four years of secondary stage (classes nine to 12).
  • The current education system solely focuses on rote learning. The curriculum load should be reduced to its essential core content.
  • Force students to concentrate only on a few subjects.
  • Do not test learning in a formative manner.
  • Cause stress among students.
  • To track students’ progress throughout their school experience, State Census Examinations in classes three, five, and eight should be established.
  • Restructure the board examinations to test only the core concept. These board examinations will be on a range of subjects. The students can choose their subjects and the semester when they want to take these board exams. The in-school final examinations may be replaced by these board examinations.
  • Although establishing primary schools in every habitation has increased access to education, it has led to the development of very small schools making it operationally complex. Hence the multiple public schools should be brought together to form a school complex .
  • A complex will consist of one secondary school (classes nine to twelve) and all the public schools in its neighborhood that offer education from pre-primary to class eight.
  • These will also include anganwadis, vocational education facilities, and an adult education center.
  • Each school complex will be a semi-autonomous unit providing integrated education across all stages from early childhood to secondary education.
  • This will ensure that resources such as infrastructure and trained teachers can be efficiently shared across a school complex.
  • A steep rise in a teacher shortage, lack of professionally qualified teachers, and deployment of teachers for non-educational purposes have plagued the system.
  • Teachers should be deployed with a particular school complex for at least five to seven years.
  • They will not be allowed to participate in any non-teaching activities during school hours.
  • Existing B.Ed. the program will be replaced by a four-year integrated B.Ed. program that combines high-quality content, pedagogy, and practical training. An integrated continuous professional development will also be developed for all subjects.
  • Separating the regulation of schools from aspects such as policymaking, school operations, and academic development.
  • Independent State School Regulatory Authority for each state will prescribe basic uniform standards for public and private schools.
  • The Department of Education of the State will formulate policy and conduct monitoring and supervision.

Higher Education

  • According to the All India Survey on Higher Education , the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education in India has increased from 20.8% in 2011-12 to 25.8% in 2017-18. Lack of access is a major reason behind the low intake of higher education. The policy aims to increase GER to 50% by 2035.
  • Multiple regulators with overlapping mandates reduce the autonomy of higher educational institutions and create an environment of dependency and centralized decision-making.
  • The National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA) should replace the existing individual regulators in higher education. Thus the role of all professional councils such as AICTE would be limited to setting standards for professional practice. The role of the UGC will be limited to providing grants.
  • Separate the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) from the UGC into an independent and autonomous body. It will function as the top-level accreditor and will issue licenses to different accreditation institutions. All existing higher education institutions should be accredited by 2030.
  • Replacing the current system of establishing higher educational institutions by Parliament or state legislatures. Instead, institutions can be set up through a Higher Education Institution Charter from NHERA.
  • Research universities focus equally on research and teaching.
  • Universities focus primarily on teaching.
  • Colleges focus only on teaching at undergraduate levels.
  • All such institutions will gradually move towards full autonomy.
  • Total investment in research and innovation in India has declined from 0.84% of GDP in 2008 to 0.69% in 2014. India also lags behind many nations in the number of researchers, patents, and publications.
  • NRF will act as an autonomous body for funding, mentoring, and building the capacity for quality research.
  • Undergraduate programs should be made interdisciplinary by redesigning their curriculum to include: a common core curriculum; and one/two area(s) of specialization.
  • Introduce four-year undergraduate programs in Liberal Arts.
  • By the next five years, five Indian Institutes of Liberal Arts must be set up as model multidisciplinary liberal arts institutions.
  • Poor service conditions and heavy teaching loads, augmented by a lack of autonomy and no clear career progression system, have resulted in low faculty motivation.
  • Introduction of a Continuous Professional Development program and permanent employment track system for faculty in all higher education institutions by 2030.
  • The student-teacher ratio of not more than 30:1 must be ensured.
  • All higher education institutions must have complete autonomy on curricular, pedagogical, and resource-related matters.

Additional Key Focus Areas:

Additional key focus areas are (1) Technology in Education (2) Vocational Education (3) Adult Education and (4) the Promotion of Indian Languages.

Technology in Education

  • Improving the classroom process of teaching, learning, and evaluation
  • Aiding teacher training.
  • Improving access to education.
  • Improving the overall planning, administration, and management of the entire education system.
  • Electrification of all educational institutions paves the way for technology induction.
  • An autonomous body, the National Education Technology Forum, set up under the Mission, will facilitate decision-making on the use of technology.
  • Single online digital repository to make available copyright-free educational resources in multiple languages.

Vocational Education

  • Less than 5% of the workforce in the age group of 19-24 receives vocational education in India, in contrast to 52% in the USA, 75% in Germany and 96% in South Korea.
  • Vocational courses : All school students must receive vocational education in at least one vocation in grades 9 to 12.
  • Higher Education Institutions must offer vocational courses that are integrated into undergraduate education programs.
  • The draft Policy targets to offer vocational education to up to 50% of the total enrolment in higher education institutions by 2025, up from the present level of enrolment of below 10%.
  • National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education for charting out plans for the above objectives.

Adult Education

As per Census 2011, India had a total of 26.5 crore adult non-literate (15 years and above).

  • Establishing an autonomous  Central Institute of Adult Education as a constituent unit of NCERT. It will develop a National Curriculum Framework for adult education.
  • Adult Education Centers will be included within the school complexes.
  • Relevant courses are made available at the National Institute of Open Schooling.
  • National Adult Tutors Programme to build a cadre of adult education instructors and managers.

Education and Indian Languages

  • The medium of instruction must be the mother tongue until grade 5, and preferably until grade 8.
  • 3 language formula be continued and flexibility in the implementation of the formula should be provided. Implementation of the formula needs to be strengthened, particularly in Hindi-speaking states. Schools in Hindi-speaking areas should also teach Indian languages from other parts of India for the purpose of national integration.
  • To promote Indian languages, a National Institute for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit will be set up.
  • The mandate of the Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology will be expanded to include all fields and disciplines to strengthen vocabulary in Indian languages.

Transforming Education

The policy talked about the synergistic functioning of India’s education system, to deliver equity and excellence at all levels, from vision to implementation, led by a new Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog.

Education Governance

Revitalize education governance by bringing in synergy and coordination among the different ministries, departments, and agencies.

  • Constitute the National Education Commission or Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog, as an apex body for education headed by the Prime Minister. It would be responsible for developing, implementing, evaluating, and revising the vision of education and overseeing the implementation and functioning of bodies including the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), National Higher Education Regulatory Authority, and National Research Foundation.
  • The Ministry of Human Resources and Development must be renamed the Ministry of Education to bring the focus back on education.

Financing Education

  • The Draft Policy reaffirmed the commitment to spending 6% of GDP as a public investment in education.
  • The draft Policy seeks to double the public investment in education from the current 10% of total public expenditure to 20% in the next 10 years. 5% will be utilized for higher education, 2% in school education, and 1.4% for early childhood care and education.
  • There should be optimal and timely utilization of funds through the institutional development plans and by plugging loopholes in the disbursement of funds.

Criticism of the New Education Policy of India

  • The New Education Policy lacks operational details.
  • It is not clear from where the funding will be sourced.
  • Enough importance is not given to innovation, startup culture or economic principles to be added to the curriculum.
  • One-size-fits for all states can’t be a solution as each state in India is diverse in its educational needs. Controversy on NEET has shown this.
  • With technological advancement and the democratization of knowledge, the policy should have focused more on how to teach rather than what to teach.
  • Economic Survey 2017-18 mentioned the perils of the distinction between research institutions and universities in higher education. The policy recommendation of three distinct higher education institutions of research universities, teaching universities, and teaching colleges will further augment the gap between research and universities.
  • The draft policy is silent on the Institutions of Eminence and agencies like the Higher Education Funding Agency.
  • The role of Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog should be defined clearly. What would be its role vis-a-vis existing regulators? Also, there are criticisms from some quarters that RSA will open the door to the politicization of education.
  • Earlier the 3-language formula proposed by the draft policy made Hindi compulsory in non-Hindi speaking states. However, after the furor, the proposal was removed.
  • Even though the policy talks about bringing “unrepresented groups” into school and focusing on educationally lagging “ special education zones” , it doesn’t comprehensively address the inequalities prevalent in the system. It misses methods to bridge the gaps between rich and poor children.
  • The policy proposes to remove the provision mandating that primary schools be within stipulated distance from students’ homes and common minimum infrastructure and facility standards that should be met by all schools. If a common minimum standard is not specified, it will create an environment where quality in some schools will fall further thus augmenting the inequalities between schools across the country.

India’s education history is rich with ambitious policies failing at the altar of inadequate implementation of the same. In the absence of a handholding mechanism for states to embark on the path-breaking reforms mentioned in the policy and that too in a short time, will be too much to ask.

Funding requirements and governance architecture pose major challenges in the implementation of the policy. Political commitment is required to increase funding. RTE Act expansion to include preschool should keep in mind the present infrastructure inadequacies and teacher vacancies.

Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog may face administrative problems and turf battles. Also, it will raise questions on the role of new bodies like the National Medical Council.

The recent controversy on 3 language formula shows the sensitivity of language education in India and care should be taken to appreciate the emotional overtures while implementing the same.

Politically acceptability, social desirability, technological feasibility, financial viability, administratively doability, and judicially tenability are 6 pillars that will impact the implementation of the policy.

Be that as it may, the new education policy aims to address the challenges of (i) access, (ii) equity, (iii) quality, (iv) affordability, and (v) accountability faced by the current education system. It aims to revitalize and equip the education system to meet the challenges of the 21st century and 4th industrial revolution rather than catering to 19th and 20th century needs of industrialization. Also, India is on the cusp of a demographic dividend, rather than entered into this phase. So the education system catering to these needs is not a luxury that we hope for but rather a dire need at this moment in Indian history.

The Problems associated with the Education System in India

Literacy Trend in India

  • Even after more than a hundred years of “ Gokhale’s Bill”1911, where universal primary education was originally mooted, India is yet to achieve this goal.
  • China had achieved it in the 1970s. As per Census 2011, over 26% of India’s population is still illiterate, compared to 4% in China. About 50% of India’s population has only primary education or less, compared to 38% in China. The 13% of the population with tertiary education at the upper end in India is comparable with China.
  • Progress has been made in respect of female participation up to secondary level and GER for girls has exceeded that of boys.
  • But the girl’s enrollment rate is lower than that of boys at the higher education level.
  • A gap is visible across social categories in terms of enrollment rate at the higher education level.
  • According to NSSO’s 71st round (2014), drop-out rates are very high for boys at the secondary school level. Reasons for the same are economic activities, lack of interest in education, and financial constraints.
  • The transition rate from secondary school to senior secondary and further to higher education is very low.

Despite these highly ambitious education policies and elaborate deliberations on the same, the outcomes are rather shaky. Major criticisms and shortcomings of these policies and their implementations are:

  • Half the population is crowded at the bottom, either illiterate or with only primary education. Meanwhile, a disproportionately large segment is at the upper end with tertiary education.
  • The 2015 Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) reflects this deteriorating quality. The report opines that deficits in foundational reading and arithmetic skills are   cumulative, which leaves students grossly   handicapped for further education .
  • India had fared poorly in the Programme for International Student Assessment  (PISA) test in 2008, and 09.
  • Education policies in India are focused on inputs rather than on learning outcomes.
  • Teacher shortages.
  • Local politics.
  • Corruption in teacher appointment.
  • Defects in teacher training.
  • Socio-cultural factors like caste division, and cynical attitude towards the teaching profession.
  • There is no accountability, as there is a guaranteed lifetime job independent of performance.
  • From 1952-2012 , education expenditure as a percentage of total government expenditure increased from 7.92 to 11.7, and as a percentage of GDP increased from 0.64 to 3.31. But it has still not reached 6% of GDP, as was recommended by the Kothari Commission way back in 1964.
  • Expenditure by the government on elementary education is more than tertiary level, but expenditure per student is more in tertiary. So there is a need to increase expenditure in all segments.
  • All India survey on higher education has shown that in West Bengal Muslim students in universities are very low. Lack of education at the primary and secondary levels is said to be the main reason.
  • Even though Article 15(4),(5) provides reservations for SC, ST, and OBC in higher education institutions , the Economic Survey 2018-19 points out their inadequate representation in these institutions.
  • The suicide of Rohit Vemula, a Ph.D. scholar at the University of Hyderabad, in 2016 had brought forward the discrimination still existing in these institutions.
  • Also, the representation of teachers at these levels is skewed against the backward class in spite of reservations. Article 16(4) provides for reservations of backward class in jobs.
  • At the school level, poor children are primarily concentrated in government schools. The poor quality of government schools thus disproportionately affects these children and creates a vicious cycle of illiteracy.
  • At the higher education level, the situation is more critical. One reason for the introduction of the National Medical Commission Bill is to curb the exorbitant fees charged by medical colleges.
  • Youths coming out of the higher education system in India are not employable, as they lack relevant industry-level skills.
  • India’s long-standing neglect of primary and secondary education has limited access to quality basic education. No skill development program can succeed without an underlying foundation of basic education.
  • National Policy on  Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 (PMKVY) has shown disappointing results.
  • Budget 2019-20  stated that the government enables about 10 million youth to take up industry-relevant skill training through the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY). The  Budget has also increased focus on  ‘new-age skills’  like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, 3D Printing, Virtual Reality, and Robotic.
  • Currently, B Tech courses in AI are offered mostly in premier institutions only.
  • The budget 2019-20 proposed the National Sports Education Board for the development of sportspersons under the  Khelo India program (2017).

Now we will look at each rung of the education ladder in India.

Early childhood education

  • Early childhood education (ECE) is needed for  cognitive development in the early stage.
  • Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)  has a component for providing ECE through Anganwadis . But lack of effective regulation in this sector is eroding the quality of ECE.
  • There is a National Early Childhood Care and Education Policy 2013 . However, the policy has not been properly implemented.
  • There are multiple service providers but there is no clarity in the types of services provided.
  • The sprawling of an unregulated private channel, both organized and unorganized, which is also spreading to rural areas, has led to inequitable access, uneven quality, and commercialization of ECE.
  • Both Anganwadis and private schools focus on reading, writing, and arithmetic rather than cognitive and conceptual development.
  • There is a decline in the quality and training of teachers.
  • S.R. Subramanian’s committee report has brought focus to the quality deterioration in this sector.

Primary level

  • There is an increasing trend of parents choosing private schools for the primary level. However, there is variable quality in private schools. Also, fees vary from school to school and are on the higher side.
  • Eschew rigid curricula and make them more cognitive and flexible. There should be a broader cognitive approach than rote learning.
  • There is a need for activity-based learning. Teachers should teach at the right level, rather than teaching for the average learner.
  • The government has launched Padhe Bharat Bade Bharat –  targeting early reading and writing. The twin-track  approach of comprehension and math is the main focus.
  • There is a supply-side problem . The government is pumping funds through government schools thus increasing the number of schools and thus enrollment. However, quality and inclusiveness have dropped and dropout rates increased. These lead to poor learning outcomes.

School Complex

  • RTE and SSA have resulted in over-access but low-quality primary-level education. Now the aim should be to integrate these into school complexes, as mentioned by the Kasturirangan committee report, thus rationalizing the number of schools in an area.
  • The ‘Adarsh’ integrated school system of Rajasthan is an example of a school complex system . Here one school provides classes from l to XII under one principal. There is one such school in every gram panchayat.
  • This is an efficient way to solve teacher shortages and also to address the shortages of secondary schools. It can also address the problem of resource scarcity by integrating and rationalizing resources.
  • Inclusive learning can be furthered through school.
  • Also, these complexes can act as a pivot around which new reforms in education can be implemented.

Secondary level

ASER Rural 2017: In 2017, ASER changed the age group of the survey from primary level to secondary level. The report mentions the following:

  • Enrollment is low in this age group. There is a high digital divide at this level. Low quality also persists at this level. There is a high amount of absenteeism as well.
  • There is a need to expand RTE to cover the 14-18 age groups.
  • To realize the demographic dividend, skill education for these groups is necessary.

Economic Survey 2018-19 points out that Indian demography is changing and it requires more quality secondary education system rather than merely an increasing number of primary-level schools.

Private fees

  • The vagueness in the judgment regarding ‘reasonable surplus’ and ‘commercialization’ of education has watered down the outcome of the judgment.
  • There are state laws for capping fees. However, implementation problems and litigation make them ineffective.
  • CAG report mentioned misreporting and mismanagement by private schools. So laws should address this problem through stricter inspection, penalties, etc.

Higher education

There is an increasing number of higher education institutions but their quality is questionable, effectively making ‘islands of excellence amidst the sea of mediocrity. Increased accessibility to a low-quality higher education system has made democratization of mediocrity.

Raghuram Rajan, the ex-RBI governor, argued that India needs idea factories and universities by leveraging India’s inherent strengths like tolerance, diversity, etc. He said that there is a need for strong accreditation agencies and continuing education.

Problems of the higher education system in India

  • There is a dual problem of both quality and quantity. The gross enrollment ratio (GER) in higher education is only 24.5.
  • Even though education policy had an elitist bias in favor of higher education, the state of the same is much worse than the state of school education. Unlike school education, there is no national survey of the learning levels of college students.
  • The desired levels of research and internationalization of Indian campuses remain weak points.
  • Also, there is a low philanthropic investment in this sector. This creates an exclusive dependency on government funding by universities. This, in turn, reduces the autonomy and vision of these universities.
  • Privatization of higher education has not been led by philanthropy but the commercial interest that does not have a symbiotic relationship with the vision of universities.
  • These have led to inadequate human capacity, shoddy infrastructure, and weak institutions. Recommendations of the Narayana Murthy committee,  on the role of the corporate sector in higher education, have not been implemented and thus channeling of CSR funds to higher education remains inadequate.
  • Banks and financial institutions are not giving adequate attention to this area. Giving PSL status to these institutions can be considered.
  • Indian higher education system is of a linear model with very little focus on specialization.
  • UGC and AICTE act more as controllers of education than facilitators.
  • Due to the mushrooming of colleges at a higher rate since the 1980s , there is a regulatory sprawl in higher education.
  • Poor governance , with mindless  over-regulation , is widespread in this sector. Educational institutions responded to this with claims of academic and institutional autonomy for themselves, which was mostly a smokescreen for a culture of sloth in these institutions.
  • There is a concentration of powers, as these regulatory institutions control all aspects like accreditation, curriculum setting, professional standard-setting, funding, etc.
  • Compartmentalization and fragmentation of the knowledge system.
  • Disconnect with society.
  • Overemphasis on entrance tests.
  • Absence of innovation in learning methods.
  • Corrosion of autonomy of universities.
  • For long basic disciplines across the physical and social sciences and humanities were ignored.
  • However, the Economic Survey 2017-18 mentioned that there is an increase in Ph.D. enrolment in India in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) due to efforts by the government to increase the number and quantum of fellowships. However, there are still fewer researchers in India in comparison to other countries.
  • Budget 2019-20 proposes ‘Study in India’  with a focus on bringing foreign students to higher educational institutions in India to make India a “hub of higher education.”
  • Higher education institutions are used as rewards for loyalists and channels of graft by political parties in power.
  • Indian higher education system is plagued by unregulated and shoddy coaching institutions. The coaching industry makes around Rs. 24000 crores a year in India. Proper regulation of the same is required.

Research and development (R&D)

Economic Survey 2017-18 stated: “To transform from net consumer to net producer of knowledge, India should invest in educating its youth in science and mathematics, reform the way R&D is conducted, engage the private sector and the Indian diaspora, and take a more mission-driven approach in areas such as dark matter, genomics, energy storage, agriculture, and mathematics and cyber-physical systems”.

  • Although Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) is consistently increasing, as a fraction of GDP it has been stagnant between 0.6-0.7  percent of GDP over the past two decades.
  • The universities play a relatively small role in the research activities in India. There is a disconnection between research institutes and universities. This results in the compartmentalization of research activities and teaching into two separate silos.
  • The  separation of research from teaching leads to a situation where universities  have students but need additional faculty support, while research institutes have qualified faculty but are starved of young students.
  • India was, at one point, spending more on R&D as a percentage of GDP than countries like China – but currently, India under-spends on R&D.
  • Doubling of R&D spending is necessary and much of the increase should come from the private sector and universities.

The need of the hour

  • It is imperative to improve math and cognitive skills at the school level to make a difference at a higher level.
  • There is a need to expand R&D in India and to go beyond paper presentations and patents to a broader contribution of providing value for society.
  • There is also a need to encourage Investigator-led Research for funding science research.  Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) 2008,  a statutory body of DST, is a step in the right direction.
  • 50:50 partnerships with SERB for industry-relevant research under the Ucchatar Avishkar Yojana (UAY) is the right way to go forward.
  • It would strengthen state universities and provide knowledge in areas specific to a state.
  • National Research Foundation,  to fund, coordinate, and promote research at the college level, is proposed by the Kasturirangan report. It is reiterated in Budget 2019-20 : NRF will ensure the overall research ecosystem in the country is strengthened with a focus on areas relevant to national priorities without duplication of effort and expenditure. The funds available with all Ministries will be integrated into NRF.
  • Link national labs to universities and create new knowledge ecosystems. Together they can link up with the commercial sectors and help develop industrial clusters.
  • National Mission on Dark Matter
  • National Mission on Genomics
  • National Mission on Energy Storage Systems
  • National Mission on Mathematics
  • National Mission on Cyber-Physical Systems
  • National Mission on Agriculture
  • Ramanujan Fellowship Scheme.
  • Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research ( INSPIRE ) Faculty Scheme.
  • Ramalingaswami Re-entry Fellowship.
  • Visiting Advanced Joint Research Faculty Scheme ( VAJRA ).
  • Improve the culture of research thus ‘ ease of doing research’. There is a need for less hierarchical governance systems that encourage risk-taking and curiosity in the pursuit of excellence.
  • Greater public engagement of the science and research establishment is needed. A greater effort at science communication  is needed.

Government initiatives on higher education

The government is trying to revitalize the Indian higher education system and for this many initiatives have been launched. Let’s discuss the importance of them.

National Testing Agency (NTA) 2017

  • NTA was set up for conducting entrance exams in higher educational institutions. It is based on the recommendations of the Ashok Mishra committee on IIT entrance 2015.
  • It will conduct JEE, NEET, National Eligibility Test (NET), Common Management Admission Test (CMAT), and Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT).
  • It will provide diversity and plurality in higher education. It will also ensure independence and transparency in conducting the exams.
  • However, it should be ensured that the computer-based test should not lead to further exploitation of rural students.
  • NEET stands for National Eligibility cum Entrance Test . It is for admissions in medical courses by replacing a plethora of medical entrance tests with one national-level test.
  • Supreme Court had said that NEET should be the sole basis for admission to medical courses.
  • There is a controversy about whether urban and CBSE students will dominate NEET. The government should pay heed to this criticism.
  • In Tamil Nadu doctors serving in rural areas get weightage in PG admission. NEET will effectively dislodge this system.
  • This controversy brought forward the conflict between the fair and transparent system of admission to curb the commercialization of medical education and the socioeconomic goals of the state, which in the case of Tamil Nadu includes ensuring enough doctors for rural areas.
  • Controversy on NEET has brought the following question to the limelight: should uniformity be thrust upon a country with such vast disparity and diversity? The political leadership should iron out the differences and produce a suitable admission policy. This task should not be left to the judiciary.
  • Be that as it may, states can’t remain insulated from the need to upgrade their education standard.

RUSA: Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan 2013

  • About 94 % of students in higher education study in 369 State universities, whereas less than 6% of students study in 150 Centrally-funded institutions.
  • 11th 5-year plan  (2007-12) opined that the center’s bias towards premier central institutions had skewed funding for these institutions mainly and thus neglected state-level institutions.
  • State investment in higher education was declining. UGC’s system of direct release of funds to State institutions bypassing State governments also leads to a sense of alienation for the states.
  • RUSA tried to correct this bias. The scheme aims at financing state institutions with respect to their governance and performance.
  • RUSA has shown the result in increasing the performance of state institutions and changing the way regulators function for the good. State Higher Education Council(SHEC)  made medium-long-term state perspective plans.
  • Cabinet in 2018 decided to continue the scheme. A renewed focus by the center on RUSA will be a success only if it is impartially administered and states are willing to heed the advice of SHEC.

HECI: Higher Education Commission of India bill

  • On the recommendation of the Yashpal Committee 2010 for renovation and rejuvenation of higher education, the National Commission on Higher Education and Research bill was introduced but was not passed.
  • HECI was proposed to act as an overarching regulator of higher education by replacing UGC, which will maintain academic standards, approve new educational institutions, etc. but with no funding powers.
  • Draft Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Bill, 2018 was introduced in 2018. Budget 2019-20 proposed to bring a bill on HECI this year.
  • The draft bill had separated funding and placed it under MHRD. This was criticized for the fear of increasing political control and reducing the autonomy of universities.

IoE: Institutions of Eminence 2017

  • Around 2005, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the QS World University Rankings started, and in 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities started. From India, only the Indian Institute of Science was included in the top 500 every year. This prompted the government to introduce NIRF and IoE.
  • Under IoE, UGC was tasked to select 10 government universities and 10 private ones as IoE. These would be given autonomy in operations.
  • Selected government institutions would be provided with ₹1,000 crore over five years.
  • The IoE tag is expected to help them achieve the world’s top 500 higher education institutions in a decade and later into the top 100.
  • Institutes among the top 50 in the National Institute Ranking Framework rankings or in the top 500 in international ratings were eligible.
  • The model for the sector remains dependent on state patronage.
  • Entry into the global education race could now become an overriding concern when many systemic issues are plaguing the sector.
  • Funding only for public institutions is discriminatory.
  • Humanities institutions were neglected.
  • Transparency in the selection process, and the public sharing of benchmarks and guidelines. The furor over the selection of Jio Institute, even before its functioning, had attracted many eyeballs and criticisms.
  • Separate category to include sectoral institutions like IIM.

National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) 2015

NIRF is a methodology adopted by the MHRD to rank higher education institutions in India.

  • NIRF is common for public and private institutions as well as state and central institutions. Comparison of state-level colleges with central and private colleges may lead to a vicious cycle of low funding, poor performance, and low ranks among state-level institutions because of the resource gap.
  • So performance index values should be normalized with respect to investments and resources that have gone into that institution. Also should consider making another ranking system for state-level institutions.

HEFA: Higher Education Financing Agency 2018

Introduced in Budget 2018-19, HEFA is a joint venture of MHRD and Canara Bank

  • With an initial capital base of Rs 1,000 crores, it will act as a not-for-profit organization that will leverage funds from the market and supplement them with donations and CSR funds. These funds will be used to finance improvement in infrastructure in top institutions.
  • It has been tasked with raising ₹1 lakh crore to finance infrastructure improvements in higher education by 2022.

 Foreign Education Providers Bill 2013 

  • There is no account of programs delivered by foreign universities in India. Inadequate regulation has led to low-quality courses offered in this sector.
  • The foreign Institution bill was not been able to pass in Parliament. However,

EQUIP report has mentioned the revival of this bill.

There are many other schemes and initiatives like SWAYAM, which offers open online courses from Class IX to post-graduation free of cost, GIAN and IMPRINT which are primarily focused on elite institutes like IITs and IISc.

Other Major Issues connected with the Education sector in India

The Indian education sector is also affected by other issues like the politicization of campuses, gender parity problems, poor-quality standards, etc.

Politicization of campuses

  • JP movement had provided an impetus to the politicization of students.
  • In Indian higher education institutions, university politics has become a launchpad for political ambitions.
  • Though campus politics is vital for democracy, as it makes students better citizens, the negative side of the politicization of campuses has been visible across Indian campuses. Recent incidents at Kerala University are a case in point.
  • One of the most important problems of student politics in India is that it acts as an appendage to political parties without having an independent identity or autonomy.

Gender Parity

Gender Parity Index

  • By parents → who send boys to private and girls to government schools. Economic Survey 2018-19: enrollment of girls is higher than that of boys in government schools but the pattern gets reversed in private schools. The gender gap in enrollment in private schools has consistently increased across age groups.
  • By teachers → who reinforced the belief that boys are quick learners.
  • Girls are eased out of school to work on home chores or get married.
  • Economic Survey 2018-19 opines that BBBP has been a success and proposes to extend the cause of Gender equality by coining the slogan of BADLAV (Beti Aapki Dhan Lakshmi Aur Vijay-Lakshmi) to enhance the contribution of women in the workforce and the economy.
  • For ranking states based on gender disparity, Digital Gender Atlas for Advancing Girl’s Education was launched by MHRD.
  • In higher education, gender disparities still prevail in enrollment.
  • Efforts by the Government through programs like Beti Padhao, and Beti Bachao, the GPI has improved substantially at the primary and secondary levels of enrolment.

Quality of education

Learning outcomes are not assessed in India as numerical outcomes. 12th Five-Year Plan noted the need for measuring and improving learning outcomes.

  • Children of illiterate parents can’t supplement school studies at home and also can’t afford expensive tuition, leading to a vicious cycle of illiteracy.
  • From 2014 to 2018, there was a gradual improvement in both basic literacy and numeracy for Class III students but only a quarter of them are at grade level (ability to read and do basic operations like subtraction of Class II level).
  • The report also shows that 1 out of 4 children leaving Class VIII are without basic reading skills (ability to read at least a Class II level).

Government initiatives

  • Central Rules under the RTE Act were amended in February 2017 to include the defined class-wise and subject-wise learning outcomes.
  • Nationwide sub-program of SSA to improve comprehensive early reading, writing, and early mathematics programs for children in Classes I and II.

Teacher Training

  • Teachers play the most critical role in a student’s achievement.
  • The need is for better incentives for teachers, investments in teacher capacity through stronger training programs, and addressing the problems in the teaching-learning process.
  • However, teachers in India, especially in government schools, are considered a cog in the way to efficient governance. There is an inadequate focus on their motivation and skill updation.
  • NCERT study shows that there is no systematic incorporation of teacher feedback into designing pieces of training. Also, there is no mechanism to check whether this training is translated into classroom performance.
  • These results in de-professionalizing the teaching profession and curb a teacher’s “internal responsibility” — the sense of duty to the job.
  • World Development Report on Education (2018) opined that both teaching skills and motivation matter. Individually targeted continued training is important. In line with this, MHRD and the National Council for Teacher Education launched the National Teacher Platform, or Diksha in 2017 . It is a one-stop solution to address teacher competency gaps.
  • However, the current training through Diksha follows a one-size-fits-all approach. Even though the platform is designed to democratize both access to and creation of content by teachers, its real benefits are in the ability to provide continuous professional development which complements existing physical training.
  • This technology-enabled platform allows training to become a continuous activity rather than an annual event and also creates a feedback loop ensuring the effectiveness of the material.
  • Diksha has the potential to re-engineer in-service teacher training in India. It is important to create good content and also to ensure technology consumption by teachers, the role of headmasters in promoting teachers’ professional development, etc.

As India participates in the PISA in 2021, it is to be made sure that we recognize the importance of teachers and their role in education outcomes.

Private Schools vs Public Schools: The Big Debate in Education

At least 30% of students between the 6-14 age groups are in the private sector.

  • There is an increasing perception that the quality of teaching in private schools is better than that of public schools. Thus there is a clamour for increasing the number of private schools and simultaneously limiting public spending on government schools.
  • However, the claim on the quality of private schools is debatable as there is a wide disparity of the same among these schools.

Research paper by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, professor of education and international development at the Institute of Education, London, offers insights into private-public school education in India:

  • The paper points out that between 2010-11 and 2015-16, the average enrolment in government schools declined from 122 to 108 students per school, while in private schools it rose from 202 to 208.
  • Nevertheless, according to the District Information System for Education (DISE), 65% of all school-going children, 113 million, get their education from government schools.
  • The study points out that the migration to private schools is due to the belief among parents that these schools offer better value for money in terms of quality.
  • IndiaSpend, in 2016, reported that despite the Rs 1.16 lakh crore spent on SSA, the quality of learning declined between 2009 and 2014. It also points out that less than one in five elementary school teachers in India are trained. Also, the contractual teachers, who are high in number in government schools, are likely to be less motivated and accountable.
  • Preference for private school tutoring is there.
  • The quality of schools varies between states. In 2016, in Kerala, the proportion of children enrolled in primary government schools increased from 40.6% in 2014 to 49.9% according to ASER 2016.
  • States with better-functioning government schools have more expensive private schools as there is no market for the ‘low-fee’ budget private schools. Around 80% of private schools in India are ‘low’ fee schools.
  • ASER 2016 has shown small improvements in learning outcomes in government schools.
  • Between 2010-11 and 2015-16, the number of private schools grew by 35% – to 0.30 million. On the other hand, the number of government schools grew only by 1%, to 1.04 million. The migration out of government schools has left many of these economically unviable.
  • Government teachers in India earn four times that of China but don’t perform as well. Up to 80% of India’s public expenditure on education is spent on teachers. There is a need to link teacher salaries to their accountability.
  • However, the salary of private teachers is very low compared to their government counterparts. This is due to the “bureaucratically-set high ‘minimum wage’, which is being influenced by strong unions of government school teachers.
  • Another reason for the low salary of private school teachers is that the private education sector offers salaries based on market factors of demand and supply. Since 10.5% of graduates are unemployed in India, there is a high supply of teachers.
  • Rather than merely increasing the budget outlay for education, the need is to revise the Education policy for better accountability and monitoring mechanisms.
  • Gandhi argued that a Public-private partnership (PPP) model may be the solution, with public sector funding and private resources for education, since reforming the present system may not be politically feasible.

Rather than debating about private versus public schools, the focus should be to  enable the private sector to set up more schools under the scrutiny of regulatory authorities. There is no point in driving off the private initiative in schooling given the limited resources of the states. Private investment should be encouraged but made accountable for quality and conduct.

The above discussion showed the challenges of the Indian education system. A workforce that India wants to create in this digital age requires reforms in education at all levels. UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report 2016 opined that India is expected to achieve universal primary education in 2050. India is 50 years late in achieving its global education commitments. If the nation wants fundamental changes in the education system, it has to meet the 2030 SDG targets on education. There is an urgent requirement for greater evolution in education in India.

Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP): How to transform Education in India?

EQUIP is a  five-year vision plan on education, released by MHRD, i n accordance with the Prime Minister’s decision to create a five-year vision plan for each Ministry.

The EQUIP project is crafted by ten expert groups led by experts within and outside the government:

  • Group 1: Strategies for expanding access
  • Group 2: Towards global best teaching/learning process
  • Group 3: Promoting Excellence
  • Group 4: Governance reforms
  • Group 5: Assessment, Accreditation, and Ranking Systems
  • Group 6: Promotion of research and innovation
  • Group 7: Employability and Entrepreneurship
  • Group 8: Using Technology for Better Reach
  • Group 9: Internationalisation
  • Group 10: Financing Higher Education

The groups have suggested initiatives to transform the education system completely. The goals set by the groups are:

  • Double GER in higher education and resolve the geographically and socially skewed access to higher education institutions.
  • Upgrade the quality of education to global standards.
  • Position at least 50 Indian institutions among the top 1000 global universities.
  • Introduce governance reforms in higher education for well-administered campuses.
  • Accreditation of all institutions as an assurance of quality.
  • Promote Research and Innovation ecosystems for positioning India in the top three countries in the world in matters of knowledge creation.
  • Double the employability of the students passing out of higher education.
  • Harness education technology for expanding the reach and improving pedagogy.
  • Promote India as a global study destination.
  • Achieve a quantum increase in investment in higher education.

We can see that each of the above goals has been known to us for a long time. The problem is its implementation. The political class and all other stakeholders should come together to achieve these goals. The plethora of government initiatives on higher education is a sure sign of the importance given by the political class in the reform of the education system of India. Let’s hope that a new dawn of Indian education is around the corner which will bring back the glory of ancient times when India was the centre of knowledge production.

As the Economic Survey 2016-17 points out, lack of health, malnourishment, etc. affects the cognitive ability of children. This will, in turn, have a detrimental effect on their future educational prospects. This leads to a vicious cycle of inter-generational illiteracy, poor health, and ultimately poverty. So education and health are complementary to each other and reforms in one sector should invariably be preceded and followed by reforms in other sectors. In fact, human development as a whole can be considered as a wholesome development and we must appreciate the interlinkages of each section of human capital formation, be it health, education, digital literacy, skills, etc.

Also read: PM-USHA

In the larger domain of human capital , education, and skill development have a big role.

Census 2011 data on literacy gives us a quick perspective on the current status of education. However, education is not just about literacy.

RTE act acts as a cornerstone for Indian education. Nevertheless, it is the various education policies, charted out since Independence, which led to the historical evolution of the education system in India.

The results of these policies can be said to be mixed. There is still a lot of room for improvement.

There are various government initiatives targeting each level of the education system in India. The higher Education System is given a greater focus these days.

The latest update in the education sector is the Kasturirangan report or draft new education policy . It captures the need of the hour for reforming education.

The modern Indian education system is crying for a revamp. The draft New Education Policy (NEP) is the right moment to take stock of its past history, achievements, and misgivings to chart out a futuristic education plan for 21st-century India.

Article by  Sethu  Krishnan M, curated by ClearIAS Team

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Reader Interactions

india education essay

November 27, 2019 at 10:33 pm

Wow what the largest matter of education is?. Very nice thank u sir

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November 28, 2019 at 12:09 pm

Nice article but it is too long we need around 400 words which explains education in india,challenges,way forward only It is very hard to remember and segrate from given imp because all points look like imp please try to make it around 400 words only

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November 28, 2019 at 2:00 pm

@MKM – The aim was to cover almost everything about Education in India as a comprehensive post. The post covers: (a) History of Education in India (b) Current Status of Education in India: Data from Census 2011 (c) RTE Act (d) Various Educational Policies in the past (e) The New National Educational Policy (NEP) (f) The Problems associated with the Education System in India (g) Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme (EQUIP): How to transform Education in India?

Though ClearIAS prefers short and crisp articles, for important areas like Education, we felt a detailed write-up would be useful.

Thank you for your feedback. We will continue to create concise articles as well.

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November 28, 2019 at 12:35 pm

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December 16, 2019 at 5:31 pm

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March 30, 2020 at 12:48 pm

Sir,a small corrrection regarding literacy rate ranking, Kerala (93%)tops its followed by Lakshadweep(92 %), Mizoram (91 %) , Tripura (87.7 %) and Goa (87.4 %) as 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th places repectively according to 2011 census.

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June 16, 2020 at 12:20 am

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December 16, 2021 at 11:10 am

Need to update with current data eg how much percentage of school/ children get access of online education in pandemic Era COVID challanges others family support etc thank

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January 23, 2024 at 8:06 pm

The analysis provides a comprehensive overview of India’s education system, highlighting its pyramid structure and alignment with Sustainable Development Goals. Constitutional provisions like Article 21A and the RTE Act aim for universal education. However, the RTE Act faces criticism. To enhance educational outcomes, addressing these concerns and ensuring effective implementation are imperative. Schools in Pataudi Gurgaon focus on quality, inclusivity, and overcoming criticisms can lead Indian education to new heights. Thank You Samriddhi Sharma

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Education System In India Essay

Indian education reformers want to narrow the disparity in student achievement between rural and urban areas. India's educators work hard to overcome their country's challenges in providing quality education to all its citizens. Here are some sample essays on the education system in India.

100 Words Essay On Education System In India

India's education system is ideal for providing its students with a solid academic foundation. It emphasises lifelong learning and encourages its students to pursue higher education. It also develops the students' language skills by allowing them to study in both English and Indian languages. Such courses encourage ideal attitudes toward their nation and its people- creating a positive atmosphere for learning and growth.

Education System In India Essay

India surrounds its students with Indian history, culture, religion, and literature throughout their schooling years. It promotes patriotism through encouraging students to study Indian history and culture. This can help them develop a sense of cultural pride that can inspire them to support the development of their home country.

200 Words Essay On Education System In India

Education is the most important aspect of any society. It is the foundation on which a society is built and the tool that allows its citizens to make the most of their lives. It allows the country to educate its people and earn revenue from their talents. However, there are always 2 sides to a coin, along with benefits there are also some issues.

Issues In The Indian Education System

The Indian education system is in a state of flux. A number of issues have cropped up in recent years, and there seems to be no clear solution in sight.

One of the biggest problems is the disparity between urban and rural students. The quality of education that students in rural areas receive is quite poor, and they often don't have access to the same resources as their urban counterparts. This leads to a huge achievement gap between students from different backgrounds.

There are also concerns about the level of education that students are receiving. Many experts believe that the curriculum is outdated and does not prepare students for the modern world. In addition, there is a lot of emphasis on rote learning, which does not allow students to think creatively or critically.

500 Words Essay On Education System In India

The education system in India is plagued with a number of issues that have a direct impact on the students. Addressing these issues will require systemic changes that ensure all students can access adequate resources.

Challenges of Accessibility and Quality

Let's take a closer look at two of the biggest challenges facing India's education system: accessibility and quality.

Accessibility is a huge issue in India. Due to poverty and the lack of infrastructure, many rural areas and poor urban neighbourhoods don't have adequate schools or teachers. As a result, many children are denied the right to an education.

And even when children have access to education, it's often of poor quality. Many schools are overcrowded and underfunded, which means that students don't have access to good teachers or up-to-date textbooks and other learning materials.

Impact of Gender Inequality

One issue impacting the students is gender inequality. Boys and girls are not given an equal opportunity to receive an education. This needs to change if India wants to become a developed nation. Girls need to be given the same opportunities as boys so that they can contribute to the growth of the country. There are many solutions that have been proposed to address this issue, but more needs to be done to implement them successfully.

Struggles of India’s Rural Areas

For many parts of the country, especially rural areas, the issues in India’s education system run even deeper. Much of the Indian population is still living without access to educational resources and other basic needs. To make matters worse, a large number of these people belong to marginalised communities, like those living in poverty or facing discrimination based on factors like gender or caste.

In rural areas, most schools are underfunded and lack basic facilities. These schools face varying levels of neglect when it comes to providing adequate teacher support as well as basic needs such as toilets, clean drinking water, and well-maintained buildings. As a result, attendance rates at primary schools are often very low and many drop out before completing schooling altogether.

Solutions for Improved Education

The Indian government has taken various steps to ensure that a quality education is accessible for all. In 2020, the government launched a new initiative called ‘National Education Policy’ (NEP) which promises to set up a new educational system in India with increased access, improved quality, and greater equity. This initiative will focus on strengthening school education by providing more resources and more qualified teachers, and introducing vocational training programs as an alternative to traditional education.

NEP also sets out some objectives for higher education that aim to make learning more interesting and accessible. These include setting up new autonomous colleges for research purposes, and improving the availability of faculty in universities. NEP also aims to bridge the digital divide by making information communication technology (ICT) an integral part of teaching and learning.

Furthermore, NEP plans to focus on addressing gender inequalities in the Indian education system by introducing measures such as affirmative action policies, gender sensitization training, flexible learning options and financial assistance schemes specifically for women. These strategies go a long way towards improving India’s educational system and ensuring better outcomes for students across the country.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
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  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Cartographer

How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Underwriter

An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

Pathologist

A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist

Gynaecologist.

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Audiologist

The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

A career as a doctor is a clinical professional that involves providing services in healthcare facilities. Individuals in the doctor's career path are responsible for diagnosing, examining, and identifying diseases, disorders, and illnesses of patients. Individuals in the doctor career in India provide surgical, medicinal, and therapeutic care to patients in hospital, healthcare, and clinical lab settings.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Videographer

Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

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Essay on Indian Education System

Education is like a key that opens doors to a world of knowledge, opportunities, and growth. In India, a vast and diverse country, the education system plays a crucial role in shaping the future of millions of students. In this essay, I will argue that the Indian education system has its strengths and challenges, and it is continually evolving to provide quality education to its youth.

The Foundation of the Indian Education System

The roots of the Indian education system can be traced back to ancient times, where gurus (teachers) imparted knowledge to their students. This rich history forms the foundation of modern Indian education. Today, the system is a blend of traditional values and contemporary approaches.

The Structure of Indian Education

The Indian education system is divided into several stages, including primary, secondary, and higher education. It is governed by various boards and councils, such as the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). These boards set standards and conduct examinations.

Strengths of the Indian Education System

One of the strengths of the Indian education system is its emphasis on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) subjects. India has produced many successful scientists, engineers, and IT professionals who have made significant contributions worldwide.

Furthermore, the Indian education system places importance on rote learning, which helps students develop strong memory and discipline. It also fosters a competitive spirit, motivating students to excel academically.

Challenges Faced by the Indian Education System

Despite its strengths, the Indian education system faces several challenges. One significant challenge is the disparity in access to quality education between urban and rural areas. Many rural schools lack proper infrastructure and trained teachers, hindering the education of countless students.

Another challenge is the pressure of examinations and competition. High-stakes exams can create stress and anxiety among students, which may not always be conducive to their overall development.

The Importance of Vocational Education

Recognizing the need for practical skills, the Indian education system has been gradually incorporating vocational education. Vocational courses provide students with skills that are directly applicable to various industries, making them job-ready upon graduation. This is a positive step towards reducing unemployment and enhancing employability.

The Role of Technology in Indian Education

In recent years, technology has played a significant role in transforming Indian education. E-learning platforms and digital classrooms have made education more accessible and interactive. These innovations bridge the gap between urban and rural students, providing them with valuable resources.

Expert Opinions on Indian Education

Experts in education, such as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, have stressed the importance of holistic education. They advocate for a system that not only focuses on academics but also nurtures creativity, critical thinking, and ethical values.

The Journey Towards Educational Reforms

The Indian government has been working on several educational reforms to address the challenges faced by the system. Initiatives like the National Education Policy 2020 aim to provide quality education, promote research and innovation, and reduce the burden of exams.

Conclusion of Essay on Indian Education System

In conclusion, the Indian education system is a complex and evolving landscape. It has its strengths, including its emphasis on STEM subjects and rote learning, and its challenges, such as the rural-urban education divide and exam pressure. However, with ongoing reforms and a focus on holistic education, India is working towards nurturing well-rounded individuals who can contribute to the nation’s growth and prosperity. The Indian education system continues to shape the minds and futures of millions, guided by the vision of a brighter tomorrow.

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Home > Books > Education at the Intersection of Globalization and Technology

Indian Education: Ancient, Medieval and Modern

Submitted: 03 July 2020 Reviewed: 17 July 2020 Published: 27 October 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93420

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Education at the Intersection of Globalization and Technology

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Education is a platform in which young generations are trained and make them future-ready. Education provides knowledge and skills which help the person to be employable. The Indian education system is very popular and diversified among other countries’ education systems due to its change in the evolution from ancient to the modern education system. During the ancient and medieval periods of education, students were trained by teachers in such a manner that they can survive and live in that era. After independence, there is a tremendous growth in the Indian education system providing teaching and training in all aspects, but it does not satisfy the global demands of the market. This chapter focuses on teaching methodology, curriculum, characteristics, methods of learning, aims of the Indian education system during the ancient and medieval period and how it differed in today’s modern education and what are the things that our today’s modern education need to learn and implement from ancient and medieval education. The mentioned points are used to differentiate ancient, medieval, and modern education with advantages and disadvantages. Through this chapter, students, teachers will get to know the difference in the education system and what else to be adapted in the future to overcome all the problems.

Author Information

Mangesh m. ghonge *.

  • Department of Computer Engineering, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik, Maharashtra, India

Aniket Singh

*Address all correspondence to: [email protected]

1. Introduction

Technological improvement has boosted the economic growth in India. Science and technology have an important role in the economic development of India. Compared to other developed countries, India has more youth manpower. Proper education will play a significant role in making youth future-ready and increasing economic growth by providing skilled persons which will also boost industrial development. In the modern era of education, every institution or university is adapting new teaching methods using their teaching methodologies. Indian education is the biggest and well-known education systems in the world. During ancient education, there were 5 big well-known universities like Takshashila, Nalanda, Vallabhi, etc., which focus on the all-round development of students and those in the medieval period there exists 2 institutions madrasah and maqtabs which mostly focus on building student religious and leaders of the future. In modern education, there are well known autonomous institutes like IITs and IIMs which are famous all around the world.

During ancient education, students live away from their parents, their education comprises of subjects like physical education, mental education, politics, economics, etc. They were shaped in a way that they can live in any condition considering how difficult the situation will be? Medieval education also followed the same protocol as ancient education in spite that their education mostly focuses on religion. In today’s modern era of big institutes like the Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institute of Management (IIMs), everything is changed like the living standard of students, curriculum, all-round development. The principle objective of the student has been to just achieve its goal and be successful. Only the big institutes like IITs, IIMs, and some other private and aided universities have adopted modern methods of learning. There is a difference in curriculum, teaching methods, and living standards of students in every institute. The syllabus of the current education system is not industry-oriented and also not according to new upcoming trends. The main objective of education is mostly theoretical and not practically implemented [ 1 ].

The main purpose of this paper is to convey what all the things need to adopt in our current education system from ancient and medieval times and also some new trends associated with it. The paper is mainly categorized into three sections Ancient, Medieval and Modern education system, including sub-sections such as curriculum, method of learning, the aim of education, characteristics of education, educational institutes, higher educational institutes, advantages, and disadvantages of the particular education system.

2. Ancient education

During the ancient period, two systems of education were developed, Vedic, and Buddhist. The medium of language during the Vedic system was Sanskrit, while those in the Buddhist system were pali. During those times the education was of Vedas, Brahmanas, Upnishads, and Dharmasutras. From the Rigveda onwards, our ancient education started with the objective of developing the students not only in the outer body but also on the inner body. The ancient education focused on imparting ethics like humility, truthfulness, discipline, self-reliance, and respecting all creations to the students. The education was mostly imparted in ashrams, gurukuls, temples, houses. Sometimes pujaris of the temples used to teach students. The education system of ancient India has some special features and uniqueness which was not found in any other ancient education system of the other countries. The education was mostly given in forests under the blue sky, which keeps the student’s mind fresh and alive. During ancient times people used to live a simple life and doing their work with devotion and hard work [ 2 ].

2.1 Aim of education

The main objective of education was to equip the students with a good quality of education. The education mostly focused on the enrichment of culture, character, and personality, development, and cultivation of noble ideals. The objective was gaining the mental, physical, and intellectual personality of students, to make the students future-ready and survive in any situation [ 3 ].

2.2 Characteristics of education

During the ancient period, the state government and the people did not interfere in designing curriculum, payments of fees, regulation of teaching hours. There was a strong bonding between teacher and student. Every student was allotted with one teacher and more emphasis was given to the student-teacher relationship, each student used to meet teachers personally to learn and gain instructions from them. During ancient times, royal families, as well as kings of states, used to donate their wealth to improve the education system and quality. The syllabus was designed in accordance with the demands of that era. At that time students used to leave their houses and went to live with their gurus until their education was completed. During the early Vedic period, women’s education was also given more emphasis. The education focuses on the physical and mental development of students. The course duration was about 10–12 years, as there were no books so students used to memorize all things, memory played a crucial role during learning. The education was imparted in forests away from cities and peoples to give students a pleasant and silent environment of study.

2.3 Curriculum

Curriculum plays an essential role in the education system. It was dynamic and not static; it was made up of different stages. The fundamental goal of building a good curriculum was to develop students physically and mentally. The curriculum consists of four Vedas, six vedangas, Upnishads, darshanas, Puranas, Tarka Shastra. The six vedangas were Shiksha, Chhandas, Vyakarana, Nirukta, Jyotisha, and Kalpawhile the darshanas were Nyaya, Baiseshika, Yoga, Vedanta, Sankhya, Mimasa. Algebra, Geometry, and grammar were also given more importance at that time. Panini was famous in the domain of grammar at that time. The curriculum of the Buddhist system consists of pitakas, Abhidharma, and sutras. Besides this medicine, Vedas were also given importance. Hindu learning was a part of Buddhist learning, although more emphasis was given to Buddhist learning. Both the systems were going hand in hand at that time. The education was totally through orals and debates, and the exams were conducted every year. The education system of the ancient period focused on subjects like warfare, military, politics, religion.

2.4 Methods of learning

At that time books were not there, so students had the habit to learn and memorize all the things taught in the class, and teachers also helped them in memorizing.

The students used to deep dive into the concepts taught by their teachers and explore new methods to learn it.

Listening, Contemplation, and concentrated contemplation were some new methods of exploring the way of learning.

The teachers used the storytelling methods to teach the students.

Students used to ask questions about the topics taught by the teachers and these topics were discussed and then answered to the students.

The education of that time mainly focused on practical knowledge of the topics taught in the class.

The students got plenty of knowledge through seminars and debates conducted at frequent intervals.

2.5 Educational institutions

Gurukul was the hometown of teachers where students come after completing their initiation ceremony and learn until the completion of their study. The parishads or academies were the places of higher learning and education where students learn through discussions and debates. Goshti or conferences were the places where the kings of the states used to invite scholars from every institute to meet and exchange their views. Ashramas or hermitages were the other learning centers where students from various parts of the country used to come and learn from saints and sages. Vidyapeeth was the place of spiritual learning founded by great Acharya, Sri Shankara in places like Sringeri, Kanchi, Dwarka, and Puri, etc. Agraharas was an institution of Brahmins in villages where they used to teach. Viharas were the educational institutions founded by Buddhists where the students were taught the subjects related to Buddhism and philosophy.

2.6 Higher educational institutions

Takshashila or Taxila: Takshashila was the famous center of learning, including religion and teaching of Buddhism in ancient times. It was famous for his higher education learning comprising of subjects like ancient scriptures, law, medicine, sociology, astronomy, military science, and 18 silpas, etc. The well-known scholars from the university were great grammarian Panini, he was an expert in his subject of grammar and published his work on Ashtadhyayi, Chanakya who is skilled in statecraft both studied here. Students from Kashi, Kosala, Magadha, and also from different countries flocked into the university despite a long and arduous journey. Takshashila was an ancient Indian city currently situated in north-western Pakistan was the well-known center of learning and has been declared as an archeological site and world heritage by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1980.

Nalanda: When Xuan Zang came to Nalanda it was called Nala, which was the center of learning in many subjects. The students used to come here from different parts of the country and the world to study here. Different subjects were taught, including the Vedas, fine arts, medicine, mathematics, and astronomy. Xuan Zang itself became the student of Yogashastra. Nalanda which is currently situated in Rajgir, Bihar, India was also declared as a world heritage site by UNESCO. The other famous institutes around ancient times were Vallabhi, Vikramshila, Ujjain, and Benaras.

2.7 Advantages

The system focuses on the all-round development of students.

More emphasis was given to practical knowledge rather than theoretical knowledge.

The students were not just involved in bringing the ranks, but their main focus was on knowledge.

Classrooms were built-in forests which provide a pleasant study environment to the students.

There was no pressure laid on students related to studies so that they can learn effectively.

The government did not interfere with the formation of curriculum, kings at that time helped in the development of education.

2.8 Disadvantages

Women were not admitted to the Gurukuls.

There was caste discrimination as only Kshatriya was allowed, Eklavya was not given admission to the Gurukul.

3. Medieval education

During the eighth century Anno Domini (A.D) a huge number of Mohammadian invaded India. Mahmud Ghaznavi captured India and set up a large number of schools and libraries in the country by the looted wealth. Later Muslim leaders established their permanent empire in India, they brought a new system of education. The ancient education system was drastically changed. The Arabs and the Turks bought some new cultures, traditions, and institutions in India, in that the most remarkable change was the Islamic pattern of education which was different from the Buddhist and Brahmanic education system. The medieval age, education system primarily focused on the Islamic and Mughal System.

3.1 Aim of education

The main objective of education during the medieval period was the spread of knowledge and the propagation of Islam. The objective behind this era of education was to spread Islamic education its principles, and social conventions. The purpose of the education system was to make people religious minded [ 4 ].

3.2 Characteristics of education

The rulers helped in the spread and development of education. They helped in the establishment of different educational institutes and funded it, big landlords also gave them some wealth in the development of institutes. There was no control of rulers over the educational institutes and also to their management. The student-teacher relation was also good like the Buddhist and Brahmanic period, although students did not live with their teachers at that time. Teachers took interest in learning, at that time teachers were used to teaching students individually.

3.3 Curriculum

During that time books were not there, therefore the students were used to write on taktis. The stress was laid on teaching the student from the beginning that is teaching them first alphabets and then words. Calligraphy and grammar were the most important subjects taught during those days. Students also learned “paharas”(multiple of numbers), and also they memorized it while learning. Arabic and Persian were the main languages of communication and these languages were important for the students who wanted to get higher posts. The recitation of the Quran was made compulsory, the students used to learn the Quran by heart as this was an important part of their curriculum. The students at their early ages were taught to recite the first 13 chapters of the Quran as a poem. Ibn Sina, an Islamic Persian scholar, and a teacher write that students during the age of 14 should be given the choice of selecting their favorite subjects for masters, for example, reading, manual skills, literature, medicine, geometry, trade, and commerce. There were two types of education during medieval times like secular and religious education. Religious education consists study of the Quran, Mohammad, and his invasions Islamic laws and Islamic history. The secular education consists of the study of Arabic literature, grammar, history, philosophy, mathematics, geography, politics, economics, Greek language, and agriculture.

3.4 Methods of learning

Orals, discussions, and recitations of the lesson taught were the main methods of learning at that age.

Emperor Akbar encouraged the students to focus more on reading and writing and to reform the scripts. He wanted the education system to be systematic and advised teachers to first teach students about the knowledge of alphabets, then words-knowledge, and then sentence formation.

More emphasis was given on practical education.

There was no half-yearly or annual examination fixed for students, but the students were evaluated based on practical situations of life.

3.5 Educational institutions

Maktabs:-Maktabs were the center of the primary education for the children of general people. Along with religious education, students were also taught subjects like reading, writing, and arithmetic. They were also taught some romantic literature of Persian example, Laila-Majnu, Yusuf-Julekha, etc. Along with practical education, letter writing applications, and accountancy were also taught in Maktabs.

Madrasas:- After completing the primary education in Maktabs, the students were sent to the Madarsas for higher education. Madarsas were the centers of higher learning and Emperor Akbar did remarkable development in the education of the medieval era. Along with religious and practical education, Akbar stopped the tradition of the Islamic religion and instructed to teach Hinduism and philosophy in many Madrasas. The subjects such as medicine, history, geography, economics, political science, astrology, philosophy, and mathematics were taught in Madarsas. Akbar made subjects like Vedanta, Jurisprudence, and Patanjali compulsory for Sanskrit students.

3.6 Important educational centers

Delhi: Nasiruddin established Madarsa -i-Nasiria under the reign of the Shiraz Allauddin Khilji and established many Madarsas with renowned teachers in them. Mughal emperor Humayun established many big institutions of astronomy and geography in Delhi. He also introduced institutions where subjects like Arabic, Persian, Grammar, Philosophy, and Astronomy was taught.

Agra: Sikandar Lodi established many Madarsas and Maktabs in Agra and attracted many students from other countries to come and study. Akbar made Agra the center of culture, fine arts, and crafts.

Jaunpur: Sher Shah Suri completed his education in one of the educational institutes of Jaunpur city. The main subjects of teaching were political science, warfare, history, and philosophy, Ibrahim Sharki set up many Madarsas in Jaunpur.

Bidar: Mohammad Gawan had established many Madarsas and Maktabs in this city and it became the famous center of learning. The city consists of a library that contains 3000 books on subjects like Islamic theology, culture, philosophy, medical science, astronomy, history, and agriculture.

3.7 Advantages

Practical education was given more importance, students and teacher’s relations were good. Students were taught from the basics and rulers also supported the development of education.

3.8 Disadvantages

Religious and Islamic education was given more importance.

The student aimed to focus on leadership for ruling the country.

4. Modern education

In the middle of the medieval age, the British invaded India and started to capture it. The modern education was introduced during the British empire. In the 1830s Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced the English language. The subjects and the syllabus were limited to some extent, the main aim of modern education of the British was to spread Christianity. As time passed education started to develop and entered into the modern era that is in the twenty-first century, the era of science, technology, and innovations. And the demand and the need for education stills remain the same as it was in ancient and medieval times. In the modern era of science and technology, the industrial sector is increasing day by day. As demand increases our education sector also needs to change and adapt to that environment [ 5 , 6 ].

4.1 Aim of education

The objective of modern education was to inculcate values in students such as equality, secularism, education for all, and environmental protection, etc. To understand the culture as well as people of our country, every student must be provided at least a minimum level of education and also to provide education to the people who cannot afford it, to prepare the students with the ever-increasing demands.

4.2 Characteristics of education

The student-teacher relations remained the same as it was in ancient and medieval, but students did not live in the teacher’s house. As technology is increasing day by day, the education sector is also following the trend of technology by teaching the students through online lectures and Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In Aviation and the medical sector, more emphasis is on practical knowledge as compared to other sectors. Women’s education is giving more importance, and the Government has launched many programs to encourage women’s education. In the modern era electronics gadgets like projectors, Light Emitting Diode (LED), and computers are used to teach the students. The Government has established many programs and there are many organizations that promote education in India.

4.3 Curriculum

In modern education along with studies, the emphasis is given on extracurricular activities and sports for all-round development of students.

4.4 Methods of learning

Students mostly learn concepts through online platforms like YouTube, Coursera, and Udemy.

Students refer to the notes given by the teacher’s side by side while learning online.

During class hours doubts are solved through discussions, debates, etc.

Pupils were assessed based on mid-sem written exams and practical exams to check their practical knowledge.

4.5 Educational institutions

Schools: Schools are the educational institutes where children are sent for their primary education. There are many private and government schools situated in India, primary education means education from Nursery to 10th standard. Children at their early ages are sent to schools to learn poems, grammar, prayers, alphabets, etc. besides this, the other subjects taught in the schools are English, mathematics, science, history, geography, and other regional languages. Schools are situated inside the city, also there are many cultural programs and sports events conducted in schools for the students to develop their interpersonal and physical skills. Private schools are run by organizations and the principal manages the academics and cultural activities in schools.

Colleges: After completing primary education from schools, students are sent to colleges for secondary education. After primary education, students are required to give entrance exams to take entry into colleges and according to the marks scored in entrance exams students are allotted colleges. In some states, during college, they are advised to choose a stream from science and commerce and then further carry on their secondary education. College education consists of 11th and 12th standard. Different subjects taught in secondary education according to their streams are physics, chemistry, geometry, algebra, accounts, and many other regional languages.

University : After the secondary education, students are required to give the entrance exams like Joint Engineering Entrance (JEE) and other state-level exams to take admissions in universities. Students are given choices to choose a stream like a computer, electronics, civil, and Mechanical and then start their career in it. The University provides undergraduate and postgraduate course comprising of course duration of 4 and 3 years, different universities in India are Savitribai Phule Pune University, Mumbai University, and many other aided non-aided and private universities. There are many cultural and sports events conducted in universities for giving students some time to joy and relax from studies.

4.6 Higher educational institutions

Indian Institute of Technology: It is one of the greatest universities in India for higher education like undergraduate, postgraduation, and many more streams. There is a total of 23 IIT colleges in India, every year lakhs of students compete to take admissions in these IIT’s. JEE-Mains and JEE-Advance are the two entrance examinations to take admission in these IIT’s, according to the All India Rank (AIR) and marks students are allotted IIT’s. Due to its high level of educational teaching and curriculum, IIT is famous all around the world.

The other top universities are Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), National Institute of Technology (NIT), Indian Institute of Science (IISC).

4.7 Advantages

Use of technology in learning, students is learning free-lancing and many other new technologies.

Many programs and missions have started to increase the employment of India.

Top class universities and colleges with good infrastructure and environment.

4.8 Disadvantages

Interference of government in education, management, and syllabus.

Lack of quality teaching as well as the environment in government schools and colleges.

Increase in fees of schools and colleges of private institutes.

Lack of practical knowledge orientation.

Due to the increase in fees, the family, which is below the poverty line cannot afford education and hence there is an increase in the number of laborers in India.

Lack of connectivity of the students who lived in rural areas.

5. Conclusion

In the modern era, industries and technology are increasing day by day. Every industry sector is looking for a person who best suits their industry. With the ever-increasing demand for industrial sectors, our current education system also needs to be upgraded. In universities, students are learning just for competing with each other to come first, no practical knowledge is gained. There is a lot of pressure and burden of work and studies on them, due to this student are committing suicide. Our education system needs to learn from ancient and medieval education system regarding the implementation of practical knowledge, student-teacher relations, ways of life student lived in that age, the contribution of kings towards the education, there was no stress laid on students and much more. The future of industries and commercial sectors will be very tough and ever demanding, so our government has to provide such an education system which will bring all-round development in students and make them future-ready and also teach them to live in any critical situation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no ‘conflict of interest’.

  • 1. Glukhov VV, Vasetskaya NO. Improving the teaching quality with a smart-education system. In: 2017 IEEE VI Forum Strategies Partnership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovations) (SPUE). 2017
  • 2. Ahmed A, Ahmed HA. A proposed model of education system using cloud computing. In: 2018 3rd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering, Sciences and Technology (ICEEST). 2018
  • 3. Available from: http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=512
  • 4. Available from: https://www.sociologygroup.com/indian-education-system-features-pros-cons/
  • 5. Jayapalan N. History of Education in India; 1996
  • 6. Available from: http://digitaltk.com/indian-education-system-advantages-disadvantages/

© 2020 The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Indian Education System Essay

Indian education system has changed over the time. A major change in our education system came with the colonization of the country by the Britishers. It was the British Government who introduced modern education in India, as they wanted some educated Indians to assist them in administering the state. Indian education system is mainly divided into four stages – lower primary, upper primary, high school and higher secondary.

Students follow a fixed curriculum up to 10 th standard; though, in higher secondary they get to choose from various streams i.e. science, commerce, etc. Apart from certain textual changes and over time rectifications, nothing much has changed in Indian Education system. The need to reform and restructure our education system has been felt many time. However, no concrete steps have yet been taken in this direction.

Long and Short Essays on Indian Education System in English

Here are Long and Short Essays on Indian Education system in English of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam.

After going through this Indian Education System Essay you will be well versed with the Indian Education system and its shortcomings.

Also, you would be able to assess it and make suggestions for its improvement.

These Essays will help you in your school essay writing competition and also in several debate competitions.

Short Essay on Indian Education System – Essay 1 (200 words)

Indian education system is quite different from that of the foreign nations. The curriculum in the western countries is known to be quite light and based on practical knowledge whereas in India the focus is on theoretical knowledge and acquiring marks by hook or crook.

Students are expected to mug up chapter after chapter and fetch good grades in the class. The marking system in the Indian schools begins from the primary classes thereby burdening little kids. The competition is growing by the day. Parents want their children to outperform their peers and teachers want their class to do better than the other classes.

They are so blinded by the urge of staying ahead of the competition that they do not realize that they are pushing the children in the wrong direction. At an age when the students should be given the chance to explore their interests and hone their creative side, they are pressurized to follow a set curriculum and slog day and night to get good marks.

Instead of making the students understand various concepts of mathematics, physics and other subjects so that they can use them at different stages in their life, the focus is on blindly learning the chapters whether or not the concepts are understood just so that one can get good marks. So, the very basis of the Indian education system is inappropriate.

Essay on Indian Education System Needs Serious Reforms – Essay 2 (300 words)

Introduction

Indian education system is said to be old and mundane. In the times, when the organizations are looking for creative and enthusiastic individuals, the Indian schools train the young minds, to follow a set curriculum and behave as they are told for almost fifteen years of their lives. There is no freedom to provide suggestions or share ideas. There is a serious need to reform the Indian education system which in turn helps in developing smarter individuals.

Need to Think Out of the Box

There is a dire need to think out of the box if we want to make new inventions, bring positive changes in the society and prosper at a personal level. However, unfortunately our schools train us otherwise. They tie us to a set study schedule and keep us so busy with completing the assignments and learning theoretical lessons that there is no room left for creativity.

The Indian education system must be changed to make way for creative thinking. Schools must focus on activities that challenge the student’s mind, hone their analytical skills and invoke their creative thinking ability. This will help them perform better in different fields as they grow up.

Need for All Round Development

The primary focus of the Indian education system is on academics. Here also the focus is not on understanding the concept and enhancing knowledge but only on mugging up the lessons with or without understanding them with the sole aim of attaining good marks. Even though some schools have extra-curricular activities, there is hardly one class per week for these activities.

Education in the Indian schools has just been reduced to gaining theoretical knowledge which is not enough to raise an intelligent and responsible individual. The system must be changed to ensure the all round development of the students.

The people in power must understand that the Indian education system requires serious reforms. The system must change to develop students spiritually, morally, physically as well as mentally.

Essay on Indian Education System and Its Development – Essay 3 (400 words)

Indian Education System has seen quite a few changes ever since its inception. It has changed with the changing times and with the changes in the society. However, whether these changes and developments are for good or not is still a question.

The Gurukul

The Indian education system dates back several centuries. From the ancient times, children are being sent to the teachers to learn lessons on different subjects and to add value to their lives and make them skilled to live a self dependent life. During the ancient times, the gurukuls were set up in various parts of the country.

Children went to gurukuls to seek education. They stayed with their guru (teacher) in their ashram until they completed their education. The students were taught various skills, given lessons in different subjects and were even involved in doing the household chores to ensure their all round development.

British Brought About Changes in the Indian Education System

As the Britishers colonized India, the Gurukul system began to fade away as the Britishers set up schools that followed a different education system. The subjects taught in these schools were quite different from that taught in the gurukuls and so was the way the study sessions were conducted.

There was a sudden change in the entire education system of India. The focus shifted from the all round development of the students to the academic performance. This was not a very good change. However, one thing that changed for good during this time was that girls also began to seek education and were enrolled in schools.

Introduction of Educomp Smart Classes

The education system introduced by the British is still prevalent in India. However, with the advancement in technology many schools have adopted to newer means to impart education to the students. Educomp smart classes have been introduced in the schools. These classes have brought about a positive change. Unlike the earlier times when the students only learned from the books, they now get to see their lessons on a big wide screen installed in their class rooms. This makes the learning experience interesting and helps the students grasp better.

In addition to it, many extra-curricular activities are also being introduced by the schools for the all round development of the students. However, the marking system still remains as stringent and the students have to focus largely on their academics.

So, there has been a major shift in the Indian education system since the ancient times. However, we require further reforms in the system for the proper development of the students.

Essay on Education System in India is Good or Bad – Essay 4 (500 words)

The Indian education system is said to be largely flawed. It does more harm than good to the young minds. However, some people may argue that it gives a good platform to the students as it challenges their mind and focuses on increasing their grasping power. The debate on whether the Indian education system is good or bad is ongoing.

The Good and Bad of the Indian Education System

While the people in power discuss the good and the bad in the Indian education system and whether there is a need to bring in reforms or not, here is a look at the pros and cons of the same.

Cons of Indian Education System

Indian education system has many cons. Here is a look at some of the main cons in the system:

  • Lack of Practical Knowledge

Focus of the Indian education system is on the theoretical part. Teachers read out from the book during the classes and explain the concepts verbally. Students are expected to understand even the intricate concepts theoretically. The need to impart practical knowledge is not felt even though it is highly essential.

  • Focus on Grades

The focus of the Indian schools is on mugging up the chapters to get good grades. Teachers do not bother if the students have understood the concept or not, all they look at is the marks they have obtained.

  • No Significance to All Round Development

The focus is only on studies. No effort is made to build a student’s character or his physical health. The schools do not contribute in the all round development of their students.

  • Over Burdening

The students are over burdened with studies. They study for long hours in the school and are given a pile of home work to complete at home. In addition to it, the regular class tests, first term examination, weekly examination and mid-term examination puts a lot of pressure on the young minds.

Pros of Indian Education System

Here are some of the pros of the Indian education system:

  • Provides Knowledge on Different Subjects

The Indian education system includes a vast curriculum and imparts knowledge on various subjects including maths, environmental science, moral science, social science, English, Hindi and computer science to name a few. All these subjects form a part of the curriculum from the primary classes itself. So, the students gain knowledge about different subjects from an early age.

  • Inculcates Discipline

The schools in India are very particular about their timings, time table, ethical code, marking system and study schedule. Students need to follow the rules set by the school else they are punished. This is a good way to inculcate discipline in the students.

  • Increases Grasping Power

Owing to the marking and ranking system in the Indian schools, the students are required to learn their lessons thoroughly. They need to do so in order to fetch good marks and rank higher than their classmates. They look for different ways to concentrate and grasp better. Those who identify the tools that help them grasp better are able to enhance their grasping power which helps them throughout their lives.

Indian education system has been criticized time and again. There is a tremendous need to change this system to ensure proper development of our young generation.

Long Essay on Indian Education System – Essay 5 (600 words)

Indian education system is one of the oldest education systems around the globe. It is unfortunate that while the education systems of the other nations have undergone major changes with the changing times and technological advancement we are still stuck with the old and mundane system. Neither has our system seen any major change in the curriculum nor has there been any significant change in the way the education is imparted.

Problems with Indian Education System

The Indian education system has numerous problems that hinder the proper growth and development of an individual. One of the main problems with the Indian education system is its marking system. The intelligence of the students is judged by the way they perform in a 3 hour theoretical paper rather than by their overall performance in the class. In such a scenario, learning lessons to get good marks becomes the sole aim of the students. They are not able to think beyond it. They are not bothered about understanding concepts or enhancing their knowledge all they think about is to look for ways to get good marks.

Another problem is that the focus is only on theory. No importance is given to practical learning. Our education system encourages the students to become bookworms and does not prepare them for handling the real problems and challenges of life.

Academics are given so much importance that the need to involve the students in sports and art activities is overlooked. Students are also overburdened with studies. Regular exams are held and students are scrutinized at every step. This creates acute stress among the students. The stress level of the students continues to grow as they advance to higher classes.

Ways to Improve Indian Education System

Many ideas and suggestions have been shared to improve the Indian education system. Some of the ways to change our education system for good include:

  • Focus on Skill Development

It is the time for the Indian schools and colleges to stop putting so much importance to the marks and ranks of the students and focus on skill development instead. The cognitive, problem solving, analytical and creative thinking skills of the students must be enhanced. In order to do so they must be involved in various academic as well as extra-curricular activities instead of caging them in the dull class room sessions.

  • Impart Practical Knowledge

Practical knowledge is very important to develop a thorough understanding of any subject. However, our Indian education system focuses mainly on theoretical knowledge. This needs to be changed. Students must be imparted practical knowledge for better understanding and application.

  • Revise the Curriculum

The curriculum of our schools and colleges is the same since decades. It is the time to change it as per the changing times so that the students learn things more relevant to their times. For instance, computer should become one of the main subjects in schools so that students learn how to work efficiently on the same from the very beginning. Similarly, there should be classes on developing good communication skills as it is the need of the hour.

  • Hire Better Teaching Staff

In order to save a few bucks, the educational institutes in our country hire teachers who demand less salary even if they are not highly skilled and experienced. This approach must be changed. Good teaching staff must be hired in order to nurture the young minds well.

  • Look Beyond Academics

The education system of our country must look beyond academics. Sports, arts and other activities must also be given importance to ensure the all round development of students.

While the need to change the Indian education system has been emphasized several times nothing much has been done in this regard. It is the time to understand the importance of changing this old system for the better future of the children as well as the country as a whole.

More on Education:

Article on Importance of Education in our Life

Article on Importance of Education in Society

Article on Importance of Education for Children

Article on Importance of Education for Women

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  • One-size-fits-all approach: The Indian education system often operates on a uniform curriculum, not considering individual learning paces and styles. This leads to a lack of personalised education, which is crucial for effective learning. The standard classroom training model ignores the variance in the background, prior knowledge and readiness of the student and cannot be customised for individual students to cater to their unique requirements,
  • Scarcity of quality content and educators: There is a significant shortage of qualified teachers, especially in remote areas.
  • Dated content not meeting current industry needs: This is especially true in management and technology, where the changes are substantial with the advent of the Internet, AI, Machine learning, Robotics and Smartphones,
  • Limited access to premier institutions: The hyper-competitive nature of entrance exams to top institutions, like the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) or the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), creates high pressure and is often unattainable for many. Only a miniscule fraction of aspirants get admission to the top institutes. Many examinations need expensive entrance examination coaching for years, which is unaffordable to most students.
  • The rural-urban divide: The top institutions are predominantly in major cities. The costs of top-quality higher education can be daunting for most Indians if they need to move to another location.
  • Personalisation of Learning: Digital platforms offer personalised learning experiences, catering to different learning styles and paces.
  • Expanding Access to Quality Education: Through online courses and digital resources, students in remote areas can access top-quality education.
  • Reducing Competitive Pressures: With more avenues for quality education, the pressure to secure seats in elite institutions can decrease, promoting a healthier educational environment.
  • Providing Flexibility: Learning at the place and pace of one's choice through online courses, self-assessments, peer group discussions, learning from mentors and listening to practitioners and leaders.

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  • Indian Education System Issues And Challenges

Major Issues in the Indian Education System

The Indian Education System has its own share of issues and challenges which need to be resolved so as to provide better and improved education to children, who are the future of the country. Over the years, a lot has changed in the Indian education system but still, there are many loopholes and problems which need to be resolved. 

In this article, we shall discuss in detail the issues and challenges with the Indian Education System and a few counter solutions to overcome these challenges. Also discussed are a few schemes which have been initiated by the Government for the improved education of students across the country. 

Aspirants preparing for the upcoming IAS Exam must carefully go through this article. 

About the Indian Education System

A major shift in the education system can be observed since the pre and post-British rule till today in India. Initially, children were educated in Gurukuls which was later modified and the modern education system was introduced. 

After India became independent, the constitution committed six fundamental rights, of which one was the Right to Education. It allowed free education for every child up between the age of 6 and 14 years. 

The education system is mainly divided into pre-primary, primary, elementary and secondary education, which is followed by higher studies. 

However, there are many drawbacks and loopholes in this system which if curbed can work for the overall development of the country. 

To know in detail about the Right to Education Act (RTE) , aspirants can visit the linked article.

Current Issues in Education in India

Discussed below are the current issues with the Education system in India:

  • Expenditure on education – More funds should be allotted for the development of the education system in India. In the past few years, many beneficial steps have been taken in this direction and if the same is continued India may soon be overcome the current challenges
  • Gross enrolment pattern as followed by the UN must also be adapted by India
  • Capacity utilisation – The world now needs creative minds and the Government must encourage schools to boost the students and utilise their capacities to the max and not let their ideas go unheard
  • Infrastructure facilities – Better infrastructure must be provided especially in Government schools. Since Government is now focussing on digital education, they must undertake steps to provide all necessary facilities in the Government schools and rural areas as well
  • PPP model – Well-designed PPPs can create models of innovation for the school system in India. Thus the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model must be taken into consideration
  • Student-teacher ratio – The number of students in search of proper education is way more in comparison to the teachers and faculty available. Thus, qualified teachers must be appointed to impart knowledge to the future of the country
  • Accreditation and branding – quality standards
  • Students studying abroad – There are many students who choose to study abroad because of these issues in the Indian education system. The concerned authorities must work on them and students must also choose to stay, learn in India and empower the country through their knowledge

UPSC and other Government exam aspirants can also refer to the links given below for exam preparation:

Indian Education System Problems and Solutions

There are a few simple solutions which can help in overcoming the problems with the India Education System:

  • Innovations required – India is moving towards digital education. This will help in budding the innovative minds of students and the youth of the country. This will bring a transformation in the Indian education system and the authorities and Government must encourage and boost the young minds to focus on overall development rather than just the book-learning
  • Quality of education – There is a major difference in the quality of education being provided in the rural and urban areas of the country. Steps must be taken to standardize the quality of education across India so that everyone can get equal and unbiased knowledge and opportunities to grow
  • Making education affordable – There are Government schools and educational Institutions which are affordable but lack in terms of infrastructure and quality. On the other hand, there are various private education institutions which demand high fees and have better infrastructure and equipment to study. This disparity must be worked upon and the Government must make education affordable and accessible for all 

Schemes & Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

Given below is a list of Government schemes introduced to enhance the education system in India:

  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – Launched in 2001 with an aim to promote ‘Education for All’, strengthening the existing infrastructure of schools and construction of new schools. To know in details about the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) , visit the linked article.
  • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level – It is a focused intervention of Government of India, to reach the “Hardest to Reach” girls, especially those not in school. Read more at Elementary Education: Moving Towards RTE And Quality Improvement
  • Mid Day Meal Scheme – It is one meal that is provided to all children enrolled in government schools, government-aided schools, local body schools, special training centres (STC), madrasas and maktabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). Visit the Mid Day Meal Scheme page to know more
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan – It is a flagship scheme aiming at enhancing secondary education and increasing the enrolment rate by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every home.
  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes – The scheme would facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions in order to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – The scheme to promote girl child education in India. Visit the Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana page to know more about the BBBP campaign

Aspirants can det the detailed UPSC Syllabus for the prelims and mains examination at the linked article and start their exam preparation accordingly. 

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Essay on Education System in India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Education System in India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Education System in India

Introduction.

India’s education system is one of the world’s largest. It includes both public and private institutions, offering different levels of education – from primary to higher education.

The structure is divided into different stages: pre-primary (ages 3-6), primary (6-10), upper primary (11-12), secondary (13-15), and higher secondary (16-18).

Despite its vastness, the system faces challenges. Issues like inadequate infrastructure, teacher shortages, and high dropout rates, especially in rural areas, need attention.

Reforms are being introduced to address these issues. The recent National Education Policy aims to revolutionize India’s education system, focusing on holistic and skill-based learning.

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250 Words Essay on Education System in India

The genesis of indian education system.

The education system in India traces its roots back to ancient times, where education was imparted orally, and later through writing. The Gurukul system was prevalent, where students resided with their teachers to learn various disciplines.

Modern Indian Education System

Post-independence, India adopted a mixed system of public and private education. The Right to Education Act, 2009, ensures free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to 14. The system is divided into four levels: pre-primary, primary, secondary, and higher secondary.

Strengths and Challenges

India’s education system is laudable for its vastness and inclusivity, with policies aimed at promoting education for all strata of society. However, it faces challenges like inadequate infrastructure, low teacher-student ratios, and outdated curriculum.

The Need for Reform

The National Education Policy 2020 is a step towards reform, aiming to overhaul the system to make it more holistic, flexible, and aligned with 21st-century needs. It emphasizes experiential learning, critical thinking, and creativity, moving away from rote learning.

The Indian education system is at a critical juncture, balancing tradition and modernity. While it has made significant strides in promoting literacy and inclusivity, it needs to address its shortcomings to prepare its youth for the global economy. The road ahead is challenging but full of promise.

500 Words Essay on Education System in India

India, with its rich and diverse culture, has a long-standing tradition of education. The Indian education system is one of the oldest in the world. It has evolved significantly over time, from the ancient Gurukul system to the contemporary system of today.

Ancient Indian Education System

The Gurukul system, prevalent during the Vedic period, was a residential schooling system where students lived with their teacher until their education was complete. The focus was not only on academic learning but also on the overall development of the individual.

Colonial Influence and Post-Independence Developments

The British colonial rule introduced the modern school system in India, which was primarily focused on creating a workforce for administrative roles. Post-independence, the government made significant efforts to universalize primary education and improve literacy rates.

Present Scenario

Today, the education system in India is divided into different levels – primary, secondary, and higher education. The Right to Education Act, 2009, made education a fundamental right for children between 6 and 14 years of age. However, despite these efforts, the system faces several challenges.

Challenges in the Indian Education System

The primary challenge is the lack of quality education. Many schools, especially in rural areas, lack basic infrastructure and qualified teachers. The curriculum is often criticized for being outdated and not aligned with the skills required in the 21st century.

Overemphasis on rote learning and examination scores often stifles creativity and critical thinking among students. The system also struggles with issues of access and equity. Despite the government’s efforts, many children, particularly girls and those from marginalized communities, are still out of school.

Reforms and the Way Forward

The recently introduced National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 aims to overhaul the education system. It proposes several reforms, including a new pedagogical and curricular structure, a shift from rote learning to experiential learning, and increased focus on vocational education.

The policy also emphasizes the importance of technology in education, which has gained prominence in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The success of these reforms, however, will depend on their effective implementation.

The Indian education system, with its strengths and weaknesses, has a significant impact on the country’s socio-economic development. While it has made considerable progress, there is a need for continuous reforms to address the existing challenges and prepare the youth for the demands of the future. The new NEP is a step in the right direction, but its effective implementation will be the key to transforming India’s education landscape.

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Essay on Education

Nelson Mandela rightly said, “Education is the most important weapon to change the world.” Education plays an important role in the development of an individual and making him a knowledgeable citizen. It is the education that makes an individual self-reliant, helps to suppress the social evils and contribute towards the development of the society and nation as a whole.

Education helps in unravelling the mystery of nature. It enables us to understand and improve the working of our society. It creates conditions for a better life. Education brings out the capabilities to fight injustice happening in society. Every individual has the right to education.

Introduction

Education is a significant tool that provides knowledge, skill, technique, information and enables people to know their rights and duties towards their family, society and the nation. You can expand your vision and outlook to see the world around us. It changes our perception of life. Education builds up the ability to explore new things to enhance your creativity. Your creativity is a tool to develop the nation.

Importance of Education

People still don't realise what role education and being educated plays in our lives and society. So, before making people aware of education and working for their access, it is very important to understand the need and importance of education. Education includes traditional learning methods that include theories and modern methods that include practical implementation of the subjects.

In schools, education is categorised into four stages, and each stage is important for each student:

Primary 

Secondary 

Senior secondary

Education can be classified into Various Forms:

Formal education: teaches us the academic part of any course or class, skills, or theory.

Non Formal education: We learn from our community, culture, nation-based programs, and the society that we live in

Informal education: We learn from our life lessons, experiences, other people, their experiences, nature, surroundings, etc.

Education empowers everyone. It is an important aspect that shapes the modern and industrialised world. People need education to be able to cope up with the advancements in this competitive world. Following are some areas where education is needed:

Removing Poverty: Education helps in eradicating poverty from our society.  An educated person can secure a good job and take care of all the basic needs and requirements of his family.

Safety and Security against Crime: A well-educated person cannot be easily duped or become a victim of any crime. They can develop the ability to stand against injustice. 

Increases Productivity: Educated people are more productive. With the help of knowledge and skills, they can explore new ideas. 

Confidence: A good education doesn’t mean to go to schools and colleges only. Education helps to become self-dependent and build great confidence within them so that they are able to accomplish difficult tasks.

Improved Standard of Life: On getting an education, quality of life gets improved. Education helps you to secure good jobs by which you can fulfil your dreams of buying a house or car or other luxury things. 

Women Empowerment: Education helps in empowering women. Women can voice out themselves in the society against the injustice done to them. They can be self-reliant and need not be dependent on anyone. Women empowerment will bring a lot of development in society as well as in the nation.

Upliftment of the Economically Weaker Section: Education is the most significant ingredient to change the world. Illiterate people suffer the hardships of discrimination, untouchability and injustice prevailing in the society. With the advancement of education, the weaker section can improve their quality of life. 

Communication: Communication is related to education. Good education helps to communicate better with others. It also improves our skills such as speech, body language, etc. 

Development of a nation: The countries that focus on educating their citizens and have a higher education level are considered more developed nations in every aspect of their lives.

  Individual growth: An educated individual always stands out in a crowd of uneducated people. They will be able to make better life decisions because with education comes knowledge. When an individual knows something, they will be able to understand things in a better manner.

 Independent: Education acts as a catalyst for a human being to be independent. If an individual is educated enough, they can manage their own life without being dependent on anybody.

  Success: Education helps in framing our mindset in a positive direction, and with this mindset, people can make their lives better. With education comes a degree, and with a degree comes a lot of opportunities. You just have to make a better choice for yourself, and everything will fall in place.

Talking particularly about India, education is a constitutional right of every citizen irrespective of caste, creed, race, religion, gender, etc. That’s the status given to education in India because educated people are always treated well and are well respected everywhere in the world.

Role of Education in Society

Education is the social institution through which the society provides its members with knowledge, facts, job skills and values. One of the most important roles of education is that it improves personal lives and helps society to run smoothly. As mentioned above, poverty can be eradicated and every individual can contribute towards the development of the country.

Education Creates a Better Society: An educated person is more likely to develop better moral and ethical values as compared to an uneducated person. Education brings equal opportunity for everyone and educated people will be able to create a better society. 

Education is the Backbone of Society: Education is an integral part of human society. Lack of education gives birth to numerous social problems like poor health, conflicts, and poor living standards. Education helps people overcome all problems by finding better solutions. 

Education Encourages Innovation and Creativity: Education leads to innovation. Innovation and creativity can only occur when skilled people know how to advance with different technologies. Educated people always can solve problems with the help of better techniques. 

Education Creates a Better Human Being: Education is the most powerful weapon by which the entire perspective of the world can be changed. Through education, a person can develop good moral values. It helps us to become a better person in life. 

Understanding the Responsibilities: As a social being, it becomes the responsibility of every individual to give something back to society and make it a better place for our next generation. An educated person is aware of his personal and social responsibilities.

Education helps in shaping the values of an individual. It helps individuals develop their moral values, humbleness, sympathy and empathy towards society, etc.

Students or any individual learn to express their viewpoints by reading, writing, learning. And these qualities or skills are taught with the help of education and nothing else.

Steps Taken to promote Education:

After discussing the importance of education, awareness is the next big step. People, especially those living in remote areas, should be aware and should have access to a better education system. The government has taken several steps for this purpose. It has started various initiatives to make education accessible to all and improve the quality of education for the betterment of every student. 

Some of the Prominent Steps:

The formation of the Right to Education Act, 2009 made education a fundamental right for every child belonging to 6-14 years.

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

Adult education and national development scheme

Beti bachao, beti padhao

Midday meal scheme and many more.

Various other initiatives that the government has taken are Udaan, Saksham, Pragati, etc., to make education accessible to every part of the county.

Conclusion:

Education is the pathway for a nation’s progress. Education is the backbone of society. The government should take all measures to provide education to every individual of the country. This will bring equality among people and when people improvise their way of living, they become more responsible towards society.

The literacy rate of more developed nations is also high, and the literacy of every nation depends upon its education system. The government undoubtedly has made laws and formulated schemes, but implementing those schemes is a major task. 

The government, along with co-operation with the citizens, should make the society and nation a better place to live in. The growth of every nation depends upon the kind of population it has. A well-educated population will make a well-developed nation.

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FAQs on Education Essay

1) Why is education important?

Education is important for the development of an individual. It is the most powerful weapon by which a person can contribute towards the development of the society and nation as a whole.

2) How is education a pathway to success?

Education provides job opportunities and also helps to expand your vision and change your outlook to see the world around us.

3) How can education help the economically backward people?

Uneducated or illiterate people do not have the ability to overcome hardships like discrimination, untouchability, and injustice. When these people get basic education, then they can become self-reliant and stand for their rights. With the advancement of education, they can improve their standard of living and poverty can be eradicated from the face of the Earth.

4) How are women empowered through education?

Education helps in empowering women. Women can voice out themselves in the society against the injustice done to them. They can be self-dependent. Women empowerment will bring a lot of development in society as well as in the nation.

5) What are the roles that education plays?

Education is vital in shaping the world and society. An educated society forms an educated nation. It is essential in creating a positive mindset and positive skills in an individual.

Indian Education System Essay

In this Indian Education System Essay , we had described the education system in India, its importance & how to improve the education system in India. 

With over 13, 00,000+ schools and over 315 million enrollments, India has the largest education system in the world.

Due to educational reforms since the 80s, pre-school and primary schools have been made available to all children in India.

According to the Right to Education Act 2009, schooling is free and compulsory for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.

Most schools in India pay attention to academics and pay less attention to extra-curricular activities; the Indian education system follows a 10 + 2 + 3 pattern.

Essay on Indian Education System 200 words:

The Indian education system is quite different from foreign nations.

In Western countries, the syllabus is considered to be quite light and based on practical knowledge, while in India the focus is on theoretical knowledge and rote scores.

Students are expected to read all the chapters and bring good grades in the classroom.

The marking system in Indian schools starts with primary classes, putting the burden on young children, the competition is increasing day by day.

Parents want their children to perform better than their peers and teachers want their class to do better than other classes.

The need to stay ahead of the competition makes them so blind that they don’t even realize that they are pushing children in the wrong direction.

At an age when students should be allowed to explore their interests and improve their creative side, they are pressured to follow a set curriculum and to get good marks.

Instead of understanding the various concepts of Mathematics, Physics and other subjects, students are given the full focus on learning the chapter.

Due to this, they are unable to take practical knowledge and are unable to make decisions for themselves further in life and cannot even choose a profession according to their interest.

Therefore, the basis of the Indian education system is very unfair.

Essay on Indian education system

Indian Education System Essay 300 words:

The Indian education system is said to be old and worldly.

At a time when the world is looking for creative and enthusiastic people, Indian schools are training young minds with bookish knowledge that is making them bibliophiles and preventing them from becoming a creative person.

There is no freedom to suggest or share ideas, there is a serious need for reform in the Indian education system which in turn can help to develop smarter individuals.

Need to Think Creatively:

If we want to make new inventions, then there is a need to bring positive changes in society and bring prosperity on a personal level.

However, unfortunately, our schools train us otherwise. They connect us to a defined study schedule and keep us so busy completing assignments and learning theoretical lessons that there is no room for creativity.

The Indian education system has to be changed for creative thinking.

Schools should focus on activities that challenge the student’s mind, improve their analytical skills and enhance their creative thinking ability, this will help them perform better in different areas.

All-round Development Required:

The primary focus of the Indian education system is on academics.

The focus is not on understanding the concept and increasing knowledge, but just on mug lessons to understand them with or without the sole purpose of achieving good marks.

Even though some schools have extra-curricular activities, there is hardly one class per week for these activities.

Education in Indian schools has been reduced to acquiring only theoretical knowledge which is not sufficient to raise an intelligent and responsible person.

The system should be changed to ensure the all-round development of students.

Conclusion:

Those in power must understand that the Indian education system needs serious reforms.

The system must be changed to develop students spiritually, morally, physically and mentally.

Education System in India Essay 400 words:

The Indian education system has seen quite a few changes since its beginning, it has changed with changing times and with the change in society.

However, whether these changes and developments are for good is still a question.

Since ancient times, children were sent to teachers to learn lessons on various subjects and to add value to their lives and to make them efficient to lead self-reliant lives.

Gurukuls were established in different parts of the country, children used to go to Gurukul to get an education.

They used to stay in his ashram with his guru (teacher) until he completed his education.

Students were taught various skills, given lessons in various subjects and also involved in household chores to ensure their all-round development.

Changes by the British in the Indian Education System:

As the British colonized India, the Gurukul system began to erode as the British established schools that followed a separate education system.

The subjects taught in these schools were quite different from the subjects taught in Gurukuls and study sessions were conducted similarly.

There was a sudden change in the entire education system of India.

The focus shifted from students’ all-round development to academic performance, however, one thing changed for good during this period, is that girls also started taking education and enrolled in schools.

Introduction to Educomp Smart Classes:

The education system introduced by the British is still prevalent in India.

However, with the advancement in technology many schools have adopted new means to provide education to the students. Educomp Smart classrooms have been introduced in schools.

These classes have brought about a positive change unlike earlier times when students only learned from books, they now see their lessons on a large widescreen installed in their classroom rooms.

This makes the learning experience interesting and helps students understand better.

Apart from this, many extra-curricular activities are also being started by the schools for the all-round development of the students.

However, the marking system is still rigid and students have to focus largely on their academics.

Therefore, there has been a major change in the Indian education system since ancient times.

However, we need further improvement in the system for proper development of students.

Indian Education System Essay

Indian Education System Essay 500 words:

The Indian education system is said to be largely defective. It does more harm than benefit to young minds.

However, some may argue that it gives students a good platform because it challenges their minds and focuses on the power to increase their satisfaction.

The merits and demerits of the Indian education system:

Lack of Practical Knowledge:

The focus of the Indian education system is on the theoretical part. Teachers read from the book during classes and explain the concepts orally.

Students are expected to understand complex concepts theoretically as well. The need to impart practical knowledge is not felt even when it is highly necessary.

Focus on grades:

The focus of Indian schools is on designing chapters to get good grades. Teachers do not bother if students have understood the concept or not, they all see what marks they have scored.

No importance for all-round development:

The focus is only on studies. No attempt is made to build the character of the student or his physical health. Schools do not contribute to the overall development of their students.

Over-burden of Studies:

There is a burden on students. They study for a long time in school and are given a pile of household chores to complete at home.

 Also, regular classroom tests, first-term exams, weekly exams and mid-term exams put a lot of pressure on young minds.

Positive Points of Indian Education:

Some rules of the Indian education system are as follows:

Provides knowledge on Various Subjects:

The Indian education system encompasses a vast curriculum and imparts knowledge on various subjects including Mathematics, Environmental Sciences, Ethical Sciences, Social Sciences, English, Hindi and Computer Science to name a few.

All these subjects form part of the syllabus from primary classes. Therefore, students acquire knowledge about various subjects from an early age.

Enhances Discipline:

Schools in India are very particular about their timings, time tables, ethical codes, marking systems and study schedules.

Students are required to follow the rules set by the school otherwise they are punished. This is a good way to increase discipline in students.

Increases understanding of power:

Due to the marking and ranking system in Indian schools, students are required to learn their lessons well.

They need to do this to get good marks and get a higher rank than their classmates. They seek different ways to focus and for better understanding.

Those who identify tools that help them understand them better can increase their grasping power which helps them throughout their life.

The Indian education system has been criticized from time to time.

There is a tremendous need to change this system to ensure the proper development of our younger generation.

Also, read 1. Globalization Essay 2. Essay on Education 3. Discipline Essay

Essay on Indian Education System in India 700 words:

Education is the criterion of social control, personality building and social and economic progress in any nation or society. India’s current education system is based on the British model, which was implemented in 1835 AD.

Pre-school Education (Play School):

Education is not compulsory at this level, but it is very popular in urban and semi-urban areas.

Childhood Montessori schools or sports schools have been opened for children up to the age of 3 years.

The preschool system has been further divided into playschools and kindergarten.

Primary School:

Primary education is compulsory for all children in India. One to fifth-grade children in the age group of 6 to 10 years is in the primary education system of India.

Pre-secondary school:

Children aged between 11 and 14 are placed under the middle school, who fall between sixth to eighth grades.

Secondary school (High School):

Secondary schools are designed for children in the age group of 16 to 17, from ninth to tenth grade.

Higher Secondary School:

It is also popular in India under the name 10 + 2. In this, students choose their specific field of study (science, commerce, arts).

Students in this level typically belong to the age group of 16 and 18 years.

Supreme organization:

The NCERT or National Council of Educational Research and Training is the main body for all courses.

The various curriculum bodies that govern the school education system are:

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE):

There are currently 262+ schools under CBSE. CBSE is recognized by the Government of India and all universities and colleges in India.

All Kendriya Vidyalayas are affiliated to CBSE.

Indian School Certificate Examination Council (ISCE):

It is a private board of education in India. Conducts ICSE exams for class X and ISC exams for class 12. About 1,900 schools belong to the CISCE board.

State Government Boards:

All states have their educational boards, which are regulated and supervised by the state governments.

Many Indian schools belong to various state boards, the oldest UP board was established in 1922.

Some of the other popular state boards are Maharashtra State Board, West Bengal State Board, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

National Open Schooling Institute (NIOS):

It was established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, it is a board for distance education & provides affordable but quality education in remote areas.

Presently there are 3,827 educational centres, 1,830 vocational centres and 690 accredited agencies under NIOS.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA

Higher education in India:

After completing class 12 or higher secondary examination, students are admitted to various colleges and institutes to obtain a bachelor’s degree.

He has the option of choosing the main subject of his choice, in which he can choose subjects like Science, Arts or Commerce or Engineering, Law or Medicine.

The main institution of higher education in India is UGC or the University Grants Commission.

As of 2012, there were 152 Central Universities, 191 Private Universities and 316 State Universities.

It is based on pharmaceutical science and technology, so there are many technical institutes in India which seek admission through general entrance examinations.

Technical education in India:

Technical education in India is regulated by AICTE, which was enacted in 1987 through an Act of Parliament.

The main institutes providing the world’s technical services in the field of technology in India are Indian Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Information Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology.

Distance Education in India:

Indira Gandhi National Open University or IGNOU coordinates distance education at the higher education level.

The District Education Council (DEC), an official of IGNOU, is coordinating correspondence courses at 13 state open universities and traditional universities of 119 institutes.

Also, read 1.   Technology Essay 2. Teachers day Essay 3. My School Essay

Indian Education System Essay Conclusion:

Education is the criterion of social control, personality building and social and economic progress in any nation or society.

India’s current education system is based on the British model, which was implemented in 1835 AD.

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4 thoughts on “Indian Education System Essay”

Thanks to your article, I really appreciate the chance of allowing me to discuss this topic Education. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, every citizen has the right to education which is free of charge for the compulsory primary education. No one shall be deprived of the right of education. The scope of the right to education shall be defined and regulated by law. The freedom of education does not relieve the individual from loyalty to the Constitution.

Thank you, Ferdinard Orumgbe, for your valuable comment! Read our other articles as well…

You have well describe post about Indian education system. Our education system is suffering from this current situation.

Even though the education system has evolved over the years, there are still huge challenges faced by the Indian Education System, due to which it isn’t showing much progress.

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Essay on The Indian Education System: Challenges and Opportunities 1000, 500, 300, 200 words

  • Essay on The Indian Education System: Challenges and Opportunities

Essay on The Indian Education System

Introduction

Essay on The Indian Education System: The Indian education system is one of the oldest in the world, with a rich history dating back to ancient times. It has undergone numerous transformations over the centuries, but it continues to play a pivotal role in shaping the future of India. This essay explores the strengths and weaknesses of the Indian education system, its historical evolution, current challenges and potential opportunities for improvement.

Essay on The Indian Education System: A Journey of Challenges and Opportunities 500 words

Essay on the indian education system: challenges and opportunities 300 words, essay on education system in india 200 words, essay on education system in india 150 words, historical evolution.

The roots of the Indian education system can be traced back to the Gurukul system, where students lived with their gurus (teachers) and received holistic education encompassing not only academic subjects but also ethics, values and life skills. This system emphasized experiential learning and individualized instruction.

During British colonial rule, the education system underwent significant changes with a focus on producing a workforce to serve the colonial administration. This period saw the establishment of institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), which have since become renowned globally.

Strengths of the Indian Education System

  • Diversity : India’s education system is vast and diverse, offering a wide range of subjects and courses, catering to the varied interests and talents of its students.
  • Quality Institutions : India boasts several prestigious institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), and top-tier universities that have produced exceptional graduates who excel on the global stage.
  • Strong Emphasis on STEM : The system places significant importance on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education, contributing to India’s reputation as a hub for IT and engineering professionals.
  • Global Diaspora : The Indian education system has produced a vast pool of skilled professionals who have excelled internationally, making India a significant contributor to the global workforce.

Challenges Faced

  • Quality Disparities : While India has prestigious institutions, a majority of schools and colleges, especially in rural areas, lack basic infrastructure and quality teachers. This results in a stark rural-urban divide in education.
  • Rote Learning : The system’s emphasis on rote memorization rather than critical thinking and problem-solving often stifles creativity and innovation among students.
  • Pressure and Stress : A highly competitive environment and parental expectations can place immense pressure and stress on students, leading to mental health issues.
  • Outdated Curriculum : The curriculum often lags behind in terms of relevance to real-world skills, emerging technologies and global trends.
  • Inequality : Socio-economic disparities result in unequal access to quality education, perpetuating inequality.

Opportunities for Improvement

  • Holistic Education : Incorporating holistic education that includes life skills, ethics and vocational training can prepare students for the complexities of the modern world.
  • Teacher Training : Investing in teacher training and providing incentives for educators can improve the quality of instruction across the board.
  • Flexible Curriculum : Regularly updating and adapting the curriculum to include relevant and contemporary subjects can better prepare students for the future job market.
  • Digital Education : Leveraging technology for online and distance learning can bridge the urban-rural education gap and make education more accessible.
  • Mental Health Support : Introducing mental health support services within educational institutions can help students cope with the pressures of academic life.

The Indian education system is at a crossroads, with both strengths and weaknesses. While it has produced brilliant minds and professionals, it also faces challenges related to quality, access and relevance. To truly harness its potential, India must address these issues and embrace reforms that prioritize holistic education, teacher development and adaptability to the changing global landscape. Only then can the Indian education system prepare its youth to excel not only in the domestic arena but also on the global stage.

Essay on The Indian Education System: An In-depth Analysis 600 words

india education essay

Introduction :

The Indian education system has a rich and diverse history dating back thousands of years. With its roots in ancient Gurukul systems, it has evolved significantly over time to meet the changing needs of society. This essay delves into the Indian education system, its structure, challenges, and prospects.

Historical Background:

The origins of the Indian education system can be traced back to ancient times when education was imparted in Gurukuls, informal centers of learning under the guidance of a guru (teacher). This system emphasized holistic education, including subjects like mathematics, science, philosophy and ethics. However, the British colonial era (from the 18th to the 20th century) brought significant changes to India’s education system, introducing a more standardized, Westernized approach.

Structure of the Indian Education System:

  • Pre-primary and Primary Education: The foundation of education in India starts with pre-primary and primary education, typically from ages 3 to 14. This stage is crucial for building a strong educational base.
  • Secondary Education: After completing primary education, students move on to secondary education, which spans from grades 9 to 12. Here, they follow the curriculum set by respective state boards or national boards like the CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education).
  • Higher Education: After completing secondary education, students have the option to pursue various streams, including science, arts, commerce and vocational courses. India has a vast higher education system comprising universities, colleges, and institutes offering undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral programs.
  • Technical and Professional Education: India boasts prestigious institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) that offer specialized technical and management education.

Challenges in the Indian Education System:

  • Quality Disparities: There is a significant gap in the quality of education between urban and rural areas. Urban schools tend to have better infrastructure and teaching facilities, while rural schools often lack essential resources.
  • Rote Learning: The system is often criticized for promoting rote learning over critical thinking and practical skills. This limits students’ creativity and problem-solving abilities.
  • Overemphasis on Exams: The Indian education system is notorious for its heavy reliance on high-stakes exams, which can lead to immense stress and a narrow focus on exam-oriented education.
  • Lack of Vocational Education: While there has been progress in recent years, vocational education remains underdeveloped in India. This limits opportunities for skill development and employment.
  • Gender Disparities: Gender inequality still exists, with fewer girls having access to education, especially in rural areas.

Prospects for Reform:

  • RTE Act: The Right to Education (RTE) Act of 2009 is a significant step towards universalizing education by ensuring free and compulsory education for all children aged 6 to 14.
  • Emphasis on Skill Development: There is a growing recognition of the importance of skill-based education to prepare students for the job market. Initiatives like Skill India aim to address this need.
  • Digitalization: The use of technology in education, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, has gained momentum, making education more accessible and interactive.
  • International Collaboration: Collaboration with foreign universities and institutions is on the rise, leading to the establishment of international campuses in India, which can enhance the quality of education.

Conclusion:

The Indian education system has a rich history but faces numerous challenges. However, ongoing reforms and initiatives offer hope for a brighter future. A shift towards a more holistic, skill-based and inclusive approach can help prepare the youth of India for the complex challenges of the 21st century and beyond, ensuring that education remains a tool for personal and national development.

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india education essay

The Indian education system is a complex and multifaceted structure that has evolved over centuries. It is a critical component of the nation’s growth and development, playing a pivotal role in shaping the lives and aspirations of millions of young Indians. This short essay explores the Indian education system, highlighting its strengths, challenges and potential for transformation.

Historical Roots

The roots of the Indian education system can be traced back to ancient times, with institutions like Nalanda and Takshashila renowned for their pursuit of knowledge. The traditional Gurukul system, where students lived with teachers, was a hallmark of early Indian education. However, over time, the education system underwent significant changes, especially during British colonial rule, leading to the present structure.

  • Diversity and Inclusivity : One of the system’s strengths is its inclusivity, catering to a diverse population with various languages, cultures and backgrounds. India offers a wide range of educational boards and mediums, allowing students to choose a system that suits them best.
  • Strong Foundation in Science and Technology: The country has produced numerous skilled professionals who have excelled in fields such as engineering, medicine and information technology. Indian institutes like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are globally recognized for their excellence.
  • Competitive Examinations: India’s rigorous competitive examination system prepares students for challenges in various fields. Exams like the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) and the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) exam are examples of such assessments.
  • Inequality : The education system grapples with stark inequalities, both in access and quality. Disparities in infrastructure, teacher quality and educational resources persist, creating a divide between urban and rural areas.
  • Rote Learning : The emphasis on rote learning, where students memorize information without understanding its practical application, has been criticized for stifling creativity and critical thinking.
  • Pressure and Stress: The intense competition for limited seats in prestigious institutions places immense pressure on students, often resulting in stress and mental health issues.
  • Outdated Curriculum: The curriculum often lacks relevance to real-world challenges, leading to a gap between classroom education and practical skills needed for employment.

Opportunities for Reform

  • Curriculum Overhaul : Updating the curriculum to incorporate practical skills, vocational training and a broader understanding of subjects can make education more relevant and engaging.
  • Digitalization : Leveraging technology for education delivery can help bridge the urban-rural divide and improve access to quality education.
  • Teacher Training: Investing in teacher training and professional development can enhance the quality of instruction and foster a more interactive learning environment.
  • Emphasis on Holistic Development : Encouraging extracurricular activities, sports and arts alongside academics can promote holistic development and reduce the stress on students.

The Indian education system has come a long way, reflecting both its strengths and challenges. While it has produced outstanding professionals, it also faces the task of addressing inequalities and adapting to the changing needs of a globalized world. Through reforms, inclusivity and a focus on holistic development, India can continue to harness the potential of its vast youth population and build a brighter future for generations to come.

The Indian education system is a vast and intricate structure that has evolved over centuries. It comprises various stages, from primary to higher education, and plays a pivotal role in shaping the country’s future. However, it faces both challenges and opportunities in its quest for excellence.

One of the most significant challenges facing the Indian education system is accessibility. While strides have been made to increase enrolment, especially at the primary level, there is still a wide gap in access to quality education, particularly in rural areas. Infrastructure deficits, inadequate teacher training, and socio-economic disparities are obstacles that hinder many children from receiving a good education.

Another pressing issue is the rote-learning culture prevalent in the system. Traditional assessment methods often prioritize memorization over critical thinking and problem-solving skills. This can stifle creativity and hinder students from developing a deeper understanding of subjects.

However, there are opportunities for improvement. The digital revolution has the potential to bridge educational gaps. Online learning platforms and educational apps can provide access to quality resources, even in remote areas. Additionally, the National Education Policy 2020 aims to transform the system by focusing on holistic learning, vocational skills, and flexibility in curriculum choices.

Moreover, India’s diverse population is a unique asset. It fosters a rich cultural exchange and can be leveraged to create a more inclusive and globalized education system that prepares students for a competitive world.

In conclusion, the Indian education system faces challenges related to accessibility and outdated teaching methods. However, it also possesses significant opportunities for improvement through digital integration, policy reforms, and embracing diversity. Addressing these challenges while capitalizing on these opportunities is essential for shaping a brighter future for India’s students.

The education system in India is a complex and diverse landscape that reflects the country’s vast cultural and socioeconomic diversity. While it has made significant progress over the years, it still faces numerous challenges.

One of the key strengths of the Indian education system is its emphasis on academic excellence. India is home to some prestigious institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), which are renowned globally. Additionally, the country has a rich tradition of producing skilled professionals in fields such as medicine, engineering, and IT.

However, there are significant issues that need to be addressed. The system often places excessive pressure on students to excel in rote memorization rather than promoting critical thinking and creativity. The quality of education varies widely between urban and rural areas, with rural regions often lacking access to quality schools and teachers. Furthermore, socio-economic disparities persist, limiting educational opportunities for many.

In recent years, there has been a push for educational reform, with initiatives aimed at improving infrastructure, curriculum and teacher training. Additionally, the promotion of digital learning and vocational education is gaining momentum.

In conclusion, while the Indian education system has notable strengths, it also faces substantial challenges related to quality, accessibility and equity. Continued efforts to reform and modernize the system are essential to ensure that all children in India have access to a high-quality education.

The education system in India is a complex and multifaceted structure that plays a pivotal role in shaping the nation’s future. While it has made significant progress in recent years, challenges persist.

India’s education system consists of several stages, starting with primary education, followed by secondary and higher education. The government has implemented various schemes to promote enrollment and quality in primary schools, but issues like infrastructure gaps and teacher shortages persist, particularly in rural areas.

Secondary education faces issues of standardized curricula and a heavy emphasis on rote learning, which can hinder critical thinking and creativity. The higher education system, on the other hand, boasts prestigious institutions like the IITs and IIMs, but access and quality vary greatly across the country.

To address these challenges, India must focus on improving infrastructure, teacher training and curriculum development. Additionally, promoting a more holistic and skill-oriented approach to education can better prepare students for the demands of the modern world. Overall, the evolution of India’s education system is critical for the nation’s socio-economic development and global competitiveness.

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Essay on Indian Education System for Students and Children | PDF Download

Essay on Indian Education System

Long Essay on Indian Education System

Education plays a noteworthy part in individual life and also in the evolution of the nation. Indian Education is quite an old education system. India is the largest education system in the world. Ever since Independence, India has always been focusing on civilizing the literacy rate in the country. Many measures are implemented by the government to improve the quality of education in India.

The Indian education system had a U-turn during the rule of the British Government, it was developed over time. Our education system evolved with the establishment of the nation by the Britishers. As they wanted few literate people to help them in governing the state, they introduced contemporary education.

History of Indian Education System

The education in India is prosperous and encouraging. In the prehistoric days, scholars and gurus convey tutoring orally, although, with the innovation of alphabets, the writing form came into existence. Books were not accessible during ancient times, palm leaves and bark of the trees were the media for writing. The teaching school was temples and community centers.

Once Buddhism broadened in India, education was accessible to everybody. During this time many universities came into subsistence. Universities like Nalanda, Vikramshila, and Takshashila were established. Nalanda University was given the most prominence, it burgeoned from the fifth century to the 13th century. It consisted of ten thousand students and the teachers on its spin at the lone moment in time.

Later many universities and secondary schools were established in cities like Allahabad, Lucknow, and Delhi. The Hindu and Muslim relations were tremendous in the Medieval period. The knowledge and information in the fields of architecture, painting, philosophy, culture, traditions, doctrine, medicine, astrology, fine arts, religious studies, and arithmetic were enhanced.

Soon after the British indoors India, the education system took a spin and English education came into survival along with the aid of European missionaries. Ever since Western education had significance in the country.

India is a country with a vast education system in the whole world. It has hundreds of institutions in higher education and thousands of colleges allied to them. Our country has placed itself contentedly as a country that endows supremacy in higher education to its citizens in detail and to the world in common.

Indian Education has provided many genius minds that are making and will be making our country proud all over the world. Indian students and proficient people are serving the world and our motherland.

Current Education System In India

The Education system of India is primarily classified into:

  • The Primary Education
  • Secondary Education
  • Senior Secondary Education
  • Higher Education
  • Primary Education is the knowledge of kids acquired from Grade 1 to Grade 8.
  • Secondary Education in Grade 9th and Grade 10th.
  • Senior Secondary education is the 11th and 12th standard, which are termed Intermediate or PUC.

Higher Education starts from the completion of the Intermediate, Students opt for their Graduation course, in various fields based on their interests and knowledge. This course will have a duration of three to five years. Next is Post Graduation which will be dependent on the interest of the students. This course will be for the duration of two or three years. Education in India also offers Scholarships, distance education, and open universities. Through which people can acquire education and progress of the nation is superior.

Indian Education has the World Class Higher Educational Institutions which can contend with the International Educational Institutes. This institution gave privilege and gratitude to the Indian Education System. Some of the institutions that participate with the International systems are the IIT’s, IIM’s, JNTU, IIS, National Law School.

Indian Education provides most of the knowledge in the form of theories and lessons based on the books. The realistic view over knowledge and information is zilch. Students are judged based on their grades and scores in the exams. This is the foremost problem of the education system in India. For instance, a student may be good at a subject and lack in other, the intelligence should not be judged on the marks scored. The marks scored by students mostly are not based on the concept of understanding, they sometimes just mug up the answers. So not just the theories and lessons that must be taught to the students, practical knowledge and experiences must also be given importance. Which in turn, gives them courage and motivation for facing the real world. And also education just gives significance to academics, sports and arts are not encouraged.

Measures To Improve The Quality Of Education

  • Practical knowledge of the subject must be introduced in the education system.
  • The skills and Interests of the students also must be accentuated.
  • The old syllabus must be substituted with the modern system of education.
  • Equipped and trained teachers and staff must be implemented for teaching.

Conclusion: Indian Education System is an effective system that develops citizens for a better future. If proper measures are implemented in this field. Indian Education System will be the leading and efficient one.

Dear Students and Children, you can download the Indian Education System Essay in the Hand Written Format by Clicking the Below Click Here Link.

Essay on India For Students and Children

500+ words essay on india.

India is a great country where people speak different languages but the national language is Hindi. India is full of different castes, creeds, religion, and cultures but they live together. That’s the reasons India is famous for the common saying of “ unity in diversity “. India is the seventh-largest country in the whole world.

Geography and Culture

India has the second-largest population in the world. India is also knowns as Bharat, Hindustan and sometimes Aryavart. It is surrounded by oceans from three sides which are Bay Of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and Indian oceans in the south. Tiger is the national animal of India. Peacock is the national bird of India. Mango is the national fruit of India. “ Jana Gana Mana ” is the national anthem of India . “Vande Mataram” is the national song of India. Hockey is the national sport of India. People of different religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism , Jainism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Judaism lives together from ancient times. India is also rich in monuments, tombs, churches, historical buildings, temples, museums, scenic beauty, wildlife sanctuaries , places of architecture and many more. The great leaders and freedom fighters are from India.

F lag of India

The indian flag has tricolors.

The first color that is uppermost color in the flag which is the saffron color, stands for purity. The second color i.e. the middle color in the flag is the white color and it stands for peace. The third color that is the lowest color in the flag is the green color and it stands for fertility. The white color has an Ashoka Chakra of blue color on it. Ashoka Chakra contains twenty-four spokes which are equally divided. India has 29 states and 7 union territories.

essay on india map

Follow this link to get a Physical and state-wise Map of India

My Favorite States from India are as follows –

Rajasthan itself has a glorious history. It is famous for many brave kings, their deeds, and their art and architecture. It has a sandy track that’s why the nuclear test was held here. Rajasthan is full of desert, mountain range, lakes, dense forest, attractive oases, and temples, etc. Rajasthan is also known as “Land Of Sacrifice”. In Rajasthan, you can see heritage things of all the kings who ruled over there and for that, you can visit Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Chittaurgarh, etc.

Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh is bigger than a foreign (Italy) country and smaller than Oman. It also has tourists attractions for its places. In Madhya Pradesh, you can see temples, lakes, fort, art and architecture, rivers, jungles, and many things. You can visit in Indore, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Bhopal, Gwalior and many cities. Khajuraho, Sanchi Stupa, Pachmarhi, Kanha national park, Mandu, etc. are the places must visit.

Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir are known as heaven on earth . We can also call Jammu and Kashmir as Tourists Paradise. There are many places to visit Jammu and Kashmir because they have an undisturbed landscape, motorable road, beauty, lying on the banks of river Jhelum, harmony, romance, sceneries, temples and many more.

In Jammu and Kashmir, u can enjoy boating, skiing, skating, mountaineering, horse riding, fishing, snowfall, etc. In Jammu and Kashmir, you can see a variety of places such as Srinagar, Vaishnav Devi, Gulmarg, Amarnath, Patnitop, Pahalgam, Sonamarg, Lamayuru, Nubra Valley, Hemis, Sanasar,  Anantnag,  Kargil, Dachigam National Park, Pulwama, Khilanmarg, Dras, Baltal, Bhaderwah, Pangong Lake, Magnetic Hill, Tso Moriri, Khardung La, Aru Valley, Suru Basin,Chadar Trek, Zanskar Valley, Alchi Monastery, Darcha Padum Trek, Kishtwar National Park, Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary, Nyoma, Dha Hanu, Uleytokpo, Yusmarg, Tarsar Marsar Trek and many more.

It is known as the ‘God’s Own Country’, Kerala is a state in India, situated in the southwest region, it is bordered by a number of beaches; covered by hills of Western Ghats and filled with backwaters, it is a tourist destination attracting people by its natural beauty. The most important destinations which you can see in Kerela are the museum, sanctuary, temples, backwaters, and beaches. Munnar, Kovalam, Kumarakom, and Alappad.

India is a great country having different cultures, castes, creed, religions but still, they live together. India is known for its heritage, spices, and of course, for people who live here. That’s the reasons India is famous for the common saying of “unity in diversity”. India is also well known as the land of spirituality , philosophy, science, and technology.

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Essay on Indian Education System in English for Children and Students

india education essay

Table of Contents

Essay on Indian Education System: Indian education system has changed over the time. A major change in our education system came with the colonization of the country by the Britishers. It was the British Government who introduced modern education in India, as they wanted some educated Indians to assist them in administering the state. Indian education system is mainly divided into four stages – lower primary, upper primary, high school and higher secondary.

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Students follow a fixed curriculum up to 10 th standard; though, in higher secondary they get to choose from various streams i.e. science, commerce, etc. Apart from certain textual changes and over time rectifications, nothing much has changed in Indian Education system. The need to reform and restructure our education system has been felt many time. However, no concrete steps have yet been taken in this direction.

Long and Short Essays on Indian Education System in English

Here are Long and Short Essays on Indian Education system in English of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam.

After going through this Indian Education System Essay you will be well versed with the Indian Education system and its shortcomings.

Also, you would be able to assess it and make suggestions for its improvement.

These Essays will help you in your school essay writing competition and also in several debate competitions.

Short Essay on Indian Education System – Essay 1 (200 words)

Indian education system is quite different from that of the foreign nations. The curriculum in the western countries is known to be quite light and based on practical knowledge whereas in India the focus is on theoretical knowledge and acquiring marks by hook or crook.

Students are expected to mug up chapter after chapter and fetch good grades in the class. The marking system in the Indian schools begins from the primary classes thereby burdening little kids. The competition is growing by the day. Parents want their children to outperform their peers and teachers want their class to do better than the other classes.

They are so blinded by the urge of staying ahead of the competition that they do not realize that they are pushing the children in the wrong direction. At an age when the students should be given the chance to explore their interests and hone their creative side, they are pressurized to follow a set curriculum and slog day and night to get good marks.

Instead of making the students understand various concepts of mathematics, physics and other subjects so that they can use them at different stages in their life, the focus is on blindly learning the chapters whether or not the concepts are understood just so that one can get good marks. So, the very basis of the Indian education system is inappropriate.

Essay on Indian Education System Needs Serious Reforms – Essay 2 (300 words)

Introduction.

Indian education system is said to be old and mundane. In the times, when the organizations are looking for creative and enthusiastic individuals, the Indian schools train the young minds, to follow a set curriculum and behave as they are told for almost fifteen years of their lives. There is no freedom to provide suggestions or share ideas. There is a serious need to reform the Indian education system which in turn helps in developing smarter individuals.

Need to Think Out of the Box

There is a dire need to think out of the box if we want to make new inventions, bring positive changes in the society and prosper at a personal level. However, unfortunately our schools train us otherwise. They tie us to a set study schedule and keep us so busy with completing the assignments and learning theoretical lessons that there is no room left for creativity.

The Indian education system must be changed to make way for creative thinking. Schools must focus on activities that challenge the student’s mind, hone their analytical skills and invoke their creative thinking ability. This will help them perform better in different fields as they grow up.

Need for All Round Development

The primary focus of the Indian education system is on academics. Here also the focus is not on understanding the concept and enhancing knowledge but only on mugging up the lessons with or without understanding them with the sole aim of attaining good marks. Even though some schools have extra-curricular activities, there is hardly one class per week for these activities.

Education in the Indian schools has just been reduced to gaining theoretical knowledge which is not enough to raise an intelligent and responsible individual. The system must be changed to ensure the all round development of the students.

The people in power must understand that the Indian education system requires serious reforms. The system must change to develop students spiritually, morally, physically as well as mentally.

Essay on Indian Education System and Its Development – Essay 3 (400 words)

Indian Education System has seen quite a few changes ever since its inception. It has changed with the changing times and with the changes in the society. However, whether these changes and developments are for good or not is still a question.

The Gurukul

The Indian education system dates back several centuries. From the ancient times, children are being sent to the teachers to learn lessons on different subjects and to add value to their lives and make them skilled to live a self dependent life. During the ancient times, the gurukuls were set up in various parts of the country.

Children went to gurukuls to seek education. They stayed with their guru (teacher) in their ashram until they completed their education. The students were taught various skills, given lessons in different subjects and were even involved in doing the household chores to ensure their all round development.

British Brought About Changes in the Indian Education System

As the Britishers colonized India, the Gurukul system began to fade away as the Britishers set up schools that followed a different education system. The subjects taught in these schools were quite different from that taught in the gurukuls and so was the way the study sessions were conducted.

There was a sudden change in the entire education system of India. The focus shifted from the all round development of the students to the academic performance. This was not a very good change. However, one thing that changed for good during this time was that girls also began to seek education and were enrolled in schools.

Introduction of Educomp Smart Classes

The education system introduced by the British is still prevalent in India. However, with the advancement in technology many schools have adopted to newer means to impart education to the students. Educomp smart classes have been introduced in the schools. These classes have brought about a positive change. Unlike the earlier times when the students only learned from the books, they now get to see their lessons on a big wide screen installed in their class rooms. This makes the learning experience interesting and helps the students grasp better.

In addition to it, many extra-curricular activities are also being introduced by the schools for the all round development of the students. However, the marking system still remains as stringent and the students have to focus largely on their academics.

So, there has been a major shift in the Indian education system since the ancient times. However, we require further reforms in the system for the proper development of the students.

Essay on Education System in India is Good or Bad – Essay 4 (500 words)

The Indian education system is said to be largely flawed. It does more harm than good to the young minds. However, some people may argue that it gives a good platform to the students as it challenges their mind and focuses on increasing their grasping power. The debate on whether the Indian education system is good or bad is ongoing.

The Good and Bad of the Indian Education System

While the people in power discuss the good and the bad in the Indian education system and whether there is a need to bring in reforms or not, here is a look at the pros and cons of the same.

Cons of Indian Education System

Indian education system has many cons. Here is a look at some of the main cons in the system:

Lack of Practical Knowledge

Focus of the Indian education system is on the theoretical part. Teachers read out from the book during the classes and explain the concepts verbally. Students expected to understand even the intricate concepts theoretically. The need to impart practical knowledge is not felt even though it is highly essential.

Focus on Grades

The focus of the Indian schools is on mugging up the chapters to get good grades. Teachers do not bother if the students have understood the concept or not, all they look at is the marks they have obtained.

No Significance to All Round Development

The focus is only on studies. No effort is made to build a student’s character or his physical health. The schools do not contribute in the all round development of their students.

Over Burdening

The students are over burdened with studies. They study for long hours in the school and are given a pile of home work to complete at home. In addition to it, the regular class tests, first term examination, weekly examination and mid-term examination puts a lot of pressure on the young minds.

Pros of Indian Education System

Here are some of the pros of the Indian education system:

Provides Knowledge on Different Subjects

The Indian education system includes a vast curriculum and imparts knowledge on various subjects including maths, environmental science, moral science, social science, English, Hindi and computer science to name a few. All these subjects form a part of the curriculum from the primary classes itself. So, the students gain knowledge about different subjects from an early age.

Inculcates Discipline

The schools in India are very particular about their timings, time table, ethical code, marking system and study schedule. Students need to follow the rules set by the school else they punished. This is a good way to inculcate discipline in the students.

Increases Grasping Power

Owing to the marking and ranking system in the Indian schools, the students required to learn their lessons thoroughly. They need to do so in order to fetch good marks and rank higher than their classmates. They look for different ways to concentrate and grasp better. Those who identify the tools that help them grasp better are able to enhance their grasping power which helps them throughout their lives.

Indian education system has criticized time and again. There is a tremendous need to change this system to ensure proper development of our young generation.

Long Essay on Indian Education System – Essay 5 (600 words)

Indian education system is one of the oldest education systems around the globe. It is unfortunate that while the education systems of the other nations have undergone major changes with the changing times and technological advancement we are still stuck with the old and mundane system. Neither has our system seen any major change in the curriculum nor has there any significant change in the way the education imparted.

Problems with Indian Education System

The Indian education system has numerous problems that hinder the proper growth and development of an individual. One of the main problems with the Indian education system is its marking system. The intelligence of the students judged by the way they perform in a 3 hour theoretical paper rather than by their overall performance in the class. In such a scenario, learning lessons to get good marks becomes the sole aim of the students. They are not able to think beyond it. They not bothered about understanding concepts or enhancing their knowledge all they think about is to look for ways to get good marks.

Another problem is that the focus is only on theory. No importance given to practical learning. Our education system encourages the students to become bookworms and does not prepare them for handling the real problems and challenges of life.

Academics given so much importance that the need to involve the students in sports and art activities overlooked. Students also overburdened with studies. Regular exams held and students scrutinized at every step. This creates acute stress among the students. The stress level of the students continues to grow as they advance to higher classes.

Ways to Improve Indian Education System

Many ideas and suggestions have shared to improve the Indian education system. Some of the ways to change our education system for good include:

Focus on Skill Development

It is the time for the Indian schools and colleges to stop putting so much importance to the marks and ranks of the students and focus on skill development instead. The cognitive, problem solving, analytical and creative thinking skills of the students must enhanced. In order to do so they must involved in various academic as well as extra-curricular activities instead of caging them in the dull class room sessions.

Impart Practical Knowledge

Practical knowledge is very important to develop a thorough understanding of any subject. However, our Indian education system focuses mainly on theoretical knowledge. This needs to changed. Students must imparted practical knowledge for better understanding and application.

Revise the Curriculum

The curriculum of our schools and colleges is the same since decades. It is the time to change it as per the changing times so that the students learn things more relevant to their times. For instance, computer should become one of the main subjects in schools so that students learn how to work efficiently on the same from the very beginning. Similarly, there should classes on developing good communication skills as it is the need of the hour.

Hire Better Teaching Staff

In order to save a few bucks, the educational institutes in our country hire teachers who demand less salary even if they not highly skilled and experienced. This approach must changed. Good teaching staff must hired in order to nurture the young minds well.

Look Beyond Academics

The education system of our country must look beyond academics. Sports, arts and other activities must also given importance to ensure the all round development of students.

While the need to change the Indian education system has emphasized several times nothing much has done in this regard. It is the time to understand the importance of changing this old system for the better future of the children as well as the country as a whole.

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Education System in India Essay

Education System in India Essay, 100, 200, 300, 500 Words

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Education System in India Essay 100 Words

In India, the education system is crucial for shaping the future of its citizens. It consists of primary, secondary, and higher education stages. Primary education focuses on basic subjects and fundamental skills. Secondary education offers more specialized subjects and allows students to choose their preferred stream. Higher education provides specialized knowledge in various fields.

Challenges include ensuring access to quality education for all and addressing the rote-learning approach. Reforms are being implemented to promote inclusive education and bridge the urban-rural divide. Initiatives like digital classrooms and vocational training aimed to enhance the quality of education. India strives for an empowering education system that prepares citizens for the future.

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Paragraph an Education System in India 200 Words

The education system in India plays a crucial role in shaping the future of its citizens. It consists of primary, secondary, and higher education stages. Primary education focuses on fundamental subjects like mathematics, science, social studies, and languages to build a strong foundation in literacy and numeracy. Secondary education offers specialized subjects and allows students to choose streams like science, commerce, or humanities.

Higher education provides undergraduate and postgraduate programs in fields such as engineering, medicine, law, arts, commerce, and science. Challenges exist in ensuring equal access to quality education and addressing the rote-learning approach in some schools. Efforts are being made to bridge the urban-rural divide and promote inclusive education through digital classrooms, vocational training, and scholarships.

Reforms are being implemented to foster creativity, critical thinking, and overall development. Despite the challenges, the education system strives to prepare individuals for their future roles in society. By providing equitable opportunities and a student-centric approach, India aims to build a robust education system that empowers its citizens and prepares them for the opportunities and challenges of the future. The education system in India holds immense potential in preparing individuals for their future roles in society. It encompasses primary, secondary, and higher education stages, each catering to specific objectives.

Education System in India Essay

Essay on Change in the Education System in India 300 Words

What is indian education.

 The Indian education system is a vast network of schools, colleges, and universities that provide knowledge, skills, and values to its students. It encompasses various stages, from primary education to higher education, offering a wide range of subjects and fields of study. The system aims to equip individuals with the necessary tools to succeed academically, professionally, and personally.

Similarities Between Mainstream Education and Indian Education 

Indian education shares some similarities with mainstream education systems around the world. It emphasizes foundational subjects such as mathematics, science, languages, and social studies. It follows a structured curriculum and evaluation system to assess students’ knowledge and progress. Furthermore, it focuses on building essential skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.

History of the Education System 

The roots of the Indian education system can be traced back to ancient times. Ancient India had renowned centers of learning, such as Takshashila and Nalanda, attracting students from various parts of the world. Formal education was imparted through Gurukuls, where students lived with their teachers and learned through a guru-disciple relationship. Over time, the education system evolved with the influence of colonial rulers and the introduction of modern education.

Problems of the Indian Education System

 The Indian education system faces several challenges. One major issue is the lack of access to quality education, especially in remote areas and disadvantaged communities. Disparities exist in terms of infrastructure, teacher quality, and resources. Another concern is the heavy reliance on rote learning and memorization, which hampers critical thinking and creativity. Additionally, there is often an overemphasis on academic performance and limited focus on practical skills and vocational training.

How Can We Improve the Indian Education System? 

To enhance the Indian education system, several measures can be taken. First, there is a need for increased investment in education infrastructure, especially in rural and underprivileged areas. This includes providing adequate facilities, qualified teachers, and learning resources. Second, there should be a shift towards a more holistic and student-centric approach that encourages critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills. This can be achieved through innovative teaching methods, project-based learning, and promoting of extracurricular activities. Third, vocational training and skill development programs should be integrated into the curriculum to equip students with practical skills that align with industry requirements. Lastly, continuous teacher training and professional development should be emphasized to enhance the quality of education delivery.

Education System in India Essay 500 Words

What is indian education .

The Indian education system is a vast and diverse network of educational institutions that aim to provide knowledge, skills, and values to students across the country. It encompasses various levels, including primary, secondary, and higher education. The system is designed to impart academic knowledge, foster critical thinking, promote holistic development, and prepare individuals for their future roles in society.

Indian education shares similarities with mainstream education systems worldwide. It focuses on foundational subjects such as mathematics, science, languages, and social studies. The curriculum is structured, with examinations and assessments to evaluate students’ understanding and progress. Moreover, the objective of equipping students with skills like problem-solving, effective communication, and collaboration is a common goal shared by many education systems globally.

The history of education in India dates back thousands of years. Ancient India had well-established centers of learning, such as Takshashila and Nalanda universities, which attracted scholars from different parts of the world. The Gurukul system, where students lived with their teachers, played a significant role in imparting knowledge and values. With the advent of colonial rule, the education system underwent transformations, with the introduction of Western education models. Post-independence, India’s education system focused on expanding access to education and promoting social equity.

Problems of the Indian Education System 

The Indian education system faces several challenges that need to be addressed. One significant issue is the lack of access to quality education, particularly in rural and economically disadvantaged areas. Insufficient infrastructure, inadequate resources, and a shortage of qualified teachers contribute to this disparity. Another concern is the rote-learning approach, which emphasizes memorization over conceptual understanding and critical thinking. This approach hampers creativity and problem-solving skills among students. Additionally, there is a need to improve the relevance of the curriculum to align it with the evolving needs of the job market and society.

To improve the Indian education system, various measures can be taken. Firstly, there should be increased investment in education, including infrastructure development, teacher training, and the provision of necessary resources. Efforts should be made to bridge the urban-rural divide and ensure equitable access to quality education for all students. Secondly, there is a need to promote learner-centered approaches that encourage active participation, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills.

This can be achieved through project-based learning, collaborative activities, and integrating technology into teaching and learning processes. Thirdly, vocational education and skill development should be given more prominence, preparing students for diverse career opportunities and reducing the overemphasis on academic qualifications. Fourthly, teacher training programs should focus on enhancing pedagogical skills, promoting innovative teaching methods, and fostering a student-centric approach. Additionally, continuous professional development should be encouraged to keep educators updated with the latest trends and methodologies in education.

In conclusion, the Indian education system is a complex entity that plays a vital role in shaping the future of the nation. While it has made significant progress, there are challenges that need to be addressed. By investing in infrastructure, promoting innovative teaching approaches, ensuring equitable access, and enhancing teacher training, India can improve its education system. 

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Essay on Indian Culture in 500 Words

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Essay on Indian Culture

Did you know that Indian culture is one of the oldest and richest cultures in the world? Mark Twain once said, ‘India is the one land that all men desire to see, and having seen once, even a glimpse, would not give that glimpse for all the shows of all the rest of the globe combined.’ Indian culture is known for its rich beauty, traditional values, ethics, and social norms.

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‘We should proudly follow our cultural and traditional values, as they connect us to our age-old customs and what our culture means to us. India’s ethno-linguistically diverse culture has always been successful in catching global attention. Popular festivals like Diwali, Holi, Navratri, etc. are not only celebrated in India but also in other parts of the world.’

Also Read: Essay on Festivals

Why is Indian Culture Famous?

India’s rich and diverse culture has always attracted people from different parts of the world. A series of factors are responsible for Indian culture’s popularity, which include;

  • Cultural diversity all over the country. 
  • Variety of religious and spiritual practices. 
  • Connections with the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, which is one of the oldest civilizations.
  • Concepts like yoga and meditation, which gained popularity all over the world.
  • Tradition art practices such as classical dance forms like Odissi, Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, etc. 
  • Traditional art forms like Tanjore and Madhubani paintings have gained global attention.
  • Our vibrant and colorful festivals like Diwali, Holi, Eid, etc. are celebrated in not just India but in other countries as well. 
  • Our flavourful dishes and curries like roti sabzi, dal chawal, puri halwa, samosa, biryani, mithaiya, etc. are now sold all over the world.

Also Read: Essay on Health and Fitness

Interesting Facts About Indian Culture?

There are dozens of interesting facts about Indian culture, starting from ancient civilizations to modern times.

  • One of the oldest cities in the world, Varanasi, was named the Tourism and Cultural Capital for the year 2022-23 by the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
  • One of the seven wonders of the world, the Taj Mahal, is located in India, which attracts millions of tourists every year.
  • Zero (0) and decimal systems, used in mathematics, were invented in India. The modern numeral system is based on Indian numerical notations. (0,1,2,3, etc.)
  • India is home to the world’s oldest holistic healing system; Ayurveda.
  • The world’s longest epic, the Mahabharata, is based in India. This legend consists of over 1 lakh couplets (shlokas).

Also Read: Essay on Money

Things We Can Learn from Our Culture

Our culture connects us to our age-old belief system and social norms. We are born with our cultural beliefs, values, and practices. Our culture teaches us to:

  • Understand why people do things the way they want to.
  • Respecting everyone around us, especially our elders.
  • Emphasize the relationship between family and bloodline.
  • Respecting other people’s culture and traditions.
  • Reflecting on adaptability to new systems and values.
  • Connects us to our roots and gives us an identity.
  • Encourages the preservation of our traditional and historical knowledge.
  • Emphasizes generosity and hospitality towards our guests and neighbors. 
  • It focuses on creating a sense of belonging in a community and mutual support.

Also Read: Essay on Generation Gap

Paragraph on Indian Culture

Related Articles

Ans: Indian culture is one of the most oldest and popular cultures in the world. Our culture is known for its rich diversity, traditional values, ethics, and social norms. We should proudly follow our cultural and traditional values, as they connect us to our age-old customs and what our culture means to us. India’s ethno-linguistically diverse culture has always been successful in catching global attention. Popular festivals like Diwali, Holi, Navratri, etc. are not only celebrated in India but also in other parts of the world.

Ans: Indian culture is one of the oldest cultures in the world; Zero (0) and decimal systems were first used in Indian culture; Indian culture was the first one to follow the practice of Ayurveda, one of the oldest healing systems; world’s oldest legends, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, were recorded in India; and the name India is derived from a Greek word ‘Indica.’

Ans: India was ruled by various Muslim dynasties during the Medival period. They gave this land the name Hindustan, which is derived from the Persian word Hindu from the Sanskrit word Sindhu.

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india education essay

Solve this Class 12 Physical Education sample paper 2024 to score high marks

Class 12 students who will be appearing for the physical education board exam in 2024 can use this sample paper to assess their preparedness for the upcoming examination..

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Practice this Class 12 Physical Education sample paper.

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the upcoming board exams 2024 examination schedule. According to the datesheet, CBSE has scheduled the Class 12 Physical Education Examination 2024 for March 12. Less than two months are left for the students.

CBSE has also released sample papers for both Class 10 and 12 subjects. These sample papers will give students an idea of what to expect in the examination. Class 12 students can visit the official academic website of the board, i.e., cbseacademic.ac.in, to practice the Physical Education sample paper.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION SAMPLE PAPER 2024

india education essay

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JEE Main 2024 Session 1 Exam Begins Tomorrow: Admit card link, important exam day instructions here

JEE Main 2024 Session 1 Exam Begins Tomorrow: Admit card link, important exam day instructions here

  • Admit card along with Self Declaration (undertaking) downloaded from the NTA Website (a clear printout on A4 size paper) duly filled in.
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  • Personal transparent water bottle.
  • Sugar tablets/fruits (like banana/apple/orange) in case the candidate is diabetic.

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