Essay on Constitution of India

500+ words indian constitution essay for students and children in english.

A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country. The Constitution is the backbone of every democratic and secular fabric of the nation. The Constitution of India is the longest Constitution in the world, which describes the framework for political principles, procedures and powers of the government. The Constitution of India was written on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950. In this essay on the Constitution of India, students will get to know the salient features of India’s Constitution and how it was formed.

Constitution of India Essay

On 26th January 1950, the Constitution of India came into effect. That’s why 26th January is celebrated as Republic Day in India.

How Was the Constitution of India Formed?

The representatives of the Indian people framed the Indian Constitution after a long period of debates and discussions. It is the most detailed Constitution in the world. No other Constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian Constitution.

The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946. Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected President of the Constituent Assembly. A Drafting Committee was appointed to draft the Constitution and Dr B.R. Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman. The making of the Constitution took a total of 166 days, which was spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. Some of the salient features of the British, Irish, Swiss, French, Canadian and American Constitutions were incorporated while designing the Indian Constitution.

Also Read: Evolution and Framing of the Constitution

Features of The Constitution of India

The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which contains the basic ideals and principles of the Constitution. It lays down the objectives of the Constitution.

The Longest Constitution in the world

The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest Constitution in the world. It had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now it has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules. There are 104 amendments (took place on 25th January 2020 to extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies) that have been made in the Indian Constitution so far.

How Rigid and Flexible is the Indian Constitution?

One of the unique features of our Constitution is that it is not as rigid as the American Constitution or as flexible as the British Constitution. It means it is partly rigid and partly flexible. Owing to this, it can easily change and grow with the change of times.

The Preamble

The Preamble has been added later to the Constitution of India. The original Constitution does not have a preamble. The preamble states that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic. The objectives stated by the Preamble are to secure justice, liberty, and equality for all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation.

Federal System with Unitary Features

The powers of the government are divided between the central government and the state governments. The Constitution divides the powers of three state organs, i.e., executive, judiciary and legislature. Hence, the Indian Constitution supports a federal system. It includes many unitary features such as a strong central power, emergency provisions, appointment of Governors by the President, etc.

Fundamental rights and fundamental duties

The Indian Constitution provides an elaborate list of Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India. The Constitution also provides a list of 11 duties of the citizens, known as the Fundamental Duties. Some of these duties include respect for the national flag and national anthem, integrity and unity of the country and safeguarding of public property.

Also Read: Difference between Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties

India is a republic which means that a dictator or monarch does not rule the country. The government is of the people, by the people and for the people. Citizens nominate and elect its head after every five years.

Related Read: Constitution of India – 13 Major Features

The Constitution serves as guidelines for every citizen. It helped India to attain the status of a Republic in the world. Once Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that “governments would come and go, political parties would be formed and dissolved, but the country should survive, and democracy should remain there forever”.

We hope that this essay on the “Constitution of India” must have helped students. For the latest updates on ICSE/CBSE/State Board/Competitive Exams, stay tuned to BYJU’S. Also, download the BYJU’S App for watching interesting study videos.

Also Read: Independence Day Essay | Republic Day Essay | Essay on Women Empowerment

Frequently Asked Questions on Constitution of India Essay

Who is the father of our indian constitution.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is the father of our Indian Constitution. He framed and drafted our Constitution.

Who signed the Indian Constitution?

Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first person from the Constitution Assembly to have signed the Indian Constitution.

What is mentioned in the Preamble of our Indian Constitution?

The preamble clearly communicates the purpose and emphasis the importance of the objectives of the Indian Constitution.

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Essay On Constitution Of India

The Constitution of India is a set of rules and regulations that was drafted by a committee headed by Dr. B.R Ambedkar. It contains the guidelines as per which our country is expected to function such that its political, legal, and social ecosystems stay maintained. Here are a few sample essays on “Constitution of India”.

Essay On Constitution Of India

100 Words Essay On Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is a legal document that outlines the political system's framework and the obligations, privileges, and restraints to which this country should adhere.

The Indian Constitution came into force on this date in 1950. Although Dr. Ambedkar is renowned for his significant contribution to the constitution's drafting, 299 people put a lot of effort into making it what it is today.

The Indian constitution is the lengthiest in the world. There are 25 parts, 448 articles, and 12 schedules in it. The people who wrote the constitution had to pay attention to even the most minor details because our country is vast, with many different cultures, castes, religions, and states.

200 Words Essay On Constitution of India

The Indian constitution is a document which contains the framework of our political system, the duties, rights, limitations, and structure of government that we should follow in this nation. In addition, it lays out the rights and obligations of Indian citizens. In India, nobody, not even the prime minister or the president, can violate the constitution.

Republic Day | India celebrates Republic Day on January 26 every year. This day is remembered as when the Indian Constitution became effective in 1950. Dr. Ambedkar played a significant role in drafting the constitution, but 299 others prominently contributed to its creation.

Length | The Indian constitution is the lengthiest in the world. It has 448 articles organised into 25 parts and 12 schedules. The drafting and enforcement of the constitution were democratic processes. It protects the fundamental rights of every Indian.

Provisions | The constitution divides the strengths of three governmental institutions: the executive, judiciary, and legislature. This means that the Indian Constitution advocates for a federal government. According to the Preamble, the country's unity and integrity must be safeguarded by achieving justice, liberty, and equality for all people. State governments and the central government share government powers. The constitution says India is a republic, meaning no dictator or king governs it. Individuals are the public authority. Citizens elect their leaders every five years.

500 Words Essay on The Constitution of India

The longest constitution of any sovereign state in the world, the Indian Constitution offers a comprehensive framework for governing the nation while considering its diversity in social, cultural, and religious beliefs.

Constituent Assembly

The members of the provincial assemblies chosen by the Indian people formed the Constituent Assembly of India, which drafted the constitution. Dr Sachidanand Sinha presided over the Constituent Assembly as its first president. Later, Dr Rajendra Prasad was chosen to serve as its leader.

Length Of The Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the world's longest-written constitution for any sovereign nation and is a unique document with many extraordinary features. The constitution's original text had 395 articles divided into 25 parts and 12 schedules. It became effective on January 26, 1950, and India celebrated Republic Day. Since then, 100 amendments have brought the total number of articles to 448.

Drafting Of The Constitution

The Indian Constitution, which offers a comprehensive and dynamic framework to guide and govern the country while keeping in mind its unique social, cultural, and religious diversity, is credited to Dr BR Ambedkar, chairman of its drafting committee. It creates the three main branches of government—executive, legislative, and judicial—and lays out their respective roles, responsibilities, and powers. It also governs their interactions with one another.

In the Preamble to the Constitution, India is described as a welfare state dedicated to securing justice, liberty, and equality for all citizens and fostering fraternity, the dignity of each person, and the unity and integrity of the country. The Preamble's objectives form the fundamental framework of the Indian Constitution, which cannot be changed. The Preamble's opening and closing clauses, "We, the People... adopt, enact, and give to ourselves this Constitution," indicate that the people ultimately hold the reins of power.

Fundamental Rights

The constitution grants citizens a wide range of fundamental rights. These include the following:

The right to equality

The right to freedom

The right against exploitation

The right to freedom of religion

The right to cultural and educational freedom

The right to constitutional remedies

These rights are actionable in court, and if one is violated, a person may file a petition with the Supreme Court or one of the High Courts. However, there are limitations to India's fundamental rights. It is possible to impose reasonable limitations. Fundamental duties were added to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976 to remind people that while exercising their rights as citizens, they also have obligations because rights and obligations are correlated.

Directive Principles Of State Policy

The constitution also has a chapter on the ‘Directive Principles Of State Policy’. These serve as instructions to the government on how to put them into practice to establish social and economic democracy in the country.

The fact that the constitution is a living document that can change over time through interpretation or amendment is one of its advantages. To avoid impeding the nation's and its people's progress, it is also among the most frequently amended constitutions in the world.

As a result, the success of the Indian Constitution for a nation as diverse and as complex as India continues to fascinate, astound, and incite experts worldwide.

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Essay on Indian Constitution in 100, 250, and 350 words

short essay on indian constitution

  • Updated on  
  • Jan 3, 2024

Essay On Indian Constitution

The constitution of India was written and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 but it became effective on 26th January 1950. It is a set of rules and regulations that guide the administration of the country. It is the backbone of every democratic and secular fabric of the nation. The Indian Constitution is the longest in the world and describes the framework for political principles, procedures and powers of the government. This is just a brief paragraph on the Indian constitution, we have provided samples of essay on Indian Constitution. Let’s explore them!

Table of Contents

  • 1 Essay on Indian Constitution in 100 words
  • 2 Essay on Indian Constitution in 250 words
  • 3 Essay on Indian Constitution in 350 words
  • 4 Indian Constitution Defines the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens
  • 5 The Constitution Defines the Structure and Working of the Government
  • 6 Conclusion

Learn more about the Making of Indian Constitution

Essay on Indian Constitution in 100 words

The Indian Constitution became effective on the 26th of January 1950 although the Constituent Assembly adopted it on the 26th of November 1949. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee that wrote it. Hence, it was the longest-written constitution of India and provides a detailed account of the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of India. The original constitution of India is the lengthiest in the world and is hand-written and calligraphed. It is the supreme law of India that is drafted by the Constituent Assembly which is even superior to the Parliament. After the constitution came into effect, the status of India changed from “Dominion of India” to “Republic of India”. Hence, 26th January is celebrated as The Republic Day of India.

Also Read:- Importance of Internet

Essay on Indian Constitution in 250 words

The Indian Constitution was drafted under the chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who is known as the ‘Father of Indian Constitution’. It took almost 3 years to draft the same. Various aspects of the society such as economic, socio-political, etc were taken into consideration while drafting the constitution. While drafting the Indian Constitution, the drafting committee took into consideration various constitutions of other countries such as France, Japan and Britain to seek valuable insights. 

The Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Indian Citizens, the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Federal Structure of the Government of India, all were included in the Indian Constitution. Every policy, duty and right has been explained at length in the Indian Constitution hence making it the lengthiest written constitution in the world. 

There were more than 2000 amendments that had to be made to the Indian Constitution to get it approved. The same was adopted on November 26th, 1949 and was enforced on January 26th, 1950. From that day onwards, the status of India changed from “Dominion of India” to “Republic of India”. And that is why since then, 26th January is celebrated as the Republic Day. On this occasion, the National Flag of India is hoisted at various places across the nation and the National Anthem is sung to rejoice the day. There is a special day that is dedicated to the Indian Constitution known as the ‘National Constitution Day’ that came into existence in 2015. 

Also Read:- Essay on Pollution

Essay on Indian Constitution in 350 words

The Indian Constitution is the supreme document that gives a very detailed account of what the citizens of India can and also cannot do. It has been set up as a standard that needs to be followed to ensure law and order in society and also to help it develop and prosper.

Indian Constitution Defines the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens

The duties and the Fundamental Rights of the Indian citizens have been clearly stated and defined in the Constitution of India. The Fundamental Rights include:

  • The Right to Equality
  • The Right to Freedom
  • The Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Right Against Exploitation
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies

These are the basic rights and all the citizens across the country are entitled to the same irrespective of their colour, caste, creed, or religion.

Fundamental Duties of the Indian CItizens that are included in the Indian Constitution are:-

  • Respecting the Constitution of India
  • To always honour the National Anthem and the National Flag
  • To protect the unity
  • Preserving the heritage of the county
  • Protecting the integrity and sovereignty of India
  • Promoting the spirit of brotherhood
  • To have compassion for living creatures
  • To strive for excellence 
  • To protect public property and contribute your bit to maintaining peace

These are also mentioned in detail in the Indian Constitution. 

The Constitution Defines the Structure and Working of the Government

The working of the Government as well as its structure is also mentioned in detail in the Indian Constitution.  The Indian Constitution mentions that India has a parliamentary system of government that is present at the centre as well as in states. The power to take major decisions lies with the Prime Minister and the Union Council of Ministers. The president of India on the other hand, has nominal powers.

Also Read: Essay on Human Rights

The Constitution of India was approved after several amendments by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who, along with his team of six members, was a part of the drafting committee that came up with the Indian Constitution.

Ans: The Indian Constitution became effective on the 26th of January 1950 although the Constituent Assembly adopted it on the 26th of November 1949. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee that wrote it. Hence, it was the longest-written constitution of India and provides a detailed account of the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of India. The original constitution of India is the lengthiest in the world and is hand-written and calligraphed. It is the supreme law of India that is drafted by the Constituent Assembly which is even superior to the Parliament. After the constitution came into effect, the status of India changed from “Dominion of India” to “Republic of India”. Hence, 26th January is celebrated as The Republic Day of India.

Ans: The constitution of India was written and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 but it became effective on 26th January 1950. It is a set of rules and regulations that guide the administration of the country. It is the backbone of every democratic and secular fabric of the nation. The Indian Constitution is the longest in the world. And describes the framework for political principles, procedures and powers of the government.

Ans: The Indian Constitution is the supreme document that gives a very detailed account of what the citizens of India can and also cannot do. It has been set up as a standard that needs to be followed to ensure law and order in society and also to help it develop and prosper.

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Essay On Indian Constitution

short essay on indian constitution

Table of Contents

Short Essay On Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of India and is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. It was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950. The Indian Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly and is a testament to India’s commitment to democracy, justice, and equality for all its citizens.

  • Federal System of Government: The Indian Constitution establishes a federal system of government, with powers divided between the central government and the states. This helps to ensure that the government is accountable to both the central government and the states, and prevents any one level of government from becoming too powerful.
  • Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution guarantees certain fundamental rights to all its citizens, including the right to equality, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to life and personal liberty. These rights serve as a safeguard against discrimination and oppression and are considered sacred and non-negotiable.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy: The Indian Constitution also lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy, which serve as a guide for the government in its policies and decision-making. These principles include promoting social and economic justice, promoting international peace and security, and protecting and improving the environment.
  • Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution establishes an independent judiciary that acts as a guardian of the Constitution and ensures that the government and other public institutions are held accountable. The judiciary is also empowered to interpret the Constitution and resolve disputes between the central and state governments.
  • Separation of Powers: The Indian Constitution follows the principle of the separation of powers, with the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government having separate and distinct powers and responsibilities. This helps to prevent the concentration of power in any one branch of government and promotes accountability and checks and balances.
  • Secularism: The Indian Constitution enshrines the principle of secularism, which means that the government must be neutral with respect to religion. This ensures that all citizens are free to practice their own religion and that no one religion is given preferential treatment over another.

In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is a remarkable document that serves as the foundation of India’s democracy and is a source of pride for the country. It guarantees fundamental rights, establishes a federal system of government, promotes social and economic justice, and ensures the independence of the judiciary. The Indian Constitution is a living document that has been amended several times to keep pace with changing times and the needs of the people, and it remains a shining example of India’s commitment to democracy, justice, and equality for all.

Long Essay On Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is a document of great importance to the country. It not only lays down the fundamental law of the land but also outlines the rights and duties of citizens. This essay will take a look at the history, structure and contents of this important document that has guided India for decades. We’ll also explore how it has evolved over time and what role it plays in modern times.

Introduction

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest constitution in the world.

The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India replacing the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document. The Constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular republic with an independent judiciary.

It was drafted by the Constituent Assembly between 1946 and 1949 under leadership of Dr B R Ambedkar as Chairman of its Drafting Committee. The members repudiated earlier treaties with Britain (the 1858 Government of India Act) and especially rejected ideas about a centralised state contained in previous constitutions such as that proposed by Sir Edward Coke in 1628 or even that which had been used to govern British colonies such as Australia (the 1900 Australian Constitution).

Underlying these decisions was a belief that power should devolve more widely through society so as prevent any one group from having too much control over others; this was thought necessary given historical events such as colonialism and communal violence. Federalism was also another

Historical Overview of the Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest constitution in the world. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is widely regarded as its chief architect.

The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, with a Preamble, 22 parts containing 448 articles and 8 schedules. It came into effect on 26 January 1950 with George VI as head of state for India. The last amendment to the Constitution of India was made in 2019. Some of the major amendments include abolition of untouchability and introduction of right to property as a legal right.

The Constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty and endeavours to promote fraternity among them. The words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India celebrates its Constitution Day on 26 November every year.

Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens are mentioned in the Constitution of India. They are defined as the basic rights and duties of every citizen of India.

The Fundamental Rights include the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to life and personal liberty, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.

The Fundamental Duties include duties towards the nation, such as maintaining harmony among different sections of society, promoting integrity and common good, protecting public property, safeguarding environment, etc.

Every citizen is entitled to these rights and duties. It is the duty of every citizen to uphold the Constitution and strive towards the welfare of the country.

Directive Principles of State Policy

The Directive Principles of State Policy are a set of guidelines for the Indian Parliament to use when creating legislation. They are found in Part IV of the Constitution of India. The principles are based on the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi and were added to the Constitution by Jawaharlal Nehru during the drafting process.

The Directive Principles are not enforceable by courts, but they are considered fundamental in the governance of the country. The principles cover a wide range of topics, including social welfare, education, economic development, and civil rights.

Some of the more notable Directive Principles include:

– Promoting equality and prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of caste, race, religion, or gender – Establishing a minimum wage – Providing free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 – Protecting workers’ rights, including the right to form unions – Promoting environmental conservation – Agrarian reform and improving conditions for rural workers

Role of the Prime Minister and Cabinet

The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India. The President of India appoints the Prime Minister, who also has to be the leader of a party with a majority in the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament).

The Prime Minister and his/her Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is also responsible for appointing various key officials, such as the Governors of State Banks and other important financial institutions.

The Cabinet is a body of senior ministers, usually numbering around 20, headed by the Prime Minister. It advises and helps him/her in policy formulation and decision-making. All decisions taken by the Cabinet are collective decisions taken by all its members.

The role of the Prime Minister has evolved over time. In the initial years after independence, Jawaharlal Nehru was both the Prime Minister and the de facto leader of the Congress Party. Over time, however, this changed and there was a separation between the two roles. Indira Gandhi was perhaps the most prominent example of a Prime Minister who was also head of her party.

Legislature and Judiciary

The Constitution of India vests the legislative power of the Union in the Parliament which consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The President has the power to promulgate ordinances when Parliament is not in session. The Parliament has power to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India.

The Constitution also establishes an independent judiciary which consists of the Supreme Court, High Courts and other subordinate courts. The Supreme Court is vested with the power of judicial review and it can declare a law made by Parliament as unconstitutional if it violates any provision of the Constitution. The High Courts are vested with original jurisdiction over matters relating to their respective states while subordinate courts deal with matters relating to local areas.

Distribution of Powers between Centre and States

The Constitution of India provides for a federal system of government, whereby power is distributed between the central government and the states. The distribution of powers between the Centre and the states is as follows:

The Parliament of India has the power to make laws for the whole of India with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List. The Union List contains 100 items (as opposed to 97 in the original Constitution), which include defence, foreign affairs, currency, banking, communications, etc.

The Parliament of India also has the power to make laws for any part of India with respect to any matter not enumerated in the State List or Concurrent List. In other words, Parliament can make laws on any subject not expressly reserved for the states. However, before making any law on a matter not enumerated in these lists, Parliament must obtain the consent of the President.

The State Legislature has exclusive power to make laws for its state with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List. The State List contains 66 items (as opposed to 61 in the original Constitution), which include police, trade unions, agriculture, irrigation, local government, etc. In addition, each state has been given residuary powers, which means that it can legislate on any matter not expressly reserved for either Parliament or itself.

The Concurrent List contains 52 items (as opposed to 47 in the original Constitution), which include education, forests, trade disputes, marriage and divorce, electricity, etc. Both the Centre and the states can make laws on these matters, but in the case of a conflict between the two, the law made by Parliament shall prevail over that made by any state legislature.

Emergency Provisions in Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India contains a number of provisions for dealing with emergencies. Article 352 of the Constitution empowers the President to declare a national emergency. A national emergency can be declared on the grounds of internal disturbance or external aggression.

Internal disturbance refers to a situation where the security of India is threatened by internal factors such as riots, armed rebellion, etc. External aggression refers to a situation where the security of India is threatened by external forces such as war, invasion, etc.

Once a national emergency is declared, the President can exercise his/her discretionary powers to deal with the situation. These powers include suspending the fundamental rights of citizens, imposing censorship on the media, and detaining persons without trial.

The Constitution also provides for state emergencies under Article 356. A state emergency can be declared if the President is satisfied that there is a breakdown of law and order in a state or that the government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Once a state emergency is declared, the President can assume direct control over the administration of the state. The President can also dismiss the state government and impose president’s rule in the state. Under president’s rule, all executive and legislative powers are vested in the hands of the central government.

The Constitution contains certain safeguards to prevent abuse of power during emergencies. For instance, Article 358 suspends all Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Part III of the Constitution during an emergency but expressly states that Articles 20

Amendment Procedure

The Constitution of India can be amended in two ways. The first way is by a simple majority of the Parliament. The second way is by a special majority, which requires a two-thirds majority of the Parliament, as well as the approval of at least half of the state legislatures.

The Indian Constitution is a unique document with many important principles and values embedded within it. It has been an essential foundation for India’s growth and stability since independence, providing citizens with the rights to freedom, equality, justice, and dignity. The constitution provides a comprehensive legal framework that guarantees civil liberties while protecting fundamental rights of all individuals regardless of race, religion or gender. In short, the Indian Constitution is not only the cornerstone of our democracy but also serves as an example around the world on how constitutional law can be used to protect liberty and promote progress in society.

Manisha Dubey Jha

Manisha Dubey Jha is a skilled educational content writer with 5 years of experience. Specializing in essays and paragraphs, she’s dedicated to crafting engaging and informative content that enriches learning experiences.

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Constitution of India: Meaning, Structure, Enactment, Salient Features & Significance

Constitution of India

The Constitution of India , as the fundamental law of the land , embodies the values, principles, and governance framework of our country. It serves as the supreme law, guiding the state’s functioning and ensuring citizen’s rights and responsibilities. With its roots grounded in historical struggles, philosophical ideals, and societal aspirations, it reflects the nation’s collective journey toward democracy, justice, and equality. This article of NEXT IAS aims to explain the meaning, structure, salient features, significance, and other aspects of the Constitution of India.

What is the Meaning of Constitution?

A Constitution of a state is a fundamental set of principles or established precedents according to which the state is governed. It outlines the organization, powers, and limits of government institutions, as well as the rights and duties of citizens. It serves as the supreme law of the land , providing a framework for the functioning of the government, the protection of individual liberties, and the maintenance of social order.

What is Constitution of India?

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the Republic of India. It lays down the framework for the country’s political system, defining the powers and responsibilities of government institutions, safeguarding fundamental rights, and outlining the principles of governance. It is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country.

Constitution of India

Structure of the Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is one of the longest and most detailed written constitutions in the world. Various components of the structure of the Indian Constitution can be seen as follows:

  • The Indian Constitution is structured into various Parts, each dealing with a specific aspect of the country’s legal, administrative, or governmental framework.
  • Originally, there were 22 parts in the Constitution of India. As of now, there are 25 parts of the Indian Constitution.
  • Each part of the constitution contains several articles numbered sequentially.
  • Originally, there were 395 articles in the Constitution of India. As of now, the Indian Constitution contains 448 articles .
  • They provide clarity and supplementary details, making the Constitution more comprehensive and functional.
  • Originally, there were 8 schedules in the Constitution of India. As of now, there are 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution.

Enactment and Adoption of the Indian Constitution

  • The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946. The President of the Constituent Assembly was Dr. Rajendra Prasad .
  • On 29th August 1947, a resolution was moved in the Constituent Assembly for the appointment of a Drafting Committee to draft a permanent constitution of India. Accordingly, the Drafting Committee was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar .
  • The Drafting Committee took a total of 166 days , which was spread over 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days to prepare a draft constitution. The final draft of the Constitution was introduced in the Constituent Assembly on 4th November 1948 .
  • After many deliberations and some modifications, the Draft Constitution was declared as passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949. This is known as the “ Date of Adoption ” of the Constitution of India.
  • A few provisions of the Constitution came into force on 26th November 1949. However, the major part of the Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950, making India a sovereign republic. This date is known as the “ Date of Enactment ” of the Constitution of India.

Salient Features of the Indian Constitution

Lengthiest written constitution.

The Constitution of India is the lengthiest of all the written Constitutions of the world. It is a very comprehensive and detailed document.

  • Several factors that have contributed to its elephantine size include – the need to accommodate the vast diversity of the country, a single constitution for both the Center and States, the presence of legal experts and luminaries in the Constituent Assembly, etc.

Drawn from Various Sources

The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from the Government of India Act of 1935 as well as from the constitutions of various other countries.

Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility

Constitutions are classified into – rigid (requires a special procedure for its amendment) and flexible (can be amended in the same manner as ordinary laws are made).

  • The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible, but a synthesis of both.

Federal System with Unitary Bias

The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government and contains all the usual features of a federation. However, it also contains a large number of unitary or non-federal features.

Parliamentary Form of Government

The Constitution of India has adopted the British Parliamentary System of Government. The parliamentary system is based on the principle of cooperation and coordination between the legislative and executive organs.

Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy

The synthesis of parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy in India represents a delicate balance between the authority of the legislature to enact laws and the power of the judiciary to review and interpret these laws in light of constitutional principles.

  • While Parliament retains the ultimate authority to make laws , the judiciary serves as the guardian of the Constitution , ensuring that parliamentary actions adhere to constitutional norms and protect fundamental rights.

Integrated and Independent Judiciary

The Indian Constitution establishes an integrated and independent judicial system in the country.

  • An integrated judicial system means that a single system of courts, comprising of Supreme Court , High Courts, and Subordinate Courts, enforces both the central laws as well as the state laws.
  • An independent judicial system means that the Indian judiciary operates autonomously, free from the influence of the executive and legislative branches of government.

Fundamental Rights

The Indian Constitution guarantees 6 fundamental rights to all citizens, which promotes the idea of political democracy in the country. They operate as limitations on the tyranny of the executive and arbitrary laws of the legislature.

Directive Principles of State Policy

The Indian Constitution contains a set of principles in the form of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSPs) , which denote the ideals that the state should keep in mind while formulating policies and enacting laws.

  • The Directive Principles seek to establish a ‘Welfare State’ in India by promoting the ideal of social and economic democracy.

Fundamental Duties

The fundamental duties are a set of moral and civic obligations outlined in the Constitution of India.

  • These duties serve as a guide for citizens to contribute towards building a strong and harmonious nation.

A Secular State

The Constitution of India does not uphold any particular religion as the official religion of the Indian State. Instead, it mandates that the state treat all religions equally, refraining from favoring or discriminating against any particular religion.

Universal Adult Franchise

The Indian Constitution adopts universal adult franchise as the basis of elections to the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.

  • Every citizen who is not less than 18 years of age has a right to vote without any discrimination based on caste, race, religion, sex, literacy, wealth, and so on.

Single Citizenship

Single citizenship is a constitutional principle in India whereby all citizens irrespective of the state in which they are born or reside enjoy the same political and civil rights of citizenship all over the country, and no discrimination is made between them.

Independent Bodies

The Indian Constitution has established certain independent bodies which are envisaged as the bulwarks of the democratic system of Government in India.

Emergency Provisions

The Indian Constitution contains emergency provisions to enable the President to meet any extraordinary situation effectively.

  • The rationale behind the incorporation of these provisions is to safeguard the sovereignty, unity, integrity, and security of the country, the democratic political system, and the Constitution .

Three-tier Government

The three-tier government refers to the division of governmental powers and responsibilities among three levels- the central government, state governments, and local governments (Panchayats and Municipalities).

  • This decentralized system allows for effective governance by delegating authority to address regional and local issues, promoting participatory democracy and grassroots development.

Co-operative Societies

The 97th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2011 gave constitutional status and protection to co-operative societies.

Significance of the Constitution of India

  • Rule of Law – The Constitution establishes the framework for governance based on the rule of law, ensuring that no individual, including government officials, is above the law.
  • Protection of Rights – It guarantees fundamental rights to citizens, safeguarding their freedoms of speech, expression, religion, and more, while also providing mechanisms for legal redress if these rights are infringed upon.
  • Structure of Government – The Constitution delineates the structure of government, defining the roles, powers, and limitations of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. This separation of powers prevents the concentration of authority and promotes checks and balances.
  • Democratic Principles – Through provisions like a universal adult franchise, the constitution upholds democratic principles by ensuring citizens’ participation in governance through free and fair elections.
  • Stability and Continuity – The constitution provides stability and continuity in governance, serving as a framework for guiding successive governments and preventing abrupt changes in the political system.
  • National Unity – It fosters national unity by recognizing and respecting the diversity of the populace while also promoting a sense of common citizenship and allegiance to the nation.
  • Legal Framework – The constitution serves as the legal foundation upon which all laws and regulations are based, providing consistency and coherence in the legal system.
  • Adaptability – While providing a stable framework, the constitution also allows for necessary amendments to accommodate changing societal needs and values, ensuring its relevance over time.

Sources of the Constitution of India

  • Government of India Act of 1935 – Federal Scheme, Office of Governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions, Emergency Provisions, and Administrative Details.
  • British Constitution – Parliamentary System of Government, Rule of Law, Legislative Procedure, Single Citizenship, Cabinet System, Prerogative Writs, Parliamentary Privileges, and Bicameralism.
  • US Constitution – Fundamental Rights, Independence of the Judiciary, Judicial Review, Impeachment of the President, Removal of Supreme Court and High Court Judges, and the Post of the Vice-President.
  • Irish Constitution – Directive Principles of State Policy, the Nomination of Members to Rajya Sabha, and Method of Election of the President.
  • Canadian Constitution – Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre, appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
  • Australian Constitution – Concurrent List, Freedom of Trade, Commerce & Intercourse, and a Joint Sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
  • Weimar Constitution of Germany – Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency.
  • Soviet Constitution (USSR, now Russia) – Fundamental duties and the ideal of Justice (Social, Economic, and Political) in the Preamble.
  • French Constitution – Republic and the ideals of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity in the Preamble.
  • South African Constitution – Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha.
  • Japanese Constitution – Procedure established by law.

Various Schedules of the Indian Constitution

Parts of the constitution.

Note – Part-VII (The States in Part B of the First Schedule), has been deleted by the 7th Constitutional Amendment of 1956.

In conclusion, the Indian Constitution stands as a testament to the nation’s democratic ideals and aspirations. Its meticulous crafting, rooted in historical struggles and visionary principles, continues to guide India’s journey towards a more just, inclusive, and prosperous society. The Indian Constitution stands as a testament to upholding its values, fostering unity amidst diversity, and safeguarding the rights and liberties of every citizen, thus ensuring a brighter future for generations to come.

Related Concepts

  • Constitutionalism – Constitutionalism is a system where the Constitution is supreme and the institution’s structure and processes are governed by constitutional principles. It provides the template or framework within which the state has to carry out its operations. It also puts limitations on the government.
  • Classification of the Constitution – Constitutions across the world have been classified into the following categories and sub-categories:

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

When was the constitution of india adopted.

The Constitution of India was adopted on 26th November 1949 .

Why the Constitution of India is called a bag of Borrowing?

The Constitution of India is called a “bag of borrowing” due to its extensive adaptation of principles and provisions from various global sources. It amalgamates elements from multiple constitutions, including the British, American, Irish, Canadian, and others, reflecting India’s diverse legal heritage and democratic ideals.

Who is known as the ‘Father of Indian Constitution’?

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is regarded as the “Father of the Indian Constitution” for his pivotal role as the chairman of the Drafting Committee and his significant contributions in shaping the provisions of the Indian Constitution.

When do we Celebrate the Constitution Day?

Constitution Day also famously known as ‘Samvidhan Divas’ , is celebrated in our country on 26th November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India.

What is the Philosophy of the Constitution of India?

The philosophy of the Constitution of India revolves around several key principles such as Sovereignty, Equality, Justice, Liberty, Fraternity, Dignity, Secularism, Federalism, Democratic Principles, etc.

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Essay on Constitution of India in English for Children and Students

short essay on indian constitution

Table of Contents

Essay on Constitution of India: The constitution of India became effective on 26 th January 1950; though it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 th November 1949. It was written by a drafting committee headed by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. Therefore it is the longest written constitution that defines the power, procedures and responsibilities of the government institutions of India and gives detailed account of the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of our country.

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Target Exam ---

The original Indian Constitution is hand written, calligraphed and also the lengthiest Constitution in the world. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India drafted by the Constituent Assembly, superior even to the Parliament, as it cannot over rides it. With the Constitution coming into effect, India’s status from “Dominion of India” was changed to the “Republic of India”.

Long and Short Essay on Constitution of India in English

Here are long and short essay on Constitution of India to help you with the topic in your exam.

After going through the Constitution of India essay you will know about the features of Constitution, who was in the drafting committee of the constitution, which other constitutions is the Indian constitution inspired from, how long does it took to draft the Constitution, and other facts of the Constitution of India.

However you can use these essays in your school’s essay writing competition, debate competition or other similar events.

Short Essay on Constitution of India in 200 words

The Constitution of India drafted under the chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar who known as the Father of the Indian Constitution. It took almost three years to draft the Constitution. Various socio-political and economic aspects of the society were taken into consideration while drafting the Constitution. The drafting committee also referred to the Constitutions of various other counties including Britain, France and Japan to seek valuable inputs.

The Constitution of India includes the Fundamental Rights and Duties of the citizens, the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Federal Structure of the Government of India. Every policy, right and duty has explained at length in the Indian Constitution thereby making it the longest written Constitution in the world.

More than 2000 amendments had to made in the Constitution of India in order to get it approved. It was adopted on 26th November 1949 and enforced completely on 26 th January 1950. This was the day when our country began to be known as the Republic of India. 26 th January is since then celebrated as the Republic Day. The Indian National Flag is hoisted at various places across the country and the National Anthem is sung to rejoice the day. National Constitution Day, a special day dedicated particularly to the Indian Constitution, came into being in 2015.

Essay on Importance of Constitution of India in 300 words

The Constitution of India is known to the supreme document that gives a detailed account of what the citizens of India can and also cannot do. It has set a standard that needs to followed to ensure law and order in the society and also to help it develop and prosper.

Constitution Defines the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens

The fundamental rights and duties of the Indian citizens have clearly defined in the Constitution of the country. However the Fundamental Rights of the Indian citizens include the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights, Right against Exploitation, Right to Constitutional Remedies. Therefore these are the basic rights that all the citizens of the country entitled to irrespective of their caste, colour, creed or religion.

Some of the fundamental duties of an Indian citizen are to respect the constitution, honour the national flag and national anthem, protect the unity, preserve the heritage of the country, protect the integrity and sovereignty of India, promote the spirit of brotherhood, have compassion for living creatures, strive for excellence, protect public property and contribute his/ her bit in maintaining peace. These also mentioned at length in the Indian Constitution.

Constitution Defines the Structure and Working of the Government

The structure and working of the government also stated at length in the Constitution of India. The Constitution mentions that India has a parliamentary system of government. This system is present at the centre as well as in the states. The Prime Minister and the Union Council of Ministers have the power to take all the major decisions. The President of India, on the other hand, has nominal powers.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar along with his team of six members who were a part of the drafting committee came up with the Constitution of India. The Constitution approved after several amendments. Many amendments have also done after the enforcement of the Constitution.

Essay on Formation of Constitution of India in 400 words

The Constitution of India came into form on 26 th November 1949. A special committee formed to draft the Constitution that gives a detailed account of the practices that are deemed lawful and those deemed unlawful and are punishable. Therefore the Constitution was enforced on 26 th January 1950. With the enforcement of the Constitution, our country came to be known as the Republic of India.

Special Drafting Committee for the Constitution of India

The task of drafting the Constitution of India was that of great responsibility. The Constituent Assembly set up a special drafting committee to further this work. There were seven members in the drafting committee. These included prominent Indian leaders namely, B.R. Ambedkar, B.L. Mitter, K.M. Munshi, N. Gopalaswami Ayengar, Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, DP and Mohammad Saadullah. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee. Ambedkar referred to as the Father of the Indian Constitution. This is because it was under his guidance and supervision that this big draft came into form.

Indian Constitution – Inspired by Constitutions of Other Countries

The constitution of India drew inspiration from the constitutions of various other countries. Many of the concepts and acts included in our constitution borrowed from the constitutions of countries such as France, Germany, Japan, Australia, USA, Britain, Ireland, Russia and South Africa.

The drafting committee of the Indian Constitution also referred to the Government of India Act 1858, the Government of India Act 1919 and 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947 to get an idea about the acts and features to be included in the Constitution. These previous acts helped the committee understand the condition and requirement of the citizens of the country. Our Constitution thus often referred to as the bag of borrowings. It consisted of as many as 395 articles, 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of its enactment. It handwritten and calligraphed.

After putting in immense efforts when the drafting committee presented the final draft of the Constitution of India, it suggested to make several amendments. The committee sat together to make more than 2000 amendments to get the Constitution approved. The members conducted several discussions to make appropriate amendments for getting the approval. 284 members of the Constituent Assembly of India signed the Constitution to give their approval on the same. This done two days before the enforcement of the constitution.

The Constitution of India is a massive piece of writing that includes a detailed account of the dos and don’ts for the Indian system. It has undergone around 100 amendments since it came into form.

Essay on Constitution of India in 500 words

Constitution of india – the supreme power of country.

The Constitution of India rightly said to the supreme power of the country. The laws, codes, rights and duties mentioned in the Indian Constitution need to followed strictly by the citizens of the country. Therefore the decisions made in the parliament and Supreme Court of India are all based on the laws and codes defined in the Constitution of India. Parliament of India does not have the power to override the constitution.

Dr. B. R Ambedkar – The Chief Architect of Indian Constitution

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee formed to write the Constitution of India. He was the chairman of this committee. He contributed immensely in the formation of the Constitution by giving several valuable inputs and thus came to be known as the chief architect of the Constitution of India. There were six other members in the drafting committee which formed by the Constituent Assembly of India. These members worked under the guidance of Dr. Ambedkar.

Constitution of India Replaced Government of India Act

The Government of India Act, 1935 acted as the fundamental governing document of India until the formation of the Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India in November 1949. Many of the articles of the Constitution came into force at that time. The Constitution effectively enforced on 26 th January 1950 which came to known as the Indian Republic Day. The remaining articles became effective on this date. Our country which until then called the Dominion of the British Crown thereafter came to known as the Sovereign Democratic Republic of India.

Special Days to Celebrate the Constitution of India

The formation and enforcement of Indian Constitution celebrated at a grand scale on the Republic Day each year. Republic Day is a national holiday in the country. A massive event organized at India Gate, New Delhi on Republic Day to honour the Constitution of the country. The constitutional head of India, i.e., its president hoists national flag at Rajpath. The Prime Minister and President of India and several Chief Ministers of different states of the country are present at the event. Parades by school kids and armed forces held on Rajpath. School children also perform dances and other cultural acts. Parade of beautiful tableau displaying the culture of various Indian states also held during the event.

Several small events organized at different offices and schools throughout the country to commemorate the Indian Constitution. Painting, essay and music competitions held in schools in addition to colleges. Patriotic songs sung and aslo speeches about the Constitution of India delivered.

National Constitution Day

In the year 2015, Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, gave the suggestion to dedicate an exclusive day to our constitution. Since the Indian Constitution adopted on 26 th November 1949, this date chosen to honour the constitution. 26 th November celebrated as the National Constitution Day since 2015.

Many small and big events organized in schools, colleges and government institutions across India on this day. The importance of the Indian Constitution emphasized during these events. Patriotic songs sung and cultural activities organized to celebrate the day.

The Constitution of India has prepared with precision considering the interest of the common man as well as the overall interest of the country. It is a gift for the citizens of our country.

Long Essay on Constitution of India (600 words)

Introduction

Enforced on 26 th January 1950, the Constitution of India prepared by a committee consisting of seven members headed by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. It guides the citizens of India, the country’s government bodies and other authorities to act in the right manner. However it has played a significant role in maintaining peace and prosperity in the country.

Salient Features of the Constitution of India

Here are the top salient features of the constitution of India:

Longest Written Constitution

The Constitution of India the longest written constitution in the world. It took almost three years to write this detailed constitution. However it has a preamble, 448 articles, 25 groups, 12 schedules and 5 appendices. It is much lengthier than the US Constitution that includes only 7 Articles.

Amalgamation of Rigidity and Flexibility

The Constitution of India is a mix of rigidity and flexibility. While it is the supreme power that needs to followed diligently to maintain law and order in the country, the citizens can appeal to amend the provisions they deem outdated or stern. While certain provisions can amended with some difficulty others are easy to amend. As many as 103 amendments have done in the Constitution of our country since its enforcement.

The Preamble

The well drafted Preamble of the Indian Constitution gives a detailed account of the philosophy of the constitution. It states that India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. It is a welfare state which puts its people first. However it believes in equality, freedom and justice for its people. While democratic socialism followed right from the beginning, the term Socialism added only in 1976.

India – A Secular State

The Constitution has declared India a secular state. Therefore India does not give special status to any religion. It provides its citizens complete freedom to choose their religion. It condemns religious groups instigating people in the name of religion.

India – A Republic

The Constitution declares India to be a Republic. Therefore the country not ruled by a nominated head or monarch. It has an elected head called the President. The President, elected indirectly by the people of the country, comes to power for a period of 5 years.

India – A Mix of Federalism and Unitarianism

The Constitution describes India as a federal structure with many unitary features. It referred to as a Quasi-Federation or a Unitarian Federation. Just like a federation, India has divided power among the centre and states. It has a dual administration system. It has a written, supreme constitution that needs to followed religiously. Therefore it includes an independent judiciary embedded with the power to decide centre-state disputes. At the same time it has unitary features such as a strong common constitution, common election commission and emergency provisions to name a few.

Fundamental Duties of Citizens

The Constitution of India clearly states the fundamental duties of its citizens. Some of these are to upload and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India, respect the national flag and the national anthem, preserve the rich heritage of the country, protect the natural environment, safeguard public property and treat everyone equally.

Directive Principles of the State Policy

The Directive Principles of the State Policy also mentioned in the Constitution of India. These principles are basically the guidelines provided to the state to further socio-economic development aims via its policies.

The Constitution of India serves as a guiding light for its citizens. Therefore everything well-defined in the Indian Constitution. It has helped India attain the status of a Republic. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and the members of the drafting committee of the Indian constitution have indeed done a commendable job for which they will always remembered.

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Essay on Constitution of India FAQs

What is indian constitution short note.

The Indian Constitution is a written document that outlines the framework and rules for governing India. It defines the powers, duties, and responsibilities of the government and its citizens.

What is constitution in 100 words?

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents that a state or organization is governed by. It outlines the structure of government, establishes rights and freedoms, and provides the framework for laws and institutions.

What is constitution 10 lines?

A constitution is a written document that sets the basic rules for governing a country. It defines the structure of the government, allocates powers among different entities, protects the rights of citizens, and establishes the legal framework for the nation.

What is the Constitution of India?

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It lays down the framework that defines the political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of the government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights and duties of citizens.

Who started Constitution of India?

The drafting committee for the Constitution of India was chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. He played a pivotal role in shaping and finalizing the Constitution.

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Essay on Constitution of India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Constitution of India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Constitution of India

Introduction.

The Constitution of India is a significant document that outlines the country’s political code, structure, procedures, and powers. It is the longest written constitution in the world.

The constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chief architect.

It declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. It also provides for a parliamentary system of government which is federal in structure.

The Constitution of India serves as the guiding light, ensuring justice, equality, and fraternity among its citizens.

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250 Words Essay on Constitution of India

The Constitution of India, the world’s lengthiest written constitution, is the supreme law of India. It lays the framework demarcating fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of the government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and duties of citizens.

Historical Background

Drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected for undivided India, the Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into effect on 26th January 1950, replacing the Government of India Act (1935). The drafting committee, chaired by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, is credited for the constitution’s formulation.

Features of the Constitution

The Constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality, and liberty, and promoting fraternity. It provides a parliamentary system of government, federal in structure with unitary features.

Amendments and Adaptability

The Constitution is a living document with a dynamic approach. As of 2021, it has been amended 105 times, reflecting its flexibility. The amendment procedure is detailed in Article 368, allowing changes to meet the evolving socio-political needs.

The Indian Constitution is not merely a legal document but a vehicle of the nation’s life. It reflects the aspirations and values of its people. Despite its imperfections and criticisms, it has served as a robust framework guiding India’s progress and upholding its democratic ethos.

500 Words Essay on Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is a symbol of the nation’s sovereignty, outlining the framework that defines political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out the fundamental rights, directive principles, and duties of citizens. Adopted on 26th November 1949 and put into effect on 26th January 1950, it replaced the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.

Historical Background and Framing of the Constitution

The decision to frame a constitution for India was made in 1934 by the Indian National Congress. The drafting committee, chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, was constituted in 1947. The committee took nearly three years to draft the constitution, drawing inspiration from various sources including the British, American, Australian, Canadian, and Irish constitutions, as well as the French Declaration of the Rights of Man.

Features of the Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution is the world’s lengthiest written constitution, with a preamble and 470 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts with 12 schedules and five appendices. It declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them.

The Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government, which is federal in structure with unitary features. It also provides for a bicameral legislature consisting of an Upper House (Rajya Sabha), and a Lower House (Lok Sabha). The President of India is the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government.

Directive Principles and Fundamental Rights

The Constitution of India guarantees six fundamental rights to its citizens: right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies. These rights are aimed at ensuring individual liberty and equality.

The Directive Principles of State Policy, on the other hand, are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government. These principles, though non-justiciable, aim to establish social and economic democracy, complementing the political democracy guaranteed by the fundamental rights.

Amendments to the Constitution

The Constitution of India has a provision for amendments to maintain its relevance. These amendments are carried out under Article 368. Till now, the constitution has been amended 104 times, reflecting the dynamic nature of the constitution.

The Constitution of India has stood the test of time, accommodating the changing needs of a growing nation. It has served as a robust framework guiding the country through its journey as a democratic republic. As the supreme law of the land, it continues to protect the rights of citizens and uphold the values of justice, equality, and liberty.

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EssayBanyan.com – Collections of Essay for Students of all Class in English

Essay on Indian Constitution

Every country needs some rules and regulations that could help the country to develop. Also, it will help people to live peacefully in the country. Like many countries, India does have these rules written in the form of the Indian Constitution. India possesses an incredible constitution in the entire world. The Constitution of India spells out the basic rights and responsibilities of each citizen. But now the questions arise how these rules are made? What kind of rules does it include? Who follows these rules? To know all these details, let us discuss Indian Constitution in detail.

Short and Long Indian Constitution Essay in English

Here, we are presenting short and long essays on Indian Constitution in English for students under word limits of 100 – 150 Words, 200 – 250 words, and 500 – 600 words. This topic is useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in English. These provided essays on Indian Constitution will help you to write effective essays, paragraphs, and speeches on this topic.

Indian Constitution Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) The Indian constitution is a set of rules and laws that help the country run well.

2) The Constitution tells how the government works, its powers, and its limits.

3) India’s Constitution is the longest one in existence.

4) There is a preamble on the first page of the Constitution.

5) The Indian constitution spells out the basic rights and responsibilities of each citizen.

6) It tells the people, the government, and other authorities how to act properly.

7) No one in India can do something that goes against the constitution.

8) It was the result of the hard work of 299 people.

9) The formation of the constitution of India was headed by Dr. Ambedkar.

10)  On January 26, 1949, the constitution of India was done and signed.

Short Essay on Indian Constitution (250 – 300 Words)

Introduction

India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic Republic that is run by parliament. This made it unique from the rest countries. India went from being called the “Dominion of India” to being called the “Republic of India” when the Constitution went into effect.

A Look at Indian Constitution

India’s political rules, procedures, and government powers are all set out in the constitution. People like Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, and many more were the prominent members of the Constituent Assembly. It spells out the Directive Principles of State Policy and the way the Government of India is set up. The Indian constitution also says how long the government will last and how it will be set up.

The Making of Indian Constitution

The Indian Constitution holds the record for the longest-written constitution in the world. It explains every law, power, and duty. The Constitution of India was made by Dr. BR Ambedkar and his team of six people who were on the committee. The writing committee also looked at the constitutions of Britain, France, and Japan, among other countries, to find useful ideas. During the writing of the constitution, many social, political, and economic factors were taken into account.

Our country is a democratic republic. A country’s Constitution is a set of rules and laws that guide how the country is run. In the eyes of the Constitution, everyone is the same. In his eyes, no one is small, no one is big, and no one is rich or poor. We should follow our constitution.

Long Essay on Indian Constitution (500 Words)

India got its independence on August 15, 1947. India had to deal with a lot of problems after it got its freedom. There was a need of making a constitution so that the country could be ruled. It was January 26, 1950, when India became a republic. The Constitution of India is also known as India’s highest law. The Indian Constitution is known for the biggest constitution in the world. In everyday language, it is also called the “Book of Law”.

History of Indian Constitution

After independence, the constitution of India was made. To write the constitution, Rajendra Prasad led a group of people who were in charge of the constitution. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was in charge of making the Constitution of India. On December 9, 1946, the first meeting of the new Constituent Assembly took place. The next meeting was held on December 11, 1946, and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was in charge.

To get it passed, the Constitution of India was changed more than 2,000 times. In 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days, the country’s constitution was ready. The Constitution of India was signed by 284 people in the Constituent Assembly of India to show that they agreed with it. It was passed on November 26, 1949, and was fully put into place on January 26, 1950. India became a free and democratic country on January 26, 1950, when it went into effect.

Features of Indian Constitution

India is a Republic, which is written in the Constitution. The Constitution of India is known as the most important document because it explains in detail what each citizen of India has to do and what rights they have. It is the world’s longest-written constitution. It is made up of a preamble, 448 articles, 25 groups, 12 schedules, and 5 appendices. The well-written Preamble of the Indian Constitution explains in depth what the constitution is all about. It thinks that everyone should have the same rights, freedom, and justice.

Our Constitution is written in a way that leaves no room for confusion. The original Indian Constitution was written by hand and in a style called calligraphy. The Constitution of India was made by the country people. There is no outside influence at all. The Constitution says that India is a federal system with many features of a unitary system. India has split power between the central government and the states. The Constitution of India is very clear about what its citizens have to do.

Our constitution is unique. The constitution of India is a present for the people who live in this country. It has been a big part of keeping peace and prosperity in the country. The Constitution of India is a guide for the people who live here. So, the Indian Constitution is clear about everything. We should follow the duties and enjoy the rights provided to us as Indian citizens.

I hope the above provided essay on Indian Constitution will be helpful in understanding the history and features of the Indian Constitution.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Indian Constitution

Ans. On 26 November, India celebrates Constitution Day every year.

Ans. Dr. B.R Ambedkar is considered the “Father of the Indian Constitution”.

Ans. It took almost three years (2 years, 11 months, and 18 days) to draft the Indian constitution.

Ans. At first, there were 395 Articles, 22 Parts, and 8 Schedules in the Constitution of India. The Constitution now has 448 Articles, 25 Parts, and 12 Schedules.

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Essay on Constitution of India for Students and Children in 1000 Words

Essay on Constitution of India for Students and Children in 1000 Words

In this article, you will read about Constitution of India, its background, Constituent Assembly, Membership, Drafting, Structure.

Table of Contents

Essay on Constitution of India (1000 Words)

The supreme law of India is known as the Constitution of India. The framework of demarcating fundamental political code laid down in the documents, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of state institutions. It sets out fundamental rights , directive principles, and, therefore, the responsibilities of citizens.

It’s the longest written constitution of any country on earth. The chief architect of the IConstitution of India considered as B. R. Ambedkar , who was chairman of the drafting committee.

Constitutional supremacy imparted into the Indian Constitution, not parliamentary sovereignty since it had been created by a constituent assembly instead of Parliament and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble.

The Constitution B. R. Ambedkar cannot override by the Parliament and Constitution of India on the 2015 India postage. It was embraced by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and has become effective on 26 January 1950.

The Constitution replaced the Govt. of India Act, 1935, because the country’s fundamental governing document, and therefore the Dominion of India, became the Republic of India. The framers repealed prior acts of the British Parliament in Article 395 to make sure constitutional autochthony. On 26 January, India celebrates its constitution acceptance day as Republic Day.

Background of Indian Constitution

British ruled from 1857 to 1947 most of the Indian subcontinent. From 1947 to 1950, equivalent legislation continued to implement as India was a dominion of England for three years, as each princely state was encouraged by V. P. Menon and Sardar Patel to sign the articles of assimilation with India.

Therefore, the British government continued to be liable for the external security of the country. Constitution of India repealed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935, when it became valid on 26 January 1950.

India stopped to be a dominion of the British Crown and have become a sovereign democratic republic with the Constitution. Articles 5, 6, 7, 9, 8, 60, 324, 367, 366, 379, 388, 394, 391, 393, 392, and 380 of the Constitution came into force on 26 November 1949, and therefore on 26 January 1950, the remaining articles became effective.

Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly, which was elected by members elected by the provincial assemblies, drafted the Constitution. The 299-member assembly (which reduced from 389 after the partition of India) drafted the Constitution, which took almost three years, holding eleven sessions over 165 days.

B. R. Ambedkar had studied the constitutions of about 60 countries as a wise constitutional expert; he was a thoughtful legal expert. Ambedkar recognized because of the “Father of the Constitution of India.” Within the constitution assembly, a member of the drafting committee, T. T. Krishnamachari, said: “Mr. President, Sir, I’m one among those within the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar carefully.

I’m conscious of the quantity of labor and enthusiasm that he has delivered to bear on the work of drafting this Constitution. At an equivalent time, I realize that quantity of attention that was necessary for the aim of drafting a constitution so important to us at this moment has not been given to it by the Drafting Committee.

The home is perhaps aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had resigned from the House and was replaced. One died and wasn’t replaced. Another one was away in America, and his place filled up, and another person was involved in State matters, and there was a void to its extent.

One or two people were distant from Delhi, and maybe reasons of health didn’t permit them to attend. The burden of drafting this Constitution ultimately fell on Dr. Ambedkar and that I haven’t any hesitation that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task during a manner which is undoubtedly commendable.”

Membership in Constitution of India

B. R. Ambedkar, C. Rajagopalachari Sanjay Phakey, Vallabhbhai Patel , Jawaharlal Nehru , Rajendra Prasad, Sandipkumar Patel, KanaiyalalManeklal Munshi, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Abul Kalam Azad, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, and Balwantrai Mehta were vital figures within the assembly, which had over 30 representatives of the scheduled classes.

The Anglo-Indian community represented by Frank Anthony and, therefore, the H. P. Modi. Harendra Coomar Mookerjee represented the Parsis community, a Christian assembly vice-president, chaired the minorities committee, and represented non-Anglo-Indian Christians. Ari Bahadur Gurung represented the Gorkha community.

Judges, like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, K. M. Munshi, Benegal Narsing Rau, and Ganesh Mavalankar, were members of the assembly. Female members included Sarojini Naidu, Durgabai Deshmukh Hansa Mehta, Amrit Kaur, and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit. Sachchidananda Sinha, who was the first two-day president of the assembly; Rajendra Prasad was later elected president. The group met for the first time on 9 December 1946.

Drafting of Constitution of India

In the International Court of Justice, an official Benegal Narsing Rau who became the primary Indian judge & was president of the UNSC appointed in 1946 as the assembly’s constitutional adviser. The Constitution’s general structure was his responsible; Rau prepared its initial draft in February 1948. Committees were proposed at the 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly.

The selection considered, debated, and amended by the eight-person drafting committee, appointed by B. R. Ambedkar, who was in the chair on 29 August 1947 with A revised draft constitution prepared by the committee and presented to the assembly on 4 November 1947.

While deliberating the revised draft constitution, the meeting moved, discussed, and disposed of 2,473 amendments out of a complete of seven, 635. The meeting held eleven sessions in 165 days before adopting the Constitution.

The Constitution embraced on 26 November 1949, which was signed by 284 members. The day is widely known as National Law Day or Constitution Day; the day chosen to widespread the significance of the Constitution and to spread thoughts and concepts of Ambedkar.

A bespectacled Nehru is bending over an outsized book, Jawaharlal Nehru signing the Constitution at the assembly’s final session convened on 24 January 1950. Two copies of the Constitution were signed by each member, one in Hindi and, therefore, the other in English. In the original Constitution, each page is hand-written, decorated by artists from Shantiniketan, including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose.

Its calligrapher was Prem Behari Narain Raizada. In Dehradun, the Constitution was published and photo lithographed by the Survey of India. Production of the first Constitution took nearly five years.

On 26 January 1950, which was two days later, it became the law of India. The approximate cost of the Constituent Assembly was ₹6.3 crore (₹63 million). The Constitution has had quite 100 amendments since it had enacted.

Structure of Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the world’s lengthiest for an autonomous nation. At its legislation, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and eight schedules. At about 145,000 words, it’s the second-longest active Constitution – after the Constitution of Alabama – within the world.

The Constitution features a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it’s been amended 103 times; the newest amendment became effective on 14 January 2019.

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short essay on indian constitution

Constitution of India: Historical Background

The Constitution of India holds a unique place in the country’s history. This is because it created a sovereign republic that is the modern state of India. The history of the Constitution offers some interesting insights into the state of affairs before Independence. It took persistent efforts for several years to draft and enact our Constitution.

History of the Constitution

Constitution of India

The Indian Constitution is one of the most comprehensive documents of its kind. Apart from being the longest, it is also famous for containing all minute details governing the Indian state.

Before Independence, India consisted of two entities: the British government and the princely states. It is the Constitution which formally ended these two distinctions and created the Union of India.

The Constitution of India is its lex loci,  i.e. the parent of all laws in India. This basically means that all laws of Parliament and state legislatures derive their authority from the Constitution. Even the three pillars of the Indian state – legislature, executive and judiciary- derive authority from the Constitution.

Without the Constitution, we would not have the administrative machinery which runs India. Even the fundamental rights and duties of the people would not exist without the Constitution.

Browse more Topics under Indian Constitution

  • Features of the Indian Constitution
  • Union and Its Territory (Article 1 – 4)
  • Citizenship (Article 5-11)
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Equality
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Freedom
  • Fundamental Rights – Right against Exploitation (Very Short Article)
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Freedom of Religion
  • Fundamental Rights – Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Fundamental Rights – Saving of Certain Laws
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Directive Principles of State Policy
  • Emergency Provision and Special Provisions of the Indian Constitution
  • Indian Parliament – Structure of Indian Parliament
  • Indian Parliament – Functions of Indian Parliament

History of Indian Constitution

The history of the Constitution of India is very insightful as it explains exactly how it came into being. It also explains why India chose the Parliamentary form of democracy in its modern form.

The British came to India in the 17th century initially for trading only. Eventually, after slowly gaining more power, they attained the rights to collect revenue and govern themselves. In order to do this, they enacted various laws, rules and regulations.

According to the Charter Act of 1833, the Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India. It also created a Central Legislature, which, in a way, made the British supreme rulers of India.

The rule of the Company itself finally ended with the Government of India Act in 1858. As a result, the British Crown became ruler of India and administered the country through its government.

The Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909 started giving representation to Indians in the Viceroy’s councils. They also restored legislative powers back to some provinces. In other words, they adopted decentralization of powers between the Centre and the provinces.

The Government of India Act, 1919

According to this Act, legislative councils came into existence in all provinces of the government. In other words, the British adopted a bicameral structure with separate central and provincial governments. This was also the first time when people could elect their own representatives through direct elections . The Constitution later adopted this quasi-federal and bicameral structure.

The Government of India Act, 1935

The enactment of this law is one of the most important events in the history of the Constitution. Firstly, this law divided powers of governance into a Federal List, a Provincial List and a Concurrent List. Even the Indian Constitution adopted such division of powers between the Central and state governments.

Secondly, this Act granted more autonomy of self-governance to the provinces. It even established the Federal Court, which we now refer to as the Supreme Court of India.

The Indian Independence Act of 1947

This Act marks the final step in the departure of the British from India. India became a truly independent and sovereign state after this Act. The Act established governments at the central and provincial levels. It also laid down the foundation of the Constituent Assembly.

Constituent Assembly

Members of the provisional assemblies indirectly elected members of the Constituent Assembly. This assembly served as the first ‘Parliament’ of independent India and first met on 9 December 1946 in Delhi. After Independence, the Assembly elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as its Chairman and began drafting the Constitution.

Dr Ambedkar became the head of the Drafting Committee. This is why he is called the Father of the Constitution. After more than two years of deliberations, the Assembly finally approved the Constitution on 26 November 1949. This is why we celebrate this day as Constitution Day today.

The Assembly finally adopted the Constitution on 26 January 1950. India formally became a sovereign republic that day. This is why we celebrate 26 January as India’s Republic Day.

Questions on History of the Constitution

Question: State the missing words in the following sentences.

(a) The three pillars of the Indian state derive their authority from the __________.

(b) The __________ Act allowed Indians to elect their representatives for the first time.

(c) __________ was the chairman of the Constituent Assembly.

(d) India celebrates Constitution Day on __________.

Answers:           (a) Constitution          (b) Government of India Act, 1919          (c) Rajendra Prasad          (d) 26 November

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Indian Constitution

  • Union and Its Territory (Article 1 – 4)
  • Fundamental Rights – Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Equality
  • Fundamental Rights – Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Indian Parliament – Functions of Indian Parliament
  • Indian Parliament – Structure of Indian Parliament

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Fundamental Rights Essay

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Essay on Fundamental Rights

The history of Fundamental Rights (which were lawfully enforceable) probably starts from the Magna Carta, which was a list of Rights extracted from King John by the people of England in 1214 AD. The most significant advancement in the history of Fundamental Rights occurred when through the first 10 amendments, the USA incorporated certain Fundamental Rights into its constitution in the form of the "Bill of Rights." In this Essay on Fundamental Rights, we shall talk about the various Rights provided to Indian citizens and what they stand for.

Long Fundamental Rights Essay in English  

Fundamental Rights were borrowed from the constitution of the United States of America.

The constituent assembly of India adopted the constitution of India on 26th November 1949, which came into effect on 26th January 1950. It contains 395 Articles, 22 Parts, and 12 Schedules. Part III (Articles 12 to 35) of the Constitution of India consists of Rights which are essential for the overall development of individuals, are also termed as Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights are universal, that is, they apply to all the citizens of India irrespective of their race, birthplace, Religion, caste, gender or gender identity. Earlier there were seven Fundamental Rights, but later on the ‘Right to Property’ was abolished. Currently, we have six Fundamental Rights.

Right to Equality

The Right to EQuality is guaranteed by the constitution of India through articles 14 to 18 (of which article 14 is the most important). Right to EQuality refers to everyone being equal in the eyes of the law. It prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, caste, creed etc by providing equal opportunity for employment. The article also abolishes untouchability and titles.

Right to Freedom

Articles 19 to 22 guarantee the Right to Freedom in the constitution of India. It guarantees all Indian citizens with Freedom of speech and expression; Freedom to assemble peacefully; Freedom for forming cooperative societies or unions or companies; Freedom to move freely in India; Freedom to reside or settle anywhere in India and the Freedom to practice any profession or carry on any occupation, trade or business of their choice. Although the government has the right to impose certain restrictions on these Freedoms in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India.

Right to Information has been given the status of a Fundamental right in 2005, under article 19(1) of the Indian Constitution.

Right Against Exploitation

Articles 23 and 24 guarantees the right against Exploitation and focuses mainly on two provisions. The first being the abolition of human trafficking and Begar (Forced Labour) and secondly, the abolition of employment of children under the age of 14 in jobs with a risky environment like factories, mines etc.

Right to Freedom of Religion

Articles 25 to 28 provide religious Freedom to all Indian citizens. The main objective of this right is to sustain secularism in our country. It assures that all Religions are equal in the eyes of the state and none of them is given preference over the other. It allows the citizens to preach, practise, and propagate the Religion of their choice. It also provides religious communities to set up charitable institutions.

Cultural and Educational Rights

Articles 29 and 30 provide every Indian citizen with Rights to education and cultures. It assures that every citizen gets equal opportunities in terms of education while giving minority communities the right to admission in colleges and universities without any discrimination. It also gives minority communities the right to establish Educational institutions to preserve and develop their culture.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

Articles 32 to 35 empowers all Indian citizens to move to the court of law whenever they are denied their Fundamental Rights. Article 32 is also termed as the citizens right to protect and defend the constitution as it allows the citizens to enforce the constitution through the judiciary.

The main objective of Right to Constitutional Remedies is to enforce Fundamental Rights.

Short Fundamental Rights Essay in English

Fundamental Rights are considered the Rights that are integral to the advancement of the human race. All other Rights are derived as direct consequences or application of their principles from such Rights. Among philosophers, it is an accepted belief that these Rights are nothing but "natural human Rights" that distinguish between humans and animals. So, these have played a rather important role in bringing humans all the way from the Stone Age to the present. It was regarded that such Rights were beyond the complexities of politics. The constitution's protection meant that these Rights could not be put to the vote and were not dependent on politicians or the majority's whims.

Why do we Need Fundamental Rights?

Such Rights are a safeguard for citizens against the government as it is necessary to have the rule of law and not a government or a person. These Rights do not dare to be transgressed by authority as they are explicitly given to the people by the Constitution. The courts are fully required to uphold these Rights and the government is answerable to the courts. After living in subjugation for so long, people have forgotten what liberty means. These Rights offer people the hope and belief that their growth will not be halted. They're free from the rulers' whims. These Rights are, in that sense, the first fruits of the long struggle for Freedom and bring a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment.

Even in Gulf countries or Communist countries, citizens are free. How is our liberty, then, different from theirs? A clear measure of how free we are in the list of Fundamental Rights. For example, every Indian citizen is free to practice a Religion of his choice, but that is not the case in Gulf countries. Our right to speech and expression enables us to criticize the government freely.

In conclusion, we can say that the Indian constitution was framed after a thorough analysis of all the constitutions in the world, and successfully incorporates all the good things existing in them.

Though the above content provided information about Fundamental Rights, it also gave you an outline of how an Essay should be written. 

The Essay on Fundamental Rights contained some information about the topic and talked about long and short Essays.

Students might find it difficult to understand how they shall proceed whenever asked to write on any topic. 

Since writing is a free form of expression and requires limited skills, there are no rules to it. But, in these times, when everything is advancing, you're expected to be able to deliver the best content. 

To equip them with the relevant points, there are some tips listed below. 

Go through them and master the skill of writing, thereafter! 

Read and Understand the Prompt Before you can start writing, it is important for you to understand the prompt that you're offered. Without comprehending what you've asked to do, your content would never be impactful. The best way to understand it is to dissect it into parts. You might also consider making a small flowchart that clearly defines the flow of ideas in your head. Students shall understand that it is better to spend the first few minutes planning and organising things than to present an unorganised and unclear content. This in no way means that you have to adopt a formulaic approach to it but just try to deliver the best that they can. 

Plan the Flow The next important thing for you to do is pen down the flow of points, as specific as the alphabet. Each point should have a ‘what next’ factor attached to it and that is how you can expect yourself to deliver higher Quality content. The importance of working in a planned and organised way is not unknown to any of us and that is what can help us move ahead with the ideas in our heads. Preparing a web with all the details is a great way to do it. 

Make a Rough Draft Brainstorming and organising all that you have inside your head related to a particular topic is a good way before you deliver. Students are advised to prepare a small, concise, rough draft of their topics. Drafts are often regarded as crappy stuff but the truth is that it makes you analyse and rethink whatever you've thought till then. And there's where the new flow of ideas comes from. Make sure that your content is answering and giving the information of the prompt. 

Follow a Simple Format Students often think that complicating the format or using too many fancy words in a piece of content impresses the reader and that fetches you more marks. However, it doesn't work this way. For good content, words must be easy to understand and they should always have a relatability factor attached so that it becomes easier for the audience to connect and understand whatever you are trying to convey. 

Proofread your Content Last but not least, the most important step to do before finalising the content is to proofread it. When we try to pen down things, we often make mistakes. However, reading it once again allows you to study it again and check for mistakes. In case that you've missed anything important, you can further review and add that piece of information too. It may take a little more time of yours but the results would be worth it.

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FAQs on Fundamental Rights Essay

1. What do we Conclude from this Essay on Fundamental Rights?

We can conclude that the Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian Constitution act as a guarantee that as long as they live in Indian democracy, all Indian citizens can and will lead their lives in peace. Such civil liberties prevail over any other law of the land. Fundamental rights protect the citizen’s freedom, rights and liberties from any state invasion, and prevent the establishment of authoritarian and dictatorial rule in the country. They are very essential for the all-round progress of the people and the nation.

2. Which is the most important Fundamental Right?

The most important fundamental right is considered to be the Right to Constitutional Remedies because it ensures the protection of our fundamental rights. In the event of a violation of their fundamental rights, it helps citizens move to court. It also finds that the government does not violate or disrespect citizens' fundamental rights.

3. Can I use and cite resources while writing an Essay? 

Of course, you can. In fact, resources make the content more interesting and engaging. Another advantage of using them is that it promotes research. However, you shall make sure the content should be rephrased and not plagiarized. For better clarity and understanding, you can go through some of the sample Essays available online. But, remember, the more you write, the more you learn. Hence, you need to practice writing on as many topics as possible and that way, you can upraise your skills.

4. How should an Essay be written? What should be its format? 

The best way to write it is using a simpler format. It shall start with an introduction, have the body in between and should necessarily end with a conclusion. Make sure that whatever ideas you are putting forth to your readers should make absolute sense. Students can consider checking the prompts given on the website of Vedantu and practice writing about them to get better at it. 

5. Can the body of the Essay be divided into small paragraphs? 

Absolutely! In fact, it is the best way to present any piece of content. It makes your work look more organised and neat. Apart from this, if we consider the viewpoint of humans, they would prefer reading short paragraphs rather than big stories and that’s how you shall proceed. To understand it better, review the sample Essays available on the Vedantu website and their App.

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Essay on Article 370 of Indian Constitution

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provided special rights to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It gave most of the power to the government of this state. Centre was left with limited power over J&K.

Article 370 has recently been scrapped making it a historic event which is expected to change the face of the state for good. This move has received mixed reactions from political parties and general public though it has largely been appreciated.

Long and Short Essay on Article 370 of Indian Constitution in English

Here are long and short essay on Article 370 of the Indian Constitution of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exams. These Article 370 essay are written in simple English language to easily convey the information, yet it does so effectively. These Article 370 essays will let you have a deeper understanding of article 370, its removal and repercussions.

After going through the following essays you will know about Article 370 and its provisions; history of Article 370; advantages and disadvantages of Article 370; how was it revoked; what will be the consequences of scrapping Article 370; what bills were passed for its revokal, etc.

Short Essay on Article 370 – (200 Words)

Article 370 that came into effect in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in the year 1949 was supposed to be a temporary provision; however, it continued for decades even though many political leaders and other prominent people in the county demanded its revocation from time to time.

The article exempted J&K from the Indian Constitution. The state attained the right to make its own laws related to any matter except foreign affairs, communications and defence.

The state government thus went on to draft a separate constitution. It also came up with a separate flag. The Fundamental Duties mentioned in the Indian Constitution were not applicable in J&K. It had its own set of rights and duties.

The condition of the state hasn’t been very good ever since the enforcement of Article 370. Life of people in the Kashmir region has especially been miserable. The place is prone to terrorist attacks.

Article 370 has been seen as a hindrance in the development of the state. It is also known to be a cause of growing corruption and terrorism in the state.

As per the constitutional order passed by Indian President Ram Nath Kovind on 5 th August 2019, Article 370 stands ineffective. The decision has been taken to improve the condition of J&K and its citizens.

Essay on Article 370: Enforcement – (300 Words)

Introduction

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution was drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions. However, soon after it came to be known as a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution. It has remained in effect in J&K for decades.

The Origin of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution

Article 370 was drafted by Sheikh Abdullah in the year 1947. Abdullah had been appointed as the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir by Pundit Jawahar Lal Nehru and Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir.

Abdullah wanted complete autonomy for J&K and demanded that Article 370 must not remain a temporary provision. However, the Centre deemed this demand unreasonable and did not approve of it.

Special Status Given to Jammu and Kashmir

As Article 370 came into being, the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir gained special power wherein it got the right to recommend the articles of the constitution that should be enforced on the state. It even got the power to annul Article 370 altogether.

Article 35 A and Article 370 together stated that a different set of laws apply for the residents of the state of J&K. The Indian Parliament could only exercise laws related to finance, defence, communications and foreign affairs in the state.

It required the approval of state government for applying all the other laws. The residents of J&K enjoyed completely different laws when it came to ownership of property, laws related to citizenship and fundamental rights.

As per the laws enforced by the state, the Indian citizens from other parts of the country were denied the right to purchase property in Jammu and Kashmir.

The residents of J&K fear that the scrapping of Article 370 may hamper their local business and thus be a threat to their livelihood. Adapting to the changes that are likely to follow this big decision also seems to be a cause of concern for the residents of J&K. Their concerns are genuine. We hope the condition of the place improves henceforth.

Essay on Article 370: Advantages and Disadvantages – (400 words)

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution that gave special power to the state of Jammu and Kashmir was annulled on 5 th August 2019. The decision taken by the Centre has been appreciated by several political parties, leaders, celebrities and majority of general public. However, many others have criticized it outright. Article 370 had few advantages and several disadvantages.

Advantages of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution

Here is a look at the advantages of Article 370:

1) Article 370 is advantageous for the citizens of J&K. The state gives priority to the interest of its local citizens. There is less competition in the state and greater opportunities for its citizens.

2) J&K boasts of its local handicraft items. The government of this state has kept its culture and local businesses alive. It has always encouraged local businesses over foreign brands.

This is the reason why several local brands are running in the state. This means more work, greater growth opportunities and good income for the locals.

Disadvantages of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution

Here is a look at the disadvantages of Article 370:

1) The state of J&K hasn’t developed as much as the other parts of the country. This is particularly true when we look at the medical facilities here. The condition of the hospitals and healthcare centres in the state are not that good.

2) The law and order in J&K is weak because the centre is not allowed to intervene. This has given rise to terrorism in the state. Terrorism is a major concern here and nothing much is being done to fight it.

3) Corruption in the state is high due to its alienation from the centre. There is no check on the government of J&K. It makes its own laws and works as per its convenience.

4) Article 370 prevented the implementation of Right to Education in the state. This is why students were forced to move to other states.

5) Outsiders cannot establish business in J&K. Professionals and industrialists are not allowed to settle here. This is a major hindrance in the growth and development of the state.

6) This provision is anti- women in nature. It has led to extreme gender bias in the state.

The disadvantages of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution clearly outweigh its advantages. The atmosphere of tension in the state is a clear evidence of the same. Scrapping of Article 370 seems like a ray of hope for the state that has been gripped by terrorism since long. We hope it sees better times ahead.

Long Essay on Article 370 – (500 words)

Article 370 is a temporary provision in the Constitution of India. It provides special autonomous status to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The provisions of the Indian Constitution that are applicable to other states of India are not applicable to J&K.

The article was adopted in November 1956 and was enforced in the state in January 1957 by Sheikh Abdullah.

Special Provisions in Jammu and Kashmir as per Article 370

Some special provisions were made in Jammu and Kashmir as Article 370 came into force in the state. These include:

  • J&K acquired different national flag.
  • Insulting the national flag and national symbols is considered a crime in India. It is a punishable offence. But this rule did not apply in J&K.
  • The highest court orders in India did not apply in J&K.
  • Jammu and Kashmir citizens enjoyed dual citizenship.
  • Women in Kashmir had to abide by the Sharia law.
  • The tenure of the Assembly of J&K was 6 years unlike other Indian states in which the Assembly tenure is 5 years.
  • RTI, RTE and CAG were not applicable in Kashmir.
  • The J&K citizenship of a woman who married a person from another Indian state ended. On the other hand, if a woman from the state married someone from Pakistan, he acquired J&K citizenship.
  • If a Pakistani married a Kashmiri girl, he acquired Indian citizenship.
  • Article 370 did not allow people from other states to purchase property in J&K.
  • The minority group in Kashmir that consists of Hindus and Sikhs did not get 16% reservation.

Changes after the Revocation of Article 370

Now that Article 370 has been revoked, Jammu and Kashmir will no longer enjoy the autonomous status. All the special powers that came with this article have been annulled. Here are some of the other changes that are being brought about:

  • All the residents of J&K shall be entitled to single citizenship only.
  • Article 360 that is enforced during financial emergency is now applicable in J&K.
  • People from other states shall be able to purchase property in J&K.
  • Duration of Legislative Assembly has been changed to 5 years.
  • RTI will be applicable in J&K.
  • Minorities will be eligible for 16% reservation.
  • Children will benefit from the Right to Education.
  • Directive Principle of State Policy shall be applicable.
  • J&K will not have a separate flag.

The Atmosphere in J&K as Article 370 Revoked

J&K’s prominent leaders, Omar Abdullah, Sajjad Lone and Mehbooba Mufti were under house arrest as the bill for abolition of Article 370 was passed in the Rajya Sabha.

Internet and mobile services in Kashmir’s Srinagar district were suspended and a ban imposed on all public gatherings.

With so many changes underway after the revocation of Article 370, it seems like J&K will finally experience peace and prosperity. This is just the first step towards the betterment of the state.

There are miles to go! Whether the decision taken by Centre is right or wrong is still being debated. We hope it proves to be beneficial for the state as well as the country as a whole.

Long Essay on Article 370: Revocation – (600 words)

Article 370 was enforced by Sheikh Abdullah on 26 th January 1957. The article gave special power to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. This was a temporary provision.

However, it remained in force for decades. Even though many political leaders and other prominent people in the country suggested its revocation from time to time, it remained intact; however, it has finally been annulled.

Indian President, Ram Nath Kovind issued constitutional order to revoke Article 370 and apply all the rules and provisions of the Indian constitution to Jammu and Kashmir. This historic move was made on 5 th August 2019.

Bill to Revoke Provisions of Article 370

Union Home Minister, Amit Shah, moved a resolution in Rajya Sabha to introduce a bill scrapping all the provisions of Article 370. This was approved by President Ram Nath Kovind.

Shah also introduced bills seeking bifurcation of the State into Jammu and Kashmir as a Union Territory with an Assembly and Ladakh as a Union Territory without a legislature.

The opposition benches protested against this resolution; however, the decision has been made. Revoking Article 370 of the Indian Constitution had been a major part of BJP’s agenda. Shah’s announcement was thus received with elation by the BJP leaders.

Mixed Reactions on Revocation of Article 370

While many political parties opposed the decision to scrap Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, several others extended their support to the BJP government.

Parties that Supported the Decision

Among those that showed support to this decision were the Aam Aadmi Party,   Bahujan Samaj Party, Shiv Sena, AIADMK, Shiromani Akali Dal, YSR Congress, Telugu Desam Party, Biju Janata Dal, BPF and AGP. All these parties backed the Centre’s decision.

Many of them mentioned that they awaited this move since long and welcome the decision wholeheartedly. They now look forward to peace and development in J&K. The decision of scrapping Article 370 has been termed as bold and courageous.

BSP member, Satish Chandra Misra was among the first ones in the Rajya Sabha to support this move. Mayawati also extended support to the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir.

AIADMK mentioned that their leader, Jayalalithaa had always wanted this. Shiv Sena members expressed their joy and support by celebrating outside their party head office.

BJD members said that with this decision, Jammu and Kashmir has become an integral part of the country and they are glad about it.

Parties that Opposed the Decision

The parties those opposed the Centre’s decision to revoke Article 370 include Congress, Trinamool Congress, Nationalist Congress Party, Janata Dal (United), Rashtriya Janta Dal, Left, National Conference, DMK and People’s Democratic Party. All these parties condemned and criticised the resolution.

Congress members mentioned that this was a “catastrophic step” and it should be seen as a “black day” in the constitutional history of our country. It further said that this decision is a publicity stunt by BJP to fetch more votes. Likewise, Left mentioned that it is an attack on the Indian Constitution.

Members of People’s Democratic Party expressed their anger over the decision by shouting slogans and tearing copies of Indian Constitution. National Conference called the decision shocking and unilateral. Trinamool Congress also expressed its objection against the Centre’s decision.

DMK went on to say that this was simply the murder of democracy. It said that BJP is forcing its agenda and that it has no respect for the sentiments of the Jammu and Kashmir residents.

Revocation of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is indeed a big decision. A major change in J&K is likely underway now. We hope things change for good for this beautiful state which has long struggled for peace and justice. The Centre must make special efforts to resurrect J&K and make it a better and safer place to live.

Related Information:

Essay on Article 35A of Indian Constitution

Speech on Article 370 of Constitution of India

Essay on Article 15 of Indian Constitution

Speech on Constitution of India

Speech on National Constitution Day

Essay on National Constitution Day

Essay on Constitution of India

Essay on Section 377 of Indian Penal Code

Find More Information about Indian Independence Day:

Indian Independence Day  |  Independence Day Essay  |  Importance of Independence Day in India Essay  |  Independence Day Speech  |  Speech on Independence Day for Teachers  |  Independence Day Speech for Principal  |  Slogans on Independence Day  |  Paragraph on Independence Day  |  Facts about Independence Day of India  |  Speech on 15 August 1947 by Nehru  |  Independence Day Quotes  |  Live Celebration Ceremony of 69th Independence Day of India at Red Fort Delhi  |  President’s Address to the Nation on the eve of Independence Day

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