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How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style | Format & Examples

Published on December 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 27, 2023.

The format for citing someone else’s dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

To cite a dissertation or thesis from a database, use the following format. In the square brackets, specify the type of dissertation or thesis and the university. As with other database sources, no URL or DOI is included.

Table of contents

Citing a dissertation published elsewhere, citing an unpublished dissertation in apa style.

To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form ) or on a personal website, the format differs in that no publication number is included, and you do list a URL.

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how to cite doctoral thesis apa

To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add “Unpublished” to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets.

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Caulfield, J. (2023, December 27). How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 12, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/dissertation/

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

  • Parenthetical :  (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
  • Narrative :  Ames & Doughty (1911)

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

  • The institution is presented in brackets after the title
  • The archive or database name is included

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

  • Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

  • Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
  • Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
  • Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
  • Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

  • Undergraduate thesis
  • Master’s thesis
  • Doctoral dissertation

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

  • Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
  • Year published
  • Title of thesis or dissertation
  • If it is unpublished
  • Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
  • Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Name of institution awarding degree
  • DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

  • Unpublished thesis or dissertation
  • Published thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format

Dissertations & Theses

Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted: 

Examples: 

Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global: 

Reference:  

Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  

(Banks, 2020).

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Banks, 2020, p. 157).

Master's thesis from a University scholarship database: 

Sears, L. B. (2017). The public voice and sustainable food systems: Community engagement in food action plans [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Kansas.  https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/26899  

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sears, 2017). 

(Sears, 2017, p. 24). 

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to page 333 of the APA Manual (7th Edition) for more information.

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General Rule:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis  (Publication No. #) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Name of Database.

Davis, P. M. (2010). Access, readership, citations: A randomized controlled trial of scientific journal publishing . (Publication No.   3429815 )  [Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University].  ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.  

Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis  [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution]. Name of Website. URL

Buckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids [Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT.  https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/33821

Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis  [Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis]. Name of Institution.

Long, R.P. (1972). A study of instructional objectives and methods for interpersonal communication. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. West Virginia University.

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Dissertation or thesis available from a database service:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Retrieved from Name of database.  (Accession or Order No.)

For an unpublished dissertation or thesis:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of creation).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Name of Institution, Location.

See Ch 7 pp. 207-208 APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
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How to cite a dissertation in APA

APA dissertation citation

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To cite a dissertation in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to seven authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • URL: Give the full URL where the document can be retrieved from.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 6th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from URL

If the dissertation is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template:

  • Author(s) of the dissertation: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available.
  • Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
  • Name of platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the dissertation.
  • URL: If the dissertation was found on a database, omit this element.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a dissertation in APA style 7th edition:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation ( Publication number ) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of platform . URL

If the dissertation has not been published or is available from a database use the following template:

  • Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name.

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of the degree awarding institution , Location .

If the dissertation is not published, use the following template:

Author(s) of the dissertation . ( Year of publication ). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the degree awarding institution .

APA reference list examples

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the APA style guidelines for a dissertation citation in action:

A dissertation found in an online platform

Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications ( Doctoral dissertation ). Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854
Guo, J . ( 2018 ). Trust-based service management of internet of things systems and its applications [ Doctoral dissertation , Virginia Tech ]. ETDs: Virginia Tech Electronic Theses and Dissertations . https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/82854

An unpublished doctoral dissertation

Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music ( Unpublished doctoral dissertation ). University of Nebraska-Lincoln , NE .
Neel, B. L . ( 2017 ). Three flute chamber works by Alberto Ginastera: Intertwining elements of art and folk music [ Unpublished doctoral dissertation ]. University of Nebraska-Lincoln .

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This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6 th edition).

More useful guides

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  • APA 6th Edition Citation Style

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Author last name, first initial. (Year).  Title of dissertation/thesis  (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, University]. Database. URL

  • Author:  List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See  Authors  for more information.
  • Year:  List the year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Title of dissertation/thesis:  In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • Publication number: Can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”
  • Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis:  List whether it is a dissertation or a thesis.
  • University:  List the university associated with the dissertation/thesis.
  • Database:  List database the dissertation/thesis was found in, if found in a database.
  • URL:  List URL if found on the free Web rather than in a database.

See specific examples below.

Dissertations:

Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community  (Publication No. 3114720) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

Master's Theses:

Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resitance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment   (Publication No. 10289373) [Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “Publication No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”

Karamanos, X. (2020). The influence of professional development models on student mathematics performance in New Jersey public elementary schools [Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University]. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). https://scholarship.shu.edu/dissertations/2732

Bordo, V. C. (2011). Making a case for the use of foreign language in the educational activities of nonprofit arts organizations [Master's thesis, University of Akron]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=akron1311135640

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes  [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University].

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning  [Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology].

See  Publication Manual , 10.6.

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how to cite doctoral thesis apa

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Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation.

  • Referencing theses: Examples

The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation:

  • Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title (in italics ).
  • Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets].
  • University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of Thesis, for e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]
  • Database or Archive Name
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/

how to cite doctoral thesis apa

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A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment.

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Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?

Theses and dissertations from online sources, theses and dissertations in hardcopy format.

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Terminology

Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from.  For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work.

  • Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is
  • Use the information there for your APA reference

At Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)

Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.

Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.

Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work;  e.g. a film, artwork, novel.

In some other parts of the world such as North America, a dissertation may be for a doctoral degree and a thesis for a master's degree.  

See Section 7.05  in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition .

Reference format for a thesis from a commercial database:

Reference format for a thesis from an institutional repository:

A Doctoral dissertation (USA) from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database

Reference list entry:

  • Include the name of the database and the order number of the document
  • Use this style for theses retrieved from a commercial database

Thesis from a NZ institutional repository :

  • Include the full URL for the thesis/dissertation and the full name of the degree-granting institution/university
  • Also include the location of the university, if outside the United States.

In-text citations guide  

Reference format for unpublished thesis/dissertation:

  • Give the correct full name of the university, not its abbreviation or brand name.
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APA Citation Style 7th Edition: Welcome

  • Advertisements
  • Books & eBooks
  • Book Reviews
  • Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
  • Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  • Government Documents
  • Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Personal Communication (Interviews, Emails)
  • Social Media
  • Videos & DVDs
  • Paraphrasing
  • No Author, No Date etc.
  • Sample Papers
  • Annotated Bibliography

What is APA?

APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.

In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  • In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  • In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

Acknowledgement

What's new in the 7th edition of apa.

Below is a summary of the major changes in the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Essay Format:

  • Font - While you still can use Times New Roman 12, you are free to use other fonts. Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans 10, and Georgia 11 are all acceptable.
  • Headers - No running headers are required for student papers.
  • Tables and Figures - There is a standardized format for both tables and figures.

Style, Grammar, Usage:

  • Singular "they" required in two situations: when used by a known person as their personal pronoun or when the gender of a singular person is not known.
  • Use only one space after a sentence-ending period.

Citation Style:

  • Developed the 'Four Elements of a Reference" (Author, Date, Title, Source) to help writers to create references for source types not explicitly examined in the APA Manual.
  • Three or more authors can be abbreviated to First author, et al. on the first citation.
  • Up to 20 authors are spelled out in the References List.
  • Publisher location is not required for books
  • Ebook platform, format, or device is not required for eBooks.  
  • Library database names are generally not required
  • No "doi:" prefix, simply include the doi.
  • All hyperlinks retain the https://
  • Links can be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining

Commonly Used Terms

Citing : The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.

DOI (doi) : Some electronic content, such as online journal articles, is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI or doi). Items can be tracked down online using their doi.

In-Text Citation : A brief note at the point where information is used from a source to indicate where the information came from. An in-text citation should always match more detailed information that is available in the Reference List.

Paraphrasing : Taking information that you have read and putting it into your own words.

Plagiarism : Taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another.

Quoting : The copying of words of text originally published elsewhere. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.

Reference : Details about one cited source.

Reference List : Contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.

Retrieval Date : Used for websites where content is likely to change over time (e.g. Wikis), the retrieval date refers to the date you last visited the website.

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The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

How to Cite in APA Style (7th Edition)

  • About APA 7th ed.
  • In-text Citations
  • Webpages, Reports
  • Media Works
  • Conference, Theses, Data Sets, etc.

Conference Papers & Presentations

Doctoral dissertation & master's thesis, online maps, oral history interview.

  • Sample Reference List
  • Cite Tables & Figures
  • Help You Cite Tools
  • Test Your Knowledge
  • Online Tutorials & Videos

Conference Proceedings

  • Conference paper published in a proceeding which is also a journal → cite as  a journal article

Zhang, J., & Letaief, K. B. (2020). Mobile Edge Intelligence and Computing for the Internet of Vehicles. Proceedings of the IEEE, 108 (2), 246–261. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2947490

  • Conference paper published in a proceeding as a book chapter → cite as  an edited book chapter

Lhuillier, M., & Quan, L. (2002). Quasi-dense reconstruction from image sequence. In A. Heyden, G. Sparr, M. Nielsen, & P. Johansen (Eds.), Computer Vision - ECCV 2002, PT II (Vol. 2351, Issue 7th European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2002), pp. 125–139).

  • Conference proceeding published as a whole book → cite as  a whole edited book

Voros, N., Huebner, M., Keramidas, G., Goehringer, D., Antonopoulos, C., & Diniz, P. C. (2018). Applied Reconfigurable Computing. Architectures, Tools, and Applications . Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78890-6

More details: Section 10.5

Conference Presentations & Poster Presentations

Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of conference presentation or poster  [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. DOI / URL (if available)

Zhao, S. (2014, June). Beyond information literacy: Supporting science & scholarly communications [Poster presentation]. SLA 2014 Annual Conference & INFO-EXPO, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Hsieh, C. C., & Hui, K. W. (2011, December). Analyst report readability in high-technology firms  [Paper presentation]. 15th Finance and Accounting Seminar, Xiamen, Fujian, China. https://hdl.handle.net/1783.1/7936

  • If the presented paper is available online, give the URL. 

Dissertation or thesis from a database

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis [Doctorial dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name.

Lin, Y. (2005). Three essays on international trade   [Doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University Graduate School] . ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I.

Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis  [Unpublished doctorial dissertation or Unpublished master's thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

More details: Section 10.6

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of data set [Data set]. Publisher Name. URL

Buildings Department (2014, April). New buildings - Occupation permits issued by the Building Authority [Data file] .   http://www.gov.hk/en/theme/psi/datasets/bd/stats/2014/04/Md13.xls

  • Provide the URL that directly link to the data set file rather than to a download site.  (Section 10.9)
  • If the author and publisher name are the same, the name appears in the author element only to avoid repetition (Section 9.24, para 2) . 

More details:  Data set reference

Inventor, A. A. (Year the patent was issued). Title of patent (Patent Number). Patent office. URL

  • Give the year the patent was issued, not the year the patent was applied for.

Bochereau, S., Browder, S., Beek, F. V., & King, R. (2020). T actile simulation of initial contact with virtual objects (U.S. Patent No. 10,852,827 B1). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/79/64/80/5925843816841f/US10852827.pdf

Fry, A. L. (1993).  Repositionable pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet material  (U.S. Patent No. 5,194,299). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.  https://patents.google.com/patent/US5194299

More details: Section 11.8

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of map [Map]. Publisher Name. URL

Media Technology & Publishing Center, HKUST (2022, August). Campus Map [Map] . Retrieved August 30, 2022, from http://publish.ust.hk/univ/maps/Campus_Map_Color.pdf

More examples: Chapter 10 - Example 100

Interviewee, A. A. (Date of interview). Title of interview [Interview]. Publisher Name. URL

Russell, B. (2013, May 12). Bill Russell oral history interview conducted by Taylor Branch in Seattle, Washington [Interview]. Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/item/2015669187/

More details: Section 8.7

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Reference List: Other Print Sources

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that earlier editions covered. For this reason, some of the examples below have been adapted from the instructions for sources with similar attributes (e.g., the conference proceedings example is derived from the instructions the 7 th edition manual gives for citing edited collections). Every example below that has been adapted in this way is accompanied by a note explaining how it was adapted.

Please also note: While this resource contains many examples of citations for uncommon print sources that we think are helpful, it may not account for every possibility. For even more examples of how to cite uncommon print sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite physical reference works such as dictionaries, thesauruses, or encyclopedias. Therefore, this citation, as well as the one for an individual author of an entry in a reference work, is modeled on that of a chapter in an edited book or anthology, both which are similar in format to reference works.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher name.

Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher.

Tatum, S. R. (2009). Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. In T. L. Stanley (ed.), Encyclopedia of hip hop literature (pp. 250-252). Greenwood.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

Provide the source in which the original work was referenced:

Nail, T. (2017). What is an assemblage? SubStance , 46 (1), 21-37. http://sub.uwpress.org/lookup/doi/10.3368/ss.46.1.21

Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Deleuze and Guattari’s work is cited in Nail and you did not read the original work, list the Nail reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: 

Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of the assemblage (as cited in Nail, 2017)….

Dissertation Abstract

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol., Page.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services. Dissertation Abstracts International, 74 , 03(E).

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Published

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Note: If the dissertation or thesis is not published in a database, include the URL of the site where the document is located.

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Unpublished

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. 

Samson, J. M. (2016). Human trafficking and globalization [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Federal or State Statute

Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). URL

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Publ. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010).  https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization

Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. URL

United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019 . https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/702715.pdf

Report by Individual Authors at Government Agency or Other Organization

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of report . Organization Name. URL

Palanker, D., Volk, J., Lucia, K., & Thomas, K. (2018). Mental health parity at risk: Deregulating the individual market and the impact on mental health coverage . National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/About-NAMI/Publications-Reports/Public-Policy-Reports/Parity-at-Risk/ParityatRisk.pdf  

Conference Proceedings

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidance on citing conference proceedings. Therefore, this citation models that of an edited collection, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings . Publisher. URL (if applicable)

Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24 th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication . ACM Digital Library. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1166324&picked=prox

COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add "Unpublished" to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets. APA format. Author last name, Initials. ( Year ).

  2. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    If the database assigns publication numbers to dissertations and theses, include the publication number in parentheses after the title of the dissertation or thesis without italics. Include the description "Doctoral dissertation" or "Master's thesis" followed by a comma and the name of the institution that awarded the degree.

  3. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database. If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It's similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences: Structure: Author's last name, F. M. (Year published).

  4. Thesis/Dissertation

    Published Dissertations and Theses . Where. Who. When. What. Database or archive name. URL. Author, A. A. (year). Title of dissertation: Use sentence case [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Title of thesis. [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name. Archive Name. https://xxxx...

  5. APA: how to cite a PhD thesis [Update 2023]

    How to cite a PhD thesis in APA. If the thesis is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template: Author (s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by ...

  6. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    The APA dissertation or thesis citation isn't a one size fits all type of citation. The reason behind this is because APA offers a different format for a published and unpublished thesis or dissertation. However, you'll need to include information like: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication ...

  7. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis

    Dissertations & Theses. Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted: Examples:

  8. Thesis

    In-text reference (Leigh, 2010) Leigh (2010) reported that .... Reference list: Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication No. 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. EndNote reference type: Thesis

  9. Dissertations & Theses

    A quick guide to using APA citation style. General Rule: Author, A. A. (year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication No. #) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].Name of Database.

  10. Thesis/Dissertation

    Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.) For an unpublished dissertation or thesis: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of creation). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of ...

  11. Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis References

    Narrative citation: Harris (2014) When a dissertation or thesis is unpublished, include the description " [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]" or " [Unpublished master's thesis]" in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title. In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the institution that awarded the degree.

  12. Theses and dissertations

    Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities) Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree. Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours. Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work; e.g., a film, artwork, novel.

  13. APA: how to cite a dissertation [Update 2023]

    Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop. Title of the dissertation: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized. Publication number: Give the identification number of the dissertation, if available. Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.

  14. Dissertations and Theses

    Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis: List whether it is a dissertation or a thesis. University: List the university associated with the dissertation/thesis. ... APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it "Publication No." That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database ...

  15. PDF APA Style Dissertation Guidelines: Formatting Your Dissertation

    "Doctoral Students" webpage . on The Graduate School website for video tutorials under the "Resources for Writing Your Dissertation" tab. APA Style, 7 th Edition: A Brief Overview This section provides a very brief overview of APA Style formatting. For more thorough information about APA Style, 7 th edition, please refer to

  16. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA

    Full Citation Rules. To cite a dissertation in APA on the References page, follow this formula: Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No. #) [Dissertation type, University]. Database.

  17. Theses

    Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation. The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation: Author. The surname is followed by first initials. Year (in round brackets). Title (in italics ). Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets]. University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of ...

  18. Theses and Dissertations

    A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment.

  19. Library Guides: APA 6th Referencing Style Guide: Theses

    Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from. For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is. Use the information there for your APA reference.

  20. LibGuides: APA Citation Style 7th Edition: Welcome

    APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers. In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places: In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.

  21. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form) or on a personal website, the format differs in that no publication number is included, and you do list a URL. APA format. Author last name, Initials. ( Year ). Dissertation title [ Type of dissertation/thesis, University Name ].

  22. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA Style

    Citing a published thesis or dissertation rules, structure, and examples. In basic terms, the rules of the APA 7th edition for citing something that has been published are not too difficult. Here is the APA reference dissertation template that you should start with: Last Name, X. Y. (Year).

  23. How to Cite in APA Style (7th Edition)

    Dissertation or thesis from a database. Format: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis [Doctorial dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name. Example: Lin, Y. (2005). Three essays on international trade [Doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University Graduate School].

  24. Reference List: Other Print Sources

    Reference List: Other Print Sources. Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic ...

  25. How To Cite: A Basic Guide for College Students

    How To Cite Sources in APA Format. Like MLA style, APA style also uses in-text citations with the author's name. However, instead of the page number, you'll usually add the date of publication. Here's an example: "The mice learned to navigate the maze more quickly with peanut butter as a reward than when cheese was used" (Smith, 2020).