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APA Style (7th ed.)

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Format Your Paper

Download and use the editable templates for student papers below: .

  • APA 7th ed. Template Document This is an APA format template document in Google Docs. Click on the link -- it will ask for you to make a new copy of the document, which you can save in your own Google Drive with your preferred privacy settings.
  • APA 7th ed. Template Document A Microsoft Word document formatted correctly according to APA 7th edition.
  • APA 7th ed. Annotated Bibliography template A Microsoft Word document formatted correctly for an annotated bibliography.

Or, view the directions for specific sections below:

  &

Order of Sections (section 2.17)

  • Title page including Title, Author, University and Department, Class, Instructor, and Date
  • Body (including introduction, literature review or background, discussion, and conclusion)
  • Appendices (including tables & figures)

Margins & Page Numbers (sections 2.22-2.24)

  • 1 inch at top, bottom, and both sides
  • Left aligned paragraphs and leave the right edge ragged (not "right justified")
  • Indent first line of each paragraph 1/2 inch from left margin
  • Use page numbers, including on the title page, 1/2 inch from top and flush with right margin

Text Format (section 2.19)

  • Times New Roman, 12 point
  • Calibri, 11 point
  • Arial, 11 point
  • Lucinda Sans Unicode, 10 point
  • Georgia, 11 point
  • Double-space and align text to the left
  • Use active voice
  • Don't overuse technical jargon
  • No periods after a web address or DOI in the References list.

Tables and Figures In-Text (chapter 7)

  • Label tables and figures numerically (ex. Table 1)
  • Give each table column a heading and use separating lines only when necessary
  • Design the table and figure so that it can be understood on its own, i.e. it does not require reference to the surrounding text to understand it
  • Notes go below tables and figures

Title Page (section 2.3)

  • Include the title, your name,  the class name , and  the college's name
  • Title should be 12 words or less and summarize the paper's main idea
  • No periods or abbreviations
  • Do not italicize or underline
  • No quotation marks, all capital letters, or bold
  • Center horizontally in upper half of the page

Body (section 2.11)

  • Align the text to the left with a 1/2-inch left indent on the first line
  • Double-space
  • As long as there is no Abstract, at the top of the first page, type the title of the paper, centered, in bold , and in Sentence Case Capitalization
  • Usually, include sections like these:  introduction, literature review or background,  discussion, and conclusion -- but the specific organization will depend on the paper type
  • Spell out long organization names and add the abbreviation in parenthesis, then just use the abbreviation
  • Spell out numbers one through nine and use a number for 10 or more
  • Use a number for units of measurement, in tables, to represent statistical or math functions, and dates or times

Headings (section 2.26-2.27)

  • Level 1: Center, bold , Title Case 
  • Level 2: Align left, bold , Title Case
  • Level 3: Alight left, bold italics , Title Case
  • Level 4: Indented 1/2", bold , Title Case, end with a period. Follow with text. 
  • Level 5: Indented 1/2", bold italics , Title Case, end with a period. Follow with text. 

an illustration of the headings -- same detail as is given directly above this image

Quotations (sections 8.26-8.33)

  • Include short quotations (40 words or less) in-text with quotation marks
  • For quotes more than 40 words, indent the entire quote a half inch from the left margin and double-space it with no quotation marks
  • When quoting two or more paragraphs from an original source, indent the first line of each paragraph a half inch from the left margin
  • Use ellipsis (...) when omitting sections from a quote and use four periods (....) if omitting the end section of a quote

References (section 2.12)

Begins on a new page following the text of your paper and includes complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing.

  • References should be centered and bolded at the top of a new page
  • Double-space and use hanging indents (where the first line is on the left margin and the following lines are indented a half inch from the left)
  • List authors' last name first followed by the first and middle initials (ex. Skinner, B. F.)
  • Alphabetize the list by the first author's last name of of each citation (see sections 9.44-9.49)
  • Capitalize only the first word, the first after a colon or em dash, and proper nouns
  • Don't capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound
  • No quotation marks around titles of articles

Appendices with Tables, Figures, & Illustrations (section 2.14, and chapter 7)

  • Include appendices only to help the reader understand, evaluate, or replicate the study or argument
  • Put each appendix on a separate page and align left
  • For text, do not indent the first paragraph, but do indent the rest
  • If you have only one appendix, label it "Appendix"
  • If you have two or more appendices, label them "Appendix A", "Appendix B" and so forth as they appear in the body of your paper
  • Label tables and figures numerically (ex. Table 1, or Table B1 and Table B2 if Appendix B has two tables) and describe them within the text of the appendix
  • Notes go below tables and figures (see samples on p. 210-226)

Annotated Bibliography

Double-space the entire bibliography. give each entry a hanging indent. in the following annotation, indent the entire paragraph a half inch from the left margin and give the first line of each paragraph a half inch indent. see the template document at the top of this page..

  • Check with your professor for the length of the annotation and which elements you should evaluate.

These elements are optional, if your professor or field requires them, but they are  not required for student papers: 

Abstract (section 2.9).

  • Abstract gets its own page
  • Center "Abstract" heading and do not indent the first line of the text
  • Summarize the main points and purpose of the paper in 150-250 words maximum
  • Define abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper

Running Head (section 2.8 )

  • Shorten title to 50 characters or less (counting spaces and punctuation) for the running head
  • In the top margin, the running head is aligned left, with the page number aligned on the right
  • On every page, put (without the brackets): [SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER IN ALL CAPS] [page number] 

More questions? Check out the authoritative source: APA style blog

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How to Format Your Research Paper

Writing your paper: apa 7th edition, apa style papers 7th edition.

  • MLA Paper Format
  • Chicago Paper Format
  • Hanging Indents
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APA 7th Edition Resources

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  • APA Style | Style and Grammar Guidelines The style and grammar guidelines pages present information about APA Style as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.
  • Purdue OWL: APA Style Guide This Purdue OWL style guide will help you in citing your sources in the APA Style commonly used to cite sources within the area of social sciences.

Printable APA 7th Edition Guides

Creating citations using APA 7th Edition:

  • APA 7th Edition Citations - PDF
  • APA 7th Edition Citations - Word

Creating in-text citations using APA 7th Edition:

  • APA 7th In-Text Citations - PDF
  • APA 7th In-Text Citations - Word

Integrating sources into the text of your paper using signal phrases:

  • Integrating Sources - PDF
  • Integrating Sources - Word

Things to know before you begin:

  • Sans serif fonts: Arial (11-point), Calibri (11-point), or Lucinda Sans Unicode (10-point)
  • Serif fonts: Times New Roman (12-point), Georgia (11-point), or Computer Modern (10-point)
  • Margins:  1 inch on all sides
  • Paragraphs:  All paragraphs (except in the Abstract) should be indented
  • Spacing:  All of the text in your paper should be double-spaced (title page included)

Typical APA style papers have four main sections:

See the tabs below for a breakdown of how each portion should be formatted.

  • Paper Templates
  • Sample Papers
  • APA 7 Citations

Below you will find templates for APA Style papers. Click the link to make a copy of the file. 

  • Google Docs : To make a copy of these templates you must first sign in to your Google account. After you’re signed in, click "File" and then click “Make a Copy.”
  • Microsoft Word : To make a copy of these templates download the file. 

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  • APA Style Student Paper Template (7th Edition) - Word Download a copy of this Word Doc and change the pre-filled information to your own.

APA Style Report Templates: These templates include multiple heading levels and should be used for report style papers.

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  • APA Style Student Report Template (7th Edition) - Word Download a copy of this Word Doc and change the pre-filled information to your own.

Below you will find an example of an accurately formatted APA Style student paper. 

  • APA Style Student Paper Sample (7th Edition) - PDF Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted APA style student paper.
  • APA Style Student Paper Sample (7th Edition) - Word Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted APA style student paper.

Sample of an accurately formatted APA 7th edition title page

Place only page numbers in the header. 

Your paper should have the full title in bold. Place an extra space beneath the title and before your name.

Your name, your affiliation, the course title, professor’s name, and due date should be double spaced beneath the title.

All of this should be in the center of the title page.

Sample of an accurately formatted APA 7th edition style Abstract page

  • Put the word “Abstract” on the top of the page. Be sure it is center-aligned and in bold.
  • Do not indent any paragraphs on this page.

Indent all other paragraphs throughout the body of the paper. 

Sample of an accurately formatted APA style 7th edition main body page

  • Place the entire title of your paper in Title Case on the top line of a new page.
  • Be sure it is center-aligned and in bold.

Sample of an accurately formatted APA 7th edition style references page

  • Center-align the word “References” on the first line of a new page, be sure that it is in bold.
  • Your citations should be alphabetized.
  • Entries are double-spaced with no extra lines between them.
  • Be sure to use a hanging indent for any citations that require more than one line.

Need help formatting your APA style citations using the 7th edition of the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ? Click the image or link below to go to the citation guide.

cover image of the citation research guide

  • APA 7th Edition Citations

Need help learning what hanging indents are and how to create them using Google Docs or Microsoft Word? 

Title slide of "creating hanging indents with Google Docs" video

  • Hanging Indents This page gives a brief description of what they are, where to find information on when and how to properly use them, and also video tutorials on how to create them.
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  • Last Updated: Jun 21, 2024 10:45 AM
  • URL: https://necc.mass.libguides.com/formatting

To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:

APA : Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page . Title of LibGuide. URL

MLA : Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.

Generate accurate APA citations for free

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  • APA Style 7th edition

How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator

APA 7th edition publication manual

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.

In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Smith, 2020) Smith (2020)
Two authors (Smith & Jones, 2020) Smith and Jones (2020)
Three or more authors (Smith et al., 2020) Smith et al. (2020)
Organization (Scribbr, 2020) Scribbr (2020)

Missing information

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

Missing element What to do Parenthetical citation
Author Use the source title.* ( , 2020)
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. (Smith, n.d.)
Page number Either use an or
omit the page number.
(Smith, 2020, Chapter 3) or
(Smith, 2020)

Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!

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research report apa 7 format

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.

Generate APA citations for free

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

Missing element What to do Reference format
Author Start the reference entry with the source title. Title. (Date). Source.
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.
Title Describe the work in square brackets. Author. (Date). [Description]. Source.

APA Reference Page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

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When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .

When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.

When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:

(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.

If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.

However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html

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APA 7th ed. Style Guide

  • Formatting Your Paper
  • In-text Citations
  • Textual Works
  • Data Sets, Software, Tests
  • Audiovisual Media
  • Online Media

Formatting guidelines and sample papers are found in chapter 2 of the APA 7th edition Publication Manual

Sample papers.

You can find sample papers from Purdue OWL's website, APA 7th edition Publication Manual, or APA style website.

  • APA Style Student Paper with Annotations in the Comments A Word Document featuring an APA 7th edition Style Student Paper that includes annotations as comments.
  • APA Style Professional Paper with Annotations in Comments A Word Document featuring an APA 7th edition Style Professional Paper that includes annotations as comments.
  • Purdue OWL Sample Papers

General Formatting Guidelines

Follow these guidelines throughout your paper:

  • Double space text
  • Header for student and professional papers includes the page number in the upper right hand corner
  • Single space after ending punctuation
  • Font size and style: Times New Roman 12 pt, Arial 11 pt, Calibri 11 pt, or Georgia 11 pt
  • Use the same font type and size throughout the paper (exceptions for figure images, computer code, and footnotes - see 2.19 in APA Manual)
  • Margins: 1 inch on all sides
  • Left align paragraphs and leave ragged (uneven) margins on the right
  • Indention: use 0.5 inch indention for the first line of every paragraph (use tab key for consistency)

Formatting Title Page

The 7th edition Publication Manual for APA introduced the student and professional papers. The major difference between these two types of papers is found on the title page. Please, see the guidelines below for formatting the title page of your document. Also note, follow your professors' guidelines for formatting the title page.

General Title Page Guidelines:

  • Double space
  • The title should summarize the main idea and be focused/succinct (avoid unnecessary words)
  • Title written in title case (the first letter of each word is capitalized), bold, centered, and positioned in the upper half of the title page
  • Use the author(s) first name, middle initial, and last name as the author's byline

Student Papers:

  • title of the paper
  • name of the author(s)
  • author affiliation (department and institution name)
  • course number and name 
  • instructor name
  • assignment due date (i.e. November 4, 2020)
  • page number (in the header)

Professional Papers:

  • author affiliation
  • author note
  • running head (abbreviated title) - Flush with left margin and written in all capital letters

Formatting Headings

APA 7th edition format for headings

Follow this format for headings (see 2.27 of the Publication Manual for additional details):

Level 1 headings are written in bold title case and aligned to the center. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 2 headings are written in bold title case and aligned flush to the left. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 3 headings are written in bold, italicized title case, and aligned flush to the left. The text begins as a new paragraph.

Level 4 headings are written in bold title case, indented from the left, and end with a period. The text begins after the period and continues like a regular paragraph.

Level 5 headings are written in bold, italicized title case, indented from the left, and end with a period. The text begins after the period and continues like a regular paragraph.

Formatting Reference List

The following are guidelines for formatting your reference list:

  • Start on a new page after the last page of text
  • Label the page Reference(s) with a capitalized R, written in bold and centered
  • Double space all entries
  • Use hanging indent for reference entries (first line of the reference is flush with left margin, subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches)
  • Order alphabetically (see chapter 9 section 44-49 for additional instructions on entry order)
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APA Citation Guidelines (7th Edition): Style & Format

  • Style & Format
  • Page Formats
  • In-text Citations
  • Reference Examples
  • Sample Paper & Template

About this Page

This page contains information on the style and format of papers according to APA 7th edition using the Concise Guide to APA Style: The Official APA Style for Students .

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  • APA Style and Grammar Guidelines

APA Style papers should have the same style and size of font throughout the text of the paper (title page to reference page). APA considers the following fonts acceptable: 11- point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point Computer Modern. It is recommended that you check with your instructor to see if they have a preferred font style.

(See section 1.18 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

The first line of every paragraph in the text of your paper and every reference on your reference page is indented (hit the tab key once). The remaining lines are left flush with the left-hand margin of the paper (this is known as a "hanging indent").

Other Format Guidelines

Page numbers : Title page through reference pages are numbered using Arabic numerals;  place each number in the top right corner of the page.

Running heads: Are NOT required in student papers, but you should still check with your instructor to see if they wish them to be used.

Dashes: APA uses em dashes (long dash) and en dashes (short dash). See section 4.6 of the Concise Guide to APA Style for more information.

Additional Resources

  • Heading Levels: Template: Student Papers
  • Abbreviations Guide
  • Transititions Guide
  • Number and Statistics Guide

Other APA Pages

  • Style and Format
  • In-text citations
  • Title and Reference Page Format
  • I Want to See A Sample Paper

Lines and Margins

APA Style papers should have double-spaced text throughout the entire paper (including quotations and references). To make your paper double-spaced in Microsoft Word, highlight the text you want double-spaced, and then click Layout . Next, click on the arrow to the right of the word Paragraph (a pop-up appears). From the drop-down menu under Line Spacing , select Double (default choice is Multiple ) and click OK .

APA Style papers use 1 inch margins all around (top to bottom and left to right). Margins in Microsoft Word are set to 1 inch by default. If you are unsure, you can check your margins by clicking Layout, and clicking Margins. Once the drop-down menu appears, make sure Normal is selected to ensure you have 1 inch margins all around your paper.

(See sections 1.20 and 1.21 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

APA Style recommends ONE space after a period when the period ends a sentence, separates parts of a reference list entry, or follows initials in names (J.B. Jones).

Do NOT put a space after a period when the period is part of an internal abbreviations (U.S. or a.m.)

Do NOT use periods for the abbreviation of state, province, or territory names (AZ; KS; BC); capital letter abbreviations and acronyms (APA, AMA, EPA); for abbreviations of academic degrees (PhD, MD, DO); or for abbreviations of metric and nonmetric measurements (cm, hr, kg,). Note: Use a period when abbreviating "inch" or "inches" (in.) or else it could be misread.

(See sections 4.1 and 4.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

Sentence Case vs. Title Case

Sentence case is where most words in a sentence are going to be lower case.

The EXCEPTIONS are the first word in a title, heading, or sub-title ; proper nouns ; the first word after an em dash, semi-colon, or end punctuation; and any noun followed by a letter or number.

Title case is where major words are capitalized while minor words are lower case.

In APA style, major words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, or any word that is four letters or longer.

Minor words are articles, short prepositions, and conjunctions that are three letters or less.

(See section 5.7 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

Paraphrasing

Refers to restating someone else's ideas or findings into your own words. Paraphrasing allows you to summarize information from one or more sources, compare and contrast information from multiple sources, and focus on the most important information from each source.

It is BEST to paraphrase information whenever possible rather than using direct quotations.

Paraphrased information must be cited in-text with either a parenthetical or narrative citation.

(See sections 8.23 and 8.24 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

Reproduce words EXACTLY as written from another work (including your own). Quotations are best used in papers for when you want to reproduce an exact definition, when an author of a work has said something memorable, or when you want to respond to the exact wording (something someone said) from an author in your paper.

When not using a quotation for one of the above reasons, it is best to paraphrase information. Additionally, you should check with your instructor to see if they limit the number of quotations you are allowed to use.

Quotations must be cited in-text with either a parenthetical or narrative citation.

Short quotations consist of 40 words or less and should be incorporated into the text of your paper with quotation marks.

Long quotations consists of 40 words or more and do not use quotations marks. Instead, they should be incorporated into your paper as a block quotation. Block quotations begin on a new line, are double-spaced, and are indented 0.5 inches from the left hand margin of your paper.

(See sections 8.25 - 8.33 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

Heading Levels

Heading Levels or "headings" are a way to organize information in APA papers and convey it clearly ( think of headings as "sections" and "subsections"). There are five levels of headings in APA Style, although for undergraduates it is rare to need to go past a Level 2 headings. If you are unsure if you need to use headings, check with your instructor.

Level Headings
Levels Format Text
1 Text begins as a new paragraph.
2 Text begins as a new paragraph.
3 Text begins as a new paragraph.
4 Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
5 Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.

Note: Do NOT label an introduction as "Introduction" in APA papers. The title of your paper acts as a de facto Level 1 Heading.

(See section 1.26 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

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research report apa 7 format

APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

Apa 7th edition, what is the purpose, quick links.

  • In Text Quick View
  • Block Quotes
  • Books & eBooks
  • Thesis/Dissertation
  • Audiovisual
  • Conference Presentations
  • Social Media
  • Legal References
  • Reports and Gray Literature
  • Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
  • Additional Resources
  • Reference Page

APA Publications in the Library

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This guide pertains to the 7th edition of the APA Manual.

This guide is designed to support the citation and reference needs of USC students, staff, and faculty.  The 7th edition of the manual does make distinctions between formatting certain components for academic use over publication.  This guide will distinguish student/academic formatting where applicable. 

This guide is designed as a "quick" reference to common APA citation, reference and formatting criteria.  When in doubt, we encourage users to consult with the APA publication manual or APA website for further clarification as the authority on formatting.

Attribution for guide: Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

What is the purpose of citations?

Citations help readers locate your sources. They help to continue the scholarly conversation. To learn more about how citations can help you avoid plagiarism, view this interactive tutorial: 

USC Library Lessons: Avoiding Plagiarism through Citations

When considering citations and references for your papers, you can ask yourself, "could someone find this information in the future?"

A client's personal file would not need a citation because your reader cannot go find that information again.  Census statistics would require a citation because your reader could go locate that information again.

APA requires FOUR ELEMENTS of every citation:

  • Who- Author of content
  • When- Date content was published
  • What- Title of content
  • Where- Publication information. This can be the website you got it from or the journal or book's publication information.

If any of the elements listed above are unavailable, check out "Missing Reference Information" from APA for more information.

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  • APA Style Website As part of our Style and Grammar Guidelines, we explain the basics of paper format, grammar, punctuation, in-text citations, references, bias-free language, and more. Much of what you used to find on the sixth edition blog, you can now find on the APA Style website.
  • Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper by Robert V. Labaree Last Updated Jun 18, 2024 792747 views this year
  • Owl Purdue 7th Edition Style Guide and Formatting Writing guide from Owl Purdue covering the 7th edition of the APA Manual
  • Quick Reference Guide Quick guide on how to identify components to configure a reference for Journal article, book, and chapter from an edited book.
  • Annotated Sample Student Paper Sample student paper with formatting annotations.
  • Sample student paper
  • Annotated Sample Professional Paper Sample professional paper with formatting annotations
  • Sample professional paper
  • USC Libraries APA Style Quick Guide
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  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/APA7th

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APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers

  • What's New in the 7th ed.?
  • Principles of Plagiarism: An Overview
  • Basic Paper Formatting
  • Basic Paper Elements
  • Punctuation, Capitalization, Abbreviations, Apostrophes, Numbers, Plurals
  • Tables and Figures
  • Powerpoint Presentations
  • Reference Page Format
  • Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
  • Books and Reference Works
  • Webpage on a Website
  • Discussion Post
  • Company Information & SWOT Analyses
  • Dissertations or Theses
  • ChatGPT and other AI Large Language Models
  • Online Images
  • Online Video
  • Computer Software and Mobile Apps
  • Missing Information
  • Two Authors
  • Three or More Authors
  • Group Authors
  • Missing Author
  • Chat GPT and other AI Large Language Models
  • Secondary Sources
  • Block Quotations
  • Fillable Template and Sample Paper
  • Government Documents and Legal Materials
  • APA Style 7th ed. Tutorials
  • Additional APA 7th Resources
  • Grammarly - your writing assistant
  • Writing Center - Writing Skills This link opens in a new window
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APA 7th ed. Fillable Word Template and Sample Paper

  • APA 7th ed. Template Download this Word document, fill out the title page and get writing!
  • Sample Paper APA 7th ed. Our APA sample paper shows you how to format the main parts of a basic research paper.
  • APA 7th Sample Papers from Purdue Owl
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  • Last Updated: May 3, 2024 2:22 PM
  • URL: https://national.libguides.com/apa_7th

APA 7th referencing style

  • About APA 7th
  • Printing this guide
  • In-text references
  • Direct quotations
  • Reference list
  • Author information
  • Additional referencing information
  • Using headings
  • Book chapter
  • Brochure and pamphlets
  • ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
  • Conferences
  • Dictionary or encyclopaedia
  • Government legislation
  • Journal article
  • Lecture notes and slides
  • Legal sources
  • Newspaper or magazine article
  • Other web sources
  • Patents and standards
  • Personal communication
  • Press (media) release

Abbreviating groups as authors

Government report, industry/corporate report.

  • Secondary source (indirect citation)
  • Social media
  • Software and mobile apps
  • Specialised health information
  • Television program
  • Works in non-English languages
  • Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese
  • Group authors can be an organisation, professional association, company, government department
  • Include the full name of the group the first time it is used. The abbreviation is included in square brackets.
  • If the abbreviation is well known, it can be included for subsequent uses.

In-text Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund ([UNICEF], 2018)

(United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund [UNICEF], 2018)

  • The full group name should be used in the reference list.
Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development, 2016)

Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development (2016) found that ....

Reference list

Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development. (2016). https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/advancing-tourism/resource/df997cf7-14fc-47b1-ac99-ddc7f0975967

EndNote reference type Report
Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). (Report number - if available) Publisher - include if different to author Web address - if available

In-text reference

(The Coca-Cola Company, 2017)

The Coca-Cola Company (2017) has found that ....

Reference list

The Coca-Cola Company. (2017). http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf

EndNote reference type

Report

 

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APA Style, 7th edition

  • What is APA?
  • APA Style Citation Guide
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • Reference List

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APA Style Formatting Steps

Setting up page numbering for apa.

1. Set font as Times New Roman and size 12.

2. Click on Insert.

3. Click on Page Number.

4. Click on Top of Page.

5. Click on Plain Number 3 box.

6. Finish cover page (see pages 11 and 12 of the APA guide).

7. Go to second page.

8. Type your title in bold at the top and centered.

9. Close Header/Footer box.

  • APA Style Citations Video [PDF] Video Transcript

Sample Paper

  • Purdue OWL: APA Sample Paper [PDF] An example of a correctly formatted APA style research paper. From Purdue University Online Writing Center (OWL).
  • << Previous: APA Style Citation Guide
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  • Last Updated: Feb 8, 2024 11:39 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.randolph.edu/apa

APA 7th Edition Citation Examples

  • Volume and Issue Numbers
  • Page Numbers
  • Undated Sources
  • Citing a Source Within a Source
  • In-Text Citations
  • Academic Journals
  • Encyclopedia Articles
  • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
  • Online Classroom Materials
  • Conference Papers

Format for technical and research reports

  • Court Decisions
  • Treaties and Other International Agreements
  • Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
  • Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
  • Executive Orders
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Federal Statutes
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
  • Social Media
  • Business Sources
  • PowerPoints
  • AI: ChatGPT, etc.

Author last name, first initial. (Date).  Title of report  (Publication No.). Publisher. DOI or URL

  • Author:  List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See  Authors  for more information.
  • Date:  List the date between parentheses, followed by a period
  • Title of report:  In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • Publication number: Omit if unavailable for the source that you're citing
  • Publisher:  List the report's publisher. If the publisher is the same as the author, do not list the name a second time.
  • DOI or URL:  List DOI or URL if available

See specific examples below.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237). http://www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237).

See  Publication Manual , 10.4.

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APA 7th Edition: Download/Edit APA Paper Template

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Monroe College & APA Style

Monroe college uses  apa 7 style guidelines for all student papers. , you can download our detailed apa 7 formatting tutorial here ., if your instructor's directions conflict with any apa rules, follow the instructor's directions., apa 7th edition template.

  • APA 7 Student Paper Template (.docx) Download this 7th-edition template, and use it to format your APA-style Research Paper. Simply download and save a new copy of the document and paste the contents of your paper into the appropriate fields within the template.
  • APA 7 Paper Template WITH ABSTRACT This version of the template includes the ABSTRACT page. Ask your instructor whether the Abstract is required for your paper.
  • APA 7 Student Paper Template PDF

A Monroe College Research Guide

                 THIS RESEARCH OR "LIBGUIDE" WAS PRODUCED BY THE LIBRARIANS OF MONROE COLLEGE                    

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

In-Text Citations: The Basics

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note:  On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)  found  or Jones (1998)  has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998)  finds ).

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but  NOT  directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source:  Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:  Writing New Media ,  There Is Nothing Left to Lose .

( Note:  in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:  Writing new media .)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:  Natural-Born Cyborgs .
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's  Vertigo ."
  • If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text:  The Closing of the American Mind ;  The Wizard of Oz ;  Friends .
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).

You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.

This image shows how to format a long quotation in an APA seventh edition paper.

Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work. 

  • Free Tools for Students
  • APA Citation Generator

Free APA Citation Generator

Generate citations in APA format quickly and automatically, with MyBib!

APA 7 guide book cover

🤔 What is an APA Citation Generator?

An APA citation generator is a software tool that will automatically format academic citations in the American Psychological Association (APA) style.

It will usually request vital details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official APA style guide.

Formatted citations created by a generator can be copied into the bibliography of an academic paper as a way to give credit to the sources referenced in the main body of the paper.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an APA Citation Generator?

College-level and post-graduate students are most likely to use an APA citation generator, because APA style is the most favored style at these learning levels. Before college, in middle and high school, MLA style is more likely to be used. In other parts of the world styles such as Harvard (UK and Australia) and DIN 1505 (Europe) are used more often.

🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?

Like almost every other citation style, APA style can be cryptic and hard to understand when formatting citations. Citations can take an unreasonable amount of time to format manually, and it is easy to accidentally include errors. By using a citation generator to do this work you will:

  • Save a considerable amount of time
  • Ensure that your citations are consistent and formatted correctly
  • Be rewarded with a higher grade

In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly. Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines. Our complete APA format guide has everything you need know to make sure you get it right (including examples and diagrams).

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's APA Citation Generator?

Our APA generator was built with a focus on simplicity and speed. To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps:

  • Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page.
  • MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.
  • Your citation will be generated correctly with the information provided and added to your bibliography.
  • Repeat for each citation, then download the formatted list and append it to the end of your paper.

MyBib supports the following for APA style:

⚙️ StylesAPA 6 & APA 7
📚 SourcesWebsites, books, journals, newspapers
🔎 AutociteYes
📥 Download toMicrosoft Word, Google Docs

Image of daniel-elias

Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

American Psychological Association

Report with Individual Authors References

This page contains reference examples for reports with individual authors.

Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia . Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/

Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190001401.pdf

  • Parenthetical citations : (Baral et al., 2019; Stuster et al., 2018)
  • Narrative citations : Baral et al. (2019) and Stuster et al. (2018)
  • If the report has a report number, include it in parentheses without italics after the report title.
  • Provide the publisher of the report and its URL in the source element of the reference.

Report references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.4 and the Concise Guide Section 10.4

research report apa 7 format

IMAGES

  1. How to Write a Research Paper in APA Format

    research report apa 7 format

  2. APA 7 Style Guide June 2021

    research report apa 7 format

  3. APA Format: Everything You Need to Know Here

    research report apa 7 format

  4. Everything you need to know about APA Formatting

    research report apa 7 format

  5. How to Write a Research Paper in APA Format

    research report apa 7 format

  6. Writing An Outline For A Research Paper Apa Format

    research report apa 7 format

VIDEO

  1. APA Seventh Edition: Referencing Basics

  2. APA 7th Edition: Using Oxford Commas

  3. How to report APA Style results write up for One Sample t test?

  4. How do I cite in APA 7?

  5. Finding The Right APA 7th Version

  6. What is included in APA 7 format?

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  2. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

  3. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.).

  4. Format Your Paper

    Body (section 2.11) Align the text to the left with a 1/2-inch left indent on the first line; Double-space; As long as there is no Abstract, at the top of the first page, type the title of the paper, centered, in bold, and in Sentence Case Capitalization; Usually, include sections like these: introduction, literature review or background, discussion, and conclusion -- but the specific ...

  5. Sample papers

    These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.

  6. How to Cite a Report in APA Style

    Reports may be published by governments, task groups, or other organizations. To reference a report with an individual author, include the author's name and initials, the report title (italicized), the report number, the organization that published it, and the URL (if accessed online, e.g. as a PDF ). APA format. Author last name, Initials.

  7. Paper format

    To format a paper in APA Style, writers can typically use the default settings and automatic formatting tools of their word-processing program or make only minor adjustments. The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create ...

  8. APA 7 Paper Format

    Font & Font Size: Be sure to use the same font throughout your entire paper. APA 7th Edition allows for the use of the fonts listed below. Sans serif fonts: Arial (11-point), Calibri (11-point), or Lucinda Sans Unicode (10-point) Serif fonts: Times New Roman (12-point), Georgia (11-point), or Computer Modern (10-point) Margins: 1 inch on all sides

  9. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    On the first line of the page, write the section label "References" (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order. Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page: Double spacing (within and between references) Hanging indent of ½ inch.

  10. Research Guides: APA 7th ed. Style Guide: Formatting Your Paper

    Use the same font type and size throughout the paper (exceptions for figure images, computer code, and footnotes - see 2.19 in APA Manual) Margins: 1 inch on all sides. Left align paragraphs and leave ragged (uneven) margins on the right. Indention: use 0.5 inch indention for the first line of every paragraph (use tab key for consistency)

  11. APA Sample Paper

    Media Files: APA Sample Student Paper , APA Sample Professional Paper This resource is enhanced by Acrobat PDF files. Download the free Acrobat Reader. Note: The APA Publication Manual, 7 th Edition specifies different formatting conventions for student and professional papers (i.e., papers written for credit in a course and papers intended for scholarly publication).

  12. LibGuides: APA Citation Guidelines (7th Edition): Style & Format

    APA Style papers should have the same style and size of font throughout the text of the paper (title page to reference page). APA considers the following fonts acceptable: 11- point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point Computer Modern. It is recommended that you check with your instructor to see if they have a preferred ...

  13. APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

    Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple languages, it is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and ...

  14. Fillable Template and Sample Paper

    Sample Paper APA 7th ed. Our APA sample paper shows you how to format the main parts of a basic research paper. APA 7th Sample Papers from Purdue Owl << Previous: Block Quotations; Next: Government Documents and Legal Materials >> Last Updated: May 3, 2024 2:22 PM;

  15. Library Guides: APA 7th referencing style: Report

    Industry/Corporate report. Elements of the reference. Author (s) - last name, initial (s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author . Web address - if available. In-text reference.

  16. Research Guides: APA Style, 7th edition: Formatting Your Paper

    APA Style Formatting Steps. 1.Set font as Times New Roman and size 12. 2.Click on Insert. 3.Click on Page Number. 4.Click on Top of Page. 5.Click on Plain Number 3 box. 6.Finish cover page (see pages 11 and 12 of the APA guide). 7.Go to second page. 8.Type your title in bold at the top and centered.

  17. Technical + Research Reports

    Format: Author last name, first initial. (Date). Title of report (Publication No.).Publisher. DOI or URL. Elements: Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial).See Authors for more information.; Date: List the date between parentheses, followed by a period Title of report: In italics.Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

  18. Download/Edit APA Paper Template

    APA 7th Edition Template. Download this 7th-edition template, and use it to format your APA-style Research Paper. Simply download and save a new copy of the document and paste the contents of your paper into the appropriate fields within the template. This version of the template includes the ABSTRACT page.

  19. PDF Publication Manual, 7th Edition Student Paper Checklist

    This checklist corresponds to the writing and formatting guidelines described in full in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Refer to the following chapters for specific information: paper elements and format in Chapter 2. writing style and grammar in Chapter 4. bias-free language in Chapter 5.

  20. PDF APA 7 Student Sample Paper

    papers (a change from APA 6). Page numbers begin on the first page and follow on every subsequent page without interruption. No other information (e.g., authors' last names) is required. Note: your instructor may ask for a running head or your last name before the page number. You can look at the APA professional sample paper for guidelines on ...

  21. PDF APA Seventh Edition

    summary of the main points in the research paper. Try to focus on the topic, research, questions encountered, method, results, conclusion, and, if needed, future research in the paper. In-Text Citation Formatting • In-text citations are located within the paper, and there is a period after the in-text citation (not before it). Individual

  22. Sample Paper

    Optional Paper Sections. Headings - APA 7 Style Guide. Accessible Use of Colors in APA 7. Figures - APA 7. The basics of figure setup, including figure components, principles of figure construction, and placement of figures in a paper. Tables - APA 7.

  23. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  24. APA Reference Page

    APA Style has specific guidelines for the format of the reference page, which is where you list all the sources you've cited in your paper. The guidelines here are for the most recent edition, the 7th edition, of the APA Publication Manual.. Your reference page should begin on a new page immediately after the main text, and the references should be listed in alphabetical order.

  25. Free APA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Our APA generator was built with a focus on simplicity and speed. To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps: Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page. MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.

  26. Report with Individual Authors References

    Provide the publisher of the report and its URL in the source element of the reference. Learn more Report references are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.4 and the Concise Guide Section 10.4