management of natural resources essay

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✍️Essay on Natural Resources: Samples in 100, 150 and 200 Words 

management of natural resources essay

  • Updated on  
  • Nov 2, 2023

Essay on Natural Resources

Wondering about how the resources provided by our planet Earth are depleting? Well, that’s true. We have come to the stage where we should start working towards saving our planet. We humans have used our resources in a humongous quantity. Therefore, it’s time we start working towards saving our planet for our future generations. Today we will provide you with a few samples of essay on natural resources which will help you write on this topic easily. 

Table of Contents

  • 1 What are Natural Resources?
  • 2 Types of Natural Resources
  • 3 Essay on Natural Resources in 100 Words
  • 4 Essay on Natural Resources in 150 Words
  • 5 Essay on Natural Resources in 200 Words

What are Natural Resources?

Natural Resources are resources which are present in nature independent of human actions. 

These are the resources that are created naturally by the environment, without any help from humans. Soil, stone, sunlight, air, plants, animals, fossil fuels, etc. are all natural resources.

In simple language, natural resources are naturally occurring materials which are useful to humankind. They can also be useful in a variety of ways such as in technological, economic or social contexts. These resources include building, clothing materials, food, water, fertilisers and geothermal energy. Natural resources were traditionally within the purview of the natural sciences.

Also Read: Essay on Save Environment: Samples in 100, 200, 300 Words

Types of Natural Resources

Speaking of the type of natural resources, there are mainly two types of natural resources. These include Renewable and Non-renewable resources. 

Renewable Resources: These are those resources which are endlessly available to humans for several uses. These resources are trees, wind, and water.

Non-Renewable Resources: These resources are available to humans in infinite quantities as they are not renewable and their supply may eventually run out. Minerals and fossil fuels are a few examples.

Also Read: Essay on the Importance of the English Language for Students

Essay on Natural Resources in 100 Words

Natural resources are parts of the natural world that are useful to humans. Renewable resources are those that can be swiftly replenished, these include soil, water, and air., Non-renewable resources are those that need time to recover, such as minerals, oil, natural gas, etc. 

One should note that the survival of all life on Earth depends on natural resources. However, the usage of natural resources in excess use can cause ecosystem disruption. Many nations are taking action these days to protect their natural resources. Natural resources shouldn’t be used for purposes outside our needs. In order to preserve non-renewable resources, we should utilise renewable resources more frequently than non-renewable ones.

Essay on Natural Resources in 150 Words

The organic aspects of nature that contribute to our way of life are known as natural resources. For survival, we rely on natural resources. Natural resources include things like air, water, soil, minerals, crops, etc. Resources like minerals, oil, and other resources are found in non-living organisms and take eons to regenerate. 

The distribution of natural resources is not even. Resources like these are also the primary driver of international trade relations for many nations. However, with time, these natural resources have now been overused by the human mankind beyond their limits. 

However, the unrestricted exploitation of natural resources is a challenge for all nations these days. To control this, a lot of nations are emphasising garbage recycling and employing more renewable resources than non-renewable ones. 

Sustainable development is the use of natural resources for current requirements without wasting them while keeping an eye on the future. It refers to the wise use of natural resources without sacrificing what coming generations will need.

Also Read: Essay on Unity in Diversity in 100 to 200 Words

Essay on Natural Resources in 200 Words

Natural resources are materials found in the environment that humans use to survive.  From the very start, humans have been dependent on these resources. While some of these resources can be restored more rapidly than others, some require more time. Resources like sunlight, water, air, and other renewable resources are readily available and have higher recovery rates than consumption rates.

On the other hand, the formation and processing of non-renewable resources, such as minerals, oil, and natural gas, take a long time. Even the usage rate of these non-renewable resources is higher as compared to the renewable resources. While some natural resources are used immediately, others must first undergo processing.

Even while renewable resources are available in huge quantities, they should also be used responsibly. Both renewable and non-renewable resources require time to be created and processed. Therefore, it is very important for humans to use these resources in a limited quantity and leave some for future generations.

With time, humans are using these resources excessively. With the ever-increasing population, humans have already created a huge impact on the environment. To begin, humans are continuously polluting the air, water and noise. Buildings are being constructed on more land. The land is becoming less valuable in this way. Humans are soon becoming the biggest reason behind depleting natural resources, such as land, water, and air. 

Therefore, we mustn’t undervalue these resources. The moment has come for us to recognise the importance of using these resources sustainably.

Related Articles

Natural Resources are substances which are naturally obtained from nature. Here are the 5 natural resources: Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Sand, Gems, and Metals.

Renewable resources are natural resources that can be replenished or regenerated at a rate comparable to the rate at which they are consumed or harvested. For example: Solar energy, Wind energy, Biomass, Geothermal energy, etc.

Conserving and saving natural resources is essential for sustainable development and the preservation of the environment. Here are some easy tips to save natural resources: Implementing the 3Rs in daily life; Adopting energy-efficient practices such as using energy-saving appliances; Reducing water wastage by fixing leaks, using water-efficient appliances, and practising mindful water usage in daily activities, etc.

For more information on such interesting topics, visit our essay-writing page and follow Leverage Edu ! 

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Malvika is a content writer cum news freak who comes with a strong background in Journalism and has worked with renowned news websites such as News 9 and The Financial Express to name a few. When not writing, she can be found bringing life to the canvasses by painting on them.

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Conserving Earth

Earth’s natural resources include air, water, soil, minerals, plants, and animals. Conservation is the practice of caring for these resources so all living things can benefit from them now and in the future.

Biology, Ecology, Earth Science, Geography, Geology, Conservation

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Earth ’s natural resources include air , water , soil , minerals , fuels , plants, and animals. Conservation is the practice of caring for these resources so all living things can benefit from them now and in the future. All the things we need to survive , such as food , water, air, and shelter , come from natural resources. Some of these resources, like small plants, can be replaced quickly after they are used. Others, like large trees, take a long time to replace. These are renewable resources . Other resources, such as fossil fuels , cannot be replaced at all. Once they are used up, they are gone f orever . These are nonrenewable resources . People often waste natural resources. Animals are overhunted . Forests are cleared, exposing land to wind and water damage. Fertile soil is exhausted and lost to erosion because of poor farming practices. Fuel supplies are depleted . Water and air are polluted . If resources are carelessly managed, many will be used up. If used wisely and efficiently , however, renewable resources will last much longer. Through conservation, people can reduce waste and manage natural resources wisely. The population of human beings has grown enormously in the past two centuries. Billions of people use up resources quickly as they eat food, build houses, produce goods, and burn fuel for transportation and electricity . The continuation of life as we know it depends on the careful use of natural resources. The need to conserve resources often conflicts with other needs. For some people, a wooded area may be a good place to put a farm. A timber company may want to harvest the area’s trees for construction materials. A business may want to build a factory or shopping mall on the land. All these needs are valid, but sometimes the plants and animals that live in the area are forgotten. The benefits of development need to be weighed against the harm to animals that may be forced to find new habitats , the depletion of resources we may want in the future (such as water or timber), or damage to resources we use today. Development and conservation can coexist in harmony. When we use the environment in ways that ensure we have resources for the future, it is called sustainable development . There are many different resources we need to conserve in order to live sustainably. Forests A forest is a large area covered with trees grouped so their foliage shades the ground. Every continent except Antarctica has forests, from the evergreen -filled boreal forests of the north to mangrove forests in tropical wetlands . Forests are home to more than two-thirds of all known land species . Tropical rainforests are especially rich in biodiversity . Forests provide habitats for animals and plants. They store carbon , helping reduce global warming . They protect soil by reducing runoff . They add nutrients to the soil through leaf litter . They provide people with lumber and firewood. Deforestation is the process of clearing away forests by cutting them down or burning them. People clear forests to use the wood, or to make way for farming or development. Each year, Earth loses about 14.6 million hectares (36 million acres) of forest to deforestation—an area about the size of the U.S. state of New York. Deforestation destroys wildlife habitats and increases soil erosion. It also releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere , contributing to global warming. Deforestation accounts for 15 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation also harms the people who rely on forests for their survival, hunting and gathering, harvesting forest products, or using the timber for firewood. About half of all the forests on Earth are in the tropics —an area that circles the globe near the Equator . Although tropical forests cover fewer than 6 percent of the world’s land area, they are home to about 80 percent of the world’s documented species. For example, more than 500 different species of trees live in the forests on the small U.S. island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea. Tropical forests give us many valuable products, including woods like mahogany and teak , rubber , fruits, nuts, and flowers. Many of the medicines we use today come from plants found only in tropical rainforests. These include quinine , a malaria drug; curare , an anesthetic used in surgery; and rosy periwinkle , which is used to treat certain types of cancer . Sustainable forestry practices are critical for ensuring we have these resources well into the future. One of these practices is leaving some trees to die and decay naturally in the forest. This “ deadwood ” builds up soil. Other sustainable forestry methods include using low-impact logging practices, harvesting with natural regeneration in mind, and avoiding certain logging techniques , such as removing all the high-value trees or all the largest trees from a forest. Trees can also be conserved if consumers recycle . People in China and Mexico, for example, reuse much of their wastepaper, including writing paper, wrapping paper, and cardboard. If half the world’s paper were recycled, much of the worldwide demand for new paper would be fulfilled, saving many of Earth’s trees. We can also replace some wood products with alternatives like bamboo , which is actually a type of grass. Soil Soil is vital to food production. We need high-quality soil to grow the crops that we eat and feed to livestock . Soil is also important to plants that grow in the wild. Many other types of conservation efforts, such as plant conservation and animal conservation, depend on soil conservation. Poor farming methods, such as repeatedly planting the same crop in the same place, called monoculture , deplete nutrients in the soil. Soil erosion by water and wind increases when farmers plow up and down hills. One soil conservation method is called contour strip cropping . Several crops, such as corn, wheat, and clover , are planted in alternating strips across a slope or across the path of the prevailing wind . Different crops, with different root systems and leaves, help slow erosion.

Harvesting all the trees from a large area, a practice called clearcutting , increases the chances of losing productive topsoil to wind and water erosion. Selective harvesting —the practice of removing individual trees or small groups of trees—leaves other trees standing to anchor the soil. Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of living things that populate Earth. The products and benefits we get from nature rely on biodiversity. We need a rich mixture of living things to provide foods, building materials, and medicines, as well as to maintain a clean and healthy landscape . When a species becomes extinct , it is lost to the world forever. Scientists estimate that the current rate of extinction is 1,000 times the natural rate. Through hunting, pollution , habitat destruction, and contribution to global warming, people are speeding up the loss of biodiversity at an alarming rate. It’s hard to know how many species are going extinct because the total number of species is unknown. Scientists discover thousands of new species every year. For example, after looking at just 19 trees in Panama, scientists found 1,200 different species of beetles—80 percent of them unknown to science at the time. Based on various estimates of the number of species on Earth, we could be losing anywhere from 200 to 100,000 species each year. We need to protect biodiversity to ensure we have plentiful and varied food sources. This is true even if we don’t eat a species threatened with extinction because something we do eat may depend on that species for survival. Some predators are useful for keeping the populations of other animals at manageable levels. The extinction of a major predator might mean there are more herbivores looking for food in people’s gardens and farms. Biodiversity is important for more than just food. For instance, we use between 50,000 to 70,000 plant species for medicines worldwide. The Great Barrier Reef , a coral reef off the coast of northeastern Australia, contributes about $6 billion to the nation’s economy through commercial fishing , tourism , and other recreational activities. If the coral reef dies, many of the fish, shellfish , marine mammals , and plants will die, too. Some governments have established parks and preserves to protect wildlife and their habitats. They are also working to abolish hunting and fishing practices that may cause the extinction of some species. Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are fuels produced from the remains of ancient plants and animals. They include coal , petroleum (oil), and natural gas . People rely on fossil fuels to power vehicles like cars and airplanes, to produce electricity, and to cook and provide heat. In addition, many of the products we use today are made from petroleum. These include plastics , synthetic rubber, fabrics like nylon , medicines, cosmetics , waxes, cleaning products, medical devices, and even bubblegum.

Fossil fuels formed over millions of years. Once we use them up, we cannot replace them. Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource. We need to conserve fossil fuels so we don’t run out. However, there are other good reasons to limit our fossil fuel use. These fuels pollute the air when they are burned. Burning fossil fuels also releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. Global warming is changing ecosystems . The oceans are becoming warmer and more acidic , which threatens sea life. Sea levels are rising, posing risks to coastal communities. Many areas are experiencing more droughts , while others suffer from flooding . Scientists are exploring alternatives to fossil fuels. They are trying to produce renewable biofuels to power cars and trucks. They are looking to produce electricity using the sun, wind, water, and geothermal energy — Earth’s natural heat. Everyone can help conserve fossil fuels by using them carefully. Turn off lights and other electronics when you are not using them. Purchase energy-efficient appliances and weatherproof your home. Walk, ride a bike, carpool , and use public transportation whenever possible. Minerals Earth’s supply of raw mineral resources is in danger. Many mineral deposits that have been located and mapped have been depleted. As the ores for minerals like aluminum and iron become harder to find and extract , their prices skyrocket . This makes tools and machinery more expensive to purchase and operate. Many mining methods, such as mountaintop removal mining (MTR) , devastate the environment. They destroy soil, plants, and animal habitats. Many mining methods also pollute water and air, as toxic chemicals leak into the surrounding ecosystem. Conservation efforts in areas like Chile and the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States often promote more sustainable mining methods. Less wasteful mining methods and the recycling of materials will help conserve mineral resources. In Japan, for example, car manufacturers recycle many raw materials used in making automobiles. In the United States, nearly one-third of the iron produced comes from recycled automobiles. Electronic devices present a big problem for conservation because technology changes so quickly. For example, consumers typically replace their cell phones every 18 months. Computers, televisions, and mp3 players are other products contributing to “ e-waste .” The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that Americans generated more than three million tons of e-waste in 2007. Electronic products contain minerals as well as petroleum-based plastics. Many of them also contain hazardous materials that can leach out of landfills into the soil and water supply. Many governments are passing laws requiring manufacturers to recycle used electronics. Recycling not only keeps materials out of landfills, but it also reduces the energy used to produce new products. For instance, recycling aluminum saves 90 percent of the energy that would be required to mine new aluminum.

Water Water is a renewable resource. We will not run out of water the way we might run out of fossil fuels. The amount of water on Earth always remains the same. However, most of the planet’s water is unavailable for human use. While more than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered by water, only 2.5 percent of it is freshwater . Out of that freshwater, almost 70 percent is permanently frozen in the ice caps covering Antarctica and Greenland. Only about 1 percent of the freshwater on Earth is available for people to use for drinking, bathing, and irrigating crops. People in many regions of the world suffer water shortages . These are caused by depletion of underground water sources known as aquifers , a lack of rainfall due to drought, or pollution of water supplies. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.6 billion people lack adequate water sanitation . More than five million people die each year from diseases caused by using polluted water for drinking, cooking, or washing. About one-third of Earth’s population lives in areas that are experiencing water stress . Most of these areas are in developing countries. Polluted water hurts the environment as well as people. For instance, agricultural runoff—the water that runs off of farmland—can contain fertilizers and pesticides . When this water gets into streams , rivers , and oceans, it can harm the organisms that live in or drink from those water sources. People can conserve and protect water supplies in many ways. Individuals can limit water use by fixing leaky faucets, taking shorter showers, planting drought-resistant plants, and buying low-water-use appliances. Governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations can help developing countries build sanitation facilities. Farmers can change some of their practices to reduce polluted runoff. This includes limiting overgrazing , avoiding over-irrigation, and using alternatives to chemical pesticides whenever possible. Conservation Groups Businesses, international organizations , and some governments are involved in conservation efforts. The United Nations (UN) encourages the creation of national parks around the world. The UN also established World Water Day, an event to raise awareness and promote water conservation. Governments enact laws defining how land should be used and which areas should be set aside as parks and wildlife preserves. Governments also enforce laws designed to protect the environment from pollution, such as requiring factories to install pollution-control devices. Finally, governments often provide incentives for conserving resources, using clean technologies, and recycling used goods. Many international organizations are dedicated to conservation. Members support causes such as saving rain forests, protecting threatened animals, and cleaning up the air. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an alliance of governments and private groups founded in 1948. The IUCN works to protect wildlife and habitats. In 1980, the group proposed a world conservation strategy . Many governments have used the IUCN model to develop their own conservation plans. In addition, the IUCN monitors the status of endangered wildlife, threatened national parks and preserves, and other environments around the world. Zoos and botanical gardens also work to protect wildlife. Many zoos raise and breed endangered animals to increase their populations. They conduct research and help educate the public about endangered species . For instance, the San Diego Zoo in the U.S. state of California runs a variety of research programs on topics ranging from disease control in amphibians to heart-healthy diets for gorillas. Scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in London, England, work to protect plant life around the world. Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank , for example, works with partners in 54 countries to protect biodiversity through seed collection. Kew researchers are also exploring how DNA technology can help restore damaged habitats. Individuals can do many things to help conserve resources. Turning off lights, repairing leaky faucets, and recycling paper, aluminum cans, glass, and plastic are just a few examples. Riding bikes, walking, carpooling, and using public transportation all help conserve fuel and reduce the amount of pollutants released into the environment. Individuals can plant trees to create homes for birds and squirrels. At grocery stores, people can bring their own reusable bags. And people can carry reusable water bottles and coffee mugs rather than using disposable containers. If each of us would conserve in small ways, the result would be a major conservation effort.

Tree Huggers The Chipko Movement, which is dedicated to saving trees, was started by villagers in Uttar Pradesh, India. Chipko means hold fast or embrace. The villagers flung their arms around trees to keep loggers from cutting them down. The villagers won, and Uttar Pradesh banned the felling of trees in the Himalayan foothills. The movement has since expanded to other parts of India.

Thirsty Food People require about 2 to 4 liters of drinking water each day. However, a day's worth of food requires 2,000 to 5,000 liters of water to produce. It takes more water to produce meat than to produce plant-based foods.

Tiger, Tiger Tigers are dangerous animals, but they have more to fear from us than we have to fear from them. Today there are only about 3,200 tigers living in the wild. Three tiger subspecies the Bali, Caspian, and Javan tigers have gone extinct in the past century. Many organizations are working hard to protect the remaining tigers from illegal hunting and habitat loss.

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Related Resources

  • Natural Sources Of Energy
  • Manage Natural Resources

Why Do We Need To Manage Our Natural Resources

Energy is required for the evolution of life forms on earth. We obtain energy from different sources. The natural resources that we use today are the prime source of energy for the day-to-day activities of humans, without which we would still be lurking around in the Stone Age. In this article, we will discuss why there is a need to manage and conserve our natural resources .

Natural Resources

What is Management of Natural Resources?

Management of natural resources refers to the plan of action related to renewable and non-renewable resources. Natural resources like land, soil, water, plants and animals are affected by global warming , overpopulation, industrial expansion and other related reasons.

Why is Management of Natural Resources Important?

Following are the reasons why the management of natural resources is important:

  • To maintain a balance in the ecosystem.
  • To avoid further destruction of the environment.
  • To avoid over-consumption of natural resources.

What are the Three R’s of Waste Management?

Following are the 3 Rs of waste management:

  Reduce refers to smart purchasing of the products. The best way to reduce waste is by not producing waste. Following are the ways to reduce:

  • Avoid using disposal products like paper cups and plates and straws instead switch to reusable products.
  • Check for the durability of the products.
  • Stop asking for carry bags at shops, instead carry cloth bags.

Reuse refers to using products that are economical and also environmental friendly . Following are the ways to reuse:

  • Donate or sell old clothes, electrical appliances, furniture, etc.
  • Reuse the paper and plastic bags.

Recycling refers to reusing products to get creative and by-products. Following are the ways to recycle:

  • Recycling used paper to make paper bags.
  • Purchasing products that can be recycled and also that are recycled.

Need to Manage Natural Resources

Here are the reasons why we need to manage our natural resources:

  • Everything that we use today – food, clothes, house, vehicles, fuel, notebooks, furniture, cooking gas, utensils, toys, roads, etc. is obtained from resources on the earth.
  • A significant portion of the energy which we use today is obtained from non-renewable sources. This implies that once they are used up, they cannot be replenished. The most important source of non-renewable energy used extensively is the fossil fuels which have taken millions of years to be formed.
  • Managing the resources would not only ensure their rational use but also put a limit to the degradation it is causing to the environment. For example, the usage of resources in different forms generates a lot of waste which is being disposed off into the water bodies. This, in turn, is polluting the rivers and lakes. Limiting usage will also reduce waste generation and pollution.

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Brazilian Amazon lumber

The Sustainable Use of Natural Resources: The Governance Challenge

Still Only One Earth: Lessons from 50 years of UN sustainable development policy

Over-exploitation of natural resources harms the health of ecosystems and the wellbeing of people. In the face of environmental crises and growing inequality, we need to act, including developing extended producer responsibility and supply chain legislation, guaranteeing green public procurement, supporting technical innovation to enhance resource circularity, and adopting decision-making processes that include and respect women, Indigenous Peoples, and local communities. ( Download PDF ) ( See all policy briefs ) ( Subscribe to ENB )

Natural resources are central to human wellbeing. We cannot live without the clean air we breathe, the plants we eat, or the water we drink. We need natural resources to put roofs over our heads and heat our homes. We need them to survive and to thrive.

The concept of natural resources refers to naturally occurring living and non-living elements of the Earth system, including plants, fish, and fungi, but also water, soil, and minerals. A prominent way to think about natural resources is to look at them in terms of depletion risk: do they regenerate, and, if so, at what pace? Some resources, such as trees and plants, are renewable because they regenerate relatively quickly. Others, such as copper and oil, take much longer to form and are considered non-renewable. Together, natural resources make up a dense web of interdependence, forming ecosystems that also include humans. As such, the distribution of resources shapes the face of our planet and the local distinctiveness of our environments. People have formed different types of cultural, spiritual, and subsistence-based relationships with the natural environment, adopting value-systems that go beyond economic framings.

Nature makes human development possible but our relentless demand for the earth’s resources is accelerating extinction rates and devastating the world’s ecosystems. Joyce Msuya , Deputy Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme

The use of natural resources has long been considered an element of both human rights and economic development, leading the United Nations, amid its work on advancing decolonization in the 1960s, to declare that “[t]he right of peoples and nations to permanent sovereignty over their natural wealth and resources must be exercised in the interest of their national development and of the well-being of the people of the State concerned” ( UN General Assembly Resolution 1803 (XVII) ).

Natural resources are often viewed as key assets driving development and wealth creation. Over time and with progressive industrialization, resource use increased. In some cases, exploitation levels came to exceed resources’ natural regeneration rates. Such overexploitation ultimately threatens the livelihoods and wellbeing of people who depend on these resources, and jeopardizes the health of ecosystems. This risk of resource depletion, notably manifesting in the form of fishery collapses, demonstrates the need to regulate natural resource use to better preserve resources and their ecosystems. The very first UN conference on environmental issues, the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, Sweden, adopted fundamental principles in this regard.

Stockholm Declaration

  • Principle 2: “The natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or management, as appropriate.”
  • Principle 3: “The capacity of the earth to produce vital renewable resources must be maintained and, wherever practicable, restored or improved.”
  • Principle 5: “The non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed in such a way as to guard against the danger of their future exhaustion and to ensure that benefits from such employment are shared by all mankind.”

The Stockholm Declaration not only addressed resource depletion, but also benefit sharing: the objective to ensure that natural resource use not only benefits the few, but the many, both within and across countries. It also speaks to the principle of inter-generational equity: ensuring that today’s resource use does not compromise the availability of natural resources for future generations. In fact, natural resource use relates to all three dimensions of sustainability: social justice, environmental health, and economic development. The sustainable use of natural resources strives for balance between these dimensions: maintaining the long-term use of resources while maximizing social benefits and minimizing environmental impacts.

Natural Resource Use Has More than Tripled since 1970

Although the 1972 Stockholm Declaration laid out the fundamental principles for sustainable resource governance, the state of play half a century later is sobering. The International Resource Panel (IRP), launched by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), found that the global average of material demand per capita grew from 7.4 tons in 1970 to 12.2 tons in 2017, with significant adverse impacts on the environment, notably increased greenhouse gas emissions.

The IRP also showed that “the use of natural resources and the related benefits and environmental impacts are unevenly distributed across countries and regions” (IRP, 2019, p. 27). For one, the per capita material footprint in high-income countries is thirteen times more than in low-income countries: 27 tons and 2 tons per capita, respectively. As WWF notes , “If everyone lived like an average resident of the USA, a total of four Earths would be required to regenerate humanity’s annual demand on nature.” What’s more, since they generally rely on resource extraction in other countries, high income countries outsource part of the environmental and social impacts of their consumption. At the same time, the IRP has reported that “the value created through these traded materials in the countries of origin is relatively low” (IRP, 2019, p. 65). This imbalance highlights the global discrepancies in the distribution of benefits and negative impacts stemming from resource use, with countries “rich” in valuable resources not always benefitting from their extraction, distribution, and use, yet suffering the most environmental harm.

Human actions threaten more species with global extinction now than ever before. Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Fostering Sustainable Resource Governance

A vast array of norms, institutions, and actors influence decisions on natural resources, which is why we speak of natural resource governance. A plethora of national legislation, intergovernmental agreements, regional organizations, certification mechanisms, corporate codes of conduct, and multi-stakeholder partnerships create a complex web of rules affecting how natural resources are used and benefits thereof are distributed.

Global Material Use Infographic

Since Stockholm, numerous multilateral agreements have developed a range of operational guidelines, targets, and standards. Some intergovernmental frameworks, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are broad in focus, while others are resource-specific ( Minamata Convention on Mercury ) or relate to a specific geographical area ( Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources ). Industry initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships often focus on specific resources or sectors. Examples of such initiatives include the Forest Stewardship Council , the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil , the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative , and the Better Cotton Initiative .

Citizens also have agency over natural resource use: through the representatives we elect to government, our activist engagement, and our consumption and transport choices. For instance, carefully considering food production cycles—what we eat, where and how it is grown, and how it arrives on our plate—can go towards addressing the impact that agricultural expansion has on forests, wetlands, and grassland ecosystems (FAO, 2018; IPBES, 2019). However, this needs to be coupled with systemic change across governance structures.

These mechanisms and institutions are not always complementary; in fact, at times they stand in conflict with one another. Consider, for instance, an energy corporation invoking the Energy Charter Treaty to file arbitration claims against a country’s decision to phase-out coal—a decision taken in accordance with its obligations under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change .

Balancing Rights and Interests over Natural Resources

Determining how people can—and should— access, benefit from, participate in decision-making on, and have responsibility over natural resources has been shaped by concepts such as property and rights . 

On the one hand, property rights divide lands and territories into: private property, where rights are held by individuals or companies; common property, where rights are shared by a community; public property, where rights are held by government; and open access areas, where no specific rights are assigned (Aggrawal & Elbow, 2006). Property rights are closely tied to rights over natural resources, which include the right to use a resource, such as hunting in a forest; or management rights that grant authority to decide on use, for example imposing seasonal hunting restrictions. In terms of governance, different types of ownership and access rights can be held simultaneously by several actors: a wetland can be owned by the state, managed by a local council, and used as fishing grounds by communities. 

The notion of tenure security indicates that an individual’s rights over natural resources and specific lands are recognized and enforceable. These rights are key to avoiding conflict and fostering social security as well as long-term sustainable resource use.

On the other hand, there are individual and collective rights regarding quality of life. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Peasants and Other People Working in Rural Areas ( UNDROP ), for example, stipulates that “[p]easants and other people working in rural areas have the right to have access to and to use in a sustainable manner the natural resources present in their communities that are required to enjoy adequate living conditions” and that they “have the right to participate in the management of these resources” (Article 5). UNDROP highlights the importance of small-scale sustainable practices, and the need to strengthen the protection and recognition of groups who have experienced historical marginalization and violent conflict over resource use. 

Similarly, the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples ( UNDRIP ) and International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention 169 ( ILO 169 ) protect the individual and collective rights of Indigenous Peoples. UNDRIP Article 8(2b) stipulates that states shall prevent and provide redress for “any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources.” Both texts also speak to the importance of ensuring the free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) of Indigenous Peoples in relation to the use of their lands, with UNDRIP Articles 11(2) and 28 underscoring Indigenous Peoples’ right to redress for past FPIC infringements.

There is also the right to a healthy environment, enshrined in regional treaties, including procedural rights on access to information and decision-making processes, as well as the right to clean air, a safe climate, healthy food, safe water, a safe environment for work and play, and healthy ecosystems (UN Human Rights Council, 2019). Ultimately, the effectiveness of these advances in international law depends upon national governments’ readiness to implement them. To date, only 23 countries have ratified ILO 169, and many countries around the world have yet to adopt appropriate legislation to protect the rights enshrined in UNDRIP. To do so, and to protect associated rights under UNDROP and the right to a healthy environment, governments must adopt robust reforms across national policies, laws, programmes, and institutions that prompt shifts in country priorities and ensure the mainstreaming of environmental and social concerns across sectors, focusing especially on empowering marginalized groups. To ensure that decisions across society better address ecological and social wellbeing, prominent actors, including the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment, are calling for human rights-based approaches to natural resource governance.

Overall, this constitutes a complex architecture, one that is dynamic in nature, often builds on customary practices, and requires balancing “competing” rights and interests through law and policy. Structures are seldom straightforward: there are often overlapping or even conflicting systems in place, and this influences the sustainability of resource governance.

States play a central role in balancing rights and interests. Regulations addressing the extractive sector determine how a corporation’s exclusive user rights may impact the general population’s right to a safe and healthy environment. Approaches to this balancing act, and the distribution, recognition, and safeguarding of rights, and the implementation of associated responsibilities, vary across states and change over time.

At times, this balance of interests favors more powerful actors. Stemming from historical legacies and trajectories in decision-making, structural inequalities exist across resource access, ownership, and tenure security (Oxfam, 2014). These issues disproportionately impact women , rural communities, and Indigenous Peoples, who are often cast as passive recipients to policy change, as opposed to rights holders and key actors in the sustainable management of natural resources. 

Women have faced historical exclusion from decision-making processes related to land and resources (UN Women, 2020). Due to enduring patriarchal gender norms across the world, they hold less control than men over the lands and resources they traditionally use and rely on for their livelihoods and wellbeing. Based on an analysis of 180 countries, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) found that out of the 164 countries that explicitly recognize women’s rights to own, use, and make decisions regarding land on par with men, only 52 countries guarantee these rights in both law and practice (OECD, 2019). As such, it is important that states ensure that women’s rights over natural resources are realized and protected through appropriate mechanisms. 

Leaders on values based land use

Indigenous Peoples also struggle to have their rights recognized. For instance, in Finland, Sweden, and Canada, legal disputes have arisen over the challenge of balancing between states’ sovereign right to govern and exploit natural resources, and Indigenous Peoples’ rights to self-determination over traditional territories and customary resource use. Globally, conflicts have also emerged over specific policy approaches, such as conservation methods relying on models of strictly protected areas, or the expansion of large infrastructure, such as the installation of hydraulic dams, which contribute to the displacement of Indigenous and rural peoples. 

The expansion of international investment treaties further aggravates existing power differentials. In fostering the commercialization and privatization of land and resources, and by often prioritizing investors’ rights and interests over those held by local peoples, they risk restricting public-interest policies and undermine the public’s access to remedial action (Cotula, 2015, 2016).

The Need for Inclusive Governance 

Activists and practitioners working to safeguard rights linked to natural resources and secure tenure have been lobbying for strengthened empowerment and participation of local groups, arguing that this fosters more sustainable and equitable resource governance. Alliances between women, youth, Indigenous Peoples, and local community groups have emerged, connecting local-to-global efforts, and bringing international attention to injustices. This includes grassroots alliances such as La Vía Campesina , which has lobbied to protect farmers’ and peasants’ rights since the 1990s and was instrumental in the creation and adoption of UNDROP. 

Inclusive decision making is key for sustainable resource governance. Just as gender norms have influenced structures for access and use, they have also shaped our behaviors and the knowledge we acquire, with women holding unique agroecological expertise linked to crop resilience and nutrition (UN Women, 2018). So, unless decision-making processes are gender-responsive and inclusive, they risk overlooking women’s specific needs and roles, and will fail to ensure the inclusion of ecological knowledge important for enabling sustainable practices. 

The same can be said for including Indigenous Peoples and local communities in resource governance. The second edition of the CBD’s Local Biodiversity Outlooks illustrates their significant contributions to the safeguarding and sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity. Important benefits come with inclusive and community-led governance structures and decision-making processes, which, in addition to protecting and enabling sustainable use of resources, can strengthen community support systems and local economies, as well as revitalize Indigenous and local knowledges and languages.

The Need for Transformative Change

Despite efforts since the 1970s, current trends in natural resource use are unsustainable, with potentially devastating results. The 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report underscored that transformative change is necessary to protect the resources upon which human life and wellbeing depends. The Report also acknowledges that, by its very nature, transformative change is often opposed by those with interests vested in the status quo. Civil society actors therefore underscore the importance for governments to address vested interests and foster inclusive decision making, along with a re-balancing of priorities with regards to rights and interests in order to ensure ecological integrity and social justice (Allan, et.al., 2019). The Local Biodiversity Outlooks mentioned earlier offer important examples of bottom-up approaches to resource governance that can foster sustainability while also addressing historical inequalities.

Bearing in mind global and local inequalities in the distribution of resource use and benefits, achieving transformative change requires bold governmental action, both domestically and in international fora. We need fundamental shifts in production and consumptions patterns, careful attention to value and supply chains, and the fostering of circular resource use and circular economies. Resource circularity breaks with the linear model of “extract-use-discard” towards a “waste-as-a-resource” model that fosters a reduced need for resource extraction, as well as encourages increased reuse, repair and recycling. These objectives are already enshrined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development , with governments aiming to achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources by 2030 . While implementation has been too slow (IPBES, 2019), there is increased attention to fostering resource circularity, hand in hand with efforts to promote secure labor standards and reduce environmental impacts of resource exploitation. Most notable in this regard are legislative initiatives that increase producers’ responsibility for the impacts of their products throughout their lifecycle. Placing responsibility for post-use disposal on manufacturers significantly increases the material recovery rate and incentivizes less wasteful product design (OECD, 2016).

Wasteful resource use

To better balance the three dimensions of sustainable resources governance—social justice, environmental health, and economic development—we must rethink our economic, social, political, and technological systems that currently enable damaging production practices and wasteful resource consumption. Other ways of living are possible, from the ways we structure our societies and economies, the relationships we form with each other and with our ecosystems, to ensuring that the priorities of our leaders align with the interests of the many rather than the few. To realize these shifts, governments should develop extended producer responsibilities and supply chain legislation to enhance fairer distribution of benefits and harms stemming from resource use and promote the protection of human rights in ways that ensure ecological wellbeing and social justice. 

Decision making must be inclusive and account for the needs, rights, and knowledges of historically marginalized communities and groups. Governance structures must recognize and support pre-existing sustainable practices at local and regional levels, as well as nourish the emergence of more sustainable patterns of resource use and management. This will require strengthening tenure rights and re-distributing power across all stages of decision-making. 

Works Consulted

Aggarwal, S. & Elbow, K. (2016). The role of property rights in natural resource management, good governance and empowerment of the rural poor. USAID. https://www.land-links.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/USAID_Land_Tenure_Property_Rights_and_NRM_Report.pdf

Allan, J.I., Antonich, B., Bansard, J.S., Luomi, M., & Soubry, B. (2019). Summary of the Chile/Madrid Climate Change Conference: 2-15 December 2019. Earth Negotiations Bulletin , 12(775). https://enb.iisd.org/download/pdf/enb12775e.pdf

Cotula, L. (2015). Land rights and investment treaties. IIED. https://pubs.iied.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/12578IIED.pdf

Cotula, L. (2016). Rethinking investment treaties to advance human rights. IIED Briefing. https://pubs.iied.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/17376IIED.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). Sustainable food systems: Concept and framework. http://www.fao.org/3/ca2079en/CA2079EN.pdf

Forest Peoples Programme, International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, Indigenous Women’s Biodiversity Network, Centres of Distinction on Indigenous and Local Knowledge, & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (2020). Local biodiversity outlooks 2 . https://www.cbd.int/gbo/gbo5/publication/lbo-2-en.pdf

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. (2019). Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services. https://www.ipbes.net/global-assessment

International Resource Panel. (2019). Global resources outlook 2019: Natural resources for the future we want. UN Environment Programme. https://www.resourcepanel.org/reports/global-resources-outlook

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2016). Extended producer responsibility: Updated guidance for efficient waste management. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264256385-en

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2019). Social institutions and gender index 2019 global report: Transforming challenges into opportunities. https://doi.org/10.1787/bc56d212-en

Oxfam. (2014). Even it up: Time to end extreme inequality. https://www-cdn.oxfam.org/s3fs-public/file_attachments/cr-even-it-up-extreme-inequality-291014-en.pdf

UN Human Rights Council. (2019). Report by the Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment. A/HRC/43/53. https://undocs.org/A/HRC/43/53

UN Women (2018). Towards a gender-responsive implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2018/11/towards-a-gender-responsive-implementation-of-the-convention-on-biological-diversity

UN Women (2020). Realizing women’s rights to land and other productive resources. 2nd ed. https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/10/realizing-womens-rights-to-land-and-other-productive-resources-2nd-edition  

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Natural Resources Essay

Resources are necessary for humans and other organisms to survive. The most fundamental source of all our resources is nature, and these resources are termed natural resources. If we look around, we can list many of them, like water, sunlight, flora and fauna, air etc., and we can't think of a world without these resources. Here are some sample essays on natural resources.

Natural Resources Essay

100 Word Essay On Natural Resources

Every living thing in the world needs resources to thrive, and nature is itself the epicentre of these resources. These gifts from nature make life on earth easy and comfortable. Centuries back, we humans were on the track of development and are still developing. We have found many hidden natural resources through this journey and used them widely. Today the population is many times more than the previous centuries, and our consumption has increased.

It is interesting to note that natural resources are divided into two, namely renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources, for example, sunlight and wind, get renewed as they are consumed. On the other hand, non-renewable resources, for instance, coal and petroleum, take more time to replenish. So we need to use the resources wisely.

200 Word Essay On Natural Resources

No one can deny that we all depend on the resources around us. We breathe the air around us, plants use sunlight to make their supplements, and animals consume food from the forest. These all show how living organisms are so dependent on natural resources. Most natural resources are found on the earth's surface, and as civilisations grew, they explored the land and discovered resources hidden inside the planet. Since then, we have used many resources like Coal, Gold, Natural gas, uranium etc. And today, we are not using them but are rapidly exploiting them.

Types Of Resources

Some resources are abundantly found on earth, like water and air. These resources can be accessed when needed and are primarily available, called renewable resources. These resources are less likely to be depleted but can be contaminated, making them less favourable to consumption.

Another type of resource, which is available on earth in limited quantities, is termed non-renewable resources. These resources are limited and tend to exhaust over time.

Another resource category is Biotic and Abiotic resources, which means resources from living and non-living elements.

The current resource consumption rate is alarming, and if it is continuous, the world may run out of resources in the coming centuries.

500 Word Essay On Natural Resources

A natural resource is not anything complicated. Simply put, everything taken from the Earth is considered a natural resource. Sunlight, water, coal, natural gas, minerals, and even air play a role. Everything included here is regarded as a natural resource. These resources are necessary for the survival of life on earth. Energy is one of the most important products of resources and we humans extract energy from almost all of the available resources to meet our demands. Solar energy, wind energy, and hydro energy are some of them.

Types Of Natural Resources

While each natural resource has unique classifications and applications, they may be roughly divided into two groups: renewable and nonrenewable.

Renewable | Those natural resources are considered renewable if they can be readily replenished and there is an abundance of them. Sunlight, water, air, soil, biomass, and wood are all examples of such things. However, some of these resources, such as wood and mud, need more time to replenish than others.

Further, they originate from both living and nonliving sources. Renewable resources may be either organic (obtained from living organisms) or inorganic (obtained from nonliving materials).

Nonrenewable | The term "nonrenewable natural resources" refers to resources that cannot be replenished as readily as renewable ones. Not only that, but their regeneration process is prolonged and may take years. Coal, oil, gas, and other similar materials fall under this category.

Moreover, we divided everything into the organic and inorganic classes. Fossil fuel is an example of the nonrenewable organic resources that arise from the decaying remains of formerly living beings. On the other hand, non-living entities like wind, minerals, soil, and land are responsible for forming nonrenewable inorganic resources.

Distribution Of Natural Resources

There is a significant disparity in the world's natural resource distribution. In addition, several minerals and other natural resources may be abundant over the surface. Even though some places get sun, others get hardly any at all. In a similarity, certain areas are abundant in the water while others have plenty of minerals.

Climate and terrain have a pivotal role in determining resource distribution. This asymmetry is the lifeblood of international commerce, serving as the primary connection between nations. Even worse, it has unintended consequences since nations well-endowed with fossil fuels dominate the market and exploit others dependent on them for their energy needs. As a result, affluent countries are expanding their wealth while impoverished nations are sinking further into poverty.

Example Of Natural Resource

Fatu-Hiva rainforest on the Marquesas Islands is an example of an unspoiled natural resource. The forest supplies people with wood, food, water, and shelter for flora and fauna, tribes, and animals. The nutrient cycle between organisms forms food chains and promotes species diversification.

Earth is endowed with abundant natural resources. We can easily conserve them and the world if we utilise them responsibly until we transition entirely to renewable energy sources. Thus, we will use fewer nonrenewable resources. Not to mention, we cannot survive without them, making them quite crucial. In addition, we need to make good use of them and avoid wasting them in any way.

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Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

What is natural resource management.

Resources include the entire natural environment that is useful to humans. Resources are actually stocks of nature like soil, minerals, water, coal, forests, and more. But because of the increasing population and technological development, our natural resources are getting polluted and depleted.

Natural Resource Management (NRM) deals with managing the way people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together water management, land use planning, biodiversity conservation, and the future sustainability of industries such as mining, tourism, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. It also recognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the productivity and health of our landscapes, and the caretaking of the land plays a major role in maintaining this productivity and health. The article discusses the different types of sustainable management techniques of natural resources.

Pollution is defined as the addition of contaminants in a substance. The contaminants are defined as particles that cause undesirable changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Addition of contaminants in water, soil, and air results in the most common form of pollution.  This is harmful to humans and to other organisms on the Earth as well. So there is an immediate requirement to take proper care and manage the natural resources to conserve our environment for sustainable development. There are international laws, different acts, organizations working towards our environmental protection. The awareness about these problems has led to the conservation of the environment and natural resources. For example, The Ganga Action Plan.

Methods of Sustainable Management  

We can reduce the environmental pressure by following the concept named 3R's, which means to Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse. 

It means  to use the natural resources less, which can be done by: like,

Switching off the electrical appliances when they are not in use.

Saving fuel by walking or using public transport.

Saving food by cooking limitedly or not wasting it, and so on.

It is defined as the processing or recycling of waste to form new products. Practising the concept of recycling saves resources, costs, and also reduces the piling of waste materials.

It is defined as using an item more than once like,

Reuse the envelope.

The containers of jams and pickles should be reused by storing other food items or groceries.

Use cloth/jute bags instead of the polyethene ones, and so on.

What is Sustainable Development?

It is controlling the usage of resources in a way that there is a continuous flow and equitable availability of products and services for the current and future generations without any impact on the environment. Case studies of Chipko Andolan and Ganga action plans are mentioned below as examples of sustainable development. 

Chipko Andolan

The Andolan is an example of sustainable management of natural resources, which was initiated in a village, Tehri, located in Garhwal. The people residing in that area realized the importance of forests and decided not to give timber products to the people of other areas. They hugged the trees by making a human chain by standing and protested against cutting them. The Andolan soon spread in the nearby areas, and those people also started to protest against the cutting of trees.

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Ganga Action Plan

In 1985, the Ganga Action Plan was implemented as a massive multi-crore project, which was undertaken to make the river Ganga pollution-free. It was also noticed that because of the continuous dumping of waste into river Ganga, the number of coliform bacteria rose up to an alarming level. This bacteria is, otherwise, found in the human intestine. This led to the pollution of the river. As people use water for bathing, washing clothes, it leads to the addition of various chemicals in the water which in turn, alters the 'ph' of the water level and makes it contaminated. The main aim of the project was to improve the quality of water by reducing the concentration of contaminants in the river. 

Why Should We Manage Our Resources?

We are in critical demand to manage our resources because everything that we consume is obtained from resources existing on the Earth. They have to be handled carefully as all the natural resources are limited. Also, proper management ensures the availability of these resources for us today and for future generations tomorrow.

Sectors Affected by Depletion of Natural Resources

The depletion of natural resources poses a potential threat on a global level, depletion of resources like water and fossil fuels may lead to a severe shortage of water and fuel sources, but the immediate effect of overexploitation is widely suffered by the population established near the resource. Some of the most common examples of sectors affected by lack of sustainable management include the stakeholders and the wildlife of the nearby area. These are briefly explained below.  

What are Stakeholders?

They are the individuals and the parties having a binding interest in an asset. The stakeholders are,

Locals - Who live around the forests and frequently depend on forest products.

The Forest Department - A government body that looks after the forest.

Industrialists - They take raw materials to run their industries.

Wildlife and Natural Enthusiasts - Those who need to conserve forests.

The stakeholders generally depend directly or indirectly on the natural resources for their livelihood, the lack of sustainable management, in turn, leads to overexploitation and scarcity of the resources. 

Wildlife refers to living beings as a combination of plants, animals, and microorganisms found in natural habitats, which are neither domesticated nor cultivated. It is threatened because of a high degree of exploitation and human interference like-

Overexploitation

Habitat destruction

Lack of proper management techniques leads to the disruption of the ecological balance of the environment. 

In conclusion of the article, we have learnt about natural resource management and its importance. 

FAQs on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

1. Explain Wildlife Conservation and Its Methods?

It is the practice of sustainable management of natural resources, protecting wild species and their habitats to prevent species from going extinct. Major threats to wildlife include destruction/degradation/fragmentation, habitat, overexploitation, poaching, climate change, and pollution. Conservation can be done by following the below methods:

National Park - A protected area where cultivation, grazing, hunting, and more are not allowed. For example, Jim Corbett National Park.

Sanctuaries - These are the protected areas where except hunting, all other activities are allowed.

Biosphere Reserve - A protected area meant for wildlife conservation, tribals, and their domesticated animals.

Protection through Legislation - There are a number of wildlife acts like IBWL ( Indian Board of Wild Life) - 1952, Wildlife Protection Act - 1972, MAB (Man And Biosphere Programme) - 1971, Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) - 1976.

2. Explain the Water Harvesting and Benefits of it?

It is a method of capturing, collection, and storage of rainwater and surface runoff for filling either small bodies or recharging groundwater. The benefits of water harvesting are described as:

This method lessens the chances of flooding during the rainy season. 

It ensures water availability. 

The groundwater is regularly recharged.

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A REFLECTION ON THE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN INDONESIA

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2021, Academia Letters

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In fact, according to World Meteorological Organization (2023), the USA alone incurred US$ 1.7 trillion, accounting for 39 % of losses worldwide in the 51 years. Most of the reported economic losses were attributed to storm-related disasters, and more specifically, to tropical cyclones. Accordingly, Jennifer Rudden (2023) who did focus on the most expensive natural disasters in the US and worldwide for the past decades finds that the total costs of Hurricane Katrina amounted to 125 billion US dollars at the time the disaster occurred in 2005. While this is around the same total cost of Hurricane Harvey, when adjusted for inflation the former is more expensive, with the cost being the equivalent of 194 billion US dollars in 2023 (compared to 155 billion US dollars for Hurricane Harvey). Unfortunately, beside the Hurricanes, Wildfires have started to become another nightmare for the Americans as well. 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  • Management of Resources

We do know that natural resources are the prime source through which almost all of our energy needs are fulfilled. Hence, management of resources and their conservation is indeed a vital aspect that should be stressed by governments and private environmental agencies. Let us try to understand how the proper arrangement of natural resources will pave a path for sustainable development.

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Introduction to management of resources.

Natural resources such as fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas), forests, water etc. are degrading at a significantly high rate as a result of misuse. In order to conserve the natural resources, there is a need to manage them in a systematic order . If you want our future generations to gain access to these resources, then taking care of our biodiversity should be the foremost priority.

Management of Resources

Objectives Associated with Conservation of Natural Resources

It is important to know that, the objectives of resource management are focused on sustainability through the creation of a healthy balance between the below mentioned three factors.

First includes the economic aspects i.e. the jobs, employment , money , etc. The second includes the social aspects i.e. the people, communities, etc. Third includes the environmental aspects i.e. the plants, animals, biodiversity , etc.

All these three factors are connected to each other. The supreme way to acquire a good equilibrium among these three is through the management of resources achieved in a proper manner.

Browse more Topics under Management Of Natural Resources

  • Fossil Fuel and Its Management

Tips for Resource Management

Water management.

Water is one of the abundant natural resources which cover around 70.9 percent of our planet. But, only 3 percent of water is tagged as fresh water, and less than 1 percent is suitable for direct human Proper water management is achieved through water treatment on all levels, be it large or small.

The treatment of water gathered from domestic and industrial regions is necessary in order to fulfil the daily demands of the population. Water wasting is one major concern, which needs to be corrected by making people aware of a wider level.

Laws & Regulations

The implementation of proper laws and regulations for stopping the wasting of resources is a crucial part of resource management. With the presence of these laws, people can grow enlightened on the requirement to conserve the resources so that our future generations can enjoy their use. Imposing heavy penalties on candidates who do not abide these laws and regulations can surely be a good solution.

Reduce, Re-use and Recycle

Reusing and recycling are seen as sensible alternatives to disposing of several items. With an aim for better management and proficient utilization of resources, less use of goods is needed.

Careless dumping of substances like plastics glassware, oil, ceramic, porcelain as well as metals has harmful effects on both soil and water. These items are inorganic, which means that bacteria cannot decompose them. Hence, apart from disposing reusing and recycling can be counted as better options.

Question For You

Q. Give Example of Renewable & Non-Renewable Resources?

Ans: Some examples of renewable resources are water, trees etc. Non-renewable resources include coal, oil, natural gas etc.

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Natural Resource Management

Barriers to effective natural resource management.

Currently, the old systems of natural resources planning do not cope with the new requirements of the natural resources development process. This has led to proposals for a new system designs that can easily cope up with those new requirements. Nevertheless, the new systems designs are not effective because of barriers to planning natural resources effectively (Lachapelle, McCool, & Petterson, 2003).

For instance, the planners fail to define their goals in relation to their mission on the plan of natural resources management. The planners therefore agree on goals identified on a wider perspective and disagree on narrowing the goals to specific. In addition, problem arises when finding a goal mutually accepted by entities involved. The entities comprise government or private firm and public. The involvement of several entities in the design process leads to constant information disseminated slowing the designing process during natural resources management (Lachapelle, McCool, & Petterson, 2003).

Lastly, organization difficulties cause the operational management problems during development of the plan of natural resources management. A good example is the problem in allocation of funds and personnel resources. This inhibits innovation and creativeness leading to lack of trust since, under rigid time schedule, management avoids the expected relationship building for the period of planning for the natural resources management (Lachapelle, McCool, & Petterson, 2003).

From the above problems, the most effective way of ensuring effective planning of natural resources occurs is to build cooperation between the involved entities. This would help in pulling together resources, outlining transitions, meeting goals and objectives during the planning process, and highlighting roles of every sector involved thus avoiding mistrust (Hart, Faure, Scholz, Mackie, & Oyeniji, 2012).

Moreover, as United Nations Development Programme (2011) notes, policies need to be change to enhance flexibility. In order to attain the needed flexibility in the new policies, there is a need to aligning policies priorities in the planning of management of natural resources according to developmental aspirations of the people. The set policies positions need to be broad enough to allow flexibility in parameter choosing (United Nations Development Programme, 2011).

Communication

Aside listening, there are other reasons why communication fails. For example, poor timing causes communication stoppage. Poor timing happens when we perceive the message but deliver it in the wrong time when the intended party cannot perceive it. Moreover, communication may fail due to language barriers. Language barrier occurs when the involved individual cannot communicate directly due to difference in their languages. Additionally, language use may cause communication barrier. This includes pronunciation or choice of phrases and words. Besides, the method of presenting information may lead to different interpretations.

For instance, delivery of information through tables and other pictorial representation has a higher degree of difference in interpretation of the message than a given speech. Lastly, the communication may fail due to the volume of message or frequency of message delivery. Volume and frequency of message characterizes how often communication occurs, the content spoken out, and the time spend talking (I-Change, 2009).

In an organization with members coming from different natural resources background, as a team leader, there are two things implemented to ensure the group benefit from the diverse resources offered by the workers different backgrounds. Firstly, the manager need to plan for the workers diverged skill as from the project beginning to avoid problems. He can do this through documenting the expected management plan as per diverse resources, educating members on their diversities, and recommending changes in the management process to suit diversities. Secondly, the management can provide the needed communication facilities during the project planning to avoid communication barriers. This will help to inform everyone on the projects scope, project documentation, technicalities, and functionalities (Central Solution Inc., 2004).

Importance of Public Values to Natural Resource Manager

The public is of significant value to the managers of natural resources. The management of the natural resources projects rests on the hands of the entity who won the contract like private firm. Else, for some projects, which are sensitive to the public, their manager is the government. Conversely, the overall group affected or utilizing the natural resource plan is the society. To the contrary, the public conserves the resources with benefits exceeding their conservation cost and resource that are influencing their lives directly (Thakadu, 2005). As a result, the process of managing natural resources needs to be integration of multiple natural resources stakeholders to meet the goals of production (Carlson & Grangent, 2007).

What is more, the process of managing resources gives opportunities to the affected society such as employment, and the involved organization must educate the affected group on the importance of the project. This involves giving the affected group opportunities to express their problems, objections and the possible solutions (Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, 2003). Just like the social value managers, they should also have focus on the recreational facilities, fisheries, and forestry (Kennedy, & Ward). As a result, natural resource managers should have room for pressing and long-term social values in the environment system.

Situation Statement

Target statement, enhancing collaboration in my class by the end of term.

In the class of sociology, there is no teamwork and everyone tend to concentrate on his or her own business. In case you need clarification and someone to discuss with a certain concept, you have to depend on two or three classmates who are close to you. Additionally, there is unhealthy competition and jealousy among the class members. As a result, during class time activities like lessons or hikes, they are never lively. This need to be intervened and a solution to enhance class members’ participation in class activities achieved. This would ensure class members view each other as a family member, not a competitor.

In order to enhance collaboration among class members, the class members and the teacher need to do the following. Firstly, they should ensure information flow occurs not just from teachers to students, but also from students to teachers. In the current situation of the class, the teacher is the only provider of information. He provides content, instructions, and skills, which is vital to learning. However, without students providing information, important aspects of learning do not feature in the class like cultural exchanges, personal knowledge sharing, and experiences narrations (Tinzmann, Jones, Fennimore, Bakker, Fine & Pierce, 1990).

Secondly, the class teachers can step in as the mediators. The teacher can create group discussion and explain the importance of class togetherness. In case he effectively mediates, students will be able to connect new experiences with information taught, and help each other out when stuck. In the end, it will enhance personal studies. Moreover, more learning resources ranging from the library to the student on nearing desk will be readily available. Mostly, mediation may begin when the teacher share his authority with the class. The teacher may give the student a chance to express him or herself on the chalkboard. At the same time the students will criticize each others as well as the teacher’s argument leading to collaborative class (Tinzmann, Jones, Fennimore, Bakker, Fine & Pierce, 1990).

Lastly, students grouping need to be heterogeneous through considering students diversities in their background, abilities, and experience. This will provide students a chance to think deeply, have different perspectives of understanding, and in the overall result, every student will learn from the other without deprival of the contributing chances (Tinzmann, Jones, Fennimore, Bakker, Fine & Pierce, 1990).

Carlson, B., & Grangent, H. (Producers). (2007). Aquarium Battles Draught: Water Conservation does not Triumph Marine Safety at the Georgia Aquarium . Web.

Central Solution Inc. (2004). Ten Major Causes of Project Failure. Web.

Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation (2003). Planning for the Future. Web.

Hart, G., Faure, R., Scholz, I., Mackie, J., & Oyeniji, M. (2012). Effective Natural Resources Management for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. Web.

I-Change (2009). Ten Reasons why Communication Fails. Web.

Kennedy, J. J. & Ward, J. T. Managing Natural Resources as a Social Value . Web.

Lachapelle, P. R., McCool, S. F., & Patterson, M. E. (2003). Barriers to Effective Natural Resources Planning in a Messy World. Montana: Taylor & Francis.

Thakadu, O. T. (2005). Success factor in community based natural resources management in northern Botswana: Lessons from practice. Natural Resource Forum, 29(3): 199-212.

Tinzmann, M. B., Jones, B. F., Fennimore, T. F., Bakker, J., Fine, C., & Pierce, J. (1990). What is the Collaborative Classroom? Web.

United Nations Development Programme (2011). Managing Natural Resources for Human Development in Low-Income Countries. Web.

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Short essay on Management of Natural Resources

management of natural resources essay

Anything in the environment ‘which can be used’ is called a ‘natural resource’. Some of our important natural resources are: Forests and Wildlife, Water, Coal and Petroleum. A system of the use of natural resources in such a way as to avoid their wastage and to use them most effective way, is called management of natural resources.

The natural resources are a ‘tool’ of (or advancement) for human beings but it should be ‘sustainable development’. Which meets the current basic human needs and also preserves the resources for the needs future generations, is called sustainable development.

And to protect the environment from harm or is said to ‘conserve’ the environment. In this chapter we will describe how to use our natural resources so as to achieve sustainable development as well as to conserve our environment.

Why do we need to manage Our Resources?

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All the things which we use (or consume) such as food, clothes, furniture, fuels, vehicles, water, etc., obtained from the resources on this earth. We need to manage our natural resources because of the reasons:

1. The resources of the earth are limited:

Because of the rapid increase in human population, the demand for resources is increasing day by day. The proper management can ensure that the natural resources are used judiciously so that they fulfill the needs of present generation and also last for the generations to come.

2. The proper management of natural resources takes into consideration long-term perspective (or view) and prevents their exploitation to the hilt for short-term gains.

3. The proper management can ensure equitable distribution of natural resources so that all the people can benefit from the development of these resources.

4. The proper management will take into consideration the damage caused to the environment during the ‘extraction’ or ‘use’ of the natural resources and find ways and means to minimise this damage. For example, if some forest trees have to be cut for various purposes, then the damage to the environment can be minimised by planting new saplings in place of cut down trees.

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Essay on Natural Resources in Nepal: An Overview

Natural Resources in Nepal

Introduction to Natural Resources in Nepal

Nepal is a land-locked country situated in the Himalayas between India and Tibet. The country is known for its stunning natural beauty, with majestic mountain ranges, pristine forests, and rolling hills. Natural resources are an integral part of the economy and culture of Nepal, providing both livelihoods and recreational opportunities for its citizens. From forests and water to minerals and wildlife, Nepal is blessed with a rich abundance of resources that have the potential to contribute significantly to its development.

Table of Contents

In this essay, we will take a closer look at the natural resources in Nepal, including their types, distribution, and importance. We will also examine the challenges that Nepal faces in managing these resources effectively and the efforts being made to conserve them. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the natural resources in Nepal and their role in the country’s economy and environment.

Natural Resources in Nepal

Importance of Natural Resources for Nepal’s Economy

Nepal is a country that is rich in natural resources, including water, forests, minerals, and fertile land. These resources are vital to the economic development of the country and play a crucial role in the lives of millions of people. In this article, we will discuss the importance of natural resources for Nepal’s economy.

Forests and Natural Beauty: Nepal is home to a diverse range of forest types and vegetation, making it a popular tourist destination. The country’s forests provide vital ecosystem services, including watershed protection, carbon sequestration, and habitat for wildlife. In addition, the natural beauty of the forests is a major draw for tourists, generating significant revenue for the country.

Agriculture : Agriculture is the backbone of Nepal’s economy and a significant source of livelihood for millions of people. The country’s fertile land, abundant water resources, and favorable climate conditions make it ideal for agriculture. Agriculture contributes to the country’s GDP, providing food, fiber, and other essential products.

Hydropower: Nepal is known for its abundant water resources and has the potential to generate substantial amounts of hydropower. Hydropower is a clean and renewable source of energy that can contribute to economic growth and reduce dependence on imported fuels. The development of hydropower projects has the potential to create jobs, attract investment, and improve energy security.

Minerals: Nepal is rich in minerals, including iron ore, coal, limestone, and other minerals. The exploitation of these minerals can provide a significant boost to the country’s economy, creating jobs, increasing government revenue, and attracting investment. However, it is important to ensure that mining activities are carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner.

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In conclusion, natural resources play a crucial role in Nepal’s economy. The country’s forests, fertile land, water resources, and minerals provide vital ecosystem services and support the livelihoods of millions of people. By leveraging these resources, the country has the potential to achieve sustainable economic growth and improve the quality of life for its citizens.

Natural Resources in Nepal

Types of Natural Resources in Nepal

Water Resources: Nepal is known for its abundant water resources with numerous rivers, lakes and glaciers. Some of the major rivers in Nepal include the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra, which are crucial for agriculture, fishing, and hydropower generation.

Forest Resources: Forests cover about 30% of the total land area of Nepal and provide a wide range of benefits to the country, including fuelwood, timber, medicinal plants, and wildlife habitat.

Mineral Resources: Nepal is rich in minerals such as limestone, iron ore, coal, magnesium, and gold. These resources are essential for the construction, manufacturing, and energy industries.

Agricultural Resources: Nepal is a predominantly agricultural country, with over 80% of its population relying on agriculture for their livelihood. Rice, wheat, maize, and millet are some of the major crops grown in the country.

Wildlife Resources: Nepal is home to a diverse range of wildlife species, including tigers, rhinos, elephants, and monkeys. These resources are crucial for ecotourism, which provides a significant source of income for local communities.

Hydro Power Resources: Nepal has significant potential for hydropower generation, with numerous rivers and streams flowing through the country. This renewable energy source provides a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels and is an important contributor to the country’s economy.

Cultural and Heritage Resources: Nepal is famous for its rich cultural and heritage resources, including monuments, temples, and palaces. These resources are valuable for tourism and play an important role in preserving the country’s cultural identity.

Challenges faced by Nepal in Managing its Natural Resources

Nepal is a landlocked country in South Asia, rich in diverse and abundant natural resources. However, despite having a plethora of natural resources, Nepal faces numerous challenges in managing them effectively. Some of the major challenges faced by Nepal in managing its natural resources are discussed below.

  • Limited Awareness: Nepal has a large rural population, where most people are illiterate and lack awareness about the importance of natural resources. This leads to over-exploitation and destruction of natural resources, which affects the country’s overall development.
  • Lack of Government Support: The government of Nepal lacks adequate financial and technical resources to effectively manage natural resources. There is also a lack of political will to implement conservation and sustainable management programs, which results in the mismanagement of natural resources.
  • Corruption: Corruption is a major challenge in Nepal, and this also extends to the management of natural resources. Lack of transparency in the allocation and management of resources often leads to their exploitation and destruction, leading to an imbalance in the ecosystem.
  • Unplanned Development: Unplanned development activities such as deforestation, illegal logging, mining, and other commercial activities often cause severe damage to the environment and natural resources. This results in degradation of the environment, reducing the capacity of natural resources to provide benefits to the local communities.
  • Climate Change: Climate change is a major challenge to the management of natural resources in Nepal. Changes in the pattern of rainfall and temperature affect agriculture, forestry, water resources, and other ecosystem services, which impacts the livelihoods of local communities.
  • Geographical Challenges: Nepal’s mountainous geography poses a significant challenge to the management of natural resources. The country’s inaccessible terrain makes it difficult for the government to monitor and enforce conservation and sustainable management programs.

In conclusion, Nepal faces numerous challenges in managing its natural resources, but with effective government support, increased awareness, and the implementation of sustainable management programs, these challenges can be overcome. Effective natural resource management is crucial for the country’s overall development and the well-being of its people.

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Role of Government in Preserving Natural Resources in Nepal

The government of Nepal plays a crucial role in preserving the country’s natural resources, which are essential for the sustainable development and well-being of its people. Natural resources in Nepal include forests, water, minerals, and wildlife, among others. These resources provide numerous benefits, such as providing livelihoods, maintaining ecological balance, and conserving biodiversity.

Forests : Forests cover approximately 37% of Nepal’s land area and are crucial for maintaining the country’s ecological balance. The government has implemented various measures to protect forests and prevent deforestation. For example, the Forest Act of 1993 prohibits the unauthorized felling of trees, and the government has established protected areas, such as national parks and wildlife reserves, to conserve wildlife and forests. Additionally, the government has launched programs to promote sustainable forest management, such as community forestry, where local communities are involved in the management and conservation of forests.

Natural Resources in Nepal

Water: Nepal has abundant water resources, including rivers, lakes, and glaciers, which are essential for agriculture, industry, and drinking water. The government has implemented various measures to conserve and manage water resources, such as the Water Resource Act of 1992 and the National Water Plan of 1992. These laws and policies aim to ensure equitable access to water and prevent water pollution.

Minerals: Nepal has rich deposits of minerals, such as limestone, quartz, and iron ore, which are essential for various industries, including construction, manufacturing, and energy. The government has implemented various measures to manage mineral resources, such as the Mines and Minerals Act of 1992, which regulates the exploration, exploitation, and conservation of minerals. Additionally, the government has established the Department of Mines and Geology to oversee the management of mineral resources and ensure sustainable and responsible mining practices.

Wildlife: Nepal is home to a rich diversity of wildlife, including rare and endangered species, such as the Bengal tiger and the one-horned rhinoceros. The government has established various protected areas, such as national parks and wildlife reserves, to conserve wildlife and prevent illegal hunting and poaching. Additionally, the government has launched programs to conserve wildlife, such as ecotourism, which generates income for local communities and supports conservation efforts.

Natural Resources in Nepal

In conclusion, the government of Nepal plays a critical role in preserving the country’s natural resources, which are essential for the sustainable development and well-being of its people. The government has implemented various measures, such as laws and policies, protected areas, and programs to promote sustainable management and conservation of natural resources. The government’s role in preserving natural resources is crucial for ensuring their long-term sustainability and the well-being of future generations.

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Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Nepal

Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is a critical approach to the sustainable management of natural resources in Nepal. This method of resource management is based on the principle of empowering local communities to participate in the management and decision-making process of the natural resources that affect their lives. The aim of CBNRM is to balance the interests of the local communities, governments, and businesses to ensure that the resources are used for the benefit of all stakeholders.

Natural Resources in Nepal

In Nepal, CBNRM has been implemented in various forms to conserve and manage the country’s vast natural resources, including forests, wildlife, water resources, and land. CBNRM is based on the idea of decentralizing the management of natural resources to the local communities. This approach has been successful in conserving and sustaining the resources while promoting the economic development of the communities.

The government of Nepal has been promoting CBNRM as a means of achieving sustainable development. The government has established various laws, policies, and institutions to support the implementation of CBNRM. For example, the Forest Act 1993 and the Community Forest Management Regulation of 1995 provide the legal framework for the management of community forests.

Natural Resources in Nepal

In addition, the government has established the Community-based Natural Resource Management Program (CBNRMP) to provide technical and financial support to communities in their efforts to manage natural resources. The program has been successful in creating a collaborative relationship between the communities, the government, and the private sector to conserve and manage the resources.

The success of CBNRM in Nepal is evident from the increase in the number of community-based organizations (CBOs) that are engaged in the management of natural resources. CBOs have been established in various regions of the country, and they play a critical role in the management of resources, including the protection of forests, wildlife, and water resources.

Natural Resources in Nepal

In conclusion, CBNRM is a critical approach to the sustainable management of natural resources in Nepal. The government, local communities, and the private sector must work together to ensure the successful implementation of CBNRM. This will ensure that the resources are used for the benefit of all stakeholders, including the preservation of the environment and the promotion of economic development.

Opportunities for Sustainable Development through Natural Resources in Nepal

Nepal is a country rich in natural resources and has the potential to become a leader in sustainable development. From forests to mineral resources, water resources to wildlife, Nepal has the potential to provide a high quality of life to its citizens while also preserving the environment for future generations.

One of the most significant opportunities for sustainable development in Nepal is the exploitation of its forests. With over 60% of its land area covered by forests, Nepal is one of the most forested countries in the world. These forests provide a vital source of livelihood for millions of people and are also a critical carbon sink. By promoting sustainable forestry practices and utilizing forest products, Nepal can protect its forests while also generating income and creating jobs.

Natural Resources in Nepal

Another opportunity for sustainable development in Nepal is the utilization of its abundant water resources. With numerous rivers and lakes, Nepal has the potential to become a leader in hydroelectric power production. This not only provides a clean and renewable source of energy, but also creates jobs and drives economic growth.

Mineral resources, such as iron, copper, gold and mica, are also abundant in Nepal. The development of these resources can provide a significant boost to the economy and provide employment opportunities. However, it is important to ensure that this development is sustainable and does not harm the environment.

Nepal’s wildlife is also a major opportunity for sustainable development. With a wide range of flora and fauna, Nepal is home to many species that are found nowhere else in the world. By promoting sustainable wildlife tourism, Nepal can protect its unique wildlife while also generating income.

Natural Resources in Nepal

In conclusion, Nepal has numerous opportunities for sustainable development through the use of its natural resources. From forests to water resources to mineral resources, Nepal has the potential to provide a high quality of life for its citizens while also preserving the environment for future generations. By promoting sustainable practices and utilizing these resources wisely, Nepal can become a leader in sustainable development.

Conclusion and Recommendations for Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Nepal.

In conclusion, Nepal is a country rich in natural resources, including forests, water resources, minerals, and wildlife. The sustainable use of these resources is crucial for the long-term economic and ecological health of the country. However, the current methods of resource extraction and use are unsustainable, and have led to environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and increased poverty.

Natural Resources in Nepal

To ensure the sustainable use of natural resources in Nepal, the following recommendations should be implemented:

  • Development of sustainable resource management policies: Nepal should establish and enforce policies that promote sustainable resource management practices, including limiting over-extraction, reducing waste, and promoting efficient use.
  • Promotion of eco-friendly technologies: Encouraging the use of environmentally friendly technologies and practices can help reduce the impact of resource extraction and use on the environment.
  • Community involvement: Engaging local communities in the management and protection of natural resources can help ensure that resources are used sustainably, and that the benefits of resource use are shared fairly.
  • Education and awareness: Raising awareness about the importance of sustainable resource use among the general public is crucial to ensure that people understand the impact of their actions on the environment.
  • Investment in renewable energy: Investing in renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power can help reduce the dependence on non-renewable resources, while promoting sustainable development.

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In conclusion, the sustainable use of natural resources is essential for the long-term prosperity and well-being of Nepal and its people. By implementing these recommendations, Nepal can ensure that its rich natural resources are used in a responsible and sustainable manner, for the benefit of present and future generations.

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