Search Website Search

Accommodations 101

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) stipulates postsecondary institutions are responsible for providing necessary accommodations when a student discloses a disability. On many campuses, the disabilities office is tasked with determining the necessary accommodations to facilitate a student's access to instruction and participation in the college academic experience. Faculty members and TAs are important disabilities office partners, as they can help ensure that students have access to the accommodations for which they are approved.

Why do universities provide accommodations?

Accommodations are tools and procedures that provide equal access to instruction and assessment for students with disabilities. Access is the opportunity and ability for an individual to participate in the instruction, discussions, activities, products, and assessments provided to all students within a public institution covered by ADA mandates. Accommodations are provided to “level the playing field.” Accommodations allow students with disabilities to access course instruction and participate fully in the assessment process. They are intended to offset the effects of the disability and to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and skills. Accommodations are intended to reduce, or even eliminate, the effects of a student’s disability.

They do not, however, reduce learning expectations and should not give a false picture of what a student knows and can do. Reliance on accommodations should never replace appropriate and rigorous instruction in the content area.

Informed decision-making regarding accommodations is critical for ensuring successful and meaningful participation of students with disabilities in instruction and assessments. In order to make effective accommodations decisions, disability specialists gather and review as much disability-related information about the student as possible. Initial intake appointments focus on what accommodations the disabilities office can recommend to provide the student equal learning opportunities.

Accommodations are generally grouped into the following categories:

  • Presentation accommodations present instruction or assessment in an alternate format. Some examples include ASL, captioning, assistive technology devices, Braille, large print, or a reader.
  • Response accommodations allow students to complete assignments or exams in different ways (e.g., use of reference aids, clicker, use of computer, etc.).
  • Timing/Scheduling accommodations increase the allowable length of time to complete a test or assignment and may also change the way the time is organized (e.g., extended time, frequent breaks).
  • Setting accommodations change the location in which a test or assignment is given or the conditions of the assessment setting (e.g., private exam room, distraction-reduced).

Learn More About Accommodations

What mandates that universities provide accommodations?

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that protects individuals from discrimination based on disability. Along with Section 504 of the federal Rehabilitation Act, the ADA promotes equal access and participation in the University’s programs and services. These laws provide that students must have an equal opportunity to obtain the same educational outcomes and level of achievement as a students without disabilities. Accordingly, the University may neither deny students with disabilities any benefit or service, nor offer any benefit or service that is not as effective as those offered to students without disabilities. Failure to comply with federal disability laws may subject both the University and individual faculty members/instructors to lawsuits and significant monetary penalties.

What is a reasonable accommodation?

A reasonable accommodation is a modification or adjustment to a course, program, service, job, activity, or facility that enables a student with a disability to have an equal opportunity to enjoy the benefits, opportunities, and privileges that are available to all students (with or without disabilities) while simultaneously not reducing or eliminating curriculum standards. Reasonable accommodations do not fundamentally alter or eliminate essential course requirements, and any accommodation that would do so is considered unreasonable and would not be recommended nor approved.

Who determines whether an accommodation is reasonable?

Center for Accessible Education staff are ultimately responsible for determining whether an accommodation is ultimately reasonable and appropriate within the context of a specific course. Instructors play a pivotal role is helping CAE staff make this determination as they are the experts on the essential course requirements for the courses they teach. CAE recommends that instructors be as clear and deliberate as possible on the essential course requirements when outlining them in their syllabi.

Instructors are always entitled to question the determination of a accommodation decision through the University's Fundamental Alteration Process . This appeals process allows for instructors to challenge an approved accommodation's application to a course based on the assumption that the accommodation fundamentally alters or eliminates essential course requirements. Instructors initiating this process should be prepared to provide detailed information to support this assertion.

Learn More About Fundamental Alteration Review

Privacy Laws and Confidentiality

All disability-related information including documentation, accommodation letters, correspondence, and consultations are considered confidential and will be managed in accordance with The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) regulations. Please read this carefully, as there are instances that may necessitate student information being released without consent. This includes electronic, paper, verbal, and any other types of communication.

Differences from Employment Accommodations

Employees or applicants in need of assistance or accommodations should notify their supervisor or the Insurance and Risk Management (IRM) office. It is the responsibility of the employee with a disability to self-identify and inform the University that an accommodation is requested.

Learn More About Employment Accommodations

  • Enroll & Pay
  • Prospective Students
  • Current Students
  • Degree Programs

Presentation Assessment Accommodations

What are presentation assessment accommodations.

Presentation accommodations allow students to access test directions or content in ways that do not require them to visually read standard print. These alternate modes of access include visual, tactile, auditory, and a combination of visual and auditory. Sometimes presentation accommodations refer to test instructions only, and sometimes they are used for all or parts of a test. Some states do not allow non-visual forms of print access on some tests, parts of tests, or at certain grade levels.

Who can benefit from presentation assessment accommodations?

Students who benefit the most from presentation accommodations are those with print disabilities, defined as the difficulty or inability to visually read standard print because of a physical, sensory, or cognitive disability.

How are specific presentation assessment accommodations administered?

Large print  - Large print editions of tests are required for some students with visual impairments. A regular print test can be enlarged through photocopying, or an electronic version of a test can be manipulated to reformat test items and enlarge or change the font as needed. The latter method is preferable. All text and graphic materials, including labels and captions on pictures, diagrams, maps, charts, exponential numbers, notes, and footnotes, must be presented in at least 18-point type for students who need large print. If a student needs a large print test edition, be sure it is ordered in plenty of time to be available for the test. Check to see if large print practice tests are available. After a student finishes a large-print edition of a test, someone needs to transcribe the student's answers verbatim onto a standard answer sheet. 

Magnification devices  - Some students with visual impairments read regular print materials and enlarge the print by using magnification devices. These include eyeglass-mounted magnifiers, free standing or handheld magnifiers, enlarged computer monitors, or computers with screen enlargement programs. Some students also use Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) to enlarge print and display printed material with various image enhancements on a screen. 

Sign language  - Sign language interpreters may be required for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Sometimes an interpreter is only needed to sign test instructions and to assist in communication between the test-taker and the proctor or test administrator. Interpreters need to be able to translate in the same method of sign language typically used by the student. A student's teacher should not be the interpreter in a testing situation unless a second person is present to monitor for quality and fairness. If allowed to sign test items and prompts, interpreters must not paraphrase, clarify, elaborate, or provide assistance with the meaning of words, intent of test questions, or responses to test items. Graphic materials may be described but should also be available in print or tactile formats. A standard video presentation of a test in sign language may be used to increase quality, consistency, pacing, and accuracy. Interpreter services need to be arranged prior to test day with substitutes available. 

Braille  - Braille is a method of reading a raised-dot code with the fingertips. This type of reading is most common for students who are blind or visually impaired. Not all students who are blind read Braille fluently or will choose Braille as their primary mode of reading. If a student needs a Braille test edition, be sure it is ordered in plenty of time to be available for the test. Check to see if practice tests are available in Braille. The test administrator for a Braille test needs to be provided with a print version of the test during test administration. After a student finishes a Braille edition of a test, someone needs to transcribe the student's answers verbatim onto a standard answer sheet. 

Nemeth Code  - The Nemeth Braille Code is a system of Braille that makes it possible to convey technical expressions in a written medium to students who are blind or visually impaired. Although Nemeth Code uses the same set of Braille cells as literary Braille, most cells have new meanings assigned to them in order to express the numerous technical symbols that occur in math and science. 

Tactile graphics  - Tactile graphic images provide graphic information through fingers instead of eyes. Graphic material (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations) is presented in a raised format. Tactile sensitivity is far less discriminating than normal vision, making many diagrams too complicated to understand without significant additional information. Additional information can be created through word descriptions. 

Human reader  - A qualified person may be provided to read orally to students who are unable to decode text visually. Readers should use even inflection so that the test-taker does not receive any cues by the way the information is read. It is important for readers to read test items/questions and text word-for-word exactly as written. Readers may not clarify, elaborate, or provide assistance to students about the meaning or words, intent of test questions, or responses to test items. Readers need to be familiar with the terminology and symbols specific to the test content. This is especially important for high school mathematics and science. Graphic materials may be described but must also be made available in print or tactile formats. 

Readers should be provided to students on an individual basis not to a group of students. A student should have the option of asking a reader to slow down or repeat parts of a test this is difficult when a person is reading to an entire group of students. Reader services need to be arranged prior to test day with substitutes and training available. 

Audio tape or compact disk  - A test may be prerecorded on an audio cassette or compact disk that a student accesses by listening. Some states provide tests recorded on audiotape. Advantages include ease of operation and low cost. An audio version of a test is not useful for a student who is not familiar, skilled, and comfortable taking tests with this accommodation. The greatest difficulty with an audio cassette is rewinding if a student wants to repeat an item. This is not as difficult with a CD that can be programmed by item. It is critical for students to use this accommodation regularly in classroom work and on classroom and practice tests before using it on a test for accountability. Audio versions need to be supplemented with a print or Braille version of the test so that a student can have access to complicated graphic material. Test administrators need to monitor student movement through audio versions to make sure that the student maintains the appropriate place in the test and that the audio version is playing properly. When using a two-sided cassette tape, students may need to be reminded to play the other side. Test administrators should spot check audio formats before use to make sure everything is working properly. 

Audio amplification devices  - Some students may require amplification equipment in addition to hearing aids to increase clarity. A test administrator may use an amplification system to give large-group instructions. 

Screen reader  - A screen reader is a computer application that converts text to synthesized speech or to Braille (read with an auxiliary Braille display). Computer literacy is essential for screen reader use. Screen reading software allows students to listen to test items as they are displayed on a computer screen. Students can choose to listen to any item multiple times. Multiple-choice items are answered by using the mouse to click on an option. Open-ended items are responded to by typing answers in a text box on the screen. Some products work by having a student lay a page on a scanner. When a student activates the machine, it reads the text aloud. Math formulas are normally displayed on screen as graphics that cannot be read by a screen reader.

Get Future Ready and start a program this September! Find your program

Information for:

Future Students

Current students, indigenous students, international students, industry and employers, parents and caregivers, donors and supporters, careers at mohawk.

  • Mohawk Email - Students
  • Mohawk Email - Staff
  • CE Registration Platform

Mohawk College Logo

  • Programs Home
  • Full-Time Program Search
  • Graduate and Professional Studies
  • Online Programs
  • New programs
  • Co-operative Education
  • Skilled Trades and Apprenticeship
  • Micro-credentials
  • Tuition and Fees
  • Pathways and Credit Transfer
  • Get Prepared for College
  • Experiential Learning
  • Virtual and remote learning
  • Newcomers to Canada
  • Continuing Education
  • Future Students Home
  • Step 1: Prepare
  • Step 2: Choose your Program
  • Step 3: Apply
  • Step 4: Accept Your Offer of Admission
  • Step 5: Pay your Fees and select your Timetable to register
  • Step 6: Get Ready to be a Mohawk Student
  • Current Students Home
  • Academic and Important Dates
  • Registration and Records
  • Academic Support
  • Future Ready Toolkit
  • Orientation
  • Financial Assistance
  • Technical Support
  • Campus Wellness
  • Transportation and Parking
  • Career Centre
  • Student Housing
  • Athletics and Recreation
  • Get Involved
  • Student Checklist
  • International Home
  • Applying to Mohawk as an International Student
  • English Language Programs
  • Services for International Students
  • Entering Canada
  • Living in Canada
  • Language and Culture Centre
  • Partnerships
  • Mississauga Campus
  • Contact International
  • Equity, Diversity and Inclusion
  • Leadership, Administration, and Policies
  • Faculty and Academic Leadership
  • News and Blogs
  • Climate Action and Sustainability
  • Initiatives and Research
  • Accessibility
  • Security and Emergency Management
  • Distinguished Fellows
  • Contact Mohawk

Presentation Accommodation Guide

Students who require presentation accommodations have a disability that significantly impacts their ability to fully demonstrate their knowledge through classroom presentations. In order for presentation accommodations to be offered, the student must present Accessible Learning Services with documentation from a regulation health care professional (e.g. physician, psychologist, and psychiatrist) that supports this accommodation.

For the purpose of accommodation, a presentation refers to any individual or group assignment that must be presented to the class in some manner.

Presentation Accommodation Procedure

  • The student provides Accessible Learning Services with documentation from a regulated health care professional supporting their need for presentation accommodations
  • The Accessibility Counsellor updates their Accommodation Letter to include this accommodation, as well as reviews options for presentation accommodations with the student. This accommodation will be noted in the Accommodation Letter as 'Presentation Accommodation: See ALS Guides'
  • The student will discuss the presentation accommodations with their faculty and agree on a suitable accommodation

Suggestions for Presentation Accommodations

Alternative setting/audience.

  • Presenting individually to the professor
  • Presenting to the professor plus a small group, 3-4, can fulfill any requirements to answer questions/provide feedback based on presentation, or reflect on peer evaluation

In-Class Accommodations

  • In the case of individual presentation, option to present as a pair or group
  • Choice in when to complete the presentation (date and/or beginning, middle or end of class)
  • Permission to read from notes, handouts, or a script without marks being deducted for this
  • Sitting at a table or desk while presenting
  • For some students, scripted or predictable portions of a presentation (PowerPoint) does not impact disability where unscripted and unpredictable (question/answer period) portions do

In these instances, the student will meet with their faculty member to discuss alternatives (i.e. having questions emailed to the student for written response).

Adaptive Technology

  • Video and/or record the presentation to show in class
  • Develop the presentation using software that permits audio recording be embedded into slides

Diversified Learning Approach

  • If presentation skills are not a core competency of the course and/or being evaluated, the option for a student to present the materials in an alternative manner (essay, video, resource binder, etc.) can be considered
  • This alternative presentation of materials would be graded based on the same rubric as class presentations
  • When presentation skills are a core competency and an expected learning outcome in a course, ALS along with the professor and the student will work together to develop a plan that both accommodates the student and allows the student to meet course learning outcomes

Additional Notes

Please note, this is not an exhaustive list of suggestions, and students are encouraged to negotiate and collaborate with their professors to arrive at an accommodation that is mutually agreeable. Additionally, Accessible Learning Services, Accessibility Counsellors are available to support the development of this accommodation as well as discuss any questions, concerns, or feedback.

Contact ALS Icon

Have Questions? Need Assistance? Want to Book an Appointment? We are here to help. Contact Accessible Learning Services by email at als [at] mohawkcollege.ca (als[at]mohawkcollege[dot]ca) or by phone at (905) 575-2122.

Find information for...

How to support our students

accommodation presentation definition

accommodation presentation definition

Speech Accommodation in Student Presentations

  • © 2020
  • Alla Zareva 0

Department of English, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, USA

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

  • Examines the presentation as a key aspect of students' academic and professional training across the disciplines
  • Provides an accessible introduction to current theory and research in speech accommodation in relation to student academic presentations
  • Covers the theoretical and research background while being grounded in practical examples of implementation
  • Shows how several aspects of speech accommodation have been implemented in student-produced academic discourse

1026 Accesses

2 Altmetric

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this book

  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Other ways to access

Licence this eBook for your library

Institutional subscriptions

About this book

This book examines student presentations as a genre of English for Academic Purposes (EAP), and analyses the elements of speech and audience accommodation which make a successful presentation. Offering an antidote to the audience-centric approach to presentation design and delivery promoted by numerous books and manuals on the subject, each chapter tackles an under-researched aspect of student presentations, and presents data-based evidence for practical recommendations within the genre. The language analyses presented in the book are based on a real-life corpus of student presentations, providing clear examples of successful oral academic discourse. This book will be of interest to students of applied linguistics, EAP, TESOL and language education.

Similar content being viewed by others

accommodation presentation definition

Oral Academic Genres and Features of Student Academic Presentations

accommodation presentation definition

Communicating Research at International Conferences: A Multimodal Analysis of an Intercultural or a Disciplinary Specific Genre?

accommodation presentation definition

Case Study 2, Hong Kong: Oral Presentations—Stories Behind Students’ Use of PowerPoint

  • Student academic presentations
  • academic discourse
  • lexical profiles
  • monologic speech
  • communication accommodation
  • disfluencies
  • speech adjustment
  • speech accommodation theory
  • audience accommodation
  • English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
  • Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)
  • oral presentations
  • public speaking

Table of contents (5 chapters)

Front matter, introduction: why looking into student academic presentations.

Alla Zareva

Survey of Books and Guides on Academic Presentations

Lexical profiles of student academic presentations, collocations in student academic presentations, summary of findings and take-aways, back matter, authors and affiliations, about the author.

Alla Zareva is Professor and Graduate Program Director of the Applied Linguistics Program in the Department of English at Old Dominion University, USA.

Bibliographic Information

Book Title : Speech Accommodation in Student Presentations

Authors : Alla Zareva

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37980-3

Publisher : Palgrave Pivot Cham

eBook Packages : Social Sciences , Social Sciences (R0)

Copyright Information : The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2020

Hardcover ISBN : 978-3-030-37979-7 Published: 08 February 2020

eBook ISBN : 978-3-030-37980-3 Published: 07 February 2020

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XIII, 113

Topics : Applied Linguistics , Language Education , Research Methods in Language and Linguistics , Groupwork and Presentation

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research

4 Types of Accommodations and Modifications to Support Student Success

accommodation presentation definition

When differentiating instruction isn’t enough, how can teachers deliver the additional supports some students will need? Today’s blog post is a handy guide to four types of accommodations and modifications that can be worked into a student’s IEP. Excerpted and adapted from the book Teaching Math in Middle School by Leanne R. Ketterlin‑Geller, et al., these strategies will support academic success for students who need additional help. (In the book, these suggestions are framed as helpmates for teaching math effectively, though the guidance here applies across content areas.)

First, a quick review: What’s the difference between instructional accommodations and modifications?

Accommodations are changes that support access but don’t change the underlying instructional objective. For example, an instructional accommodation may change the time a student is provided to learn the content.

Modifications , on the other hand, may change the extent to which the student is required to learn the material. Often used with students who have significant intellectual disabilities, modifications help align the learning environment with more intensive needs.

Accommodations and modifications can be classified into four categories: presentation, setting, timing and scheduling, and response mode. Here’s an overview of the categories and some helpful examples of each one:

Changes to Presentation

accommodation presentation definition

Presentation accommodations change the way in which instructional material or assessments are disseminated to students. For example, some students may have visual impairments that make it difficult to perceive written materials. Accommodations to support access for these students may include:

  • Allowing them to audio- or video-record a lesson instead of taking notes
  • Reading the directions or problems out loud to the student
  • Increasing the font size—enlarging text or using a magnification device
  • Increasing the contrast or differentiation of information included in visual representations (e.g., using color to help students identify corresponding sides on similar figures)
  • Increasing white space on assignments
  • Reducing the number of items on a page
  • Allowing the student to use a screen reader
  • Offering tactile prompts such as physical guidance or raised-line paper
  • Providing the student with a copy of notes or class presentations before the lesson begins

Because these changes do not alter the content expectations, these are classified as accommodations. Some students with more significant physical, sensory, or cognitive difficulties may need modifications to presentation to gain access to the content. Examples of modifications that involve changes to presentation include:

  • Allowing the student to read shorter versions of a textbook that may not contain grade-level vocabulary
  • Shorten story problems in math by reducing the number of relevant steps needed to respond
  • Reduce the reading expectation for word problems (e.g., removing irrelevant information)

Because they change the depth, breadth, and/or level of proficiency of the learning objectives, these changes are modifications and should only be provided with guidance from the IEP team.

Changes to Setting

accommodation presentation definition

Setting accommodations are changes to the conditions or locations of instruction or assessment. Some setting accommodations that can be implemented to support these students include:

  • Changing the seating and/or grouping for the child, such as sitting near the teacher or away from doors or windows
  • Providing instruction in small groups to minimize distractions
  • Offering a separate location for the student to complete a test or assignment (this option should be used only when necessary)
  • Allowing the student to use a physical device to reduce distractions (headphones or study carrel)

Even though some students might benefit from these setting accommodations at different times during instruction, students with disabilities who have been assigned one or more of these accommodations must be provided with the accommodation on a regular basis.

Setting modifications can be considered for students with more significant characteristics that affect their ability to attend during instruction or when taking assessments. These students may need to receive individualized instruction or work with a partner on a task that was originally intended for individual students to demonstrate independence or mastery.

Changes to Timing or Scheduling

Changes to the timing or scheduling of instruction or assessments are often used to support students who process information slowly (e.g., student reads at a slow rate), have a physical disability that affects their ability to complete a task (e.g., student has difficulty with fine motor control and takes longer to write), or use another form of instructional change that requires additional time (e.g., student uses a screen reader to decode text).

Accommodations to support students’ access to the learning environment include:

  • Providing extended time to complete a task
  • Building in multiple breaks to avoid too much fatigue
  • Breaking a task into smaller parts
  • Allowing the student to take a test at a certain time of the day, such as first thing in the morning

Because accommodations don’t change the content expectations, these changes should be applied only when timing is not part of the learning objective. When timing is important, these changes may not be appropriate.

If a student needs these types of timing and scheduling changes for all tasks, including tasks that would be timed for all other students, these changes would be classified as modifications. Modifications that involve making changes to timing or scheduling include:

  • Providing more time for the student to respond to an assignment or test that is intended to be timed (e.g., allowing twice as much time as intended)
  • Extending the number of sessions a student has to complete an assignment or test that is intended to be timed (e.g., allowing the student to take a test over 2 days)

Changes to Response Mode

accommodation presentation definition

Examples of response mode accommodations include:

  • Allowing students to use a visual/graphic organizer to organize their thinking
  • Letting students use concrete objects/manipulatives to generate their answer
  • Giving students the option to write their responses directly on the assignment (as opposed to filling out an answer sheet)
  • Making an audio recording of your lessons
  • Letting students use a calculator or multiplication chart on an assignment that does not assess computation

Some students have more significant needs that require modifications to the response mode. Examples of these modifications include:

  • Reducing the number of items the student needs to complete
  • Reducing the depth of the explanation required to justify the response
  • Offering fewer answer options in multiple-choice tests
  • Letting students use a calculator or multiplication chart on an assignment that does assess computation

When you’re considering any of the instructional changes covered in today’s post, always align them with the specific needs of the student. Carefully considering both the student’s needs and your instructional expectations will help you determine how best to support access to the curriculum.

If you liked today’s post, check out the book for a complete guide to using multi‑tiered systems of support (MTSS) to teach middle schoolers effectively!

Teaching Math in Middle School

Using MTSS to Meet All Students’ Needs

By Leanne R. Ketterlin Geller, Ph.D., Sarah R. Powell, Ph.D., David J. Chard, Ph.D., & Lindsey Perry, Ph.D.

Make all your middle schoolers confident and competent mathematicians with this book, your accessible guide to teaching math to every learner in Grades 6-8. Focused on knocking down roadblocks to learning, this reader-friendly resource shows you how to use MTSS—a powerful, widely adopted framework for meeting each student’s individual needs. Learn how to deliver high quality, evidence based math instruction; combine your instruction with meaningful assessment; and provide just-right supports that help students conquer their specific math struggles.

Stay up to date on the latest posts, news, strategies, and more!

  • Teacher Support
  • Uncategorized
  • accommodations
  • modifications

More posts like this

accommodation presentation definition

9 Curriculum Modifications for Inclusive Early Ed Classrooms

accommodation presentation definition

Accommodations and Modifications for 10 Common Classroom Activities

accommodation presentation definition

10 Modifications for Learners with Sensory Issues

Write a comment.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post a Comment

Accommodation Strategies

As you prepare to teach training preservice and inservice teachers about accommodation strategies, consider this presentation example.

After this presentation, faculty and administrators will be able to:

  • summarize rights, responsibilities, potential contributions, and needs of students with disabilities
  • describe departmental and individual legal rights and responsibilities for ensuring equal educational opportunities for all students in their programs
  • list strategies for working with students who have disabilities, emphasizing the relationship between instructor, student, and support staff
  • describe institutional resources available to assist in the provision of appropriate academic accommodations to students with disabilities
  • list actions that individuals and departments can take to ensure that students with disabilities have educational opportunities that are equal to those of their non-disabled peers

Approximately two hours; content can be covered over several meetings.

Department chair, teacher, staff, teaching assistant, student, or other department member who has experience working with students with disabilities. This comprehensive presentation may be co-presented with, or presented by, a staff member of a department unit responsible for providing academic accommodations for students with disabilities.

Preparation

  • Select the presenter(s).
  • Develop presentation outline and activities using the " Sample Script " provided in this section and the ideas listed in the Presentation Tips section of this handbook.
  • Create presentation slides from templates provided in the Presentation Tools section.
  • Add the contact information for campus resources to the "Resources" slide and to printed publications as appropriate.
  • Add contact information for resources available on your campus to the back page of the handout template Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities .
  • Photocopy the handout templates Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities , The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science , An Accommodation Model (optional), The Student Abilities Profile (optional), and Equal Access: Science and Students with Sensory Impairments (optional) and create alternative formats as necessary.
  • Photocopy the presentation evaluation instrument to hand out at the end of the session (see pages 239-241 for examples) or create your own.
  • Add links on your department's website to AccessSTEM  and to the Center for Universal Design in Education .

Equipment and Tools

  • DVD player and monitor
  • video projector, computer, and presentation slides; Internet connection (optional)
  • videos (open captioned and audio described version of The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science and Equal Access: Science and Students with Sensory Impairments (optional))
  • handouts ( Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities , The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science , An Accommodation Model (optional), Student Abilities Profile (optional), and Equal Access: Science and Students with Sensory Impairments (optional).
  • presentation evaluation instrument (pages 239-241)

Presentation Outline

  • Distribute handouts.
  • Introductions.
  • Begin presentation.
  • Introduce and play video as noted in the script.
  • Hold a discussion on possible accommodations on your school.
  • Discuss interpersonal interaction, accommodation models, and accommodation strategies (optional).
  • Discuss case study (optional).
  • Focus on sensory impairments and play additional video (optional).
  • Discuss department or school issues.
  • Note school resources.
  • Distribute and collect completed evaluation instruments.

For further preparation resources for this presentation, consult

  • Universal Design in Higher Education: From Principles to Practice published by Harvard Education Press, 2008.
  • Faculty Room

Sample Script

[Distribute handouts Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities and The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science .]

  • Show Slide # 5

Today we will be discussing accommodation strategies that can be used to make your courses accessible to all of your students.

Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in General Education Settings

  • Show Slide # 6

The number of students with disabilities included in general education classes has increased significantly in recent years. Federal disability-related legislation has increased awareness of rights to accommodations and equal opportunities in education.

Teachers and staff who are familiar with accommodation strategies are better prepared to make arrangements that will ensure that students with disabilities have equal opportunities to participate in class activities.

  • Show Slide # 7

The objectives of this presentation are to learn about rights, responsibilities, contributions, and needs of students with disabilities; campus and departmental rights and responsibilities; strategies for working with students who have disabilities; actions that can be taken to ensure equal access; and campus resources. Your handout Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities provides an overview of teacher, staff, and student roles and responsibilities; examples of accommodation strategies; and a list of resources available to assist us in our efforts to ensure equal educational opportunities for all students in our programs and courses. Your handout The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science provides specific suggestions for making math and science accessible to students with disabilities.

  • Show Slide # 8

So what exactly does "person with a disability" mean? Person with a disability means any person who has a physical or mental impairment, which substantially limits one or more major life activities including walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working; has a record of such an impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment.

  • Show Slide # 9

Disabilities include but are not limited to spinal cord injuries, loss of limbs, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, hearing impairments, speech impairments, specific learning disabilities, head injuries, psychiatric impairments, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS. Some of these conditions are readily apparent; some are not. Additionally, some students who have conditions with the same label may have very different abilities when it comes to performing specific tasks. For example, one student who has cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. For another student, cerebral palsy may result in no functional use of her hands. For another, it may limit the use of his voice.

Ultimately, a student who has a disability requires accommodations only when faced with a task that typically uses a skill that her disability precludes. Many accommodations are simple, creative alternatives for traditional ways of doing things.

Now we'll watch a video The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science , which provides suggestions for making math and science accessible to students with disabilities. The content is expanded in your handout with the same title.

  • Show video, The Winning Equation: Access + Attitude = Success in Math and Science (15 minutes).

Specific Disabilities and Accommodations

Now we will review how specific academic activities might erect barriers for students with disabilities. Then we'll discuss examples of academic accommodations. I emphasize that these are only examples, since disabilities and learning styles are unique to the individual. You and a student may generate many other effective strategies that are appropriate for that student.

[Following are examples of accommodations. The lists are by no means comprehensive. You may wish to substitute or add strategies that are pertinent to your audience.]

  • Show Slide # 10

For some students who have low vision, standard written materials are too small to read, or objects appear blurry. Others may see objects only within a specific field of vision. Still others may see an image with sections missing or blacked out. Learning via a visual medium may take longer and may be more fatiguing for people who have low vision than for people who have standard vision.

Examples of accommodations for students with low vision include seating near the front of the class, good lighting, and large-print books, handouts, signs, and equipment labels. Since it may take weeks or months to procure class materials in large-print or audio format, it is essential that instructors select and prepare their materials well before the materials are needed. Other examples of accommodations include reserved seating where the lighting is best, TV monitors connected to microscopes to enlarge images, class assignments made available in electronic formats, and computers equipped with screen enlargers.

  • Show Slide # 11

What are some examples of ways in which blindness may affect the ability to learn? Students who have no sight cannot refer to written materials. Students who have had no vision since birth may have difficulty understanding verbal descriptions of visual materials and abstract concepts. Consider the example "This diagram looks like a tree." If one has never seen a tree, the structure of note may not be readily apparent. Students who lost their vision later in life may find it easier to understand such verbal descriptions. Additionally, demonstrations based on color differences may be more difficult for students who are blind to participate in and understand than demonstrations that emphasize changes in shape, temperature, or texture.

A person who is blind can access printed materials by using a computer with screen reading software and speech or Braille output.

Since it may take weeks or even months to procure course materials in Braille or audio format, it is essential that instructors select and prepare their materials well before the materials are needed. During lecture and demonstration, clear, concise narration of the basic points being represented in visual aids is helpful. Other examples of accommodations for students who are blind include tactile models and raised-line drawings of graphic materials; adaptive lab equipment such as talking thermometers, calculators, light probes, and tactile timers; and computers with optical character readers, voice output, Braille screen displays, and Braille printers.

Specific Learning Disabilities

  • Show Slide # 12
  • Show Slide # 13

Students with specific learning disabilities have average to above average intelligence but may have difficulties demonstrating knowledge and understanding. For a student who has a learning disability, auditory, visual, or tactile information can become jumbled at any point when it is transmitted, received, processed, or retransmitted. Some students who have learning disabilities may take longer to process written information and thus may find lengthy reading or writing assignments or tests difficult to complete in a standard amount of time. Some students who have learning disabilities may find it difficult to process and digest oral instructions and lectures. Some students who have learning disabilities may be able to organize and communicate their thoughts in a one-on-one conversation but may find it difficult to articulate those same ideas in a noisy classroom.

Examples of accommodations in the classroom for students who have learning disabilities include but are not limited to note takers, recorded class sessions, captioned videos, and audio textbooks. Students with learning disabilities have better access to information when visual, aural, and tactile instructional activities are incorporated into instruction and when course and lecture outlines are made readily available. Exams typically require extended time in a quiet testing location. Computers with speech output and spelling and grammar checkers are helpful in class and for home study. Assignments given in advance ensure adequate review and preparation time.

Hearing Impairments

  • Show Slide # 14

Students who have hearing impairments may hear only specific frequencies, sounds within a narrow volume range, or nothing at all. Students who are deaf from birth generally have more difficulty speaking and understanding English language structure than those who lose their hearing later in life.

Students who are deaf or hard of hearing may have difficulty following lectures in large halls, particularly if the speaker talks quietly, rapidly, or unclearly. Also, people who are deaf or hard of hearing may find it difficult to simultaneously watch demonstrations and follow verbal descriptions, particularly if they are watching a sign language interpreter, a real-time-captioned screen, or a speaker's lips. Class discussion that is fast-paced and unmoderated may be difficult to follow, since there is often a lag time between a speaker's comments and a listener's interpretation.

Examples of accommodations for verbal students who are deaf or hard of hearing include using interpreters, sound amplification (FM) systems, note takers, and real-time captioners. Real-time captioners transcribe lecture material digitally to a computer screen. It is also helpful for instructors to distribute written lecture outlines, assignments, lab instructions, and demonstration summaries. Providing visual warning systems for lab emergencies is a must. During presentations, it is important to turn your face toward your audience when speaking and repeat discussion questions and statements made by other students. Video and other multimedia should be captioned. Students with hearing impairments benefit when email is used for faculty-student meetings and class discussions.

Mobility Impairments

  • Show Slide # 15

Mobility impairments range from lower-body impairments, which may require use of canes, walkers, or wheelchairs, to upper-body impairments, which may result in limited or no use of the hands or upper extremities. It may take longer for students with mobility impairments to get from one class to another. For some students, it may be difficult to get to fieldwork sites. It may also be difficult for some students to manipulate objects, turn pages, write with a pen or pencil, type at a keyboard, or retrieve research materials.

Examples of accommodations for students with mobility impairments include note takers, scribes, and lab assistants; group lab assignments; accessible locations for classrooms, labs, and field trips; adjustable tables; equipment located within reach; extended exam time or alternative testing arrangements; course materials available in electronic formats; computers with special devices such as voice or Morse code input and alternative keyboards; and access to research resources available on the Internet.

Health Impairments

  • Show Slide # 16

Some health conditions and medications affect memory or energy levels. Additionally, some students who have health impairments may have difficulty attending classes full-time or on a daily basis.

Examples of accommodations for students who have health impairments include flexible attendance requirements; extra exam time or alternative testing arrangements; note takers or recorded class sessions; assignments available in electronic format; Internet-accessible services or resources; and email for faculty-student meetings, class discussions, and distribution of course materials and lecture notes.

Speech Impairments

  • Show Slide # 17

Speech impairments have a variety of origins that may or may not be related to other disabilities. Qualities of speech impairments include word pronunciation and articulation differences that range from mild to severe, as well as variations in rate, tone, and volume. It often takes longer for a student with a speech impairment to speak and express him or herself. Helpful accommodations and communication strategies when working with a student who has a speech impairment include allowing ample time for communication and listening carefully to what the person is saying. If you don't understand a word or statement, ask the student to repeat it. Ask questions that require short answers or a nod of the head when appropriate. Written communication through note writing can be of assistance as well. Discussions and assignments in email can allow full expression of knowledge and ideas.

Psychiatric Impairments

  • Show Slide # 18

Increasing numbers of students with psychiatric impairments are included in general education. These students are capable of pursuing and succeeding in school once barriers to equal access are removed. Mood disturbance, anxiety, cognitive changes, or altered perceptions may result in functional difficulties related to organization or concentration.

Providing a consistent yet flexible approach to teaching and maintaining a positive attitude with high expectations encourages success. Specific accommodations for students with psychiatric impairments include use of an audio or video recorder or note taker during class; preferential seating near the door to allow for breaks as needed; tests and assignments in alternate formats; and extended time for test taking in a quiet room. Structure and clear practical feedback regarding academic and behavioral expectations is helpful for self-monitoring by students with psychiatric impairments.

[Optional: View video and distribute handout Equal Access: Science and Students with Sensory Impairments (14 minutes).]

General Strategies to Increase Classroom Accessibility

  • Show Slide # 19

To conclude our discussion of accommodation examples, here are some general suggestions for making your classes accessible.

  • Refer to a student's IEP or 504 plan for specific accommodation strategies. Use the special education services available at our school.
  • Discuss with students their needs and accommodation strategies. Ask students about accommodations that have worked for them in the past. Help them learn to be self-advocates.
  • Select materials early so that they can be procured in appropriate formats in a timely manner.
  • Use materials that are available in electronic format.
  • Provide clear signage in large print.
  • Employ a variety of methods for testing comprehension.

[The following optional section may be appropriate for some audiences. It requires two handouts: An Accommodation Model and Student Abilities Profile . If this section is not relevant, skip to "Discussion Questions."]

Interpersonal Interaction

The way you interact with students can impact their success in math and science classes. Keep in mind that students with disabilities are more like students without disabilities than different from them. Don't judge a person 100% for a characteristic that affects 10% of functioning.

Realize that all students have strengths and weaknesses. Value diversity. Not everyone who is the same height and weight has the same skills and abilities. Students with disabilities have the same range of likes and dislikes as anyone else. Not all people who are blind are musical, not all people who use wheelchairs play wheelchair basketball, and not all people who are deaf read lips.

Expect that the student with a disability in your class is there to succeed. Keep your expectations high. Be positive and proactive in promoting success.

I'll give some general guidelines for interacting with students who have disabilities. Overall, treat students with disabilities with the same respect and consideration with which you treat other students.

  • Ask a student with a disability if they need help before providing assistance.
  • Talk directly to the student with a disability, not through the student's assistant or interpreter.
  • Refer to a student's disability only if it is relevant to the conversation. If so, refer to the person first and then the disability. "A student who is blind" is better than "a blind student" because it emphasizes the person first.
  • Avoid negative descriptions of a person's disability. For example, "a student who uses a wheelchair" is more appropriate than "a student confined to a wheelchair." A wheelchair is not confining—it's liberating!
  • Always ask permission before you interact with a student's guide dog or service animal.
  • If you have concerns about a student's performance, mention it. They may not know something is being done incorrectly.
  • If you are feeling uncomfortable about a situation, let the student with a disability know. Ask for advice for solving the problem.
  • Be aware of and adjust to environmental factors that may affect the student's performance. Examples are temperature, noise, lighting, and fumes.

Working with Students with Specific Disabilities

  • Be descriptive for students with visual impairments. Say, "The computer is about three feet to your left," rather than "The computer is over there."
  • When guiding students with visual impairments, offer your arm rather than grabbing or pushing them.
  • Sit or otherwise position yourself at the appropriate height of students sitting in wheelchairs when you interact.
  • Be aware of where you place items. Make sure they can be reached from a wheelchair. Avoid clutter.
  • Listen carefully to students with speech impairments. Repeat what you think you understand, and then ask the student to clarify or repeat the portion that you did not understand.
  • Face students with hearing impairments so they can see your lips. Speak clearly.
  • For students with psychiatric impairments, provide information in clear, calm, respectful tones, and allow opportunities for addressing specific questions.

An Accommodation Model

[Distribute handouts An Accommodation Model and Student Abilities Profile .]

  • Show Slide # 20

Accommodations are unique to the individual, but it is helpful to have a process to work through when determining appropriate accommodations for a student who has a disability. DO-IT, a project at the University of Washington, has developed a model process and a Student Abilities Profile form that can be used to identify effective accommodations once a student has disclosed a disability. Information about the process and a copy of the form are available in the handouts.

  • Show Slide # 21

The Accommodation Model process is organized around the following four questions:

Step 1: What does the task or assignment require? Break down the components of the experiment, assignment, or exercise. Educators often focus on the overall outcome of an activity. To accommodate a student with a disability, it's helpful to think about the specific settings, tools, skills, and tasks that are required at each step. Analyzing and evaluating the task thoroughly will help you determine how best to fully and effectively include a student with a specific disability.

Step 2: What physical, sensory, and cognitive skills are needed? Match the tasks required to the physical, sensory, and cognitive skills needed to successfully complete the activity. It is easy to say, "If I had a physical, sensory, or cognitive disability, I would not be able to complete this assignment" without really determining what skills are needed for specific aspects of the project. We need to separate the real requirements of a specific task from the perceived requirements of the project in total. It is impossible to place yourself in the shoes of the student with a disability. They may have learned many ways to solve a specific problem or task and work around the limitations imposed by the disability.

Step 3: What components of the task require accommodation? Once the task has been analyzed and the needed skills are identified, determine what accommodations may be required to make the learning experience more accessible to a specific student with a disability. Consult with the student to determine what he perceives they will require as an accommodation.

Step 4: What accommodation options exist? Now that the tasks needing accommodation have been determined, identify what resources exist for providing the accommodation(s). The student may have some good ideas. This is a time when other professionals may have expertise in specific areas and should be called on to provide input. In some cases, having students work in groups in which each person is assigned a task that he has the ability to complete provides a reasonable alternative.

The Student Abilities Profile form is designed to determine a student's skills and abilities and to assist you in breaking down individual components of an assignment. The form asks you to briefly describe the student; the classroom or laboratory environment; equipment or supplies needed; available professional and external resources; possible effective accommodations; and the physical, sensory, and cognitive skills needed for the task.

Let's go through one example together, and then, in small groups, you can create your own.

  • Show Slide # 22
  • Show Slide # 23

[Go through the process of filling out the form for a specific student and task.]

Now use your blank form. Choose a classroom or lab activity and complete the Student Abilities Profile form for a student who has a specific set of disability-related challenges.

[You can provide blank forms, or distribute partially filled-out forms if you want the activity to be more directed. Participants can work independently or together and then share the results with the group.]

Discussion Questions

[Discuss some or all of the following questions.]

  • Do you currently have students with disabilities in your class? What types of disabilities are represented?
  • Have any of you worked with students with disabilities before? Describe your experiences. What strategies did you find to be successful or unsuccessful?
  • visual impairments?
  • hearing impairments?
  • mobility impairments?
  • learning disabilities?
  • health impairments? [Examples include publications in accessible formats such as Braille, large print, and electronic media; advisor and staff awareness training; continuous evaluation of essential program course requirements; and classroom instructional improvements. Consider mailing the publication Working Together: K-12 Teachers and Students with Disabilities to all staff each year!]
  • health impairments? [Examples of accessibility adjustments:
  • Visual impairments: Braille labels; signage; specialized lab equipment; adaptive technology in computer labs.
  • Mobility impairments: wheelchair-access entrances clearly marked and notices posted at entrances that are not accessible regarding the location of accessible entrances; adaptive technology in computer labs.
  • Visual, health, and mobility impairments: hallways and classrooms kept clear of potential obstacles to an individual getting to class and safely negotiating the environment within class.]
  • survey facilities regarding accessibility;
  • identify and begin the procedure to procure signage, lab equipment, or adaptive computer technologies]

[Consider having participants discuss a case study. Choose from the Student Abilities Profiles included in the Accommodation Strategies section of this notebook on pages 45-70 or from the AccessSTEM Knowledge Base .]

Focus on students with sensory impairments (optional). [Consider showing the video Equal Access: Science and Students with Sensory Impairments (14 minutes) and distributing the handout of the same title. Lead a discussion on specific accommodations for students who have visual or hearing impairments.]

Today we've discussed the rights and responsibilities of instructors, disabled student services staff, and students with disabilities. We've also considered typical accommodations for students with specific disabilities. Instructors, staff, and students should work together to develop the best accommodation strategies. The ultimate result can be improved postsecondary education and career outcomes for people with disabilities.

[Distribute and collect completed evaluation instruments.]

  • Show Slide # 4

For comprehensive information on accommodations, a wide range of case studies, frequently asked questions, and general resources, visit the AccessSTEM website. This resource was developed at the University of Washington as part of a nationwide project to provide resources to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics educators and employers so that they can make their courses, programs, and worksites accessible to everyone. Other online resources include the Center for Universal Design in Education and the Faculty Room  [Arrange to provide links from your campus' department website before the presentation.]

Thank you for your time today and for your interest in finding ways to ensure that all of the students in our programs have equal opportunities to learn, explore interests, and express ideas.

Because differences are our greatest strength

The difference between accommodations and modifications

accommodation presentation definition

By The Understood Team

Expert reviewed by Donna Volpitta, EdD

When a student has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or a 504 plan , you’ll likely hear the word accommodation . You may also hear school staff members say modification . While the two words sound similar, they mean different things.

An  accommodation  changes  how a student learns the material. A modification changes what a student is taught or expected to learn. Here is a chart that explains the differences.

 AccommodationsModifications

can help kids learn the same material as their peers. This allows them to meet the same expectations.

A student with dyslexia, for example, might listen to an audio version of a book. But it’s still the same book that the rest of the class is reading. Likewise, a student who has trouble focusing might get seated next to the teacher, but still has to do all the regular class assignments.

Kids who are far behind their peers may need changes to the curriculum they’re learning. These are called .

For example, a student could be assigned shorter or easier reading assignments, or homework that’s different from the rest of the class. Kids who receive modifications are expected to learn the same material as their classmates.

for testing can be different from those used for teaching.

For example, using spellcheck might help a student with writing difficulties take notes during class. However, it wouldn’t be appropriate during a weekly spelling test. At the same time, this student might benefit from having extra time to complete the spelling test or using a keyboard if the physical act of writing is difficult.

in testing often mean that a student covers less material — or material that is less complex.

For example, a spelling test may require the class to study 20 words. However, a student with modifications might only have to study 10 of them. Or there might be two different lists of spelling words. With a modification, the student is tested on is different.

Statewide tests allow some like extra time or taking a test on a computer. It’s best if these are the same accommodations a child uses to take class tests.

Some students take what’s called an . This state test includes to the regular test. Questions might be fewer or not cover the same material as the standard exams. Also, the results are interpreted differently. Before you agree to an alternate assessment, find out what the impact will be on your child’s academic and work future.

for “special” classes like PE, music, and art can be helpful for some kids.

These are similar to accommodations in the classroom. Kids might get extra time to learn to play an instrument. Or they may be allowed to complete an art project in a different format.

Sometimes, an assignment in a class like PE, music, or art is unreasonable for your child. When this happens, a may be made.

For example, the PE teacher might reduce the number of laps a student needs to run. The music teacher might not require a child to learn how to read music.

See a list of common accommodations and modifications . And keep in mind that accommodations don’t always have to be formalized in an IEP or a 504 plan . Sometimes teachers can provide support on their own. If a student doesn’t have an IEP or a 504 plan, here are some examples of informal supports that families can request.

To learn more, watch as an expert explains the difference between accommodations and modifications.

Explore related topics

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Here's how you know

Official websites use .gov A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS A lock ( Lock A locked padlock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

  • A–Z Index
  • Operating Status

Search Button

Legal Aspects of Assessment

Questions and answers, what is an assessment accommodation.

An assessment accommodation is defined as a change in how an assessment is presented or how the applicant is asked to respond.  Accommodations may include changes in the presentation format, response format, assessment setting, timing, or scheduling.  The purpose of an assessment accommodation is to provide equal access to the examination process for applicants with disabilities.  Accommodations are intended to lessen the impact of the applicant's functional limitation on the assessment process without:

  • Fundamentally altering the nature of the examination,
  • Compromising the security, validity, or reliability of the examination,
  • Providing an unfair advantage to the applicant with the disability, or
  • Imposing an undue hardship on the agency.

While providing accommodations will presumably enable applicants to better demonstrate their mastery of job-related competencies or knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs), assessment accommodations are not a guarantee of improved performance, test completion, or a passing score.

Specific guidance is provided in Appendix O (Assessing Applicants with Disabilities) of the Delegated Examining Operations Handbook:   http://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/hiring-authorities/competitive-hiring/deo_handbook.pdf

Initial Thoughts

Perspectives & resources, what should teachers know about accommodations for students with disabilities.

  • Page 1: Accommodations
  • Page 2: Practices Confused with Accommodations

What types of accommodations are commonly used for students with disabilities?

  • Page 3: Instructional Versus Testing Accommodations
  • Page 4: Selecting an Accommodation
  • Page 5: Presentation Accommodations
  • Page 6: Response Accommodations
  • Page 7: Setting Accommodations

Page 8: Timing and Scheduling Accommodations

What are the teacher’s responsibilities for students with disabilities who use accommodations.

  • Page 9: Implementing an Accommodation
  • Page 10: Evaluating Effectiveness
  • Page 11: References & Additional Resources
  • Page 12: Credits

timing and scheduling

  • Do not change the expectations for learning
  • Do not reduce the requirements of the task
  • Do not change what the student is required to learn

The table below provides examples, though not an exhaustive list, of timing and scheduling accommodations that address common barriers or challenges students experience when they access or demonstrate learning.

Timing and Scheduling Accommodations
Common Barrier Example Accommodations

As was the case for other categories of accommodations, some of the accommodations in the table above—for example, timelines—are also instructional strategies or interventions. How can teachers tell the difference between the two when they plan instruction for an individual student? As outlined in the table below, one key difference is the purpose for which each is used.

Accommodation Instructional Strategy or Intervention
Definition Adaptation or change in practices or educational environments (e.g., changes to how time is organized) Instructional strategy or intervention (e.g., a time-management strategy)
Purpose

Allows students with disabilities to access learning opportunities equivalent to those of students without disabilities (i.e., levels the playing field)

Improves the performance of most students with or without disabilities

Example: Timeline Omar has an emotional/behavioral disorder and experiences anxiety when assigned long-term assignments. In addition to the timeline the class receives for completing each portion of the assignment, the teacher further breaks down each portion into a daily list of items Omar needs to complete to stay on track. This eases his anxiety, allowing him to focus on the task at hand. Many students in Mrs. Templeton’s class fail to turn in long-term assignments on time. For this reason, she decides to implement a timeline for completing each portion of the assignment to help her students manage their time better and turn in assignments by the due date.

Following are examples of timing and scheduling accommodations teachers can use to help students access or demonstrate learning.

Kaden

Kaden Age: 10 Disability: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

During instruction, Kaden often becomes fidgety and has difficulty remaining in his seat. To address Kaden’s challenges, his teacher decides to allow him to take two or three one-minute breaks (e.g., stand behind his desk) during a 30–45-minute period of instruction.

Rae

Rae Age: 15 Disability: learning disability (LD)

In addition to having difficulty identifying and remembering important information, Rae processes information more slowly than her peers. For this reason, her teacher gives her extended time to take tests. This allows Rae to process what the questions are asking and formulate responses.

Cierra

Cierra Age: 6 Disability: autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

During center time, Cierra experiences sensory overload when working with her peers. In response, her teacher allows her to move to an independent activity after working for five minutes. She plans to gradually increase this time as the school year progresses.

Each of the following scenarios introduces a student with a disability and identifies his or her related challenge.

  • Choose one accommodation category (presentation, response, setting, and timing and scheduling) that would best address each student’s barrier and learning goal.
  • Type in an accommodation from the selected category that would likely support the student in meeting his or her learning goal.
Scenario Accommodation Category Possible Accommodation
David, a middle school student with a health impairment, is highly motivated and excels academically. He takes medication that causes drowsiness. Because he takes this medication right before his advanced algebra class, he experiences low energy and often struggles to complete in-class projects.

Chantal, an eight-year-old with autism spectrum disorder, is highly sensitive to noise and is frequently agitated by hallway and playground activity (which can be heard through the windows). Her teacher would like to address this barrier so that Chantal can complete her work.

Sixteen-year-old Kari has a speech impairment. During her English II class, students are given 20 minutes to orally present a persuasive argument, a difficult task for Kari who stutters and stammers when orally presenting material.

Darrin, a 10-year-old who loves to read and excels in vocabulary, has an auditory processing disorder. During class lectures, Darrin has difficulty following and understanding the information covered.

Click here for feedback.

There are multiple responses for this activity. Below are some examples of appropriate responses.

Scenario Accommodation Category Possible Accommodation
David, a middle school student with a health impairment, is highly motivated and excels academically. Because he takes medication that causes drowsiness right before his advanced algebra class, he often experiences low energy and struggles to complete in-class projects.

Timing and scheduling accommodations

Timing and scheduling accommodations allow for changes to how time is organized. These adjustments often reduce students’ frustration and fatigue, thereby allowing them the opportunity to access and demonstrate their learning.

By allowing David more frequent breaks and multiple sessions to complete the activities, you have provided him time to refresh and do his best work.

Chantal, an eight-year-old with autism spectrum disorder, is highly sensitive to noise and is frequently agitated by hallway and playground activity (which can be heard through the windows). Her teacher would like to address this barrier so that Chantal can complete her work.

Setting accommodations

Setting accommodations allow for a change in the environment (e.g., reduced noise) or in how the environment is structured, which allows students to better access and demonstrate their learning.

Preferential seating away from windows and doors and noise-reducing headphones are good options for reducing noise distractions.

Sixteen-year-old Kari has a speech impairment. During her English II class, students are given 20 minutes to orally present a persuasive argument, a difficult task for Kari who stutters and stammers when orally presenting material.

Response accommodations

Response accommodations allow students with disabilities to complete instructional assignments or assessments through ways other than typical verbal or written responses.

Allowing an alternate response, such as a written report, helps Kari to showcase her ideas without changing the learning expectation. Increased wait time could also allow her to present the persuasive argument orally without the standard time constraints, if Kari is comfortable with this support.

Darrin, a 10-year-old who loves to read and excels in vocabulary, has an auditory processing disorder. During class lectures, Darrin has difficulty following and understanding the information covered.

Presentation accommodations

Presentation accommodations allow a student with a disability to access information in ways other than standard visual or auditory means (e.g., by reading or listening).

An advance organizer gives Darrin the opportunity to review a lecture’s content before hearing it orally presented in class. The teacher could also provide the lecture in an alternate format (e.g., a printed copy of the lecture notes).

IMAGES

  1. PPT

    accommodation presentation definition

  2. What Is Accommodation Edu Ppt

    accommodation presentation definition

  3. PPT

    accommodation presentation definition

  4. PPT

    accommodation presentation definition

  5. PPT

    accommodation presentation definition

  6. PPT

    accommodation presentation definition

VIDEO

  1. Communication Accommodation Theory Presentation

  2. Lie, Presentation definition in bangla #shortvideo #midwifery

  3. Presentation ( Definition of literature)

  4. Decision Making PPT Presentation: Definition, Importance, Conclusion #hinditutorials #decisionmaking

  5. SMART PREMIUM VILLA 2 BR IN KABA-KABA VILLAGE

  6. Virtual Private Network PPT Presentation

COMMENTS

  1. PDF Examples of Presentation Accommodations

    Examples of Presentation Accommodations Presentation Accommodations The student has difficulty with: Examples of Presentation Accommodations Decoding text • Audio formats (e.g., audio book) • Text-to-speech software • Human reader Comprehending text • Advance organizers • Visual cues (e.g., color coding key information)

  2. IRIS

    To review, accommodations are changes to educational environments or practices designed to help students with disabilities overcome learning barriers that result from their disabilities. Presentation accommodations change the way that instruction, directions, and information are presented. These accommodations allow a student with a disability ...

  3. Presentation Instructional Accommodations

    The latter method is preferable. All text and graphic materials, including labels and captions on pictures, diagrams, maps, charts, exponential numbers, notes, and footnotes, must be presented in at least 18-point type for students who need large print. Students need to work on finding an optimal print size and figuring out the smallest print ...

  4. Presentation Accommodations

    Presentation Accommodations. Accommodations are adaptations or changes to educational environments or practices designed to help students with disabilities to overcome learning barriers presented by their disability. Presentation accommodations allow a student with a disability to access information in ways other than standard visual or auditory means (e.g., by reading or listening).

  5. Presentation Accommodations: Understanding, Types, and Implementation

    Four key types of presentation accommodations for student success are visual supports, auditory supports, organizational supports, and interactive supports. Adaptive technologies can play a significant role in supporting students with presentation accommodations, providing them with tools to access and engage with educational content effectively.

  6. Accommodations 101

    Accommodations are tools and procedures that provide equal access to instruction and assessment for students with disabilities. Access is the opportunity and ability for an individual to participate in the instruction, discussions, activities, products, and assessments provided to all students within a public institution covered by ADA mandates ...

  7. PDF CHAPTER FOUR Types of Accommodations

    Presentation accommodations make it possible for students to access information for instruction and assessment. Students with disabilities may require materials in specialized presentation formats if they are unable to see or read textbooks or hear the teacher. Students may need presentation supports to facilitate their ability to read,

  8. Presentation Assessment Accommodations

    Presentation accommodations allow students to access test directions or content in ways that do not require them to visually read standard print. These alternate modes of access include visual, tactile, auditory, and a combination of visual and auditory. Sometimes presentation accommodations refer to test instructions only, and sometimes they ...

  9. PDF Speech Accommodation in Student Presentations

    presentations (SAP) used in the book and an overview of the rest of the chapters. Keywords Oral academic discourse • Student presentation • Register • Speech adjustment • Communication Accommodation Theory • Specialized corpus "If people are going to listen to me for half an hour, they should like what they hear.

  10. Presentation Accommodation Guide

    Students who require presentation accommodations have a disability that significantly impacts their ability to fully demonstrate their knowledge through classroom presentations. In order for presentation accommodations to be offered, the student must present Accessible Learning Services with documentation from a regulation health care professional (e.g. physician, psychologist, and ...

  11. Four Types of Accommodations

    Four Types of Accommodations. 1. Presentation Accommodations: Change how an assignment or assessment is given to a student. These include alternate modes of access which may be auditory, multisensory, tactile, or visual. 2. Response Accommodations. Allow students to complete assignments, assessments, and activities in different ways (alternate ...

  12. Speech Accommodation in Student Presentations

    Examines the presentation as a key aspect of students' academic and professional training across the disciplines; Provides an accessible introduction to current theory and research in speech accommodation in relation to student academic presentations

  13. Common accommodations and modifications in school

    Capture responses on an audio recorder. Use a spelling dictionary or digital spellchecker. Use a word processor to type notes or give answers in class. Use a calculator or table of "math facts". Setting accommodations. Work or take a test in a different setting, such as a quiet room with few distractions.

  14. PDF Objective Overview Making Presentation Accommodation

    Objective OverviewMaking Presentation Accommodation. : 1 HourObjectiveUse a set of guiding questions to identify presentation accommodations for a student with a disability based on her individual s. nd needs.OverviewStudents with disabilities often encounter barriers or challenges when accessing the general ed.

  15. 4 Types of Accommodations and Modifications to Support Student Success

    Increasing the font size—enlarging text or using a magnification device. Increasing the contrast or differentiation of information included in visual representations (e.g., using color to help students identify corresponding sides on similar figures) Increasing white space on assignments. Reducing the number of items on a page.

  16. PDF ACCOMMODATIONS 101: AN OVERVIEW

    presentation, response, setting, and timing/scheduling that provide equitable access during instruction and assessments for students with disabilities. Accommodation . Now that we have had a chance as a group to share what you know about accommodations I would like to share with you the defini\൴ion of an accommodation.

  17. PDF Alternative Assignments for Oral Presentation

    accommodation letter and discuss this accommodation with your faculty. ODR recommends that students share their accommodation letters with all of their faculty in a meeting early in the semester, or as soon as possible. Please connect with ODR if you have any questions or concerns regarding discussing your accommodation needs with your faculty.

  18. Accommodation Strategies

    presentation evaluation instrument (pages 239-241) Presentation Outline. Distribute handouts. Introductions. Begin presentation. Introduce and play video as noted in the script. Hold a discussion on possible accommodations on your school. Discuss interpersonal interaction, accommodation models, and accommodation strategies (optional).

  19. Presentation Accommodations

    Presentation Accommodations. Instructional and testing accommodations are generally grouped into four categories: ... Timing and Scheduling; In each of these, the accommodation is designed to help the student to demonstrate his or her knowledge. Keep in mind, though, that accommodations should be individualized and not based on a specific ...

  20. The difference between accommodations and modifications

    When a student has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or a 504 plan, you'll likely hear the word accommodation.You may also hear school staff members say modification.While the two words sound similar, they mean different things. An accommodation changes how a student learns the material. A modification changes what a student is taught or expected to learn.

  21. Accommodations Flashcards

    Accommodations. Click the card to flip 👆. -Accommodations are practices and procedures in the areas of presentation, response, setting, and timing/scheduling that provide equitable access during instruction and assessments for students with disabilities. -Accommodations are intended to reduce or even eliminate the effects of a student's ...

  22. What is an assessment accommodation?

    An assessment accommodation is defined as a change in how an assessment is presented or how the applicant is asked to respond. Accommodations may include changes in the presentation format, response format, assessment setting, timing, or scheduling. The purpose of an assessment accommodation is to provide equal access to the examination process ...

  23. IRIS

    Definition: Adaptation or change in practices or educational environments (e.g., changes to how time is organized) Instructional strategy or intervention (e.g., a time-management strategy) ... Choose one accommodation category (presentation, response, setting, and timing and scheduling) that would best address each student's barrier and ...