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  • Perspective
  • Published: 13 May 2021

Biodiversity conservation as a promising frontier for behavioural science

  • Kristian Steensen Nielsen   ORCID: 1 ,
  • Theresa M. Marteau   ORCID: 2 ,
  • Jan M. Bauer 3 ,
  • Richard B. Bradbury   ORCID: 1 , 4 ,
  • Steven Broad   ORCID: 5 ,
  • Gayle Burgess 5 ,
  • Mark Burgman 6 ,
  • Hilary Byerly   ORCID: 7 ,
  • Susan Clayton 8 ,
  • Dulce Espelosin 9 ,
  • Paul J. Ferraro   ORCID: 10 ,
  • Brendan Fisher 11 , 12 ,
  • Emma E. Garnett   ORCID: 1 , 13 ,
  • Julia P. G. Jones 14 ,
  • Mark Otieno 15 , 16 ,
  • Stephen Polasky   ORCID: 17 , 18 ,
  • Taylor H. Ricketts 11 , 12 ,
  • Rosie Trevelyan 19 ,
  • Sander van der Linden   ORCID: 20 ,
  • Diogo Veríssimo 21 &
  • Andrew Balmford 1  

Nature Human Behaviour volume  5 ,  pages 550–556 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

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  • Environmental studies
  • Human behaviour
  • Psychology and behaviour
  • Sustainability

Human activities are degrading ecosystems worldwide, posing existential threats for biodiversity and humankind. Slowing and reversing this degradation will require profound and widespread changes to human behaviour. Behavioural scientists are therefore well placed to contribute intellectual leadership in this area. This Perspective aims to stimulate a marked increase in the amount and breadth of behavioural research addressing this challenge. First, we describe the importance of the biodiversity crisis for human and non-human prosperity and the central role of human behaviour in reversing this decline. Next, we discuss key gaps in our understanding of how to achieve behaviour change for biodiversity conservation and suggest how to identify key behaviour changes and actors capable of improving biodiversity outcomes. Finally, we outline the core components for building a robust evidence base and suggest priority research questions for behavioural scientists to explore in opening a new frontier of behavioural science for the benefit of nature and human wellbeing.

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A recent global synthesis estimates that 75% of Earth’s land surface has been fundamentally altered by human activities, 66% of the ocean has been negatively affected, and 85% of wetland areas have been lost 1 . The combined effects of land-use change and habitat fragmentation, overharvesting, invasive species, pollution and climate change have resulted in an average decline in monitored populations of vertebrates of nearly 70% since 1970 and extinction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than the average seen in the geological record 2 , 3 , 4 . The threats to species are so severe that there is growing scientific consensus that we are entering the sixth mass extinction—the fifth being the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago that eliminated all non-avian dinosaurs 5 .

The rapid degradation of ecosystems and associated loss of species is of profound importance for at least three reasons. First, there are powerful moral arguments that people should not cause the avoidable extinction of perhaps one million or more species 6 . It is beyond the scope of this paper to describe such arguments, but philosophers have discussed the ethics of biodiversity conservation 7 , 8 , 9 and social scientists have identified public support for assigning moral value to nature 10 , 11 , 12 . Second, human prosperity depends on wild habitats and species for a host of essential benefits, from climate regulation, biogeochemical and flood regulation to food production and the maintenance of mental wellbeing 13 , 14 . Their deterioration thus presents an existential challenge 1 . Third, evidence suggests that pandemics resulting from greater disease transmission between humans and wild animals 15 , 16 will become more regular features of the future unless our interactions with wild species changes fundamentally 15 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 . The COVID-19 pandemic—with devastating effects on societies and economies worldwide—most probably emerged from interactions between people and wild animals in China and illustrates the unforeseen consequences that can arise from human encroachment into wild habitats and from poorly regulated exploitation of biodiversity 17 , 21 .

Humanity’s impacts on biodiversity are the result of our actions, from unsustainable wildlife harvesting to the rising demand for environmentally damaging foods 1 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 . Importantly, these actions are undertaken by actors in myriad roles—including consumers, producers and policymakers—who directly or indirectly impact ecosystems and wild species 26 . For example, the rapid clearance of the Amazon is driven by the actions of consumers across the globe who eat beef, regional policymakers who undervalue forest retention, and ultimately local ranchers who are incentivised to convert forest to pasture 27 , 28 . Similarly, the illegal trade in wildlife (for example, rhino horn, pangolin scales, tiger bones and elephant ivory) involves suppliers who hunt the animals, intermediaries (and perhaps corrupt enforcement agents) who facilitate trade and transport the products to market, and domestic and international consumers 24 , 29 , 30 , 31 . The impacts of people’s behaviour on biodiversity are of course not only manifest in less developed countries. For example, the continued illegal persecution of birds of prey in UK uplands is the result of choices by some gamekeepers to shoot and poison raptors to limit their predation of red grouse, by some hunters to pay exceptionally high prices for large daily ‘bags’ of grouse, and by policymakers to resist attempts at tighter regulation of the shooting industry 32 .

Because human activities are responsible for driving ecosystem decline, reversing current trends will require profound and persistent changes to human behaviour across actors and scales 33 . Despite its critical importance, the science of behaviour change has not been a principal focus of research in conservation science and is rarely applied in practical efforts to address major threats to biodiversity (for example, habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting of resources and species, and invasive species) 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 (A.B. et al., manuscript in preparation). Conservation scientists (defined broadly to include researchers across the natural and social sciences seeking to understand and mitigate these threats) have generally been slow to incorporate evidence from behavioural science into their theories and interventions 33 , 36 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 . Conversely, biodiversity conservation has also not been a strong focus of study for behavioural scientists (defined broadly to include those engaged in the scientific study of behaviour across diverse disciplines, including psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology and political science). One exception is research on common-pool resource management and commons dilemmas, which has a long history tracing back to the 1970s 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 . This research tradition has tackled issues closely linked to biodiversity conservation and foreshadows many contemporary and interdisciplinary analyses. More recently, social-marketing techniques have been used to tackle a variety of biodiversity problems and their potential is increasingly recognised 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 . For example, a recent study in the Philippines, Indonesia and Brazil used locally tailored social-marketing campaigns to shift social norms and increase sustainable fishing among communities of small-scale fisheries 50 . But while the number of successful applications of behavioural science to biodiversity conservation is increasing, they remain rare and often suffer from methodological limitations 51 . The conservation evidence base is consequently patchy and generally poorly informed by behavioural science 36 , 52 .

Meanwhile, in other contexts, behavioural science has made substantial gains in understanding how to encourage prosocial behaviour, including actions that ultimately affect biodiversity outcomes. A growing body of research related to climate change suggests the importance of social norms, risk communication, emotion and choice architecture in changing behaviour 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 . Behavioural science has been incorporated into some public efforts to encourage sustainable land management in the United States and the European Union 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 . Nevertheless, there are still few applications of behavioural science to explicitly address the most important proximate causes of biodiversity loss. Behavioural insights from research related to climate change, land management, consumer behaviour, voting, collective action and programme enrolment can inform the multi-scale approach needed to deliver effective biodiversity conservation, but this research has not been systematically linked to address biodiversity conservation problems. Moreover, the literature is heavily focused on households and is not well-developed for other important actors 57 , 63 . We therefore see unrealised potential for behavioural science to address the escalating biodiversity crisis.

Increasing scientific engagement

Behavioural scientists might be motivated to become engaged in biodiversity conservation research for at least three reasons. First, biodiversity conservation is essential for the long-term prosperity of people and nature. Its particular characteristics (see below) mean that it would be unhelpful simply to adopt behaviour-change interventions found effective in other domains: indeed, these do not necessarily generalize to biodiversity conservation 52 , 64 . Instead, the field offers a new arena for exploring important research questions and for testing novel interventions. Behavioural science research that focuses specifically on biodiversity conservation can contribute to the mitigation of a global and existential threat.

Second, engaging in biodiversity conservation research offers behavioural scientists a chance to investigate theories and interventions in new contexts and populations 65 , 66 , 67 . A key requirement for increasing the generalizability of behavioural science is to ramp up research activities outside North America, Australia and Europe 68 , 69 . Due to the importance of the tropics for biodiversity, the focus of many conservation interventions is in Africa, Latin America and Asia, providing opportunities to test theory and interventions in contexts which are less ‘WEIRD’ (western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic). A related challenge is the need to shift behaviours of many different kinds of actors. Behaviour-change interventions in other sectors have been criticised for being too narrowly focused on end-users 70 , 71 : Conservation problems provide opportunities for targeting the behaviours of a far broader array of stakeholders. Moreover, conserving biodiversity often requires coordinated action across local, national and global actors, heterogeneous cultures and divergent financial interests, with the benefits of conservation commonly accruing to geographically and psychologically distant communities and indeed non-human species.

Finally, conservation scientists and practitioners are keen to collaborate more with behavioural scientists 72 , 73 . An increasing number of conservation scientists and practitioners recognise the need for stronger integration with behavioural science in order to design interventions that are grounded in greater understanding of the social, motivational and contextual drivers of people’s actions 33 , 39 , 74 , 75 . Naturally, as with all interdisciplinary collaborations, these collaborations will have their challenges 75 . However, recent examples show that effective collaborations can produce novel and mutually beneficial research that suggests practical routes to achieving behaviour change for biodiversity conservation 50 , 64 , 76 , 77 , 78 .

The remainder of this Perspective seeks to encourage greater engagement of behavioural scientists in conservation-targeted research and practice. We first highlight the diversity of actors involved in threats to biodiversity and the scope of behaviour changes required. In doing so, we propose routes to identifying key behaviour changes and prioritising among them on the basis of their potential for improving biodiversity outcomes. We suggest research questions for better understanding how to influence different actors’ behaviours and for improving conservation interventions, and close by making recommendations for how to expand the conservation evidence base systematically.

Identifying key actors and behaviour changes

Threats to biodiversity are rarely caused by a single action of a single actor. Rather, they typically result from multiple behaviours by multiple actors over large spatial and temporal scales 36 , 79 . It can thus be very challenging to identify those behaviour changes with the greatest promise of being achieved and of positively impacting biodiversity. Doing so requires specifying conservation targets (e.g., particular populations or ecosystems), and then systematically considering the proximate causes and underlying drivers of threats to them, the actors involved (for example, producers and consumers), and the harmful behaviours performed by those actors 26 , 39 , 45 , 80 .

The proximate threats to wild species and the places they live can be categorised into four main groups: habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, invasive species, and climate change and pollution 81 , 82 , 83 . These threats also interact, with species or ecosystems commonly impacted by multiple threats, sometimes with amplifying effects. For example, the spread of some invasive plants is thought to be exacerbated by elevated nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO 2 concentrations 84 , 85 . Proximate threats are driven by broader societal processes, including rising demand for food and consumer goods, weak local, national and international institutions that struggle to ensure the protection of public goods (including against corrupt actors), population growth and the growing disconnect of people from nature due to increasing urbanization and indoor recreation 86 . Many of the interventions conservationists deploy to tackle proximate threats, such as removing invasive species, restoring wetlands or propagating threatened species in captivity, are not primarily about changing people’s behaviour (although even in these examples those carrying out the management actions must be trained and incentivised, and behaviours must change if these threats are not to recur). However, given the pervasive importance of human activities in conservation problems, many interventions do involve attempts to alter behaviour. If behavioural science is to improve the effectiveness of these efforts, an important first step is to identify the main actors responsible for a given threat and the changes in their behaviour that might be required to alleviate it.

One tool for mapping the actors and behaviours impacting a conservation target is to build a threat chain (A.B. et al., manuscript in preparation). This is a simplified summary of knowledge of the reasons for the unfavourable status of a species or ecosystem, from changes in ecological dynamics to the socioeconomic mechanisms thought to be responsible, and their underlying drivers. Once this putative causal chain has been constructed, the main actors in the chain can be identified, along with changes in their behaviour that might potentially reduce the particular threat. Where conservation targets are impacted by multiple threats this process can be repeated, with the likely impact of different behaviour changes compared across threats in order to identify the most promising interventions for delivering those changes.

Using Amazon deforestation (as an example of habitat loss) for illustration 27 , 28 (Fig. 1 , red boxes), the extirpation of forest-dependent species and ecosystem processes resulting from conversion to pasture has been caused (inter alia) by a combination of rising global demand for beef, poor pasture and livestock management, the absence of incentives for forest retention and the practice of establishing de facto land tenure via forest clearance. Underlying drivers include weak governance at multiple levels and rising per capita demand for beef among a growing population in Brazil and beyond. Potential behaviour changes that might be targeted to reduce deforestation (blue boxes) include increased enforcement of forest protection legislation by government agencies, improved pasture and stock management by ranchers, a reduction in per capita demand for beef among domestic and international consumers, and an accelerated decline in human population growth in high-consumption countries.

figure 1

This example characterizes (in red boxes) the threat to the Amazon forest from conversion to cattle pasture. Potentially beneficial changes in the behaviours are in blue boxes. This threat chain addresses only one of several interacting threats impacting the conservation target. The threat chain model is adapted from Balmford et al. 26 .

As a heuristic, we conducted this threat-mapping exercise for 12 examples chosen to represent different threat processes and the diversity of ecological and socioeconomic contexts in which they arise (A.B. et al., manuscript in preparation). We identified nine main clusters of actors (rows in Fig. 2 ), classified by how their behaviour impacts conservation targets. Producers and extractors of natural resources, conservation managers and consumers are commonly identified as targets for behaviour-change interventions in conservation and other sectors. However, we also identified other actor groupings, including manufacturers and sellers, investors, policymakers, voters, communicators and lobbyists, all of whom may have considerable—usually indirect—influences on conservation outcomes, yet are commonly overlooked when it comes to behaviour-change interventions. Because our clusters of actors are operationally defined, they align well with the diversity of behaviour changes we identified (Fig. 2 , right column), including reducing consumers’ purchases of high-footprint items and directing investors’ investments towards less damaging production technologies. Our clusters can also be mapped onto more conventional organisational groups (such as citizens or businesses; Fig. 2 , ‘Actor—defined by group’ columns), but because such organizational groups impact conservation targets in heterogeneous ways, their correspondence with behaviour changes is much weaker than for our typology.

figure 2

Actors classified according to their behavioural impacts on conservation targets (rows) and by their organizational affiliation. NGO, non-governmental organization.

Prioritising behaviour changes

After examining all major threats to a given conservation target and identifying promising behaviour changes involving specified actors, the next step is to prioritise behaviour changes and, in turn, the interventions potentially capable of achieving them. We suggest this should focus on two main characteristics that together determine the impact of behaviour-change interventions 57 , 87 . The first is the target behaviour’s potential, if changed, to improve the state of the conservation objective (by analogy with the climate change literature, its technical potential). In the Amazon example (Fig. 1 ), both enforcing forest protection laws and providing herd management support that is conditional on ranchers stopping clearance might be considered to have greater technical potential than slowing population growth in beef-consuming countries (which may have only limited effect if per capita demand continues to rise). Prioritising behaviours for research and intervention on the basis of their technical potential—considered an omission in behavioural science contributions to climate change mitigation 57 , 88 , 89 , 90 —ensures that resources and efforts are allocated toward the behaviours with the greatest potential to effectively mitigate biodiversity threats.

The second aspect to consider in prioritization is the behaviour’s plasticity, which refers to the degree to which a target behaviour can be changed by a specified intervention 57 . For example, to what extent can behaviour-change interventions increase the share of plant-based food in overseas or Brazilian diets, or improve the cattle and pasture management of Amazonian farmers? Due to the current paucity of conservation-focused behaviour-change interventions, good estimates of behavioural plasticity will often be lacking. Instead, it will often be necessary to use evidence from interventions targeting comparable behaviours relating to other actors, contexts or domains until more direct data become available 87 . Although considerations of technical potential and behavioural plasticity should guide the selection of behaviours to study and intervene against, we note that additional considerations may become pertinent when selecting interventions for implementation (for example, feasibility, stakeholder support and costs) 91 , 92 , 93 .

Given the range of actors involved in causing ecosystem change and the complexity of their behaviour, standalone behaviour-change interventions are unlikely to effectively mitigate a biodiversity threat (as illustrated in Fig. 1 ). Individual-level interventions—for example, targeting specific farmers, manufacturers, or investors—may well form an important part of the solution, but they will usually be insufficient on their own. For example, successfully incentivising ranchers in one Amazonian municipality to retain their remaining forests will be of little benefit to biodiversity if prevailing market failure or weak institutions continue to incentivise forest clearance elsewhere. Tackling more systemic drivers, such as environmentally damaging subsidy regimes, corporate interests, poor governance and persistent norms, also necessitates population-level interventions that can alter economic systems, institutional systems and physical infrastructure. Importantly, the intent here is not to undermine the legitimacy of individual-level interventions—quite the contrary. Systemic changes also cannot be achieved without individual-level behaviour changes and support 57 , 94 , 95 . Different levels of intervention must work in concert, which requires a holistic understanding of the determinants of human behaviour.

Building a robust evidence base

Generating evidence on behaviour-change interventions for biodiversity conservation demands a mix of methods, including experimental and observational studies using quantitative and qualitative techniques 96 , 97 , 98 . Critically, to build an evidence base, these studies must be based on mapping and synthesizing the existing literature 99 . They also need to be embedded in relevant conceptual or theoretical frameworks, coupled with a theory of change, and designed with the statistical power to answer the study questions. This might include, for example, taking a systems perspective 98 , as well as using a taxonomy or typology of interventions 100 , 101 .

Behavioural responses and the effectiveness of interventions are likely to vary between social and cultural contexts. Assessing the effect size of interventions in different settings will be key to building a robust evidence base that has global application. Improving the cross-cultural profile of behavioural science evidence is thus imperative, and particularly so for biodiversity conservation, where many problems are centred outside Europe and North America. Achieving this will, however, be challenging given that the research capacity in behavioural science remains low in high-income countries and even lower elsewhere. International partnerships will therefore be an important strand of building capacity across regions.

Emergent research questions

Given that behavioural science research into conservation-related problems is still in its infancy, many important questions remain unanswered. In this final section, we outline four higher-order questions that we believe could impact the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing people’s negative impacts on biodiversity, natural habitats and the services provided by ecosystems. While these questions can apply to prosocial behaviour more broadly, we believe that there is considerable merit in tackling them within the context of biodiversity conservation, in part through devising and testing novel interventions in the field. This will necessitate close collaboration between behavioural scientists and conservation scientists and practitioners.

The first research question deals with prioritization. As with climate change interventions, there is a clear need for a more systematic understanding of the technical potential of different behaviour changes: which ones, if delivered, would be most likely to reduce a threat and thereby enhance the status of the conservation target, taking into account other threats it faces 80 , 91 ? Given the focus of many recent environmental interventions on appealing, tractable but relatively low-impact behaviour changes (for example, eating more locally grown food or avoiding plastic drinking straws), such prioritization is badly needed 88 , 90 . One challenge in identifying priorities may be the complexity of conservation outcomes: estimating probable impacts of behaviour changes on highly interconnected ecosystems may be more difficult than impacts on greenhouse gas levels 80 , but we suggest that this is a surmountable problem. A further consideration here is how far a behaviour change addressing one conservation issue might reduce (or indeed increase) threats to other conservation targets 102 .

The remaining research questions are all aimed at improving our understanding of the plasticity of priority behaviours (that is, those with high technical potential to improve biodiversity outcomes 91 ). Our second suggested question is which interventions work best to alter priority behaviours, and how does this vary across contexts? One key aspect is exploring how the suitability of behaviour-change interventions varies with the level of deliberation and perceived importance of the decision being made. Consider contrasting interventions aimed at increasing how often consumers buy sustainably (rather than unsustainably) sourced fish. For someone making a weekly shopping trip such a choice may be performed with limited deliberation, which means that interventions targeting automatic decision-making processes may be effective 103 . However, for other actors, such as supply-chain managers making bulk purchases for supermarkets, different interventions—perhaps motivated by limiting reputational risk—will probably be required. At the level of decision makers designing national or international fisheries policy, other sorts of interventions 104 —potentially linked to cessation or realignment of taxpayer subsidies—might need to be considered.

This example also illustrates our third suggested research question: how does the effectiveness of behaviour-change interventions vary with the financial and psychological costs of the change for the target actor? Differences in motivation will be important here. In some instances, actors may benefit directly from pro-conservation behaviour (for example, because eating more sustainably sourced fish aligns with health values, or keeping their pet cat indoors reduces its risk of injury). But sometimes those choices may carry costs (for example, sustainable seafood may be more expensive or difficult to source). In the case of the supermarket chains, there may be financial and administrative costs to switching suppliers, at least over the short term. Policymakers will also face strong lobbying pressure to continue to support the policy status quo. Clearly, different interventions will be needed across such diverse contexts. Varied interventions may also be needed within actor groups. For example, supermarket chains may differ in their motivations, knowledge, demographics and other interests in ways that warrant different types of behaviour-change interventions.

Lastly, how can practitioners design interventions to ensure that behaviour changes persist over the long term? Although many intervention studies do not evaluate persistence over time, those that do commonly observe that effectiveness wanes 105 , 106 , 107 . In some contexts, it might be possible to design one-off interventions with long-lasting effects, but in others, delivering lasting change may necessitate recurring rounds of intervention or the repeated introduction of novel interventions. Better understanding the persistence of intervention effects will be key to sustaining beneficial behaviour change.

Many more questions will emerge as this field develops. Addressing them will require fresh partnerships and continued commitment to work across disciplines and in unfamiliar circumstances. Such partnerships may follow recommendations for interdisciplinary collaborations around biodiversity conservation 108 , 109 or be inspired by existing programmes and networks (some of which collaborate closely with practitioners), such as the Cambridge Conservation Initiative, Center for Behavioral and Experimental Agri-environmental Research, and Science for Nature and People Partnership. We submit that there are few other opportunities where behavioural scientists have such potential to tackle one of the great challenges of our age. We hope this Perspective can help inspire this critical work.

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We are grateful for funding from the Cambridge Conservation Initiative Collaborative, Fund and Arcadia, RSPB and the Gund Institute for Environment, University of Vermont. A.B. is supported by a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit award. E.E.G. was supported by a NERC studentship (grant number NE/L002507/1). We thank P. C. Stern for helpful discussion and feedback.

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All authors contributed to the conceptualization of the research. K.S.N., T.M.M. and A.B. wrote the manuscript. The other contributing authors (J.M.B., R.B.B., S.B., G.B., M.B., H.B., S.C., D.E., P.J.F., B.F., E.E.G., J.P.G.J., M.O., S.P., T.H.R., R.T., S.v.d.L. and D.V.) provided critical comments and revisions. All authors approved the final manuscript.

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Nielsen, K.S., Marteau, T.M., Bauer, J.M. et al. Biodiversity conservation as a promising frontier for behavioural science. Nat Hum Behav 5 , 550–556 (2021).

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How does deforestation affect biodiversity?

Forests contain some of the richest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. But between 1990 and 2020, around 420 million hectares of mainly tropical forest has been lost and  a further 10 million hectares, an area the size of Scotland and Wales combined, is being lost each year. Without the shelter, food and water the forests supply, the many thousands of species that coexist within and beneath the canopy of trees also vanish. 

Forests are home to a huge array of different tree, amphibian, bird and mammal species but they are facing a combination of threats. The Amazon – the world's biggest rainforest – has an estimated 15,000 species of trees, an estimated 3,000 species of fish in the river system and there are currently 1,300 described species of birds. But about 17% of it has been deforested.

Logging for timber and the clearing of tropical and subtropical forests to make way for agriculture and grazing are the two main causes of destruction to forest habitats. Fire is also a major threat to forests. In rainforests such as the Amazon, fire is usually used to clear land for farming. 

Much of the tropical and subtropical forest that remains around the world has become fragmented, with 20% of global forest scattered across 34 million smaller patches affecting species that require large territories, but also increasing the isolation of animals and plants, limiting their gene pools.

Despite the huge annual losses caused by deforestation, there have been some improvements in keeping some parts safe. Some tropical rainforests, subtropical dry forests and temperate oceanic forests are now located within protected areas, including indigenous reserves, with studies showing these are often capable of slowing deforestation.

Forest loss does not simply mean all biodiversity is wiped out, but it often results in a significant change in the mix of species that live there since some species will thrive while others will be lost. So-called generalist species such as some deer, foxes and white storks have been seen to increase in forests that have been disturbed by human activity. Small, light -loving plants can also flourish in cleared patches of forest.

To find out more: Amazonia’s future: Eden or degraded landscapes? | Royal Society ; Past and future decline and extinction of species | Royal Society

Find answers to 16 key questions about biodiversity

Introduction, what is biodiversity, why is biodiversity important, how do we measure biodiversity, what is the scale of biodiversity loss.

  • Do new species offset the loss of existing species?

Where is most biodiversity loss happening and why?

Is the rate of biodiversity loss increasing or decreasing, what is the state of biodiversity in the uk, how do humans affect biodiversity, how does the growing global population and increasing consumption affect biodiversity, how does climate change affect biodiversity, what can we do to protect biodiversity, what can i do as an individual to protect biodiversity, can we allow nature to regenerate without intervention, how do we decide what is worth saving or putting our efforts into protecting, acknowledgements.

animation still of a sloth

At its simplest, biodiversity describes life on Earth – the different genes, species and ecosystems that comprise the biosphere and the varying habitats, landscapes and regions in which they exist. We've answered some of your most popular questions about biodiversity.

Biodiversity is all the living things on our planet – from the smallest bacteria to the largest plants and animals. So far, we have identified around 1.6 million species but that is probably only a small fraction of the forms of life on Earth.

Biodiversity is essential for the processes that support all life on Earth, including humans. Without a wide range of animals, plants and microorganisms, we cannot have healthy ecosystems.

There is still much we do not know about the complexity of biodiversity on Earth. There are a number of ways that we measure it, with counting species the most common approach.

The list of known recent extinctions is still a small fraction of all species on the planet but it is far above prehuman levels and the evidence suggests it is rising fast.

We regularly hear of new species being discovered - does that not offset the loss of existing species?

Every year thousands of previously unknown species are discovered, described and named.

Biodiversity loss has been most pronounced on islands and in specific locations around the tropics.

Compared to the 1.6 million species known about on Earth, the number of recorded extinctions can seem very low.

The UK boasts more than 70,000 known species of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms.

Humanity impacts the planet's biodiversity in multiple ways, both deliberate and accidental.

Since the middle of the 20th century, the human population has grown dramatically.

The environmental changes being driven by climate change are disturbing natural habitats and species in ways that are still only becoming clear.

Forests contain some of the richest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. But between 1990 and 2020, around 420 million hectares of mainly tropical forest has been lost.

Loss of natural habitats has been taking place over thousands of years, but scientists are confident that we have ways to help biodiversity recover.

While large scale changes in behaviour, policies and measures will be essential, individuals have a vital part to play.

Biodiversity loss is a complex issue involving many overlapping processes. While nature can recover when left to do so, it requires dramatic changes in our behaviour for this to happen.

The value of the natural world can be interpreted in many ways, from their raw economic value to the inherent social, cultural and emotional benefits they provide.

Find the main authors and reviewers of the questions and answers on biodiversity.

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short essay on biodiversity pdf

short essay on biodiversity pdf

Short Essay: Biodiversity

Biodiversity, the intricate web of life on our planet, is a topic of utmost importance and relevance in today’s world. As human activities continue to reshape ecosystems and drive species towards extinction, understanding and conserving biodiversity have become critical for the well-being of both our planet and ourselves. Writing an essay on biodiversity provides an opportunity to explore the complexity of life forms, their interactions, and the significance of preserving this rich tapestry of biological diversity.

To effectively write an essay on biodiversity, it is crucial to approach the topic with a multidisciplinary perspective. Biodiversity encompasses a wide range of fields, including biology, ecology, conservation science, policy, and ethics. By drawing upon knowledge from these diverse disciplines, we can gain a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics of biodiversity and its implications for our planet.

Table of Contents

Biodiversity Essay Tips

Understand the Concept: Begin by gaining a clear understanding of what biodiversity entails. Familiarize yourself with the definition of biodiversity, including its components such as genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. This foundational knowledge will provide a solid basis for your essay.

Conduct Thorough Research: Biodiversity is a vast and complex subject. Conduct comprehensive research using reputable sources to gather relevant information. Explore scientific journals, books, reports, and credible websites to obtain accurate and up-to-date data on biodiversity, its significance, threats, and conservation efforts.

Develop a Strong Thesis Statement: Formulate a clear and concise thesis statement that conveys the main argument or focus of your essay. The thesis statement should reflect your stance on biodiversity and provide a roadmap for the subsequent sections of your essay.

Organize Your Thoughts: Develop a logical structure for your essay. Consider different organizational approaches, such as presenting information chronologically, thematically, or by addressing specific aspects of biodiversity. Create an outline that outlines the main points and supporting evidence for each section of your essay.

Provide Evidence and Examples: Support your arguments with credible evidence and examples. Incorporate scientific studies, case studies, and real-world examples to strengthen your points and demonstrate the significance of biodiversity. This will enhance the credibility and persuasiveness of your essay.

Be Balanced and Objective: While it is important to advocate for the conservation of biodiversity, maintain a balanced and objective tone throughout your essay. Present different perspectives and viewpoints, acknowledging potential counterarguments. This will showcase your ability to critically analyze the topic and provide a well-rounded discussion.

Use Clear and Concise Language: Write in a clear, concise, and engaging manner. Avoid jargon and complex terminology unless necessary, and ensure that your ideas flow logically. Use appropriate transitions to guide the reader through different sections and paragraphs.

Include Relevant Data and Statistics: Incorporate relevant data and statistics to illustrate the current state of biodiversity and its trends. Quantitative information can provide a powerful impact and strengthen your arguments. Ensure that the data is from reliable sources and properly cited.

Discuss Conservation Strategies: Dedicate a section of your essay to discussing conservation strategies and initiatives aimed at preserving biodiversity. Explore both local and global efforts, including protected areas, sustainable practices, community involvement, and policy measures. Highlight the effectiveness and challenges associated with these strategies.

Conclude with a Strong Summary: Summarize the main points covered in your essay, emphasizing the importance of biodiversity and the need for its conservation. Restate your thesis statement and leave the reader with a thought-provoking conclusion that encourages further reflection and action.

Biodiversity Essay Example 1


Biodiversity, the variety of life forms that inhabit our planet, is an essential aspect of our natural world. It encompasses the intricate interactions between species, the genetic diversity within populations, and the diversity of ecosystems that support life. However, in recent decades, human activities have posed significant threats to biodiversity, leading to its rapid decline. In this essay, we will explore the concept of biodiversity, its inherent value, the primary threats it faces, and the imperative need for its conservation.

  • Define biodiversity and its components: genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
  • Discuss the interconnectedness and interdependence of these components.
  • Highlight the significance of biodiversity for the stability and resilience of ecosystems.
  • Explore the ecological services provided by biodiversity, such as pollination, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation.
  • Discuss the role of biodiversity in supporting human well-being, including food security, medicine, and cultural values.
  • Highlight the intrinsic value of biodiversity, emphasizing the ethical and aesthetic reasons for its preservation.
  • Address the primary causes of biodiversity loss, including habitat destruction, climate change, pollution, overexploitation, and invasive species.
  • Discuss the impact of deforestation, urbanization, and industrial activities on biodiversity.
  • Examine the consequences of climate change, such as habitat shifts and increased extinction risks.
  • Explore the importance of protected areas, including national parks, wildlife reserves, and marine sanctuaries.
  • Discuss sustainable land use practices, such as agroforestry and sustainable agriculture, to minimize habitat loss.
  • Highlight the significance of community-based conservation initiatives and the involvement of local communities.
  • Address the role of international agreements and policies in promoting biodiversity conservation.
  • Present examples of successful biodiversity conservation efforts from around the world.
  • Discuss the restoration of degraded ecosystems and the recovery of threatened species.
  • Highlight the importance of collaboration between governments, NGOs, scientists, and local communities.

Biodiversity is the foundation of life on Earth, providing us with essential resources, ecological stability, and intrinsic value. However, human activities continue to pose severe threats to this fragile web of life. Recognizing the importance of biodiversity conservation is crucial for the sustainable future of our planet and the well-being of future generations. By implementing effective conservation strategies, fostering global collaboration, and raising awareness, we can strive towards a harmonious coexistence with nature, preserving the remarkable diversity of life that makes our planet truly unique.

Biodiversity Essay Example 2

Biodiversity, the dazzling array of life forms that inhabit our planet, is an invaluable asset that sustains ecosystems, provides essential resources, and offers a myriad of benefits to humanity. However, in the face of human-induced pressures, biodiversity is under threat like never before. In this essay, we will delve into the concept of biodiversity, explore its significance, examine the causes behind its decline, and discuss the key strategies required to conserve and protect it for future generations.

  • Define biodiversity and its various dimensions, including genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
  • Discuss the intricate interconnections and interdependencies among different components of biodiversity.
  • Highlight the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem stability, resilience, and functioning.
  • Explore the ecological services provided by biodiversity, such as water purification, soil fertility, and climate regulation.
  • Discuss the economic value of biodiversity, including the provision of food, medicine, and raw materials for various industries.
  • Emphasize the cultural and aesthetic value of biodiversity, recognizing its role in spiritual and artistic expressions.
  • Examine the primary drivers of biodiversity decline, including habitat destruction, fragmentation, and degradation.
  • Discuss the impacts of pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and the introduction of invasive species.
  • Address the role of unsustainable agricultural practices, deforestation, urbanization, and industrial activities.
  • Discuss the importance of protected areas, such as national parks, reserves, and wildlife corridors, in safeguarding biodiversity.
  • Highlight the significance of habitat restoration and conservation outside protected areas through sustainable land management practices.
  • Explore the role of community-based conservation efforts, involving local communities in biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource use.
  • Address the need for international cooperation, policy frameworks, and legal mechanisms to promote biodiversity conservation.
  • Explore the importance of education and raising awareness about biodiversity, its value, and the threats it faces.
  • Discuss the role of citizen science initiatives and public participation in monitoring biodiversity and supporting conservation efforts.
  • Highlight the significance of promoting sustainable lifestyles and responsible consumption to minimize the impact on biodiversity.

Preserving biodiversity is an urgent and collective responsibility that demands immediate action. By recognizing the intrinsic value of biodiversity, understanding its ecological, economic, and cultural importance, and implementing effective conservation strategies, we can secure a sustainable future for our planet. Embracing a holistic approach that combines scientific knowledge, community engagement, and international cooperation is crucial to nurture the intricate tapestry of life and ensure that future generations can enjoy the beauty and benefits of a biodiverse world. Let us stand as guardians of biodiversity, working together to protect and restore the delicate balance of nature.

Biodiversity Essay Example 3

Biodiversity, the intricate web of life that encompasses all living organisms on Earth, is a testament to the tremendous diversity and resilience of our planet. From the tiniest microorganisms to majestic forests and vibrant coral reefs, biodiversity plays a critical role in sustaining life and providing a multitude of benefits to humanity. In this essay, we will explore the significance of biodiversity, examine the threats it faces, and propose actions to conserve and restore this invaluable resource.

  • Discuss the fundamental role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem stability, functioning, and resilience.
  • Explore the ecological services provided by biodiversity, such as nutrient cycling, pollination, and pest control.
  • Highlight the economic, social, and cultural values of biodiversity, including its contribution to livelihoods and cultural heritage.
  • Identify and discuss the major threats to biodiversity, including habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation.
  • Address the impacts of climate change, pollution, invasive species, and overexploitation on biodiversity.
  • Explore the consequences of biodiversity loss, such as the disruption of food webs, increased vulnerability to diseases, and reduced ecosystem productivity.
  • Advocate for the establishment and effective management of protected areas, including national parks, reserves, and wildlife corridors.
  • Promote sustainable land and resource management practices that minimize habitat destruction and promote biodiversity-friendly agriculture.
  • Encourage the adoption of sustainable fishing practices and the establishment of marine protected areas to safeguard marine biodiversity.
  • Support initiatives that address the illegal wildlife trade and promote the sustainable use of natural resources.
  • Highlight the importance of engaging local communities, indigenous peoples, and stakeholders in biodiversity conservation efforts.
  • Emphasize the need for environmental education to raise awareness about the value of biodiversity and its conservation.
  • Promote the integration of biodiversity-related topics into school curricula and public outreach programs.
  • Encourage the media to play an active role in disseminating information and stories that highlight the importance of biodiversity.
  • Discuss the significance of international agreements and conventions, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, in promoting biodiversity conservation.
  • Advocate for the development and implementation of policies that integrate biodiversity conservation into various sectors, including agriculture, energy, and infrastructure.
  • Emphasize the need for cooperation among governments, non-governmental organizations, scientists, and communities to address global biodiversity loss.

Preserving biodiversity is an urgent and collective responsibility that requires collective action. By recognizing the intrinsic value of biodiversity, understanding its irreplaceable contributions to our well-being, and adopting sustainable practices, we can ensure the continued existence of Earth’s living tapestry. Let us cherish and protect the remarkable diversity of life on our planet, for it is our shared heritage, a source of inspiration, and a key to our own survival. Together, we can create a future where biodiversity thrives, and future generations can marvel at the wonders of nature.

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Essay on Biodiversity for Students and Children | PDF Download

Essay on Biodiversity

Essay on Biodiversity for Students and Children – Importance, Types, Effects: Biodiversity means Biological Diversity where several species are existed and live in the ecosystem. Organisms like marine, terrestrial aquatic life, and other living organisms. Biodiversity includes flora and fauna which means plants and aminals species. There are various cycles present in the animals which need to be present for the presence of other animals in the ecosystem. Biodiversity is the one that always balances the changes in the ecosystem and improves further. Similarly, the below essay on Biodiversity contains all the basic information, Importance, Types, Effects, and much more information.

Short Essay on Biodiversity

Biodiversity refers to the presence of plants and animals and their species in the ecosystem. These plants and animals have existed in different forms which makes diversity. The variations present between the animals or plants are due to species, Ecosystem, Habitat area, genetics of them. This biodiversity is important because it is the backbone for the existence of living beings or living things on Earth. In this Biodiversity, there is the presence of various types like Genetic, Species, Ecological diversity. These types depend on various aspects and bring up the existence of biodiversity in the ecosystem. The biodiversity contains various cycles like food, water, animals, and some more species cycles. It contains the different animals to present as food for the other animals and different plants for the usage of human beings. Biodiversity is the combination that needs to exist both the flora and fauna which is the backbone for the existence of living things.

In the present environment, there is a huge biodiversity loss which will lead to a serious threat to the lives of humans. All the pollutions which are made by human activities are leads to the cause of biodiversity loss. Every person should work on saving biodiversity and allot some areas to enrich the lives of flora and fauna which needs a better future in the environment. As the species are endangered due to the human needs activities and lead to an end to their lives in the environment. All the government and people should come together and work and enhance the species count and reduce the list of endangered species.

Long Essay on Biodiversity

Every part and the living organisms that are present in the environment are part of biodiversity. Where this biodiversity includes plants, animals, humans, bacteria, viruses, birds, etc. All these organisms are part of the biodiversity where includes the share in the environment. Different species have different forms where these forms depend on the environment that these species live in it. Some species are present in the ecosystem to be a part of the food for other animals. However, there are several chains in the ecosystem that are present and continue the lives in the ecosystem.

Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the backbone for the presence of the environment and helps all living beings to live their lives. It even maintains the ecological balance of the planet Earth. However, there are millions of species like trees, plants, animals, insects, microorganisms, and many more. All these presences are important for the various needs of the environment building and even for the needs of human beings in the daily routine. As the biodiversity of different species is present in different areas with various climatic conditions. Some species will adapt to only cool areas whereas some can exist only in hot climates and some are in humid climates. This was purely dependent on the genetics and ecological sustainment of species.

Humans are completely dependent on plants and animals in the biodiversity for the need for food. They get the food majorly from the plants to sustain their lives on earth. But knowing these humans are destroying the diversity for other needs like land, wood, and many more rather than food. As the population of humans getting increasing day by day, maintaining the huge existence of people’s biodiversity has been damaging. If the Biodiversity or environment doesn’t provide the conditions it is hard to process the cultivation and tends to the scarcity of food and further no existence of humans.

Types of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is further divided into different types like Genetic, Species, Ecological diversities. Where genetic diversity is referred to as the passing of genetic components shared by the species. Species diversity happens when the habitat comprises various living organisms. Ecological diversity happens with the interaction of all living things and shares the available sources to produce energy in the ecosystem. All the species are important for the environment’s existence and also for the presence of some flora and fauna.

Effects of Biodiversity

In the present days, biodiversity was getting destroyed by humans the gain their needs of them. This destroying activity leads to trouble for the lives of millions of plants and animals either directly or indirectly. As the population was increasing parallelly the need or demand for the food was increasing, as the food was purely dependent on plants and some animals. With the demand, the plants are driven but the parallel planting was not taking place. where this cause made the various species in the endangered list of species. As the roots of the various species are taken out by humans which causes the endangered and no presence of species in the ecosystem. As a result, it leads to breaking various food chains and the food for various other animals. however, saving diversity is more important for the existence of human lives in the future world.

Conclusion: As biodiversity is the backbone for balancing the environment and the climatic conditions, it is important to save and improve the welfare of all living organisms. As humans destroy biodiversity and disturb the various animal lives and cycles, it is responsible to recover the endangered species. Humans should allot some space of land for the needs of the Flora and Fauna improvement. Forests, Gardens, Endangered species areas, and some others should be buildup, and restricting human beings should be mandatory. Even now it can be improved which helps for the further generation in the environment of Planet Earth.

We believe that the above essay on Biodiversity provided you with all the basic information and needs to improve biodiversity and much more valuable information. The Biodiversity essay will useful for aspirants of UPSC and students at exams.

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Biodiversity Essay

Essay on biodiversity for children and students.

short essay on biodiversity pdf

Biodiversity  refers to the importance of a wide variety of plants and animals that live in the world or in a specific habitat. It is important to maintain this level in order to balance the environmental harmony on our planet. Biodiversity, also referred to as biological diversity, is broadly the diversity or variability of different species of plants and animals on the Earth. It is essential to have high level of biodiversity to keep the natural surroundings in a harmonious state.


We have provided below short and long essay on biodiversity in English for your knowledge and information.

These essays have been written in simple yet effective English language to make them easily memorable and presentable when needed.

After going through these biodiversity essay you will be able to explain biodiversity; the reason for its decline; how to enrich biodiversity; why is biodiversity important; how can we maintain biodiversity etc.

These biodiversity essays in English will help you a lot in your school, college assignments wherein you are required to speak on or write an essay or take part in debate on biodiversity.


Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety of different species of plants and animals living on Earth. It is important to maintain high level of biodiversity in order to ensure the smooth functioning of the environment and for the survival of mankind.

However, with the growing air, water and land pollution on our planet it is becoming difficult to maintain biodiversity. A number of species of plants and animals have become extinct as a fall-out of the rapid environmental changes caused due to the aforementioned reasons leading to decline in biodiversity. This needs to be controlled to save the planet and those living here.


Biodiversity is said to be a measure of different types of plants, animals and other organisms present in the ecosystem. All these contribute in maintaining a healthy environment on the planet and thus play an important role.

The various species of plants and animals present on Earth are not distributed evenly. The main reason for this uneven distribution is the climatic conditions of our planet. The climate varies highly in different parts of the world and thus there is a variation in the kind of life present in each part. The climatic conditions have undergone a major change over the last few decades and this has led to a decline in biodiversity. The growing imbalance can cause a threat to the mankind as well.

It is essential to ensure richness of biodiversity by controlling pollution and building an environment that is safe and secure for all the organisms living on the planet.


Biodiversity refers to the variability and variety of different species of plants and animals on Earth. This variety contributes towards making our planet inhabitable.

The reason for unequal distribution of various organisms in different parts of the world is the varied climatic conditions. There is greater terrestrial biodiversity near the equator and this is caused due to warm climate and high primary productivity. On the other hand marine biodiversity is highest along the coasts in the Western Pacific as it has the highest sea surface temperature. Biodiversity basically clusters in hotspots and while it has been on a rise through the time researchers state that it is likely to slow down in the times to come.

It is essential to maintain rich diversity to build a harmonious environment. It enables the survival of human beings by providing them their basic needs such food, shelter, medicines, etc. However, the increasing pollution which is continually degrading the environment is also having a negative impact on biodiversity. Several species that inhabited Earth earlier are now extinct and many other are feared to be extinct in the coming years. This will further lead to environmental imbalance and can prove to be hazardous for the human species.


Biodiversity, also referred to as biological diversity, is the variety of different species of flora and fauna living on Earth. The richer the biodiversity the more balanced and harmonious would the environment be. Different variety of plants and animals contribute their bit to make the planet worth inhabiting. One of the main reasons for the survival of human species on Earth is biodiversity. This is because various species of organisms help in meeting their basic needs of food, shelter, cloth and other resources.

There are around 300,000 species of flora that have been known to date and numerous species of fauna that includes not only animals but also birds, fish, reptiles, mammals, insects, molluscs, crustaceans, etc. Our planet Earth was formed close to 4.54 billion years ago and there have been evidences of life since around 3.5 billion years ago. A number of species of both flora and fauna have gone extinct over the past centuries and many more are anticipated to go extinct in the times to come there by disturbing the level of biodiversity.

Human beings have become so driven towards technology over the years that they have forgotten its repercussions. Several new inventions have proven to be hazardous to the environment and are having a negative impact on biodiversity. It is high time humans should start taking the environmental issues seriously and contribute their bit towards improving the atmosphere. A healthy environment is essential for developing rich biodiversity which in turn is essential for the human beings to live in a harmonious state on Earth.


Biodiversity is basically the measure of different plants, animals and other organisms living on earth. Each variety of flora and fauna present on Earth contributes its bit towards creating a balanced environment which is fit for the survival of the living beings. These species help in fulfilling the basic survival needs of each other. It is thus important to have a rich biodiversity.

How has Biodiversity Declined?

While the importance of maintaining a rich biodiversity has been stressed upon time and again, over the years the level of biodiversity has seen a downward trend and it is likely to go down further in the times to come. The main reason for this is the growing pollution which is an outcome of the industrial wastes and the use of various new-age inventions. Several species of plants and animals have become extinct in the recent past due to the environmental changes brought about by man and many are estimated to go extinct in the coming time. This would lead to further decline in biodiversity which in turn would lead to imbalance in the environment and cause a threat to the human race as well as other organisms living on Earth.

How to Add to Richness of Biodiversity?

It is essential to grow more sensitive towards the environmental concerns. The governments of various countries are spreading awareness about the same and are trying to curb the issue by using different means. It is also the responsibility of the common man to come forward to do his bit to conserve the environment.

Human beings seem to have grown so accustomed to using the technology that they have overlooked the importance of conserving the natural surroundings. It needs to be understood that insensitivity towards environment is nothing but paving way towards your own destruction. Do your bit to bring about the change!

Biodiversity Essay (400 words)

Biodiversity, also referred to as Biological Diversity, is the variety of flora and fauna present in a particular habitat or on Earth as a whole. It has largely replaced the more clearly defined terms – species richness and species diversity.

Biodiversity – A Unified View of Biological Varieties

There are many other terms that have been used to define this diversity. These include ecological diversity (viewed from ecosystem diversity perspective), taxonomic diversity (gauged at the species diversity level), functional diversity (computation of the functionally disparate species within population) and morphological diversity (derived from genetic diversity). Biodiversity offers a unified view of all these biological varieties.

Why is Biodiversity Important?

Biodiversity is important as it helps in maintaining a balance in the ecological system. Different plants and animals are interdependent on each other to get their basic needs fulfilled. For instance, human beings are dependent on various plants and animals for their food, shelter and clothes and likewise many other species are dependent on each other for such purposes. Richness of biodiversity makes our planet fit for the survival of each of the species living here.

However, unfortunately the growing pollution is having a negative impact on biodiversity. A number of plants and animals have gone extinct because of this and many are feared to become extinct in the times to come if the level of pollution continues to grow this way. This would result in a decline in biodiversity.

How to Maintain Biodiversity?

Human beings need to understand the importance of maintaining rich biodiversity. The vehicular smoke that leads to massive air pollution is becoming a threat to various species. This is one of the first things that need to be controlled in order to bring down the pollution level in the atmosphere. The industrial waste that goes into the sea is harmful for the marine life and must thus be disposed of using some other means. Similarly, land and noise pollution must also be controlled.

Deforestation is also a major reason for the decline in the level of biodiversity. Not only is it rapidly bringing down the number of plants and trees but it is also taking away shelter from the animals and making it hard for them to survive. Such practices must be controlled in order to ensure harmony in the environment.

Every species of flora and fauna serves its unique purpose towards maintaining the environment and making it worth living. Thus, in order to maintain a balanced environment, it is important to maintain richness and balance of biodiversity.

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Essay on Conservation of Biodiversity for Students and Children

500+ words essay on conservation of biodiversity.

Conservation of biodiversity is vital for maintaining the Earth’s environment and sustaining life on the planet. There are a number of ways in which the richness of biodiversity helps in maintaining the ecological system. Conservation of biodiversity is important for the survival of living beings on Earth. Hence, a lot of emphases is being given on the conservation of biodiversity these days.

essay on conservation of biodiversity

The Extinction in Biodiversity

Due to human activities, numerous varieties of animals go extinct each year. Western Black Rhinoceros, Dodo, Tasmanian tiger, Golden Toad, Woolly Mammoth, Caribbean Monk Seal, Ivory-billed Woodpecker, and Japanese Sea Lion are some of the species of animals that have gone extinct.

Lemur, Mountain Gorilla, Vaquita, Sea Turtles, Amur Leopard, and Tiger are some of the species that are on the verge of extinction. Apart from these many species of plants and trees including Lepidodendron, Araucaria Mirabilis, Wood Cycad and Kokia Cookie have gone extinct and many species are endangered.

Need to Conserve Biodiversity

Earth is a beautiful planet which has given us many things which occur naturally. Natural resources, rivers, valleys , oceans, different species of animals and beautiful varieties of plants and trees are among some of these.

In today’s world, we are busy developing our surroundings and spoiling our beautiful environment. Today, we have exploited most of the things that were available abundantly in nature. Thus, there arises a need to conserve these natural things. Among other things, there is a serious need for the conservation of biodiversity.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Importance of Conservation of Biodiversity

Conservation of biodiversity is important for many reasons. Here are some of the main reasons to conserve biodiversity:

  • Process of Food Chain: Different species of animals and plants serve as the source of food for other animals and living organisms. Thus, conserving biodiversity help to keep the food chain among the living organisms.
  • Nutritional Needs: The decline in the variety of plants and animals would mean the decline in the variety of food we eat. So, this is likely to result in nutritional deficiencies.
  • Cleaner Air: Plants and trees have a greater ability to purify the air and keep the atmosphere clean. As there is a decrease in the number and types of trees and plants, it impacts the quality of air in a negative way.
  • Better Cultivation of Crops:   Fertility of soil is maintained by many insects, organisms and microorganisms work on different levels. So we have to maintain the level of microorganism which is better for the cultivation of crops.
  • For Medical Reason s: For making different medicines many species of trees and plants are used so as to cure various diseases.

Methods to Conserve Biodiversity

Methods that can help in the conservation of biodiversity are

  • Control Population: The greater the population the higher the needs which would result in further exploitation of flora and fauna and decline in biodiversity. For the conservation of biodiversity, we have to control the human population and allow other species of plants and animals to replenish on our planet.
  • Control Pollution: The changing climate, deteriorating air quality and the growing amount of pollution on land and water bodies are leading to different types of diseases in many. It is essential to reduce the activities leading to pollution so as to conserve biodiversity.
  • Reduce Deforestation: Due to deforestation, there is the loss of habitat. Due to this reason, wild animals are unable to survive in the new environment and die.
  • Avoid Wastage: We need to understand that natural resources are not only essential for us but are also vital for the survival of other species. We must thus utilize only as much as we require them so that these remain available in abundance in nature for future use.
  • Spread Awareness: Apart from this, one of the best methods to conserve biodiversity is by spreading awareness. The government can do so at a bigger level. While we can spread awareness by word of mouth and through social media.

Conservation of biodiversity is of utmost importance. We must all make efforts to conserve biodiversity rather than contributing towards its declination. Thus, the richness of biodiversity is essential for the survival of living beings on Earth.

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Essay On Biodiversity [300-500 words]

Essay On Biodiversity: The earth is the only known planet having the existence of life on it. Besides, life has manifested in different forms such as animals, birds, plants, microorganisms etc. Among these broad categories, Each one has its variety. This diversity is called Biodiversity.

In other words, Biodiversity refers to the presence of different species of plants, animals, insects, and reptiles on the earth. It is one of the essential parts of the ecosystem that help in running the life cycle effortlessly.

Short Essay On Biodiversity | 250-300 Words

Introduction- Biodiversity or biological diversity refers to the presence of different species of plants and animals on the earth. A lot of reasons can be described for the biodiversity on earth such as geological positions, temperatures, climatic conditions and genetic changes etc. Biodiversity is considered a vital part of the life cycle on Earth.

Importance- There is a very thin line between biodiversity and ecology. One can not exist without the second. We can conclude that these two terms refer to the same intention. Hence, biodiversity is very important in maintaining the ecological balance as living things on the planet are interdependent.

If one species is decreased in number or eliminated from the environment, other species have to face negative effects because of that. Moreover, we humans are dependent on plants and animals. Thus our life is also dependent on biodiversity. If it damages, we will have to face the results.

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Short Essay On Biodiversity

Conservation- After understanding the importance of biodiversity, it is clear that a threat to biodiversity is a threat to the existence of life on Earth. Hence, it becomes very important to protect and conserve biodiversity to protect the ecology and ourselves. We can take the following steps to conserve biodiversity.

  • Setting up home gardens to grow different types of plants.
  • Using organic agricultural methods to save microorganisms
  • Discouraging the practice of deforestation
  • Encouraging the practice of Afforestation
  • Prevention of smuggling of animals and their body parts
  • Prevention of smuggling of plants, trees and byproducts
  • Feeding the stray animals

Conclusion- Biodiversity is not only important for us but it is extremely important for the existence of life on the planet. The present scenario is not in our favour means we are under threat of damaged biodiversity. That is why preserving biodiversity is the need of the hour.

500+ Words Essay On Biodiversity


Nature has created diverse forms of life such as plants, animals, insects, microorganisms etc. This diversification is known as biodiversity or biological diversity. Biodiversity is not uniformly dispersed over the planet and it is found more in the forests and locations undisturbed by humans.

Nature’s intelligence is very sophisticated to understand. It has designed everything so well that despite having no similarities living beings are interdependent to survive. Biodiversity is one of the essential parts of the ecosystem that help in running the life cycle effortlessly. That is the reason that biodiversity holds a huge significance for each organism whether it is a plant, animal or human being.

Biodiversity & Survival

Biodiversity is the most critical factor in executing the life cycle and maintaining the balance of the earth as living things are interdependent. If one life form is lowered or eliminated from the environment, other life forms have to encounter adverse effects because of that.

Moreover, we humans are dependent on plants and animals. Thus our life is also dependent on biodiversity. If it damages, we will have to face the results. Thus it can endanger the existence of life on Earth. Furthermore, there are many studies have been conducted on the effect of change on biodiversity and the outcomes were shocking.

The Threats!

There are lots of threats to biodiversity. First of all, a constant change in the climate is endangering many species. Some of them are on the ledge of extinction. Second, we humans are clearing out forests for various purposes that expells wild animals of their homes and eventually, they die of the lack of food and shelter.

Third, pollution and chemicals discharged into the water bodies cause many aquatic animals to die which also decreases the amount of biodiversity on Earth. Fourth, the smuggling of rare plants, trees, animals, their skin, their bones and other byproducts is one of the most critical threats to biodiversity.

How to Increase Biodiversity

We have lost a large amount of biodiversity in the past time and the adverse effects can be identified. Now, it is time to find a solution to increase biodiversity to restore the ecological balance. We can do it by taking various steps and initiatives. We need to eliminate the reasons responsible for the decrease in biodiversity.

Apart from that, we need to put effort to build a perfect planet to live in. We can do the following things to help biodiversity

Biodiversity & Sustainable Development

Sustainable development refers to “ the development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. ” But we are gradually losing our biodiversity. Then how would sustainable development be possible?

The decrease in biodiversity will lead to the scarcity of several natural resources. The conservation of biodiversity is a game changer for sustainable development. Hence, we can conclude that sustainable development is not possible without the conservation of biodiversity.

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To sum it up, One of the reasons for the execution of life on the earth is biodiversity. It is important to restore biodiversity on the planet. For this to happen, humans must take control of their actions against the ecosystem. It is time to protect the earth’s flora and fauna to witness sustainable development.

Essay On Biodiversity (Conservation)

What does It mean By “Biodiversity”?

Biodiversity refers to the presence of different species of plants and animals on the planet.

When is International Day for Biological Diversity celebrated?

22 May is celebrated as the international day for biological diversity.

What are the types of Biodiversity?

There are three types of biodiversity: 1. Genetic Biodiversity – Genetic diversity is the variation in genes and genotypes within a species, 2. Species Biodiversity – Species Diversity is the variety of species within a habitat or a region. 3. Ecosystem Biodiversity – Ecological biodiversity refers to the variations in the plant and animal species living together.

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Biodiversity Essay

Biodiversity refers to the presence of different species of plants, animals, reptiles, birds, etc over a particular piece of land. It includes every organism that’s living. Biodiversity is very important for maintaining the ecological balance of a place.

Short and Long Essay on Biodiversity in English

Here I’m presenting short and long essays on Biodiversity in different words limits. This topic is useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, so let’s start reading:

Biodiversity Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) Biodiversity refers to different living organisms residing in one area.

2) Biodiversity supports the entire flora and fauna including human beings.

3) Biodiversity contains all the resources that help humans survive.

4) Biodiversity holds economic significance to small traders and farmers.

5) On Earth, the tropical area holds more biodiversity than other areas.

6) Biodiversity plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance.

7) Excessive pollution, destruction of resources, etc harm biodiversity.

8) Steps should be taken to protect biodiversity reserves.

9) Biodiversity can be conserved by protecting natural resources.

10) Species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity are the three types of biodiversity.

Significance of Biodiversity – Essay 1 (250 Words)


Biodiversity as the name itself suggests is the diversity in biology over a place. And the term biology includes everything that has been there naturally. It includes all the living species and organisms over an area.

Significance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity has the following significances as described below-

  • Productive Significance

Biodiversity at a place produces many products with a good amount of value to humans. Different fruits, herbs and other products are used and sold by humans to sustain a living. It also contains several natural resources like water etc, which is very significant for animals and humans to sustain a living.

  • Economical Significance

Biodiversity of a place provides bread and butter to a number of people. People like farmers and small traders are closely related to the biodiversity, they produce and trade the products offered by the biodiversity, to sustain their living.

  • Ecological Significance

Biodiversity is very important for maintaining the ecological balance of a place. If the biodiversity of a place is disturbed so will be the ecology as all the species are interdependent. If a single species gets extinct for some reason, it is bound to make an impact on others.

Biodiversity is the heart of the planet and must be preserved as it is. Without biodiversity, there would be no life and almost all the species will extinct. Also it provides so many useful resources, necessary for survival. It is our utmost duty to preserve the biodiversity to ensure a safe future of the planet and its species.

Types of Biodiversity and Its Conservation – Essay 2 (400 Words)

Biodiversity refers to all the diverse life forms that exist on the planet. Though, the spread of biodiversity isn’t uniform throughout the planet and it is found in abundance in areas covered with dense forests. For example, biodiversity is found more in tropical areas than in other parts of the earth.

Types of Biodiversity

There are three types of biodiversity levels as described below-

  • Genetic Diversity

Genetic diversity consists of all the various genes in all the animals, reptiles, plants, fungi, etc of the same species. Some of the importance of genetic diversity is species evolution, adaptive to changes in environmental conditions, good for agriculture productivity.

  • Species Diversity

Species diversity accounts for the number of species over a specified area. The more variance of species resides in per unit area, the more is said to be the place’s species diversity.

  • Ecosystem Diversity

Ecosystem diversity pertains to the diversity that exists between different ecosystems, habitats, and biological communities.

Conservation Methods

Biodiversity is threatened by habitat destruction, exploitation of resources, pollution, etc. It is therefore imperative that its conservation must begin with removing these obstacles. Biodiversity can only flourish if unnecessary and rampant destruction of forests is stopped; if people use the available resources sensibly; if pollution has been dealt with stern resolve. If these conditions are not met then it won’t be possible to conserve biodiversity.

However, the following measures can be taken for the conservation of biodiversity-

  • Variety of plants, insects, animals, reptiles, etc. must be conserved in safe locations, just in case if they go extinct.
  • Biodiversity rich areas should be declared as biodiversity reserves and human access should be allowed only for research purposes.
  • Any kind of illegal trade of wildlife species, extinct or otherwise, should be highly restricted and punishable by law.
  • All the natural resources – water, air, food, etc. should be adequately used and conserved as well.
  • Pollution at all levels must be prevented and necessary steps to be taken to eliminate its effects on the biodiversity of the region.

Biodiversity is very essential for the existence of the ecological balance and its entire species. It is very important that it must be preserved at all costs with complete effort. If the biodiversity is not preserved then the day isn’t far away when its survival on the planet becomes so much difficult that it will become lifeless and dry.

Biodiversity Essay

Importance and Threats to Biodiversity – Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words)

Biodiversity, as the name indicates is the variety of life and species that exists on planet. All the species of plants, animals, reptiles, insects, aquatic life, etc, constitute the biodiversity of a particular place. Biodiversity isn’t uniformly distributed over the planet, and is found more in the forests and areas undisturbed by the humans.

Importance of Biodiversity

Each and every species found on the planet is important for the ecological balance of the planet. Every living species along with humans depend on each other.

If one species disappears or becomes extinct it affects the others as well. For example, birds play a vital role in preserving biodiversity. They feed on fruits, thereby resulting in scattering of seeds over the ground. This results in the growth of new plants and the cycle continues.

If the birds become extinct, the number of new plants germinating would be considerably less; therefore, affecting the biodiversity of the place. Also, humans also depend on biodiversity for their food supply, up to a large extent. Food, crop, fruits, underground water, etc all are the gifts of biodiversity to the human race. If the biodiversity is damaged then we will be left with no food and the planet will become lifeless and unlivable.

Threats to Biodiversity

The biodiversity today is threatened by several human activities. Some of the threats to biodiversity are listed below-

  • Encroachment

Encroachment into a forested area includes civil constructions of mammoth proportions for commercial purposes. Construction of buildings, houses, factories, etc, permanently destroys the biodiversity of the place. Biodiversity doesn’t stand a chance against the concrete construction and hence gets extinct.

  • Agricultural Activities

Agricultural activities are another big threat to biodiversity. Agriculture industry is the fastest growing industry as the continuous rise in populations pushes the demand for food production. This, in turn, leads to encroachment of forests. The desired area is cleared for agriculture activities; therefore, resulting in loss of biodiversity.

  • Roads and Railways

Construction of roads and railway lines through a forest area is very common and also one of the prime reasons for the loss of biodiversity. Both are big projects requiring clearing off a large area of forest land. Moreover, regular transport through these modes also disturbs the area’s biodiversity.

  • Drain of Resources

In wake of increasing population rate that the world is witnessing today, the drain on our natural resources is inevitable. These natural resources are an integral part of biodiversity and play a vital role in its conservation. Any disturbance in the natural resources reserve is bound to give a blow to the biodiversity of that region. Like, humans can’t survive without natural resources so other species also can’t survive without them.

  • Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution is another serious threat to the biodiversity of a region. Pollution can come in many forms, water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, etc all having its own causes and consequences. Pollution today has become the most immediate threat to the biodiversity and the life that it sustains. It threatens every form of life over the affected area. Also, pollution has become a global concern, threatening large biodiversity reserves on the planet. If the pollution isn’t contained effectively then it would be difficult to save the biodiversity.

Biodiversity is very important for life on the planet. In fact with its biodiversity reserves gone the planet would be nothing but a lifeless ball of dry and parched land. Every species in a biodiversity reserve is interdependent and if one gets extinct then sooner or later others too will follow. Therefore, all the biodiversity reserves must be protected at all costs by taking necessary steps.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Biodiversity

Ans . The International Day for Biological Diversity is celebrated every year on 22 May.

Ans . Brazil is the country in the world that has the richest biodiversity.

Ans . The Pacific Ocean has the greatest marine diversity in the world.

Ans . There are 36 biodiversity hotspots in the world.

Ans . The Arctic region has the least biodiversity.

Ans . 2.4% of the earth is covered with biodiversity hotspots.

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  • Biodiversity Essay


Essay on Biodiversity

Biodiversity is a term made up of two words - Bio meaning Life, and Diversity meaning Variety. The term biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth. Plants, animals, microbes, and fungi are all examples of living species on the planet.

Types of Biodiversity  

Genetic Biodiversity- Genetic diversity is the variation in genes and genotypes within a species, e.g., every human looks different from the other. 

Species Biodiversity- Species Diversity is the variety of species within a habitat or a region. It is the biodiversity observed within a community.

Ecosystem Biodiversity- Ecological biodiversity refers to the variations in the plant and animal species living together and connected by food chains and food webs.

Importance of Biodiversity 

Biodiversity is an integral part of cultural identity. Human cultures co-evolve with their environment and conservation is a priority for cultural identity. Biodiversity is used for Medicinal purposes.

Many plants and animals are used for medicinal purposes, like vitamins and painkillers. It contributes to climate stability. It helps in controlling the effects of climate change and managing greenhouse gases. 

Biodiversity provides more food resources. It supplies many vital ecosystems, such as creating and maintaining soil quality, controlling pests, and providing habitat for wildlife. Biodiversity has a relationship with Industry. Biological sources provide many Industrial materials including rubber, cotton, leather, food, paper, etc.

There are many economic benefits of Biodiversity. Biodiversity also helps in controlling pollution. Biodiversity helps in forming a healthy ecosystem. Biodiversity also acts as a source of recreation. Along with other factors, biodiversity helps in improving soil quality.

Long Essay on Biodiversity 

There are many economic benefits of Biodiversity. Biodiversity is a source of economic wealth for many regions of the world. Biodiversity facilitates Tourism and the Recreational industry. Natural Reserves and National Parks benefit a lot from it. Forest, wildlife, biosphere reserve, sanctuaries are prime spots for ecotourism, photography, painting, filmmaking, and literary works.

Biodiversity plays a vital role in the maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, breakdown of waste material, and removal of pollutants.

Conservation of Biodiversity  

Biodiversity is very important for human existence as all life forms are interlinked with each other and one single disturbance can have multiple effects on another. If we fail to protect our biodiversity, we can endanger our plants, animals, and environment, as well as human life. Therefore, it is necessary to protect our biodiversity at all costs. Conservation of Biodiversity can be done by educating the people to adopt more environment-friendly methods and activities and develop a more harmonious and empathetic nature towards the environment. The involvement and cooperation of communities are very important. The process of continuous protection of Biodiversity is the need of the hour.

The Government of India, along with 155 other nations, has signed the convention of Biodiversity at the Earth Summit to protect it. According to the summit, efforts should be made in preserving endangered species. 

The preservation and proper management methods for wildlife should be made. Food crops, animals, and plants should be preserved. Usage of various food crops should be kept at a minimum. Every country must realize the importance of protecting the ecosystem and safeguarding the habitat. 

The Government of India has launched the Wild Life Protection Act 1972 to protect, preserve, and propagate a variety of species. The Government has also launched a scheme to protect national parks and sanctuaries. There are 12 countries - Mexico, Columbia, Peru, Brasil, Ecuador, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Australia, in which Mega Diversity Centres are located. These countries are tropical and they possess a large number of the world’s species.

Various hotspots have been made to protect the vegetation. There are various methods for conserving biodiversity. 

If biodiversity conservation is not done efficiently, each species would eventually become extinct due to a lack of appetite and hunger. This scenario has been a big issue for the last few decades, and many unique species have already become extinct. As a result of a lack of biodiversity protection, several species are still on the verge of extinction.


FAQs on Biodiversity Essay

1. What are the three types of Biodiversity?

Biodiversity is referred to as the variability that exists between the living organisms from different sources of nature, such as terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity has three levels, which are genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. This is also considered as the type of ecosystem.

2. What is Biodiversity and why is it important?

Biodiversity is responsible for boosting the productivity of the ecosystems in which every species, no matter how small, has an important role to play. For example, a greater variety of crops can be obtained from a plant species which is in large numbers. If species diversity is in a greater amount, then it ensures natural sustainability for all life forms.

3. What is the connection between Biodiversity and the Food Chain?

If a single species goes extinct from the food chain, it will have an impact on the species that survive on it, putting them on the verge of extinction.

4. How are human beings affecting biodiversity?

Pollution- Pollution not only affects human beings, but also affects our flora and fauna, and we should control the pollution to conserve our biodiversity.

Population- Population control is a must to maintain a balance in our ecological system. Humans contribute to pollution by bursting crackers and by not following all the traffic rules.

5. How does Deforestation affect biodiversity?

Deforestation- Trees are very important for survival. They help in balancing out the ecosystem. Deforestation leads to the destruction of habitat. Deforestation should be stopped to protect our animals and plants. Deforestation not only removes vegetation that is important for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but it also emits greenhouse gases.

  • Main content

Bill Ackman just posted a 4,000-word essay at 2 a.m. cataloging his arguments on why DEI needs to die

  • Bill Ackman's crusade against on-campus antisemitism ain't over yet.
  • Claudine Gay may not be Harvard's president anymore, but Ackman has identified the real enemy: DEI.
  • Ackman says DEI is the "root cause of antisemitism at Harvard." 

Insider Today

Bill Ackman says there's "a lot more work to do" even though Claudine Gay is no longer Harvard's president — and he has a new target.

Hours after celebrating the resignation of Harvard President Claudine Gay — an academic the Harvard alumnus has been an avowed critic of — Ackman made a long post arguing that it isn't just on-campus antisemitism and the plagiarism allegations against Gay he's worried about.

The fund manager posted a more than 4000-word essay to X early on Wednesday morning, outlining his various critiques of Harvard's diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) policies.

Ackman said in his essay that he believes DEI is "the root cause of antisemitism at Harvard."

"Under DEI, one's degree of oppression is determined based upon where one resides on a so-called intersectional pyramid of oppression where whites, Jews, and Asians are deemed oppressors, and a subset of people of color, LGBTQ people, and/or women are deemed to be oppressed," Ackman wrote.

But Ackman said such a dichotomy is, in his opinion, flawed.

"DEI is racist because reverse racism is racism, even if it is against white people (and it is remarkable that I even need to point this out)," Ackman wrote.

The ideology, he surmised, was responsible for societal divisions.

"The country has seen burgeoning resentment and anger grow materially over the last few years, and the DEI movement is an important contributor to our growing divisiveness," Ackman said.

"Resentment is one of the most important drivers of racism. And it is the lack of equity, i.e, fairness, in how DEI operates, that contributes to this resentment," he continued.

Ackman then called for the resignation of the Harvard Corporation Board members who'd backed Gay.

"The Board should not be principally comprised of individuals who share the same politics and views about DEI," Ackman wrote. "The new board members should be chosen in a transparent process with the assistance of the 30-person Board of Overseers."

Ackman added that he thinks the university's Office of Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Belonging should also be shut down.

In light of today’s news, I thought I would try to take a step back and provide perspective on what this is really all about. I first became concerned about @Harvard when 34 Harvard student organizations, early on the morning of October 8th before Israel had taken any military… — Bill Ackman (@BillAckman) January 3, 2024

This isn't the first time Ackman has communicated his thoughts via a lengthy online message. In 2023, he wrote three open letters to Harvard to express his disapproval of Gay's leadership and actions.

Slamming DEI has been a pet topic for GOP politicians like Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis . Last year, DeSantis blamed DEI for causing the Silicon Valley Bank collapse .

"This bank, they're so concerned with DEI and politics and all kinds of stuff, I think that really diverted from them focusing on their core mission," DeSantis told Fox News in March.

But Ackman also insisted on Tuesday that his position on Gay's removal does not make him a right-winger.

"I am not right wing. I operate only in good faith, and I am not a bully. I just pay attention to the facts and see where they take me," Ackman said on X in response to criticism from journalist Mehdi Hasan.

Representatives for Ackman did not immediately respond to a request for comment from Business Insider sent outside regular business hours.

short essay on biodiversity pdf

Watch: America's colleges are suddenly in crisis mode over race relations

short essay on biodiversity pdf


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