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Case Based Research in Tourism, Travel, Hospitality and Events

  • Marianna Sigala 0 ,
  • Anastasia Yeark 1 ,
  • Rajka Presbury 2 ,
  • Marcela Fang 3 ,
  • Karen A. Smith 4

Department of Business Administration, University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece

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Strategy and Operations Discipline, Kaplan Business School, Brisbane, Australia

Blue mountains international hotel management school, torrens university, sydney, australia, faculty of higher education, william angliss institute, melbourne, australia, wellington school of business and government, victoria university of wellington, wellington, new zealand.

Consolidate case studies from tourism, hospitality, events that combine theory and practice to untangle real world issue

Enables students to develop academic mastery by better understanding and applying knowledge beyond the classroom

Inspires scholars to use case study methods to research as well as implement a research informed teaching approach

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Table of contents (27 chapters)

Front matter, introduction, case study: an underestimated research and pedagogical method.

  • Marianna Sigala, Anastasia Yeark, Rajka Presbury, Marcela Fang, Karen A. Smith


Designing servicescape and experience with art: learnings from the d’arenberg cube, australia.

Marianna Sigala

A Day in the Life of Guest Experience Stagers: The Saffire Freycinet Experience

  • Anita Manfreda, Justin King

Extraordinary (Memorable) Experiences in Events: The Case of Skylighter Fireworx, Australia

  • Anastasia Yeark, John Powers

Boom Then Bust at the George Hotel

  • Eileen Aitken-Fox

High-End Restaurants During COVID-19: The Beginning of a New Fine-Dining Era?

  • Sandra Cherro Osorio, Ana Delevska, Peter Matheis

The Power of Words: A Case Study of Service Language in an Australian Five-Star Hotel

  • Madalyn Scerri, Rajka Presbury

Hidden Factors: Operations Management Implications for the Hayman Island Resort

  • Zdenka Gabrielova, Marcela Fang

Hotel Revenue Management Strategy – Impacts and Consequences of Changes in Management

  • Antoine J. Bisson

The Expansion of MexHospitality: Exploring the Ethical Implications of Hospitality Outsourcing

  • Blanca A. Camargo

Exploring the Relationship Between Hotel Classification System and Service Quality: A Case Study of the Indian Hotel Industry

Technologies, how to design a smart tourism destination: the case of granada.

  • Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Juan Sánchez-Fernández, Ana-Belén Bastidas-Manzano

Marketing Suburban Tourism Destinations on Social Media: The Case of the City of Joondalup, Western Australia

  • Oscar Vorobjovas-Pinta, Violetta Wilk

Mandatory System Usage Behaviour: A Case Study in Australian Resorts

  • Leo Y. L. Kwong, Susan Foster, Victoria Peel

EHS Hotels: Neuroimaging or Self-Reports When Evaluating Tourism Advertising and Websites?

This book consolidates international, contemporary and topical case study based research in tourism, travel, hospitality and events. Case studies can make learning more attractive and interesting as well as enable students to understand the theory better and develop their analytical and problem-solving skills. Using industry as an open living lab, case study based research infuses scholars into real-world industry challenges and inspires them to theorise and advance our knowledge frontiers.

The book includes international case studies that can help tourism scholars build and advance (new) theories and enrich their educational practices. Case studies are accompanied with a teaching note guiding scholars to integrate case studies into instruction.

Dr Kirsten Holmes, Chair, Council for Australasian Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE) 

There is a vital need for contemporary and well-structured case studies for use in tourism teaching. By including case studies from Australasia and key destination regions in Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean, the book is helpful for tertiary teachers globally. 

The book inspires educators and students. The cases provide context to students’ learning and demonstrate the richness and variation of the industry. The book also clearly demonstrates how research can inform our teaching. 

Professor Brian King, Chair, THE-ICE Assessment Panel   

The book includes cases under five themes: experiences, operations, technologies, strategy and marketing, and destinations. The book provides subject lecturers with a structure to guide students of applying theory into practice. 

Dr Paul Whitelaw, Academic Director, Southern Cross University

This book marks a significant contribution to hospitality, tourism and events pedagogy at undergraduate and postgraduate level.  At a time when the industry is demanding that our graduates have a strong grasp of “real world issues”, the case study approach provides an accessible, meaningful and relatable means by which students can engage in real world issues.

  • Hospitality
  • Tourism case studies
  • Tourism management
  • International Tourism
  • Marketing communications

Anastasia Yeark

Rajka Presbury

Marcela Fang

Karen A. Smith

Prof Marianna Sigala   

Dr Rajka Presbury   

Dr Rajka Presbury coordinates the scholarship activities at Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School (BMIHMS) at Torrens University. Before joining academia, Dr Presbury gained extensive professional experience in the hotel sector and had held several management positions in Banqueting Services, Restaurant, and Event Sales and Conventions. Rajka is an auditor for the International Centre for Excellence in Tourism and Hospitality Education (THE ICE):   

Dr Marcela Fang   

Dr Marcela Fang is a management lecturer in the Faculty of Higher Education at William Angliss Institute, where she teaches strategic management, leadership and innovation. Her experience includes lecturing, design and development of curriculum for higher education and industry settings. Marcela’s research focuses on leadership, leadership development, evaluation of higher education and training programs, strategy and innovation.  

Prof Karen A. Smith

Prof Karen A. Smith is an Associate Dean in the Wellington School of Business and Government, Victoria University of Wellington, where she is also a Professor of Tourism Management and teaches tourism and event management. She has co-edited four books and journal articles on a range of tourism and volunteer management areas. She makes extensive use of case studies in teaching and curriculum design. 

Book Title : Case Based Research in Tourism, Travel, Hospitality and Events

Editors : Marianna Sigala, Anastasia Yeark, Rajka Presbury, Marcela Fang, Karen A. Smith


Publisher : Springer Singapore

eBook Packages : Business and Management , Business and Management (R0)

Copyright Information : Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022

Hardcover ISBN : 978-981-16-4670-6 Published: 06 January 2022

Softcover ISBN : 978-981-16-4673-7 Published: 07 January 2023

eBook ISBN : 978-981-16-4671-3 Published: 05 January 2022

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XVIII, 505

Number of Illustrations : 1 b/w illustrations

Topics : Tourism Management , Marketing , Management , Operations Management , Artificial Intelligence

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The Sustainable Tourism Case Studies Clearinghouse aims to provide examples of how the tourism industry is addressing a variety of challenges – from workforce housing to coastal degradation. NC State University students have designed these case studies to highlight solutions from tourism destinations across the United States and around the world, so community leaders and tourism stakeholders can adapt solutions to fit the unique challenges of their destination.

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Regenerative tourism futures: a case study of Aotearoa New Zealand

Journal of Tourism Futures

ISSN : 2055-5911

Article publication date: 10 May 2022

Issue publication date: 22 September 2022

This case study urges the future of visitor economy to rely on regenerative tourism to make tourism systems resilience in the long run.


The paper draws on published research and industry reports to discuss the future visitor economy and its impact on all dimensions of well-being focused on the case of Aotearoa New Zealand.

Results show that post-pandemic tourism transformation must protect and promote local identities, and enhance and enrich visitor experiences with a focus on cultural and natural heritage.


The recovery of tourism must not implement regenerative tourism as a new specific type of tourism but as a holistic understanding of tourism futures that encompasses communities and the environment, and where visitors are committed to preserve and protect our natural and socio-cultural environment.

  • Aotearoa New Zealand
  • Regenerative tourism
  • Tourism transformation
  • Visitor economy

Fusté-Forné, F. and Hussain, A. (2022), "Regenerative tourism futures: a case study of Aotearoa New Zealand", Journal of Tourism Futures , Vol. 8 No. 3, pp. 346-351.

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Francesc Fusté-Forné and Asif Hussain

Published in Journal of Tourism Futures . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at .

Should we look back to move forward?

The planet has suffered the unsustainable consequences of tourism growth during the last decades ( Benjamin et al ., 2020 ; Gössling and Higham, 2021 ; Hussain et al ., 2021 ). Both domestic and international tourism relied on transport which heavily contributed to issues like climate change ( Dessens et al. , 2014 ; Scott et al ., 2012 ; Živoder et al ., 2015 ). While the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought limited tourism ( Fusté-Forné and Michael, 2021 ), the international tourist arrivals in 2020 reached 400 m ( UNWTO, 2022 ). The post-COVID tourism recovery suggests a regenerative tourism paradigm with a focus on conscious travel ( Hussain, 2021 ) which leads to an effective transformation of the way we think, plan and do tourism ( Ateljevic, 2020 ; Cheer, 2020 ; Sheldon, 2020 ). The impact of COVID-19 offers the opportunity to reset tourism ( Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020 ). The new holistic approach embraces the implementation of the regenerative tourism model ( Hussain and Haley, 2022 ) which acknowledges the complexity of tourism systems. In the framework of regenerative tourism, this research discusses that tourism transformation must involve all stakeholders in the creation of long-term social, cultural, environmental and economic well-being with a specific focus on the case of New Zealand. This will drive towards future tourism experiences that put the well-being of destination communities at the centre of tourism management and marketing because “people” must lead the future of visitor economy.

A case of regenerative tourism in Aotearoa New Zealand

The physical isolation and remoteness of New Zealand attracts people from places where it is difficult to escape the pressure of population and offers them a less dense destination. Both domestic and international tourism have contributed to nation's prosperity and has potential to enrich all aspects of lives and livelihood of the people of New Zealand ( Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 2019 ; Tourism Futures Taskforce, 2020 ). The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the New Zealand tourism system which relied heavily on international tourists ( Fountain, 2021 ). Concerns about such dependency were raised in the past, however, it was the COVID-19 that showed us the severity of New Zealand's dependency on international tourists ( Hussain and Fusté-Forné, 2021 ). This shows that the tourism models, before COVID-19, were neither resilient nor sustainable ( Reis, 2020 ; Sheldon, 2021 ). More resilient tourism should rely on alternate tourism systems beyond capitalist practices, such as the regenerative economy because the traditional tourism models are not sustainable for the future. As Fountain (2021) also explains, the change to regenerative tourism should be based on three aspects: equity, sustainability and well-being.

New Zealand has focused on a balance between tourism and the well-being of its natural resources and local communities ( Glusac, 2020 ), where tourism businesses must lead the way to the achievement of New Zealand's regenerative tourism goals ( Waby, 2021 ). The importance of the stakeholders’ engagement in destination planning and development was acknowledged by the parliamentary commission report in 2019 which include government agencies, territorial authorities, iwi (a Māori tribe), hapū (Māori sub tribes) and commercial interest such as regional tourism organisations. The key aspect acknowledged in the report was that Ngāti Tūwharetoa (an example of iwi) sees themselves as guardians of Maunga Tongariro not as the owners. Therefore, “visitor behaviour is shaped to fit the maunga rather than the maunga being shaped to fit the visitors” ( Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 2019 ). The recommendations of the report came as the time of the birth of COVID-19, which is why the report did not largely contribute towards stakeholder engagement for destination planning and product development yet.

In March 2020, New Zealand closed its borders for international tourism to stop the spread of COVID-19. This decision kept the COVID-19 out of the country, but it has had devastating impacts on destinations which heavily relied on international tourists ( RNZ, 2021 ; Stuff, 2021 ). Meanwhile the Minister of Tourism setup an independent tourism task force following a change from international travel to domestic tourism. The taskforce suggested that the future of New Zealand tourism must be regenerative and resilient with a focus on social, cultural, environmental and economic wellbeing. The key elements highlighted included the production of a genuine tourism product, unique life-changing experience, community engagement, opportunities to grow regeneratively, enrich value of Te Ao Māori, improve natural ecosystems and generate durable financial returns. The strategic tourism lines posted by the New Zealand Government calls for regenerative tourism which focuses on the partnership between industry, workers and government ( New Zealand Government, 2021 ).

During this time, various public and private agencies focused their research on meaning, essence and ways to develop regenerative tourism products and models. Regenerative initiatives such as “Project Regenerative Tourism” of Sustainability and Resilience Institute (SRI) of New Zealand, New Zealand Awaits, and The Seventh Generation Tours promote regenerative tourism research and experience for the visitor's to engage with the debate of regenerative tourism. The outcome of the “Project Regenerative Tourism” resulted in the development of a “Regenerative Tourism Model”. The model suggests the incorporation of all elements of social-ecological system into a system which is self-organising and embraces uncertainty and change in response of global shocks and trends. The model has also developed the indicators of regenerative tourism to measure the degree to which a tourism product of service is regenerative and sustainable. In addition, New Zealand Awaits encourages and shares conversation on the positive impact of travel experiences and learn about how regenerative tourism looks like in New Zealand through their podcast GOOD Awaits. The Seventh Generation Tours is a regenerative tourism enterprise which promotes the principles of Tūrangawaewae: know who you are, where you belong; Kaitiakitanga: protect that which you love; and Manaakitanga: share stories that enhance, so that you leave better. The tour “shares stories that regenerate, not only the listener, but the storyteller, the community and the place from which they come. The Sharing of important oral stories keeps them alive and passes them along, from one generation to the next as we are their guardians, and we must tell them well” ( The Seventh Generation, 2022 ).

At destination levels, Tourism Bay of Plenty (2022) develops tourism in harmony with place under the destination development plan Te Hā Tāpoi (The Love of Tourism) where harmony between visitation and place is a source of tourism value. Another example is the destination management plan for the district of Queenstown Lakes which shows a vision where tourism must put people and places at its centre to promote a viable and regenerative tourism future. In this sense, the plan aims to “create outcomes that enrich the district across all four well beings (social, cultural, environmental and economic) and enable a thriving future” ( Destination Queenstown, 2022 ).

Previous studies revealed the leading role of New Zealand in a structural change that leads to a regenerative tourism future (see, for example, Major and Clarke, 2021 ). Tourism stakeholders must commit “to decarbonisation and biodiversity conservation to drastically reduce the biophysical footprint of tourism” ( Higham et al. , 2021 , p. 7). In this sense, the Tourism Futures Taskforce Interim Report ( Tourism Futures Taskforce, 2020 ) anticipates the future of New Zealand tourism from a Te Ao Māori perspective to provide sustainable future scenarios driven by the following statement:

This understanding shows that the regenerative tourism paradigm does not only operate under a focus on economic well-being, but it also encapsulates environmental, cultural and social well-being. As previous research stated (see Becken and Kaur, 2021 ; Carr, 2020 ), Tiaki Promise aligns with the understanding of regenerative travel practices. Tiaki means to care for people and places and urges each individual “to act as a guardian, protecting and preserving our home” ( Tourism New Zealand, 2021 ). Tiaki Promise is a code based on the commitment by people to care for New Zealand, for now, and, especially, for future generations, which many New Zealand businesses also support.

Both academia and the industry show that there is a strong need to move from an extractive tourism system to a regenerative tourism system that “is rooted in indigenous knowledge and living systems theory” ( Major and Clarke, 2021 , p. 1). This is in line with recent research that reveals that “indigenous people, cultures, wisdom and values play an important role in defining a regenerative path for tourism” ( Sheldon, 2021 , p. 6). Following what Sheldon states regarding the post-pandemic tourism in the Hawaiian Islands, which is based on native Hawaiian values, this is similarly applied to a New Zealand context from a Māori perspective as observed above and again in Table 1 .

According to Matunga et al. (2020) , “while Māori have always been involved in tourism, there is a concerted movement by many Māori towards engagement with tourism as a means of reconnecting with cultural traditions, protecting natural resources and providing employment for whanau” (p. 295). They affirm that a balance between the development of tourism and the environmental impact is required to inform regenerative tourism that puts the relationship between people and places at the core centre of sustainable living and travelling ( Živoder et al. , 2015 ). Table 1 shows Māori values that inform “cultural, social, environmental and economic performance” ( Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu, 2016 , p. 5) as a source for a regenerative development of tourism. These values are embedded in the initiatives explained above and the practical examples show how these values are translated into visitor experiences which drive the future regenerative tourism.

The future of a regenerative tourism

This research understands regenerative tourism from the perspective of a future visitor economy which contributes to all the dimensions of well-being focused on the case study of New Zealand. Tourism futures are anticipated to focus on local rather than global and, even when people travel far, they will travel slow. “We will not go back to normal. Normal never was. Our pre-corona existence was not normal other than we normalised greed, inequity, exhaustion, depletion, extraction, disconnection, confusion, rage, hoarding, hate and lack. We should not long to return, my friends. We are being given the opportunity to stitch a new garment. One that fits all of humanity and nature” (Renee Taylor cited by Meyer, 2020 ). In this sense, regenerative tourism must rely on models that surpass the notion of capitalism ( Mura and Wijesinghe, 2021 ), and the regenerative economy is a driver of regenerative tourism. Sheldon (2021) states that regenerative tourism, as it is also developed in New Zealand, “represents a comprehensive and mature approach to designing the future of tourism” (p. 6) which is based on a change in travelers' minds ( Hussain, 2021 ) that build respectful ties to the planet.

New Zealand has just started the plan to reopen the borders for the first time in two years in March 2022. While it would be premature to state the learning lessons at this stage since the impact of the comeback of international tourism is still uncertain, this research shows the path towards a regenerative tourism. Indigenous communities, who have lived in the landscape for centuries, show resilience and adaptability. Their learning outcome was based on a long story of knowledge sharing which created livelihood-based resources and guardianship, expressed in the regenerative tourism model. According to Haley (2021 , p. 6), “if we look to natural systems and indigenous ways of knowing, we can see that a resilient system has a strong vitality or lifeforce (mauri), it is healthy and humans that live in that system are healthy. When we know where we are from and build strong connections to place (turangawaewae), we are able to share this knowledge with others (manaakitanga), and developing a strong sense of guardianship (kaitiakitanga) for this place and culture, making decisions that will sustain it for many generations into the future” (2021, p. 6).

Tourism operates depending on what tourism stakeholders value ( Pollock, 2012 ). The indigenous values should be pivotal to tourism management and marketing in destinations at both local and regional scales. The assumption of these values by the different stakeholders in tourism systems will lead to an effective regeneration of travel experiences in the next decades ( Fusté-Forné, 2021 ). We as researchers also play a part in the regenerative theory and practice of tourism futures. A regenerative tourism paradigm does not only drive a future visitor economy but also implements a new holistic understanding of the tourism system which embraces people, places and practices.

Māori values for regenerative travel

Source(s): Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu, 2016

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Recycled plastic bottles in a plant

‘They lied’: plastics producers deceived public about recycling, report reveals

Companies knew for decades recycling was not viable but promoted it regardless, Center for Climate Integrity study finds

Plastic producers have known for more than 30 years that recycling is not an economically or technically feasible plastic waste management solution. That has not stopped them from promoting it, according to a new report.

“The companies lied,” said Richard Wiles, president of fossil-fuel accountability advocacy group the Center for Climate Integrity (CCI), which published the report. “It’s time to hold them accountable for the damage they’ve caused.”

Plastic, which is made from oil and gas, is notoriously difficult to recycle. Doing so requires meticulous sorting, since most of the thousands of chemically distinct varieties of plastic cannot be recycled together. That renders an already pricey process even more expensive. Another challenge: the material degrades each time it is reused, meaning it can generally only be reused once or twice.

The industry has known for decades about these existential challenges, but obscured that information in its marketing campaigns, the report shows .

The research draws on previous investigations as well as newly revealed internal documents illustrating the extent of this decades-long campaign.

Industry insiders over the past several decades have variously referred to plastic recycling as “uneconomical”, said it “cannot be considered a permanent solid waste solution”, and said it “cannot go on indefinitely”, the revelations show.

The authors say the evidence demonstrates that oil and petrochemical companies, as well as their trade associations, may have broken laws designed to protect the public from misleading marketing and pollution.

Single-use plastics

In the 1950s, plastic producers came up with an idea to ensure a continually growing market for their products: disposability.

“They knew if they focused on single-use [plastics] people would buy and buy and buy,” said Davis Allen, investigative researcher at the CCI and the report’s lead author.

At a 1956 industry conference, the Society of the Plastics Industry, a trade group, told producers to focus on “low cost, big volume” and “expendability” and to aim for materials to end up “in the garbage wagon”.

The Society of Plastics is now known as the Plastics Industry Association. “As is typical, instead of working together towards actual solutions to address plastic waste, groups like CCI choose to level political attacks instead of constructive solutions,” Matt Seaholm, president and CEO of the trade group, said in an emailed response to the report.

Over the following decades, the industry told the public that plastics can easily be tossed into landfills or burned in garbage incinerators. But in the 1980s, as municipalities began considering bans on grocery bags and other plastic products , the industry began promoting a new solution: recycling.

Recycling campaigns

The industry has long known that plastics recycling is not economically or practically viable, the report shows. An internal 1986 report from the trade association the Vinyl Institute noted that “recycling cannot be considered a permanent solid waste solution [to plastics], as it merely prolongs the time until an item is disposed of”.

In 1989, the founding director of the Vinyl Institute told attendees of a trade conference: “Recycling cannot go on indefinitely, and does not solve the solid waste problem.”

Despite this knowledge, the Society of the Plastics Industry established the Plastics Recycling Foundation in 1984, bringing together petrochemical companies and bottlers, and launched a campaign focused on the sector’s commitment to recycling.

In 1988, the trade group rolled out the “chasing arrows” – the widely recognized symbol for recyclable plastic – and began using it on packaging. Experts have long said the symbol is highly misleading, and recently federal regulators have echoed their concerns.

The Society of the Plastics Industry also established a plastics recycling research center at Rutgers University in New Jersey in 1985, one year after state lawmakers passed a mandatory recycling law. In 1988, industry group the Council for Solid Waste Solutions set up a recycling pilot project in St Paul, Minnesota, where the city council had just voted to ban the plastic polystyrene, or styrofoam.

And in the early 1990s, another industry group ran ads in Ladies’ Home Journal proclaiming: “A bottle can come back as a bottle, over and over again.”

All the while, behind closed doors, industry leaders maintained that recycling was not a real solution.

In 1994, a representative of Eastman Chemical spoke at an industry conference about the need for proper plastic recycling infrastructure. “While some day this may be a reality,” he said, “it is more likely that we will wake up and realize that we are not going to recycle our way out of the solid waste issue.” That same year, an Exxon employee told staffers at the American Plastics Council: “We are committed to the activities [of plastics recycling], but not committed to the results.”

“It’s clearly fraud they’re engaged in,” said Wiles.

The report does not allege that the companies broke specific laws. But Alyssa Johl, report co-author and attorney, said she suspects they violated public-nuisance, racketeering and consumer-fraud protections.

The industry’s misconduct continues today, the report alleges. Over the past several years, industry lobbying groups have promoted so-called chemical recycling, which breaks plastic polymers down into tiny molecules in order to make new plastics, synthetic fuels and other products. But the process creates pollution and is even more energy intensive than traditional plastic recycling.

The plastics sector has long known chemical recycling is also not a true solution to plastic waste, the report says. In a 1994 trade meeting, Exxon Chemical vice-president Irwin Levowitz called one common form of chemical recycling a “fundamentally uneconomical process”. And in 2003, a longtime trade consultant criticized the industry for promoting chemical recycling, calling it “another example of how non-science got into the minds of industry and environmental activists alike”.

“This is just another example, a new version, of the deception we saw before,” said Allen.

Seaholm, of the Plastics Industry Association, said the report “was created by an activist, anti-recycling organization and disregards the incredible investments in recycling technologies made by our industry.

“Unfortunately, they use outdated information and false claims to continue to mislead the public about recycling,” he added. He did not expand on which claims were outdated or false.

Legal ramifications

The report comes as the plastic industry and recycling are facing growing public scrutiny. Two years ago, California’s attorney general, Rob Bonta, publicly launched an investigation into fossil fuel and petrochemical producers “for their role in causing and exacerbating the global plastics pollution crisis”.

A toxic train derailment in East Palestine, Ohio, last February also catalyzed a movement demanding a ban on vinyl chloride, a carcinogen used to make plastic. Last month, the EPA announced a health review of the chemical – the first step toward a potential ban .

In 2023, New York state also filed a lawsuit against PepsiCo, saying its single-use plastics violate public nuisance laws, and that the company misled consumers about the effectiveness of recycling.

The public is also increasingly concerned about the climate impact of plastic production and disposal, which account for 3.4% of all global greenhouse-gas emissions. In recent years, two dozen cities and states have sued the oil industry for covering up the dangers of the climate crisis. Similarly taking the oil and petrochemical industries to court for “knowingly deceiving” the public, said Wiles, could force them to change their business models.

“I think the first step in solving the problem is holding the companies accountable,” he said.

Judith Enck, a former regional administrator for the Environmental Protection Agency and founder of the advocacy group Beyond Plastics, called the analysis “very solid”.

“The report should be read by every attorney general in the nation and the Federal Trade Commission,” she said.

Brian Frosh, the former attorney general for the state of Maryland, said the report includes the kind of evidence he would not normally expect to see until a lawsuit has already gone through a process of discovery.

“If I were attorney general, based on what I read in CCI’s report, I’d feel comfortable pressing for an investigation and a lawsuit,” he said.

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