• PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game New
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • College University and Postgraduate
  • Academic Writing
  • Research Papers

How to Write a Research Synopsis: Template, Examples, & More

Last Updated: February 12, 2024 Fact Checked

Research Synopsis Template

  • Organizing & Formatting
  • Writing Your Synopsis
  • Reviewing & Editing

This article was reviewed by Gerald Posner and by wikiHow staff writer, Raven Minyard, BA . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 228,575 times.

A research synopsis describes the plan for your research project and is typically submitted to professors or department heads so they can approve your project. Most synopses are between 3,000 and 4,000 words and provide your research objectives and methods. While the specific types of information you need to include in your synopsis may vary depending on your department guidelines, most synopses include the same basic sections. In this article, we’ll walk you step-by-step through everything you need to know to write a synopsis for research.

Things You Should Know

  • Begin your research synopsis by introducing the question your research will answer and its importance to your field.
  • List 2 or 3 specific objectives you hope to achieve and how they will advance your field.
  • Discuss your methodology to demonstrate why the study design you chose is appropriate for your research question.

synopsis phd thesis

Organizing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Follow the formatting guidelines provided by your instructor.

  • Find out what citation format you’re supposed to use, as well as whether you’re expected to use parenthetical references or footnotes in the body of your synopsis.
  • If you have questions about anything in your guidelines, ask your instructor or advisor to ensure you follow them correctly.

Step 2 Set up the headings for your sections.

  • Title: the title of your study
  • Abstract: a summary of your research synopsis
  • Introduction: identifies and describes your research question
  • Literature Review: a review of existing relevant research
  • Objectives: goals you hope to accomplish through your study
  • Hypotheses: results you expect to find through your research
  • Methodology and methods: explains the methods you’ll use to complete your study
  • References: a list of any references used in citations

Tip: Your synopsis might have additional sections, depending on your discipline and the type of research you're conducting. Talk to your instructor or advisor about which sections are required for your department.

Step 3 Format your references.

  • Keep in mind that you might not end up using all the sources you initially found. After you've finished your synopsis, go back and delete the ones you didn't use.

Writing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Format your title page following your instructor’s guidelines.

  • Your title should be a brief and specific reflection of the main objectives of your study. In general, it should be under 50 words and should avoid unneeded phrases like “an investigation into.”
  • On the other hand, avoid a title that’s too short, as well. For example, a title like “A Study of Urban Heating” is too short and doesn’t provide any insight into the specifics of your research.

Step 2 Identify your research problem with the introduction.

  • The introduction allows you to explain to your reader exactly why the question you’re trying to answer is vital and how your knowledge and experience make you the best researcher to tackle it.
  • Support most of the statements in your introduction with other studies in the area that support the importance of your question. For example, you might cite a previous study that mentions your problem as an area where further research needs to be done.
  • The length of your introduction will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis as well as the ultimate length of your eventual paper after you’ve finished your research. Generally, it will cover the first page or two of your synopsis.

Step 3 In your literature review, describe the work done by other researchers.

  • For example, try finding relevant literature through educational journals or bulletins from organizations like WHO and CDC.
  • Typically, a thorough literature review discusses 8 to 10 previous studies related to your research problem.
  • As with the introduction, the length of your literature review will vary depending on the overall length of your synopsis. Generally, it will be about the same length as your introduction.
  • Try to use the most current research available and avoid sources over 5 years old.

Step 4 Set forth the goals or objectives for your research project.

  • For example, an objective for research on urban heating could be “to compare urban heat modification caused by vegetation of mixed species considering the 5 most common urban trees in an area.”
  • Generally, the overall objective doesn’t relate to solving a specific problem or answering a specific question. Rather, it describes how your particular project will advance your field.
  • For specific objectives, think in terms of action verbs like “quantify” or “compare.” Here, you’re hoping to gain a better understanding of associations between particular variables.

Step 5 List your hypotheses for your research project.

  • Specify the sources you used and the reasons you have arrived at your hypotheses. Typically, these will come from prior studies that have shown similar relationships.
  • For example, suppose a prior study showed that children who were home-schooled were less likely to be in fraternities or sororities in college. You might use that study to back up a hypothesis that home-schooled children are more independent and less likely to need strong friendship support networks.

Step 6 Discuss the methodology and methods you’ll use in your research.

  • Expect your methodology to be at least as long as either your introduction or your literature review, if not longer. Include enough detail that your reader can fully understand how you’re going to carry out your study.
  • This section of your synopsis may include information about how you plan to collect and analyze your data, the overall design of your study, and your sampling methods, if necessary. Include information about the study setting, like the facilities and equipment that are available to you to carry out your study.
  • For example, your research work may take place in a hospital, and you may use cluster sampling to gather data.

Step 7 Complete your abstract last.

  • Use between 100 and 200 words to give your readers a basic understanding of your research project.
  • Include a clear statement of the problem, the main goals or objectives of your study, the theories or conceptual framework your research relies upon, and the methods you’ll use to reach your goals or objectives.

Tip: Jot down a few notes as you draft your other sections that you can compile for your abstract to keep your writing more efficient.

Reviewing and Editing Your Research Synopsis

Step 1 Take a break before you start editing.

  • If you don’t have that kind of time because you’re up against a deadline, at least take a few hours away from your synopsis before you go back to edit it. Do something entirely unrelated to your research, like taking a walk or going to a movie.

Step 2 Edit for clarity and concision.

  • Eliminate sentences that don’t add any new information. Even the longest synopsis is a brief document—make sure every word needs to be there and counts for something.
  • Get rid of jargon and terms of art in your field that could be better explained in plain language. Even though your likely readers are people who are well-versed in your field, providing plain language descriptions shows you know what you’re talking about. Using jargon can seem like you’re trying to sound like you know more than you actually do.

Tip: Free apps, such as Grammarly and Hemingway App, can help you identify grammatical errors as well as areas where your writing could be clearer. However, you shouldn't rely solely on apps since they can miss things.

Step 3 Check the format of your references.

  • Reference list formatting is very particular. Read your references out loud, with the punctuation and spacing, to pick up on errors you wouldn’t have noticed if you’d just read over them.
  • Compare your format to the one in the stylebook you’re using and make sure all of your entries are correct.

Step 4 Proofread your synopsis carefully.

  • Read your synopsis backward by starting on the last word and reading each word separately from the last to the first. This helps isolate spelling errors. Reading backward sentence by sentence helps you isolate grammatical errors without being distracted by the content.
  • Print your synopsis and circle every punctuation mark with a red pen. Then, go through them and focus on whether they’re correct.
  • Read your synopsis out loud, including the punctuation, as though you were dictating the synopsis.

Step 5 Share your paper with classmates and friends for review.

  • Have at least one person who isn’t familiar with your area of study look over your synopsis. If they can understand your project, you know your writing is clear. If any parts confuse them, then that’s an area where you can improve the clarity of your writing.

Step 6 Do a second round of editing and proofreading.

Expert Q&A

  • If you make significant changes to your synopsis after your first or second round of editing, you may need to proofread it again to make sure you didn’t introduce any new errors. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

synopsis phd thesis

You Might Also Like

Write a Research Paper

  • ↑ https://admin.umt.edu.pk/Media/Site/iib1/FileManager/FORMAT%20OF%20SYNOPSIS%2012-10-2018.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.scientificstyleandformat.org/Tools/SSF-Citation-Quick-Guide.html
  • ↑ https://numspak.edu.pk/upload/media/Guidelines%20for%20Synopsis%20Writing1531455748.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279917593_Research_synopsis_guidelines
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/
  • ↑ https://www.cornerstone.edu/blog-post/six-steps-to-really-edit-your-paper/

About This Article

Gerald Posner

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Juned Azad

Jul 25, 2022

Did this article help you?

Juned Azad

Wave Bubble

Aug 31, 2021

Am I a Narcissist or an Empath Quiz

Featured Articles

Invest in Yourself

Trending Articles

How to Set Boundaries with Texting

Watch Articles

Fold Boxer Briefs

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

Get all the best how-tos!

Sign up for wikiHow's weekly email newsletter

How to Write a Great Synopsis for Thesis

A synopsis is a structured outline of a research thesis and the steps followed to answer the research question. The goal of writing a synopsis is to clearly and thoroughly explain the need to investigate a certain problem using particular practical methods to conduct the study. One of the main components of this written work is an extensive literature review containing strong evidence that the proposed research is feasible.

Establishing the Background

A supervisor may ask you to write a synopsis for one or more reasons:

  • to help you improve your critical thinking and writing skills
  • to help you understand how to design a comprehensive synopsis
  • to encourage you to write a comprehensive literature review to make sure that the research problem has not been answered yet
  • to make you conduct a logical analysis of the steps that should be followed to meet the objectives of the research

A synopsis should be coherent in terms of research design. Thus, you should ensure that the research problem, aims, and research methods are logically linked and well-considered. Note that all synopses should contain answers for several crucial questions:

  • Why should research on the proposed problem be undertaken?
  • What is expected to be achieved?
  • What has been done by other researchers on the proposed topic?
  • How will the objectives of the study be achieved?

The Writing Process

Before proceeding, consider answering the following questions:

  • Why am I going to study this topic?
  • Why do I consider it to be important?
  • Have I conducted an extensive literature review on the topic?
  • What problem will the research help to solve?
  • How do I incorporate previous studies on the topic?

The structure of a synopsis should correspond to the structure of qualifying research work, and the word count should be 2,500–3,000 words (Balu 38). The basic elements of a synopsis include a title page, contents page, an introduction, background, literature review, objectives, methods, experiments and results, conclusions, and references.


As this comprises the first part of the main text, the introduction should convince readers that the study addresses a relevant topic and that the expected outcomes will provide important insights. Also, this section should include a brief description of the methods that will be used to answer the research question. Usually, the introduction is written in 1–3 paragraphs and answers the following questions:

  • What is the topic of the research?
  • What is the research problem that needs to be meaningfully understood or investigated?
  • Why is the problem important?
  • How will the problem be studied?

In this section, you should set the scene and better introduce the research topic by proving its scientific legitimacy and relevance. It is important to establish a clear focus and avoid broad generalizations and vague statements. If necessary, you may explain key concepts or terms. Consider covering the following points in this section:

  • Discuss how the research will contribute to the existing scientific knowledge.
  • Provide a detailed description of the research problem and purpose of the research.
  • Provide a rationale for the study.
  • Explain how the research question will be answered.
  • Be sure to discuss the methods chosen and anticipated implications of the research.

Literature Review

A review of existing literature is an important part of a synopsis, as it:

  • gives a more detailed look at scientific information related to the topic
  • familiarizes readers with research conducted by others on a similar subject
  • gives insight into the difficulties faced by other researchers
  • helps identify variables for the research based on similar studies
  • helps double-check the feasibility of the research problem.

When writing the literature review, do not simply present a list of methods researchers have used and conclusions they have drawn. It is important to compare and contrast different opinions and be unafraid to criticize some of them. Pay attention to controversial issues and divergent approaches used to address similar problems. You may discuss which arguments are more persuasive and which methods and techniques seem to be more valid and reliable. In this section, you are expected not to summarize but analyze the previous research while remembering to link it to your own purpose.

Identify the objectives of the research based on the literature review. Provide an overall objective related to the scientific contribution of the study to the subject area. Also include a specific objective that can be measured at the end of the research.

When writing this section, consider that the aim of the research is to produce new knowledge regarding the topic chosen. Therefore, the research methodology forms the core of your project, and your goal is to convince readers that the research design and methods chosen will rationally answer the research questions and provide effective tools to interpret the results correctly. It may be appropriate to incorporate some examples from your literature review into the description of the overall research design.

When describing the research methodology, ensure that you specify the approaches and techniques that will be used to answer the research question. In addition, be specific about applying the chosen methods and what you expect to achieve. Keep in mind that the methods section allows readers to evaluate the validity and feasibility of the study. Therefore, be sure to explain your decision to adopt specific methods and procedures. It is also important to discuss the anticipated barriers and limitations of the study and how they will be addressed. Specify what kind of contribution to the existing knowledge on the topic is expected, and discuss any ethical considerations that are relevant to the research.

Experiments and Results

Logically present and analyze the results of the study using tables or figures.

In this section, you should again state the significance of the research and summarize the study. Be sure to mention the study objectives and methods used to answer the research questions. Also, discuss how the results of the study contribute to the current knowledge on the problem.

A synopsis should contain a list of all references used. Make sure the references are formatted according to the chosen citation style and each source presented in this section is mentioned within the body of the synopsis.

The purpose of writing a synopsis is to show a supervisor a clear picture of a proposed project and allow him or her to find any gaps that have not been considered previously. A concisely written synopsis will help you gain approval to proceed with the actual research. While no rigid rules for writing this type of paper have been established, a synopsis should be constructed in a manner to help a supervisor understand the proposed research at first glance.

Balu, R. “Writing a Good Ph.D Research Synopsis.” International Journal of Research in Science and Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, 2015, pp. 38–48.

Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site.

For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript.


How to Write a Synopsis for Your Research |Steps in the Ph.D. Process

What is a Synopsis? Why do you need a synopsis for your doctoral research? What is the importance of a synopsis? How do you write and format a synopsis for your Ph.D.?

A synopsis, simply put, is a detailed summary of your research work that you will be doing for your doctoral degree.A synopsis is different from an abstract. You will submit your synopsis at the start of your research work along with your thesis title.

In simple terms, your synopsis is a write up which contains what you will be researching, the significance of your research to the field and how you will go about conducting this research. This document will be submitted before you start your research work and acts as a summary of what you plan to do in your research. In contrast, an abstract is the summary of your whole research thesis and will be written after the research is done and will be included along with your thesis.

synopsis phd thesis

The most important or significant use of a synopsis or why you should submit a synopsis is because this is the document that convinces the academic committee of your university as to why they should approve your research proposal. This is why the significance or contribution from your research to that particular field is included in the synopsis.

Writing a synopsis for your Ph.D. is an easy process once you have a clear idea about your research. The format of your synopsis will depend upon the guidelines provided by your university but we will provide you with a general outline on how to write a synopsis for a Ph.D.

The format for a synopsis will be as follows:

  • Title of your research thesis: The title of your research project should be clearly defined in your synopsis. This will act as a clear indication of what your research is going to be.
  • Introduction:Your introduction will contain a summary of the current level of knowledge in your field of research, the gaps in this knowledge and what your research will contribute to fill these gaps.
  • Literature Review: Literature reviews are brief summaries of works that have already been published in journals and other academic forums which are concerned with the field of your research. You need to critically appraise what others have done and what they have found out pertaining to your field of research. Through this you can highlight where their work can be expanded on through your research.
  • Aims and Objectives: This part of your synopsis is clear from its title. What is the aim of your research? What are you trying to find out? What are the objectives you are trying to achieve by conducting this research? You need to be very clear and concise while writing the aims and objectives of your research in the synopsis.
  • Research Methodology: This is a very important part of your synopsis. Research methodology can be defined as“the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyse information about a topic”. In your synopsis you need to include the outline of your research process, i.e.: how you will be doing your research. In this section you need to include the tools and equipment you will be using, how you will collect your data, and the methods you will use to analyse this collected data. Your research methodology will provide an insight into whether your research is achievable.
  • References: You need to provide a list of all the material that you have referred to in the process of writing your synopsis. The format of how to list your references will be provided by your university.
  • Conclusion:In the conclusion of your research, you must once again briefly summarise your Ph.D. research that you will be undertaking and why your research is needed. You will also need to include the limitations of your research project in this section.

This is the basic format of how to write a Ph.D. synopsis in India. This may change from university to university so make sure you write it according to the guidelines your university has provided you with. On average, your synopsis will come to around 30 pages.

We hope that this post has provided you with a better understanding about what is a research synopsis, the importance of a research synopsis and how to write a synopsis for your Ph.D.

Eduflair will most certainly be with you as a guide in your journey to fulfil your dreams of a doctoral degree. We wish you luck on your research journey.

Let’s fly with Eduflair.

research hypothesis

You May Also Like

research hypothesis

How to Write a Hypothesis for Your Research||Steps in the Ph.D. Process


How to Get a Ph.D. – Steps and Requirements

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.

  • How it works
  • Homework answers

Programming help

How to Write a Good Synopsis for Thesis

How to Write a Good Synopsis

After countless hours studying, hundreds of exams and tests, millions of words written in essays and projects, here you are at the final boss of your PhD or MBA program; your thesis. This is what stands between you and your degree and nothing may be more daunting a task than this one. Luckily for you, there are several ways of attacking this, and one of the major steps in doing so is writing a clear and effective synopsis for your thesis.

For those of you unfamiliar or wanting to know more, a thesis is a scholarly essay based upon your own personal research on a topic you have discovered or learned about during your time at school. In order to receive a Master’s degree or a PhD, a thesis is required, as it proves that you have critical thinking skills about your area of expertise and can prove your thesis through the research you have done. This is what separates you from the rest, your professors will see all the work you have done and the knowledge you have acquired throughout your journey to this point. 

What is a Synopsis?

Generally speaking, a synopsis is a general discussion or survey of a piece of work, explaining only the essential information in an easy, readable way. The function is to explain the main idea before a reader begins to read the thesis. Beyond that, a synopsis for a thesis has more function and importance than just a brief summary. 

The synopsis first of all, is not so brief. It gives a detailed description of your thesis, including the purpose of your research and methods you used as well as the process you used to explore the topic in depth. It introduces your thesis in a way that your readers know what to expect, but still surprised at the amount of work and detail presented within. 

This helps your supervisor see the possible strengths and weaknesses of your thesis and can give you helpful ideas on how to fill in those gaps. It’s a protocol used by your supervisor to ensure that you are on the right track to completing your thesis and you’ll finish on time. This is an essential step before writing your actual thesis. Make sure you complete your synopsis before you begin your research, as you may not need all the information you think you need. 

So, what makes a good Synopsis?

A good synopsis details everything related to your topic, but a great synopsis ensures that not only is the content there, but it is presented in a logical manner and easy to follow. Your outlined thesis should include the following:

  • The title of the topic 
  • The abstract 
  • The necessity of the topic – the background 
  • All related literature concerning the topic 
  • Methods and Materials of your research

Once these headings are established, it helps you to go through each stage, making sure that no information is left off or missed. The scope of your thesis is broad, but has a direction. As you progress through your synopsis, the details fall into place and allows you to start doing your research and collecting your data. 

Establish your background

Your loose thoughts should be filtered and sorted and should be organized based on how they are all linked together. The aims and goals of your topic should be apparent, so make sure to ask yourself these questions:

“Why should someone research this topic” “What are my expectations of this topic” “What have others contributed to the research of this topic” “How will I reach the goals and objectives of my topic”

Once the background is established, you can start thinking about the actual content.

Identify your Objectives

The background can help you decide the main reasons why you are undergoing this research into this topic. What good will this do for the world? What good will this do for professionals in this field? What good will it do for the communities surrounding this field? Having a measurable objective will pave the way to a better thesis. 

Consider your Methods 

The aim of the thesis is to provide novel information about your topic, something original or groundbreaking. This is important as it gives the reader something to analyze and think about. The way you deliver your information should provoke thoughts, or leave a trail to be followed into a thought process. Your approach should be able to answer any and all questions regarding your thesis, whether or not your ideas hold validity and some substance. Explaining your decisions and thought processes are much easier if you set your boundaries and barriers that you can address in your synopsis. 

Present your Experiments and Analysis

This is an important step once everything else has been established. Detail the research you will do and the experiments you will be observing and analyze them in detail. You should link the results to your findings and your knowledge about the topic. This is where you earn your money, the way you can tie in numbers and facts to the knowledge you already know to solidify your thesis. The better your analysis is, the more your reader will understand. 

Conclude and Summarize

Your supervisor should have already read your synopsis up to this point and understood the concept and scope of your thesis. But you should reiterate your main idea in case your supervisor got lost or that you had a different idea than they had. Once you’ve summed it up, your supervisor can give you helpful hints and tips to solidify the rest of your thesis and smooth out the potential problems or holes in your thesis. 

So, what now?

Begin writing your synopsis with these key facts in mind. Know that your synopsis is a tool for you to organize your thoughts and for your supervisor to advise you on your direction and objectives. Be concise and be knowledgeable, so that you may get the best possible feedback on your synopsis.


  • More Networks

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail


Profile image of Hira Qureshi

Synopsis is a short summary of your Ph.D thesis work. This paper suggests some ideas to motivate the young researchers for effectively writing the Ph.D synopsis with essential tips and tricks.This can act as a reference and help young researcher to going to write Ph.D synopsis.

Related Papers

devashish tripathi

synopsis phd thesis

Shubham Mishra

Kanchan Kamila

Provides guide to write the Research Project/Dissertation Synopsis

Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education

Dr. Qais Faryadi

Literature writing is a skill that every PhD candidate must procure to communicate his or her research findings clearly. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the literature writing process so that PhD candidates under- stand what PhD literature is and are able to write their PhD literature cor- rectly and scientifically. The methodology used in this research is a descrip- tive method as it deliberates and defines the various parts of literature writing process and elucidates the how to do of it in a very unpretentious and under- standing language. As thus, this paper summarizes the various steps of litera- ture writing to pilot the PhD students so that the task of PhD literature writ- ing process becomes adaptable and less discouraging. This research is a useful roadmap especially for students of the social science studies. Additionally, in this paper, literature writing techniques, procedures and important strategies are enlightened in a simple manner. This paper adopts a how-to approach when discussing a variety of relevant topics, such as literature review intro- duction, types of literature review, advantages of literature reviews, objective of literature review, literature review template, and important check lists about literature review are discussed. This paper has 5 parts, such as Intro- duction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. The lit- erature review chapter is discussed in this paper. I will discuss the rest as a se- ries in the future. Keywords Thesis Writing Process, Literature Review, PhD, Social Science, Research Methodology

The Educational Review, USA

maria Fareed

Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education.

Thesis writing is a skill that every PhD candidate must acquire to convey his or her research findings clearly. The main objective of this paper is to facili- tate the thesis writing process so that PhD candidates understand what a PhD thesis is and can write their thesis correctly and scientifically. The methodol- ogy used in this research was descriptive as it discusses and describes the var- ious parts of thesis writing process and explains how to do it in a very simple and understanding language. As thus, this article outlines the various steps of thesis writing to guide the PhD candidate so that the task of PhD thesis writ- ing becomes manageable and less daunting. This research is a useful roadmap especially for students of the social sciences studies. Further, in this paper, research procedure and thesis writing strategies are explained in a simple manner. This paper adopts a how-to approach when discussing a variety of relevant topics, such as thesis introduction, types of introductions, introduc- tion statements, problem statement, research questions, hypothesis and con- tributions of the study. This paper has 5 parts: Introduction, Literature Re- view, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. The introduction chapter is dis- cussed in this paper. I will discuss the rest as a series in the future.

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Science Archive

Mohammed Ismael Rushdi

An abstract is like a movie trailer. People will only consider reading the rest of the manuscript if they find your abstract interesting. It is an outline/brief summary of your paper and your whole project. Keywords: , research, descriptive and informative research.

This book aims to guide researchers, academicians and PhD candidates especially Social Science Researchers on how todo research systematically. Research is a premeditated investigation using scientific methodology (quantitative, qualitative,) to solve a serious problem (not ordinary problem), thus creating additional (new) knowledge. Research is also regarded as an inquiry of reality about something by testing a hypothesis, answering questions, generating new queries, finding solutions, and creating new knowledge. This book guides you how to effectively structure your research from the proposal till VIVA presentation. Although research designs may differ from one discipline to another, a general road map should include the following: Ø Topic of research Ø Research problem, questions and hypotheses Ø Review of current literature Ø Theoretical framework or methodology experimental, observation and so Ø Data collection and testing if any Ø Data analysis Ø Results Ø Discussions and Applications Ø Conclusion Ø References


Wilson Mozena Leandro

Tuesday Reitano

Turismo Visao E Acao

Renata Ribeiro

Studies in Caucaso-Caspian Philology

Journal of Studies in Caucaso-Caspian Philology (SCCP)

Sadiqa B A T O O L ; Naqvi

Srinagarind Medical Journal ศรีนครินทร์เวชสาร

Somchai Insiripong

Lorenzo Marmiroli

Claudia Nioi

Julio Cesar Villalobos Ortiz

Catalysis Today

David Gribble

Cice Tresnasari

Roczniki Teologiczne

Joanna Dworakowska

Brent Hughes

Human Ecology

Peter Dwyer

Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research)

hardiman umarama

Journal of Cardiology & Current Research

Gbenga Omole

Elisa Ventura

Journal of Autoimmunity

Joseph Wolfsdorf

SN Applied Sciences

Milli Mücadelenin 100. Yılında Kahramanmaraş

Cengiz Savkılı

Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine

Glenn S Fleisig

Ultraschall in Der Medizin

Ivica Žalud

Cor et Vasa

Robert Rosenson

Rahman Baba

Journal of Viral Hepatitis

Mihály Makara

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

synopsis phd thesis

Community Blog

Keep up-to-date on postgraduate related issues with our quick reads written by students, postdocs, professors and industry leaders.

How to Format a PhD Synopsis (India)

Qamar Mayyasah

  • By Qamar Mayyasah
  • August 26, 2020



This article will answer common questions about the PhD synopsis, give guidance on how to write one, and provide my thoughts on samples.

A PhD synopsis is a detailed summary of your proposed research project which justifies the need for your work. It is used to convince academic committees that your project should be approved.

If you are wondering how to write a synopsis for a PhD, then there are several things you must make sure your synopsis includes. Firstly, the reader must be able to read your synopsis and understand what contribution it would make to the research area. You should also explain the research objectives, methodology, data analysation and presentation format. Finally, you should conclude with limitations of your study and how you envisage others building on the findings you make.

PhD Synopsis format for a project

Although the format of a PhD synopsis report may differ between universities, there are many universal recommendations I can give. First, the research project synopsis format must include several fundamental sections which allow you to clearly detail your proposed project.

These sections are outlined below:

Research project title

Clearly define the title of your research project.

Include an introduction which summarises the current knowledge in your research area. This section should explain where gaps in knowledge are, and briefly what your project aims to do to address these gaps.

Literature review

A literature review will be a summary of published literature including journals, papers and other academic documentation which relate to your project. You need to critically appraise these documents: What have others done? What did they find? Where could their work be expanded on?

Aims & Objectives

Clearly define what the purpose of the PhD project is. What questions are you trying to answer? How will you measure success?

Research Methodology

Explain how you will achieve your objectives. Be specific and outline your process; the equipment you will use, data collection strategies, questionnaires you will distribute and data analysation techniques you will employ. This is a critical part of the research synopsis as it demonstrates whether your project is achievable or too ambitious.

You must provide references and citations to any sources you use. Reference materials are needed to acknowledge the original source, allow further reading for those who are interested and avoid claims of plagiarism. A number of different referencing systems exist, so it is important that you use the referencing system outlined in your university guidelines.

Provide a conclusion which should briefly summarise what your PhD research project is and why it is needed. You should also comment on the limitations of your work so that the scope of your study is clear.

In addition to the synopsis format for a PhD, we have outlined the styling rules you should follow:

  • Approximately 1” margins on top, bottom, and right of page.
  • Approximately 1.25” margin on left of page to allow space for binding.
  • Sans serif font (for example Times New Roman).
  • Black colour font.
  • Size 11pt or 12pt font.

It is important to remember this is general advice to assist with PhD synopsis writing. You must check your university guidelines first as they may have particular rules which you should follow.

PhD Synopsis Samples

I would not recommend using a PhD synopsis sample. This is because every research project is different, and the purpose of a synopsis report is to demonstrate the uniqueness of your project. Instead you should use the above format, and ensure you address each of the sections.

Finding a PhD has never been this easy – search for a PhD by keyword, location or academic area of interest.

Difference between the journal paper status of In Review and Under Review

This post explains the difference between the journal paper status of In Review and Under Review.

Scrivener for Academic Writing and Journals

Find out how you can use Scrivener for PhD Thesis & Dissertation writing to streamline your workflow and make academic writing fun again!

Productive working

Learn more about using cloud storage effectively, video conferencing calling, good note-taking solutions and online calendar and task management options.

Join thousands of other students and stay up to date with the latest PhD programmes, funding opportunities and advice.

synopsis phd thesis

Browse PhDs Now

Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis refers to the main parameter that you’re investigating in your research project or study.

How to Build a Research Collaboration

Learning how to effectively collaborate with others is an important skill for anyone in academia to develop.

synopsis phd thesis

Dr Anwar gained her PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Helsinki in 2019. She is now pursuing a career within industry and becoming more active in science outreach.

synopsis phd thesis

Emmanuel is a year and half into his PhD at The Open University School of Ecosystems, Earth and Environmental Studies. His research is on understand the influence of environmental and social factors on smallholder macadamia production.

Join Thousands of Students

Scholarships and Jobs Hub

How to write synopsis for PhD thesis?

' src=

How to write a synopsis for PhD thesis? In order to write PhD synopsis let’s first see what is a synopsis.

What is synopsis in literature? A PhD research synopsis is a detailed summary of a proposed research project which justifies the need for your research work. PhD synopsis is a document that is used to convince members of academic committees that your research project is worthy enough to be approved.

Synopsis for PhD Thesis Criteria in general While writing a synopsis of PhD thesis make sure that your thesis synopsis clearly depicts the contribution it would make to the research area. Briefly explain research objectives, research methodology, and research data analysis. Conclude with limitations of your research study and envisioned future prospects on basis of your proposed research finding.

Is there a format for PhD Synopsis? Yes, it is very important to follow the PhD thesis synopsis format suggested by your academic institution. As you know about the structure and format of a thesis, in a similar way you should have knowledge that your research synopsis for PhD follows a specific format too. So you need to follow PhD synopsis format from your academic institution.

What is the Right synopsis format (General)? The PhD thesis synopsis format varies in different universities. However, with minor differences, the general PhD synopsis format remains almost the same.

How to write a synopsis?

PhD research synopsis format general outline

1. The title of research or thesis Clearly state the title of your research project for PhD

2. Introduction The introduction section of PhD synopsis should briefly explain the current knowledge of your research topic, research gaps, and how PhD research project aims to do address these gaps.

3. Literature review A literature review section of PhD synopsis should have a summary of published articles including research papers , review papers, case studies and other academic research resources relevant to your PhD research project. The literature review section in PhD synopsis should clearly address important queries such as 1. What have others done already relevant to this PhD research project? 2. What are relevant research findings from literature and how they can be beneficial for specific PhD synopsis title? 3. In which areas further improvements in work can be done?

4. Aims and objectives Clearly address what is purpose and objective of the PhD synopsis research project. What problems you are going to address? How objectives of the research study will provide solutions for specific problems?

5. Methodology/Work plan Write methodology and work plan through which you will achieve your objectives. Be specific in outlining the materials and methods section. As you need to specify laboratory/field equipment for use, data collection and analysis strategies. This is a critically important part of the research synopsis as by making your materials and methods work plan clear you can run your research project smoothly and make it successful.

6. References Write citations and references for all sources used in your PhD synopsis. Proper referencing will increase the authenticity of your study and will give due acknowledgment to the original source. For references follow the reference style suggested by your university.

7. Conclusion Conclude your PhD thesis synopsis by briefly describing what your PhD research project is and why it is needed. Tell the limitations of your work to bring clarity in the scope of your study. In this way, by following these steps you can write a synopsis for your PhD thesis.

How to write synopsis? PhD thesis synopsis Synopsis for PhD thesis What is synopis

What do you think?

Browse and manage your votes from your Member Profile Page

' src=

Written by Dr Asma Jabeen

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. *

How to write a research hypothesis?

How to Write a Hypothesis for Research?

Qualitative research methods

Qualitative Research Methods

Username or Email Address

Remember Me

Forgot password?

Enter your account data and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Your password reset link appears to be invalid or expired.

Privacy policy.

To use social login you have to agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. %privacy_policy%

Add to Collection

Public collection title

Private collection title

No Collections

Here you'll find all collections you've created before.

Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences

  • Thesis and defence

Thesis formalities

Before submitting your PhD thesis, please read the following requirements for a PhD thesis at the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences.

Thesis format: Synopsis or monograph

The PhD thesis should be written in English, and may either be written as a monograph or as a synopsis with manuscripts/papers included.  As a general rule, the PhD student may not copy text directly from own  manuscripts/papers. This is perceived as potential self-plagiarism and is not acceptable.

The synopsis-based thesis consists of a synopsis and published papers and/or unpublished manuscripts. There are no specific requirements concerning the number or type of first or co-authored papers/manuscripts.

The synopsis is typically 30-60 pages long (papers or manuscripts not included), but there are no specific requirements concerning the number of pages in the synopsis. The synopsis should clearly and concisely encapsulate and discuss the research findings presented in the manuscripts/papers included in the thesis. The synopsis should at least include:

  • Summaries in Danish and English (a requirement according to the PhD Order section 12, subsection 3)
  • Methods: this chapter should briefly summarize and reflect on the methods used
  • Description of the research project placed in the context of international state-of-the-art research within the subject area
  • Summary of the results of the papers and their relation to international state-of-the-art research within the subject area
  • If required for the studies, information on ethical and legal permits and approvals
  • Conclusions and perspectives for further research
  • Chapters consisting of any papers or manuscripts included in the thesis. The chapters must appear in the end of the thesis.

The monograph is typically 100 pages long, but the number of pages can vary. The monograph should include the following elements:

  • Summaries in Danish and English
  • Description of the research project placed in the context of international state-of the-art research within the subject area
  • Description of the research carried out (including materials, methods and results)
  • If required for the studies, information on ethical and legal permits and approvals
  • Discussion of results

Thesis front page layout

  • The red UCPH logo must be included on the front page of the thesis. Please note that the official logo includes the red line that intersects with the lowest red circle. 
  • The following must be stated on the front page of the thesis: “This thesis has been submitted to the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen [INSERT DATE].
  • See also   UCPH design template - Please notice that the template only suggests the text “Submitted on:”, but The Graduate School requires the full text “This thesis has been submitted to the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen [INSERT DATE]”.
  • Please remember to change the standard text in the upper left corner of the template. Insert the name of your own department or faculty.
  • Font, image use, etc. are agreed between the PhD student and the supervisor
  • The entire thesis – including published articles and/or unpublished manuscripts – has to be screened for plagiarism at The Royal Library. Therefore the entire thesis has to be OCR-readable. This means no articles and no text can be inserted as pictures. How to convert your thesis into an OCR-readable PDF
  • Your thesis must not exceed 40MB. Minimize it by compressing any images. The co-authorship declarations must be submitted in a separate PDF.

Declaration of co-authorship

Any articles included in the thesis may be written in cooperation with others, provided that each of the co-authors submits a written declaration stating the PhD student's or the author's contribution to the work. It must appear from the co-authorship declaration if an article or manuscript is also included in a co-author’s thesis. If a manuscript or published paper has eleven or less authors, all authors must sign a declaration of co-authorship. If it has twelve or more authors, only the PhD student, the corresponding author(s), the senior author and the principal supervisor need to sign the declaration of co-authorship.

The contribution of the PhD student must be described in the co-authorship declaration if an article or manuscript is also included in a co-author’s thesis.

Download:   Declaration of  co-authorship

Use of material from published articles (including your own)

Use of your own material from published articles

As a general rule, you may not copy text directly from your own manuscripts/papers into the thesis. This is perceived as potential self-plagiarism and is not acceptable. However, generally it is accepted to copy methods descriptions, concrete results incl. figures and tables when appropriately marked and referenced. If you have transferred copyright of your own publication to a publisher, the Graduate School recommends that you obtain permission from the copyright owner before you publish.

Of note, the Faculty screens all PhD theses for duplicate text using iThenticate immediately after submission and prior to forwarding to the assessment committee. iThenticate screens PhD theses against published papers, not your unpublished manuscripts.

To read more please see these guidelines avoiding potential plagiarism and self-plagiarism  in your PhD thesis.

Use of material from published articles in general

If you copy/adapt figures, tables or other content from published articles (including your own) it is important that the source is always clearly stated in the thesis (e.g. in the figure text).

To avoid conflicts with the owner of the copied material, the Graduate School recommends that you obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) to publish material from already published articles in your thesis. This includes your own publications if you have transferred copyright to the publisher. The allocation of the copyright often depends on which contract the journal's publisher has signed with the article's author(s). If the copied material is published open access, it is typically allowed to copy the material by referring to the Creative Commons license .

If you plan to use this kind of material, we recommend that you contact the relevant publisher to ask for permission to use the material. It can typically be done at no cost via an online permission application link on the publications website. We also advice you to consult the information on KUnet and/or contact the library if you have questions regarding copyright.

Copyright of the PhD thesis

As a main rule the PhD thesis is not considered a publication, and PhD students are entitled to the copyright of their own unpublished manuscripts and the synopsis of the PhD thesis.

However, the copyright to any published articles in the PhD thesis or copied figures, tables and texts belongs to the publisher, depending on the agreement in each case.

To ensure compliance with copyright regulations, please adhere to the following guidelines:

  • Publisher Permission: Ensure that the publisher permits the inclusion of the article(s) in the thesis, especially if you plan to distribute the thesis or if the articles are not Open Access.
  • Clearing Copyrights: Obtain clearances for copyrights before submitting the thesis, and explicitly state in the thesis that necessary permissions have been obtained. If you ie. include figures/tables from already published papers in the synopsis, please specify permission under each figure/table. Permission for including an already published article in your thesis (typically inserted after the synopsis), should be stated in the introduction of the thesis or before each article.
  • Accessibility Considerations: Be aware that even if a publisher allows articles in PhD theses, they may have policies on the accessibility of the thesis after defense, such as restrictions on digital availability.

For more information about copyright please contact the Department for Research Support, see link: Copyright – University of Copenhagen (ku.dk)

Thesis accessibility and distribution

Regarding thesis accessibility and distribution, please be aware of the following guidelines:

  • Pre-Defence Distribution: The Graduate School allows interested parties to obtain a copy of the thesis from the PhD student before the defence, but otherwise the thesis is not freely available online. Requests for access to your thesis prior to the defence cannot be declined.
  • Managing Requests: When receiving requests to access your thesis, inform recipients that it cannot be shared with others. This is particularly crucial if the thesis includes articles that are not Open Access.
  • Additional Guidance: Familiarize yourself with university policies on thesis accessibility and consider seeking guidance from your advisors or the university's copyright office if needed.

Nominating an assessment committee

Screening for duplicate text, submission of thesis, illustration: the final stages of the phd.

Research guidance, Research Journals, Top Universities

Format of synopsis for PhD | Download Sample.

synopsis phd thesis

Guidelines for Writing Ph. D Synopsis.

FORMAT OF SYNOPSIS (MS/MPHIL & PHD). Given below is an outline for synopsis writing. It provides guidelines for organization and presentation of research.


  • Identify a real world problem
  • Describe the undesirable symptoms
  • Identify the knowledge gap that needs to be filled in order to help solve the problem
  • Support your discussion with solid peer-reviewed references


  • Create an Outline or “mindmap” of the key theories and concepts.
  • Dig deep into the “ Peer-reviewed” literature for each theory and concept and create an annotated bibliography and literature map
  • Write literature review
  • Map out the research gap
  • Identify the “type(s)” of question that need to be answer to fulfill the purpose
  • Develop the main research question and sub-questions
  • Develop hypotheses as appropriate
  • Identify and diagram the key variables in the research question
  • Identify and diagram the key relationships between the variables
  • Identify and diagram the key context factors
  • Describe the framework
  • Research Process
  • Based on the research questions, the overall approach (Data Collection, Analysis methods, Validity and Reliability test process)


  • Identify the larger application(s) and meaning(s) of the findings.
  • Identify the limitations associated with the findings and conclusion.


Most preferable format:

Font: Times New Roman

Title of the thesis: 18

Main Heading: 14 Bold

Sub Heading: 12 Bold

Spacing 1.5

Reference style: APA/IEEE/Harvard

Share this:

Leave a comment cancel reply.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.


Shodhganga Mirror Site https://sg.inflibnet.ac.in -->

  • About Shodhganga
  • Why Join Shodhganga ?
  • Responsibilities
  • Data Format
  • Type of Access
  • MoU with Universities 773
  • MoU with CFTI 105
  • e-INDIA Award
  • Shodhganga In News
  • Shodhganga Album
  • Universities & Departments
  • Upload Date
  • Researcher/Guide
  • AICTE/P& AP/Misc/2022_23.12.2022
  • UGC Notification PhD Amendment Nov 2022
  • MoE D.O. No. 31-5/2022-TS-II_CFTIs/CUs_30.11.2022
  • UGC D.O.No.2-10/2021 (CPP-II)_22.12.2021
  • Min. of Education (MoE)-TS.II_CFTIs - 2021
  • Self Plagiarism-UGC Public Notice - 2020
  • UGC Notification for Plagiarism - 2018
  • M.Phil/Ph.D Amendment - 2018
  • M.Phil/Ph.D Regulation - 2016
  • M.Phil/Ph.D Regulation - 2009 (Old)
  • UGC Guidelines for Shodhganga
  • Shodhganga Questionnaire for Fund
  • User Guide and Tutorial
  • APS Video & Guide
  • Awareness Guidelines
  • How to Submit?
  • How to Convert PDF?
  • How to Cite?
  • Thesis Template
  • User's Guide (ebook)
  • Other Indian ETDs
  • Download MoU
  • Download MoU for INI
  • Application Form for Fund
  • Shodhganga User
  • University Coordinator
  • Administrator
  • Shodhganga Dashboard
  • Universities
  • User Registration


http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/handle/10603/ Shodhganga Membership is not for Colleges.

MRPs/PDFs/Fellowships Reports

A reservoir of Indian Theses

The Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. The repository has the ability to capture, index, store, disseminate and preserve ETDs submitted by the researchers. [Read More]

  • Latest Updates

Webinar on "An Overview of Research Ethics & Plagiarism Issues" organized by INFLIBNET Centre on 03 June 2020 at 11.30 AM - 01.00 PM. Registration | Brochure

Webinar on "Introduction to ETDs & Shodhganga / Shodhgangotri" organized by INFLIBNET Centre on 05 June 2020 at 11.30 AM - 01.00 PM. Registration | Brochure

Webinar on "Introduction to PDS and ShodhShuddhi" organized by INFLIBNET Centre on 12 June 2020 at 11.30 AM - 01.00 PM. Registration | Brochure

Three Days Online Advanced Training Programme on Shodhganga and Plagiarism Issues organized by INFLIBNET Centre during 25th - 27th November 2020. More Details || Apply Online

Three Days Training (Offline Mode) on Research Methodology and Ethics: Plagiarism Issues, Reference Management Tools and Altmetrics 10th-12th April, 2023 Registration

Three Days Training Programme on "Ethical Issues and Use of Plagiarism Detection in Research" (offline mode) during 08th - 10th April, 2024. Registration Download Brochure

5,00,000th Thesis is uploaded into Shodhganga by Prof Yogesh Singh, Hon'ble Chairman, Governing Board, INFLIBNET Centre & Vice Chancellor, University of Delhi, Delhi in the august presence of Prof J P Singh Joorel, Director, INFLIBNET Centre, Gandhinagar and other Governing Board Members on 14.12.2023.

All the Theses (CDs) received from Universities were successfully uploaded into Shodhganga Portal till August 2023.

ETD 2023 website is launched by Hon'ble Chairman of UGC Prof M Jagadesh Kumar on 17-02-2023 at 10.00 AM, in presence of the Director INFLIBNET Centre, other Bureau Heads of UGC, staff of INFLIBNET Centre. Please visit at etd2023.inflibnet.ac.in for more details.

Creation of Metadata and Uploading Theses into Shodhganga for more details

Shodhganga crossed 4,00,000 Theses on 8th December 2022.

IISc Bangalore and 55 CFTIs like IITs,IIMs,NITs etc. have joined Shodhganga.

Restricted Dashboard and Subject Portal is released in January 2020.

Shodhganga crossed 3,00,000 Theses on 9th April 2021.

Plagiarism Detection Software under ShodhShuddhi is provided to all 1000+ Universities/Institutions.

Shodhganga Membership is not for Colleges. Read More.

UGC (Promotion of Academic Integrity and Prevention of Plagiarism in Higher Educational Institutions) Regulations, 2018. UGC Letter / Regulation

The NDLTD Leadership Award 2017 was conferred to Shodhganga Team leaders during August 7 - 9, 2017 at Washington, DC. The Award is instituted by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) since 2004. More Details

Edushine Excellence Award - 2019 presented to INFLIBNET Centre by Sh. Suresh Prabhu, Hon'ble Minister for Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation, Government of India.

Theses received at the Centre till 30th November 2020 have been uploaded.

750+ Universities started contributing Theses Repository.

865+ Universities+CFTIs/INIs Signed MoU.

  • Universities Contributed in Shodhganga
  • ShodhShuddhi
  • Shodhgangotri

Anna University 15906

University of madras 14958, university of calcutta 14211, savitribai phule pune university 12699, university of mumbai 11562, aligarh muslim university 10233, chhatrapati sahuji maharaj university 10179, andhra university 10029, babasaheb bhimrao ambedkar bihar university 9675, panjab university 9358, abhilashi university 17, academy of scientific and innovative research (acsir) 2372, acharya nagarjuna university 2273, acharya narendra deva university of agriculture and technology, ayodhya 908, adamas university 45, adesh university 25, adichunchanagiri university, mandya 9, adikavi nannaya university, rajahmundry 58, agriculture university, jodhpur 3, agriculture university, kota 13, ahmedabad university 18, aks university 30, alagappa university 2475, alliance university 53, all india institute of medical science, bhopal 1, all india institute of medical sciences rishikesh 7, ambedkar university, delhi 56, amet university 141, amity university haryana 212, amity university, kolkata 2, amity university madhya pradesh 62, amity university, mumbai 32, amity university, noida 1182, amity university rajasthan 233, amrita vishwa vidyapeetham university 604, anand agricultural university 122, annamalai university 3216, apeejay stya university 23, apex university, rajasthan 41, a p goyal shimla university 13, apj abdul kalam technological university, thiruvananthapuram 53, arka jain university 3, arni university 8, arunachal university of studies 2, arunodaya university 2, aryabhatta knowledge university 29, ashoka university 1, assam agricultural university 151, assam don bosco university 123, assam down town university 82, assam rajiv gandhi university of cooperative management 2, assam science and technology university 6, assam university 2297, atal bihari vajpayee indian institute of information technology and management 103, atmiya university 17, auro university 1, avinashilingam institute for home science and higher education for women 723, awadhesh pratap singh university 957, baba ghulam shah badshah university 100, babasaheb bhimrao ambedkar university 525, babu banarasi das university 147, baddi university of emerging sciences & technology 7, bahra university 5, banaras hindu university 7904, banasthali vidyapith 2213, bangalore university 2492, bankura university 31, bareilly international university 5, barkatullah university 420, bennett university 35, berhampur university 207, bhagat phool singh mahila vishwavidyalaya 140, bhagwan mahavir university 1, bhagwant university 314, bhaikaka university 3, bhakta kavi narsinh mehta university 52, bharathiar university 7394, bharathidasan university 8300, bharath institute of higher education and research 657, bharati vidyapeeth deemed university 652, bhartiya skill development university jaipur 19, bhupendra narayan mandal university 5, bihar agricultural university 89, birla institute of management technology 11, birla institute of technology and science 1590, birla institute of technology, mesra 171, blde (deemed to be university) 54, bml munjal university, gurugram 7, bodoland university 103, brainware university 36, b s abdur rahman crescent institute of science & technology 316, bundelkhand university 2212, calorx teachers university 2, career point university 29, central institute of technology kokrajhar 15, central sanskrit university 351, central university of gujarat 354, central university of haryana 95, central university of himachal pradesh 131, central university of jammu 121, central university of jharkhand 87, central university of karnataka 143, central university of kashmir 253, central university of kerala 173, central university of odisha 36, central university of punjab 186, central university of rajasthan 219, central university of south bihar 39, central university of tamil nadu 109, centurion university of technology and management 72, centurion university of technology and management, vizianagaram 0, cept university 82, chaitanya university, hanamkonda 13, chanakya national law university 1, chandigarh university 136, chandra shekhar azad university of agriculture and technology 115, charotar university of science and technology 169, chaudhary charan singh university 3039, chaudhary devi lal university 281, chaudhary ranbir singh university 19, chaudhary sarwan kumar himachal pradesh krishi vishvavidyalaya 406, chettinad academy of research and education 155, chhatrapati shivaji maharaj university 3, chhattisgarh swami vivekanand technical university 149, childrens university 18, chitkara university 31, chitkara university, punjab 309, christ university 355, cmr university 51, cochin university of science & technology 2770, cooch behar panchanan barma university 34, cotton university 28, ct university 24, c.u. shah university 199, c.v. raman global university 26, datta meghe institute of medical sciences 208, davangere university 118, dav university 31, dayalbagh educational institute 1231, dayananda sagar university 48, deccan college post graduate and research institute 85, deenbandhu chhotu ram university of science and technology, sonipat 193, deen dayal upadhyay gorakhpur university 841, defence institute of advanced technology 44, delhi pharmaceutical sciences & research university (dpsru) 19, delhi technological university 452, desh bhagat university 246, devi ahilya vishwavidyalaya 2296, dev sanskriti vishwavidyalaya 13, dharmsinh desai university 24, dhirubhai ambani institute of information and communication technology (da-iict) 77, diamond harbour women's university 7, dibrugarh university 937, dit university 91, doon university 55, dr. a.p.j. abdul kalam technical university 401, dravidian university 57, dr. babasaheb ambedkar marathwada university 5569, dr. babasaheb ambedkar open university 186, dr. babasaheb ambedkar technological university 50, dr b r ambedkar national institute of technology jalandhar 109, dr. b. r. ambedkar open university, hyderabad 1, dr. b. r. ambedkar university agra 6008, dr. c.v. raman university 270, dr. d. y. patil vidyapeeth, pune 167, dr. harisingh gour vishwavidhyalay 2295, dr. k n modi university 28, dr. m.g.r. educational and research institute 494, dr. panjabrao deshmukh krishi vidyapeeth, akola 50, dr. rammanohar lohia avadh university, faizabad 4638, dr ram manohar lohiya national law university 53, dr. sarvepalli radhakrishnan rajasthan ayurved university 191, dr shakuntala misra national rehabilitation university 74, dr. shyama prasad mukherjee international institute of information technology naya raipur 9, dr. vishwanath karad mit world peace university 22, dr. y.s. parmar university of horticulture and forestry 177, dr.y.s.r. horticultural university 24, d y patil university, kolhapur 67, entrepreneurship development institute of india 1, eternal university 7, fakir mohan university, balasore 162, forest research institute university 350, galgotias university 88, gangadhar meher university 86, ganpat university 160, garden city university 8, gauhati university 6305, gautam buddha university 239, g.b.pant university of agriculture & technology 172, gd goenka university 124, geetanjali university 43, g h raisoni university, amravati 23, giet university, gunupur 23, gitam university 914, gla university 230, glocal university 93, gls university 123, gna university 27, goa university 1093, gokhale institute of politics and economics 31, gondwana university 182, graphic era hill university dehradun 15, graphic era university 149, gujarat ayurveda university 5, gujarat forensic sciences university 26, gujarat national law university 17, gujarat technological university 358, gujarat university 4488, gujarat vidyapith 619, gulbarga university 1127, guru angad dev veterinary and animal sciences university 5, guru ghasidas university 353, guru gobind singh indraprastha university 638, guru jambheshwar university of science & technology 666, guru kashi university 361, gurukul kangri vishwavidyalaya 411, guru nanak dev university 2018, harcourt butler technical university 16, hemchandracharya north gujarat university 572, hemchand yadav vishwavidyalaya 48, hemwati nandan bahuguna garhwal university 940, himachal pradesh national law university 1, himachal pradesh university 3141, himalayan garhwal university 64, himgiri zee university 37, hindustan institute of technology and science 314, homi bhabha national institute 2568, homoeopathy university 26, icfai foundation for higher education, telangana 89, icfai university, dimapur nagaland 25, icfai university himachal pradesh 5, icfai university, jaipur 17, icfai university, jharkhand 45, icfai university, tripura 13, iec university 10, iftm university 297, iilm university, gurugram 10, iimt university, meerut 18, iis (deemed to be university) 413, i k gujral punjab technical university 849, ims unison university 14, indian institute of engineering science and technology, shibpur 450, indian institute of foreign trade 62, indian institute of information technology, allahabad 204, indian institute of information technology, design and manufacturing, iiitdm jabalpur 144, indian institute of information technology design & manufacturing kancheepuram 70, indian institute of information technology dharwad 2, indian institute of information technology guwahati 21, indian institute of information technology nagpur 3, indian institute of informationtechnology, vadodara 1, indian institute of management ahmedabad 15, indian institute of management bangalore 47, indian institute of management (iim),indore 38, indian institute of management kashipur 21, indian institute of management kozhikode 27, indian institute of management lucknow 104, indian institute of management mumbai (formerly nitie) 72, indian institute of management raipur 47, indian institute of management rohtak 6, indian institute of management shillong 16, indian institute of management udaipur 1, indian institute of science bangalore 1207, indian institute of science education and research (iiser) bhopal 22, indian institute of science education and research (iiser) mohali 356, indian institute of science education and research (iiser) pune 521, indian institute of science education and research (iiser) thiruvananthapuram 210, indian institute of science education and research kolkata 105, indian institute of space science and technology 164, indian institute of teacher education 7, indian institute of technology bhilai 17, indian institute of technology bhubaneswar 76, indian institute of technology bombay 1635, indian institute of technology delhi 1449, indian institute of technology dharwad 9, indian institute of technology gandhinagar 39, indian institute of technology goa 2, indian institute of technology guwahati 2484, indian institute of technology hyderabad 290, indian institute of technology iit (bhu), varanasi 985, indian institute of technology indore 399, indian institute of technology (ism), dhanbad 1011, indian institute of technology jammu 20, indian institute of technology jodhpur 149, indian institute of technology kanpur 1, indian institute of technology kharagpur 814, indian institute of technology madras 1608, indian institute of technology mandi 252, indian institute of technology palakkad 16, indian institute of technology patna 148, indian institute of technology roorkee 482, indian institute of technology ropar 204, indian institute of technology tirupati 11, indian maritime university 1, indian school of mines 53, indian veterinary research institute, izatnagar 341, indira gandhi delhi technical university for women 59, indira gandhi institute of development research 105, indira gandhi national open university ignou 977, indira gandhi national tribal university, amarkantak 155, indira gandhi university meerpur,rewari 43, indira kala sangeet vishwavidyalaya 133, indraprastha institute of information technology, delhi (iiit-delhi) 137, indrashil university 4, indus international university 7, indus university 42, institute of advanced research, gandhinagar 14, institute of advanced studies in education (iase) 191, institute of chemical technnology, mumbai 97, institute of infrastructure technology research and management 31, institute of trans-disciplinary health science & technology 32, integral university 601, international institute for population sciences iips 366, international institute of information technology bangalore 66, international institute of information technology, hyderabad 190, international management institute 9, international management institute kolkata 2, invertis university, bareily 1, isbr business school 1, islamic university of science and technology 47, itm university, gwalior 28, jadavpur university 3960, jagadguru ramanadacharya rajasthan sanskrit university 2, jagannath university 212, jagannath university, jhajjar 38, jagran lakecity university 32, jai narain vyas university 579, jain university 754, jain vishwa bharati university 246, jai prakash vishwavidyalaya 3, jaipur national university 349, jamia hamdard university 931, jamia milia islamia university 2514, janardan rai nagar rajasthan vidhyapeeth 1, jawaharlal nehru architecture and fine arts university 7, jawaharlal nehru centre for advanced scientific research 42, jawaharlal nehru technological university, anantapuram 1311, jawaharlal nehru technological university, hyderabad 1453, jawaharlal nehru technological university, kakinada 310, jawaharlal nehru university 7230, jayoti vidyapeeth women s university 318, jaypee institute of information technology 333, jaypee university of engineering & technology, guna 122, jaypee university of information technology, solan 276, j. c. bose university of science and technology, ymca, faridabad 64, jecrc university 88, jharkhand rai university 48, jis university, kolkata 18, jiwaji university 2290, jk lakshmipat university 22, jodhpur national university 2, jss academy of higher education & research 403, jss science and technology university, mysuru 16, j.s. university, shikohabad 4, junagadh agricultural university 1, kadi sarva vishwavidyalaya 589, kakatiya university, warangal 519, kalasalingam university 406, kalinga institute of social sciences (kiss) 8, kalinga university 238, kamdhenu university 6, kameshwara singh darbhanga sanskrit vishwavidyalaya, darbhanga 3, kannada university 101, kannur university 877, karnataka samskrit university 61, karnataka state law university 12, karnataka state open university 17, karnataka state womens university 297, karnataka veterinary, animal and fisheries sciences university 102, karnatak university 5009, karnavati university 11, karpagam university 298, karunya university 582, kavayitri bahinabai chaudhari north maharashtra university 1278, kavikulaguru kalidas sanskrit university 150, kazi nazrul university 19, kerala agricultural university 1, kerala university of health sciences 1, khwaja moinuddin chishti urdu, arabi-farsi university 16, kiit university 1077, king george medical university 21, kle technological university 14, kle university 187, kolhan university 34, koneru lakshmaiah education foundation 919, krantiguru shyamji krishna verma kachchh university 124, krea university 1, krishna institute of medical sciences, deemed to be university karad 68, krishna kanta handiqui state open university 36, krishna university, machilipatnam 69, k.r. mangalam university, gurgaon 95, kumaun university 1719, kurukshetra university 1478, kushabhau thakre patrakarita avam jansanchar vishwavidyalaya 6, kuvempu university 1388, lakshmibai national university of physical education 220, lakulish yoga university 19, lalit narayan mithila university 6859, lingayas vidyapeeth 92, lnct university 132, lovely professional university 815, madan mohan malaviya university of technology 90, madhav university 241, madhyanchal professional university 3, madhya pradesh bhoj (open) university 9, madurai kamaraj university 5837, magadh university 22, mahapurusha srimanta sankaradeva viswavidyalaya 38, maharaja agrasen university 87, maharaja ganga singh university 2278, maharaja krishnakumarsinhji bhavnagar university 1506, maharaja ranjit singh punjab technical university 19, maharaja sayajirao university of baroda 4071, maharaja sriram chandra bhanja deo university 16, maharaja vinayak global university 102, maharana pratap university of agriculture and technology 158, maharashtra animal and fishery sciences university 17, maharashtra national law university nagpur 5, maharashtra university of health sciences 221, maharishi markandeshwar university, mullana 504, maharishi markandeshwar university, sadopur (ambala) 27, maharishi university of information technology 50, maharshi dayanand saraswati university 208, maharshi dayanand university 4588, mahatma gandhi antarrashtriya hindi vishwavidyalaya 254, mahatma gandhi chitrakoot gramodaya vishwavidyalaya 149, mahatma gandhi kashi vidyapith 4972, mahatma gandhi univeristy of medical sciences & technnology , jaipur 36, mahatma gandhi university 3899, mahatma gandhi university, nalgonda 11, mahatma jyotiba phule rohilkhand university 1625, makhanlal chaturvedi national university of journalism and communication, bhopal 22, malaviya national institute of technology jaipur 361, malwanchal university, indore 44, management development institute gurgaon 25, manav rachna international institute of research and studies 220, manav rachna university 58, mandsaur university 54, mangalayatan university 122, mangalore university 2012, manipal academy of higher education 1690, manipal university jaipur 313, manipur university 1779, manonmaniam sundaranar university 7373, martin luther christian university 43, marwadi university 15, mats university 89, maulana abul kalam azad university of technology 85, maulana azad national institute of technology bhopal 282, maulana azad national urdu university 391, m.b.m. university 15, medi caps university, indore 25, meenakshi academy of higher education and research 167, mewar university 335, mgm institute of health sciences 134, mica, ahmedabad 26, mit-adt university, pune 51, mizoram university 783, mody university of science and technology 119, mohammad ali jauhar university 4, mohan lal sukhadia university 1030, monad university 36, motherhood university 1, mother teresa womens university 1071, motilal nehru national institute of technology 576, m s ramaiah university of applied sciences 70, mvn university,palwal 69, nagaland university 520, narsee monjee institute of management studies 277, national brain research centre 97, national institute of educational planning and administration (niepa) 34, national institute of fashion technology delhi 30, national institute of food technology entrepreneurship and management - niftem (k)kundli 25, national institute of food technology entrepreneurship and management thanjavur (niftem-t) 27, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research, ahmedabad 28, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research, guwahati 20, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research, hajipur 11, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research, hyderabad 41, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research kolkata 14, national institute of pharmaceutical education and research, raebareli 6, national institute of technology agartala 171, national institute of technology arunachal pradesh 54, national institute of technology calicut 228, national institute of technology delhi 65, national institute of technology durgapur 160, national institute of technology goa 49, national institute of technology hamirpur 94, national institute of technology jamshedpur 121, national institute of technology karnataka 494, national institute of technology,kurukshetra 158, national institute of technology manipur 72, national institute of technology mizoram 34, national institute of technology nagaland 11, national institute of technology (nit) meghalaya 91, national institute of technology (nit), warangal 555, national institute of technology patna 341, national institute of technology puducherry 56, national institute of technology raipur 182, national institute of technology, rourkela 398, national institute of technology sikkim 29, national institute of technology silchar 69, national institute of technology srinagar 181, national institute of technology tiruchirappalli 234, national institute of technology uttarakhand 31, national law institute university, bhopal 8, national law school of india university 48, national law university and judicial academy, guwahati 9, national law university, delhi 37, national law university, odisha 12, national museum institute of hisotry of art conservation and musicology 2, national sanskrit university 46, navrachana university 24, nehru gram bharati university 155, netaji subhas open university 1, netaji subhas university of technology 9, niit university 15, nims university rajasthan 357, nirma university 381, nitte university 94, noida international university 77, noorul islam centre for higher education 351, north-eastern hill university 2720, north eastern regional institute of science and technology (nerist) 95, odisha university of agriculture and technology 160, om sterling global university 95, o.p. jindal university 7, opjs university 21, oriental university 92, osmania university 1610, pacific university 2289, padmashree dr. d.y. patil vidyapeeth, navi mumbai 71, pandit deendayal petroleum university 169, pandit s. n. shukla university, shahdol 9, parul university 185, patna university 331, peoples university, bhopal 7, periyar maniammai university 157, periyar university 3206, pes university 24, p.k. university 18, pondicherry university 2509, poornima university 74, potti sreeramulu telugu university 1, p p savani university 3, pravara institute of medical sciences 45, presidency university 103, presidency university, karnataka 147, prist university 86, pt. ravishankar shukla university 2915, pt. sundarlal sharma open university bilaspur 250, punjab engineering college (deemed to be university) 58, punjabi university 3145, rabindra bharati university 418, rabindranath tagore university, bhopal 313, raffles university 16, raiganj university 181, rai university 308, rajasthan technical university, kota 149, rajiv gandhi institute of petroleum technology 37, rajiv gandhi national institute of youth development 7, rajiv gandhi national university of law punjab 31, rajiv gandhi proudyogiki vishwavidyalaya 583, rajiv gandhi university 652, rama devi womens university 11, ramakrishna mission vivekananda educational and research institute 222, ramakrishna mission vivekananda university 1, rama university, uttar pradesh 74, ramchandra chandravansi university 5, ranchi university 61, rani channamma university 113, rani durgavati vishwavidyalaya 356, rashtrasant tukadoji maharaj nagpur university 304, rashtriya raksha university 19, ravenshaw university 486, rayat bahra university, mohali 16, regional centre for biotechnology 1, reva university 219, rimt university 41, rkdf university 122, rk university 284, rnb global university 4, sage university, indore 82, sai nath university 138, sambalpur university 1768, sam higginbottom institute of agriculture, technology and sciences 439, sampurnanand sanskrit vishwavidhyalaya 3, sanchi university of buddhist-indic studies, bhopal 6, sandip university 12, sangam university 63, sanjay gandhi post graduate institute of medical sciences, lucknow 12, sanjay ghodawat university 2, sankalchand patel university 54, sanskriti university 48, sant baba bhag singh university 36, sant gadge baba amravati university 2951, sant longowal institute of engineering and technology 315, santosh deemed to be university 104, sardarkrushinagar dantiwada agricultural university 0, sardar patel university 3326, sardar vallabhbhai national institute of technology surat 396, sarvepalli radhakrishnan university 145, sastra university 553, satavahana university 6, sathyabama institute of science and technology 422, saurashtra university 3273, saveetha university 834, school of planning and architecture, bhopal 20, school of planning and architecture, new delhi 49, school of planning and architecture vijayawada 10, seacom skills university 116, sgt university 84, sharda university 215, sher-e-kashmir university of agricultural sciences and technology of jammu 135, shivaji university 4872, shiv nadar university 174, shobhit university, gangoh 29, shobhit university, meerut 166, shoolini university of biotechnology and management sciences 509, shree somnath sanskrit university 101, shri govind guru university 15, shri guru ram rai university 50, shri jagdishprasad jhabarmal tibarewala university 3645, shri khushal das university 114, shri lal bahadur shastri national sanskrit university 545, shri mata vaishno devi university 223, shri ramswaroop memorial university 144, shri vaishnav vidyapeeth vishwavidyalaya 47, shri venkateshwara university, uttar pradesh 2, shyam university 9, sidho kanho birsha university 105, sido kanhu murmu university 3, sikkim manipal university 87, sikkim university 202, siksha "o" anusandhan university 562, singhania university 23, sir padampat singhania university 75, sndt womens university 1254, solapur university 267, south asian university 2, s. p. jain institute of management and research 1, sree sankaracharya university of sanskrit 719, sri balaji vidyapeeth 47, sri chandrasekharendra saraswathi viswa mahavidyalaya 417, sri devaraj urs academy of higher education and research 43, sri guru granth sahib world university 84, sri guru ram das university of health sciences 9, sri krishnadevaraya university 3434, srinivas university 17, sri padmavathi womens university 237, sri ramachandra institute of higher education and research 369, sri sai university 2, sri sathya sai institute of higher learning 110, sri satya sai university of technology & medical sciences 77, sri siddhartha academy of higher education 54, sri sri university 17, sri venkateswara institute of medical sciences 23, sri venkateswara university 5461, srm institute of science and technology 1525, srm university- ap 21, srm university, delhi-ncr, sonepat 83, st. joseph university, dimapur 13, st. peter’s institute of higher education and research 388, st. xaviers university, kolkata 1, sumandeep vidyapeeth deemed to be university 41, sunrise university 5, suresh gyan vihar university 385, sushant university (earlier ansal university) 57, swami rama himalayan university 14, swami ramanand teerth marathwada university 5579, swami vivekanad subharti university 178, swami vivekananda yoga anusandhana sansthana 142, swami vivekanand university 80, swarnim gujarat sports university 7, symbiosis international university 515, tamil nadu agricultural university 1409, tamil nadu dr. ambedkar law university 59, tamil nadu open university 47, tamilnadu physical education and sports university 259, tamil nadu teachers education university, chennai 203, tamil nadu veterinary and animal sciences university 78, tamil university 161, tantia university 240, tata institute of fundamental research 963, tata institute of social sciences 583, techno india university 4, teerthanker mahaveer university 131, teri school of advanced studies 138, tezpur university 890, thapar institute of engineering and technology 1138, the assam kaziranga university 21, the assam royal global university 13, the charutar vidya mandal cvm university 5, the english & foreign languages university, hyderabad 786, the gandhigram rural institute 1374, the icfai university, dehradun 42, the iihmr university, jaipur 35, the indian law institute, new delhi 19, the lnm institute of information technology 31, the national academy of legal studies and research (nalsar) university of law 49, the national university of advanced legal studies 4, the neotia university 4, the northcap university 107, the tamil nadu dr. m.g.r. medical university 408, the university of burdwan 3079, the west bengal national university of juridical sciences 35, thiruvalluvar university 289, thunchath ezhuthachan malayalam university 16, tilak maharashtra vidyapeeth 906, tilka manjhi bhagalpur university 269, tripura university 435, tumkur university 299, uka tarsadia university 113, university of agricultural sciences, bangalore 411, university of agricultural sciences, dharwad 286, university of agricultural sciences, raichur 63, university of allahabad 2511, university of calicut 2233, university of delhi 5326, university of engineering and management, kolkata 17, university of gour banga 12, university of hyderabad 2670, university of jammu 1202, university of kalyani 2836, university of kashmir 1916, university of kerala 6654, university of kota 111, university of lucknow 5338, university of mysore 4252, university of north bengal 2072, university of patanjali 31, university of petroleum and energy studies (upes) 398, university of rajasthan 1810, university of science and technology, meghalaya 98, u.p. pt. deen dayal upadhyaya pashu chikitsa vigyan vishwavidhyalaya evam go anusandha sansthan 18, u p rajarshi tondon open university 336, usha martin university 21, utkal university 5654, uttarakhand open university 18, uttarakhand sanskrit university 56, uttarakhand technical university 273, uttaranchal university 73, vardhaman mahaveer open university, kota 21, v. b. s. purvanchal university 9084, veer kunwar singh university, arrah 32, veer narmad south gujarat university 3337, veer surendra sai university of technology 189, vellore institute of technology bhopal 8, vellore institute of technology, vellore 2264, vellore institute of technology (vit-ap) 63, vels university 889, vel tech rangarajan dr. sagunthala r&d institute of science and technology 236, vidyasagar university 872, vignans foundation for science technology and research 207, vijayanagara sri krishnadevaraya university, bellary 131, vikram university 95, vinayaka missions research foundation 361, vinoba bhave university 247, vishwakarma university 21, visva bharti university 1551, visvesvaraya national institute of technology 275, visvesvaraya technological university, belagavi 1062, vivekananda global university 74, william carey university 1, xim university 26, yashwantrao chavan maharashtra open university 330, ybn university 41, yenepoya (deemed to be university) 135, yogi vemana university 92, about shodhshuddhi.

Based on the recommendation of Sub-Committee, National Steering Committee (NSC) of e-ShodhSindhu, The Ministry of Education, Govt. of India has initiated a programme "ShodhShuddhi" which provides access to Plagiarism Detection Software (PDS) to all universities/Institutions in India since Sept 1, 2019 [Read More...]

Under this initiative, URKUND a Web Based Plagiarism Detection Software system is being provided to all users of universities/Intuitions in the country. This initiative is formally launched by Honorable Minister of HRD (now renamed as Minister of Education) on September 21, 2019

The INFLIBNET Centre receives numerous queries from Colleges regarding membership to Shodhganga and e-ShodhSindhu. Following clarifications are being provided in this regard: Read More.

Full Text Theses

Synopses/mrps/pdfs/fellowships, universities contributing, universities+cftis/inis signed mou, prof devika p madalli, sh. manoj kumar k, general / technical query, antiplagiarism query.


The Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. The repository has the ability to capture, index, store, disseminate and preserve ETDs submitted by the researchers. [Read l]

synopsis phd thesis


PhD Synopsis Format

Is There a Set Format for PhD Synopsis? While doing research-related documentation, it is highly important to follow the content format suggested by your academic institution. Although you may know about the structure and format of a thesis, you must also know that your synopsis follows a set format too. If you deviate from this set format, your document may even face direct rejection.

PhD Synopsis Format

What is the Right Synopsis Format? The PhD synopsis format may vary from one institution to another. However, besides minor differences, the general format remains almost the same. You will usually need to follow this structure:

  • The title of research or thesis
  • Introduction of 2-3 pages
  • Literature review
  • Objective of your work and hypotheses
  • Methodology or your work plan
  • Bibliography or references
  • Conclusion including the scope and limitations of your study

Accomplish PhD degree with our tailor-made services!

In addition to the above structure, it is significant to comply with the APA Formatting Services rules that your university has set for referencing, as well as for page setup, alignment, margins, consistency of font size or style, headings and subheadings, bulleting, numbering, etc.

​How We Help You Format Your Synopsis

Our editors not only assist you in correcting your PhD synopsis format on the above-mentioned factors, but also help you structure your work within the given word limits and under different sections. They make your comply with every single formatting guideline of your institution. As our editors providing APA formatting services have the knowledge of varied professional formatting styles, they can assist you in citing your sources correctly. Our services help you present an impressive and crisp synopsis well in time. To get more information on synopsis formatting, simply reach us at [email protected] .

PhD Synopsis Format

We provide consulting service along with writing assistance for PhD candidates from across the world Fill This Form To Get A Quote

Request a Quote


Call at 080 6945 9991 (10 Lines) , Whatsapp at +91-93156 49477 for Discussion of your PhD Project

Discuss Your Research Now

You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.

  • Doctoral fellows

PhD Student

Job description.

GHENT UNIVERSITY Ghent University is an internationally renowned, open, pluralistic, and socially engaged university in Belgium. We strive to make science better and through that science, we also make the world better. Our credo is “Dare to Think”: we are a haven for courageous thinkers, including more than 50.000 students and 15.000 employees. As a caring and committed employer, our talent-driven HR policy is rewarded with the European “HR Excellence in Research” quality label. RESEARCH PROJECT Within the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration and the research group HRM and Organizational Behavior, Professor Greet Van Hoye is looking for a motivated PhD student to carry out a four-year research project on how non-diverse organizations can recruit qualified ethnic minority job seekers. Despite increasing efforts from organizations to hire a more diverse workforce, ethnic minorities are still underrepresented in many industries and companies. Prior research on diversity recruitment showed positive effects of pro-diversity statements and showing diversity in pictures. However, if a company is currently not yet ethnically diverse, these diversity cues might come across as inconsistent and dishonest and might actually decrease attraction among ethnic minorities. In this project, we aim to resolve this counterfeit diversity paradox by investigating how diversity cue inconsistency is processed by qualified ethnic minority job seekers and how it can be overcome. To this end, multiple quantitative research methods will be applied (e.g., experiments, experience sampling study). The project has already received funding from the Special Research Fund (BOF) and will be co-supervised by Professor Edwin van Hooft from the University of Amsterdam. Although the general aim and approach of the project are defined, there is still plenty of room for your personal input. YOUR JOB

  • This position is primarily dedicated to carrying out the proposed research project, with the aim to write a doctoral dissertation consisting of academic articles that are publishable in international peer-reviewed journals.
  • You will be able to collaborate internationally with the co-supervisor Professor Edwin van Hooft, including a research stay at the University of Amsterdam. You will also present our research at international scientific conferences.
  • You will also reach out to experts and organizations in the field to discuss ideas, get feedback, collaborate on data collection, and translate our research findings into actionable advice.
  • You will provide some limited teaching support, such as guiding Master’s thesis students on a topic related to the research project.

Job profile


  • You are almost or recently graduated with a Master’s degree relevant for the research project and including a research-based Master’s thesis. Final-year students are thus also strongly encouraged to apply. Examples of relevant degrees are a (Research) Master in HRM/Organizational Behavior or Work/Organizational/Social Psychology. For diplomas awarded outside the European Union, a certificate of equivalence (NARIC) must be submitted. The degree requirements need to be fulfilled at the start of your appointment.
  • You’ve performed well academically, as demonstrated by your study results (grades), Master’s thesis, and/or publications.
  • You are highly interested in the described research project and strongly motivated to obtain your PhD.
  • You possess good methodological and statistical skills, and are willing to develop those further. You have experience with SPSS or R.
  • You have good scientific writing and speaking skills, both in English and Dutch (surveys and stimulus materials will be in both languages, writing will be mostly in English, contact with participants and organizations will be mostly in Dutch).
  • You are analytical, a problem-solver, and eager to learn.
  • You are conscientious, reliable, and quality-oriented. Your work is structured and consistent. You can keep a general oversight focusing on priorities but also have an eye for detail. You plan your work efficiently and can handle deadlines, both in the short and long term.
  • You take initiative and can work independently. You are open to feedback, which you proactively seek.
  • You have good social and communication skills, and work well within a team.
  • You are resilient and can cope with stress and setbacks.


  • We offer a full-time, four-year position as a PhD student, enabling you to follow a doctoral training program and obtain a PhD in Business Economics. The contract starts with an initial period of 1 year, which – after a positive evaluation – will be extended with another 3 years.
  • Your contract will start on 1 September 2024 at the earliest, in consultation with you.
  • The fellowship amount is 100% of the net salary of an AAP member in equal family circumstances. The individual fellowship amount is determined by the Department of Personnel and Organization based on family status and seniority. A grant that meets the conditions and criteria of the regulations for doctoral fellowships is considered free of personal income tax. Click here for more information about our salary scales
  • You will have the opportunity to work in a stimulating, dynamic, and open research environment “daring you to think”. Your (co-)supervisors have strong academic performance records, both in terms of publications and successful PhD’s. The research group houses many other PhD students allowing for ample social interactions and learning opportunities.
  • You will be able to conduct state-of-the art research on ethnic minority recruitment, a topic with great societal and practical relevance.
  • We offer many training and development opportunities, allowing you to further extend your methodological and statistical knowledge needed for the project, but also to acquire transferable skills supporting your further career (e.g., communication, project management).
  • We offer autonomy and flexibility, as well as multiple international experiences.
  • All Ghent University staff members enjoy a number of benefits, such as 36 days of holiday leave (on an annual basis for a full-time job) supplemented by annual fixed bridge days, bicycle allowance and eco vouchers. Click here for a complete overview of all the staff benefit s (in Dutch).

How to apply

Please send your application in a single pdf document to [email protected] by 2 June 2024 at the latest. Your application should include:

  • A motivation letter and CV highlighting how you match the profile we look for.
  • Copy of your diploma (if already in your possession) and grade lists for each year in your study curriculum.
  • An English summary of your Master’s thesis (1-2 pages).
  • Two reference contacts, preferably including the (co-)supervisor of your Master’s thesis.

Candidates who are invited for the next selection round will be notified by 11 June 2024. On-site interviews will take place on 2 July 2024 in Ghent. As Ghent University maintains an equal opportunities and diversity policy, everyone is encouraged to apply for this position. If you have any further questions about this vacancy, feel free to contact Professor Greet Van Hoye ( [email protected] ). If you would like to talk to a (former) PhD student of Professor Van Hoye, you can also reach out to post-doc researcher Hira Kanwal ( [email protected] ) or current PhD student Lucas Dierickx ( [email protected] ).


  1. PHD Thesis Synopsis Sample

    synopsis phd thesis

  2. Synopsis Format for clear idea

    synopsis phd thesis

  3. Synopsis of PhD Thesis

    synopsis phd thesis

  4. (PDF) Phd Thesis

    synopsis phd thesis

  5. (PDF) How to Make the Research Synopsis as Ph.D. and PG. level

    synopsis phd thesis

  6. Dissertation Synopsis Example

    synopsis phd thesis


  1. Phd Thesis Defence || Research Proposal Synopsis Defence || Urdu Hindi

  2. #phd #publication #research #synopsis #thesis

  3. How to write thesis and synopsis

  4. How to write a Masters Dissertation in the most simplest way| PhD thesis|Synopsis| Research Papers

  5. How to write PhD synopsis

  6. Complete Thesis Guidelines


  1. How to Write a Synopsis for Research: A Step-By-Step Guide

    1. Format your title page following your instructor's guidelines. In general, the title page of a research synopsis includes the title of the research project, your name, the degree and discipline for which you're writing the synopsis, and the names of your supervisor, department, institution, and university.

  2. How to Write a Great Synopsis for Thesis [2020 Updated]

    The structure of a synopsis should correspond to the structure of qualifying research work, and the word count should be 2,500-3,000 words (Balu 38). The basic elements of a synopsis include a title page, contents page, an introduction, background, literature review, objectives, methods, experiments and results, conclusions, and references.

  3. Q: What is the format for the synopsis of a thesis?

    The synopsis for a thesis is basically the plan for a research project, typically done when pursuing a doctorate. It outlines the focus areas and key components of the research in order to obtain approval for the research. Here is a listing of the sections that typically are a part of the synopsis. Do check with your guide/supervisor for those ...

  4. How to Write a Synopsis for Your Research |Steps in the Ph.D ...

    The format of your synopsis will depend upon the guidelines provided by your university but we will provide you with a general outline on how to write a synopsis for a Ph.D. The format for a synopsis will be as follows: Title of your research thesis: The title of your research project should be clearly defined in your synopsis.


    The synopsis is to be considered as a detailed summary of the work with important results highlighting the original contributions in the thesis to be submitted. It should give an outline of the thesis. The review of earlier work is to be minimized with just enough to highlight the contributions in the research work to be reported in the thesis.

  6. How to Write a Good Synopsis for Thesis

    A good synopsis details everything related to your topic, but a great synopsis ensures that not only is the content there, but it is presented in a logical manner and easy to follow. Your outlined thesis should include the following: The title of the topic. The abstract. The necessity of the topic - the background.


    Keywords: Synopsis, Ph.D Synopsis, Literature review, Methodology 1. INTRODUCTION Introduction is the first main section in a synopsis. This synopsis is to be considered as a detailed summary of the workwith important resultshighlighting the original contributions in the thesisto be submitted. It should give an outline ofthe thesis.

  8. A Guide to Writing a PhD Thesis

    A PhD thesis is a work of original research all students are requiured to submit in order to succesfully complete their PhD. The thesis details the research that you carried out during the course of your doctoral degree and highlights the outcomes and conclusions reached. The PhD thesis is the most important part of a doctoral research degree ...

  9. How to Write a Thesis Summary

    Elaborate a thesis statement. The thesis statement. is the most important part. This is a sentence usually placed at the beginning of the summary and it is aimed at clarifying the main research questions of your work. The thesis statement must be clear and concise. MA theses, but also PhD dissertations, usually concern very narrow topics.

  10. How to Format a PhD Synopsis (India)

    In addition to the synopsis format for a PhD, we have outlined the styling rules you should follow: Approximately 1" margins on top, bottom, and right of page. Approximately 1.25" margin on left of page to allow space for binding. Sans serif font (for example Times New Roman). Black colour font. Size 11pt or 12pt font.

  11. PDF Guidelines for preparation of Synopsis for the Ph.D. thesis

    1. The length of a synopsis for the Ph.D. Thesis should normally be 1000 to 4000 words including tables and figures. The Synopsis should be on A4 size paper. Four copies of the synopsis are required to be submitted. 2. There exists, at present, a wide variation in the subject matter and style of presentation of the synopsis.

  12. How to Write a Synopsis for PhD With Focus on the Right Format

    Correct PhD thesis Format. A PhD synopsis is like a summary of what you want to study for your doctorate. It's like a roadmap that tells people what your research will be about. Let's break it down: 1. Title: - Choose a clear and catchy title for your research. 2. Introduction:

  13. PDF Guidelines for Preparation of Synopsis

    tables, etc.) for writing the Synopsis is the same as that for the thesis. Please consult the "Guidelines for Preparation of Thesis / Dissertation/Reports" for IIT Ropar for reference. 2. The length of a synopsis for the Ph.D. Thesis should normally be 1000 to 4000 words, including tables and figures. The Synopsis should be on A4 size paper. 3.

  14. PDF CENTRE FOR RESEARCH (PHD) Guidelines for preparing PhD Synopsis and Thesis

    Guidelines for Preparation of PhD Thesis 1. ORGANISATION OF THE CHAPTERS OF THESIS The dissertation shall be presented in a number of chapters, starting with Introduction and ending with Summary and Conclusions. Each of the other chapters will have precise title reflecting the contents of the chapter. A chapter can be subdivided into sections, sub-

  15. PDF Synopsis of the PhD thesis : network computations in artificial

    science tries to study complex systems as a whole. This synopsis presents my PhD thesis which takes an alternative approach to the reductionism strategy, with the aim to advance both fields, advocating that major breakthroughs can be made when these two are combined. The thesis illustrates this bidirectional

  16. PDF Manual For Preparation of Ph.D./ M.S. Synopsis

    The synopsis is to be considered as a detailed summary of the work with important results highlighting the original contributions in the thesis to be submitted. It should give an outline of the thesis. The review of earlier work is to be minimized with just enough to highlight the contributions in the research work to be reported in the thesis.

  17. PDF Format of PhD Synopsis

    PhD Scholars of all disciplines are expected to ensure that the synopsis submitted to the center for research complies with the guidelines in this handbook. 1. Parts of the synopsis. Every synopsis will have three parts. The first part is the cover page. The second part is the preliminary pages and the third is the main body.

  18. How to write synopsis for PhD thesis?

    PhD research synopsis format general outline. 1. The title of research or thesis. Clearly state the title of your research project for PhD. 2. Introduction. The introduction section of PhD synopsis should briefly explain the current knowledge of your research topic, research gaps, and how PhD research project aims to do address these gaps. 3 ...


    I, Ms. Jalpa Shantilal Paun, herewith submit 6 (Six) copies of the synopsis of my PhD Thesis, to The Controller of Examination, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad through the Supervisor, Dr. H. M. Tank, I have also enclosed the soft copy of the synopsis on a CD in the Portable Document Format (PDF).

  20. Thesis formalities

    The PhD thesis should be written in English, and may either be written as a monograph or as a synopsis with manuscripts/papers included. As a general rule, the PhD student may not copy text directly from own manuscripts/papers. This is perceived as potential self-plagiarism and is not acceptable. Synopsis

  21. Format of synopsis for PhD

    FORMAT OF SYNOPSIS (MS/MPHIL & PHD). Given below is an outline for synopsis writing. It provides guidelines for organization and presentation of research. Figure 1: Format of Synopsis. THE TITLE OF RESEARCH OR THESIS. CERTIFICATE. INDEX. INTRODUCTION OF 2-3 PAGES. Identify a real world problem.

  22. Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET

    Three Days Training Programme on "Ethical Issues and Use of Plagiarism Detection in Research" (offline mode) during 08th - 10th April, 2024. Registration Download Brochure. 5,00,000th Thesis is uploaded into Shodhganga by Prof Yogesh Singh, Hon'ble Chairman, Governing Board, INFLIBNET Centre & Vice Chancellor, University of Delhi, Delhi in the august presence of Prof J P Singh Joorel, Director ...

  23. PhD Synopsis Format

    The PhD synopsis format may vary from one institution to another. However, besides minor differences, the general format remains almost the same. You will usually need to follow this structure: The title of research or thesis. Introduction of 2-3 pages. Literature review.

  24. PhD Student

    An English summary of your Master's thesis (1-2 pages). Two reference contacts, preferably including the (co-)supervisor of your Master's thesis. Candidates who are invited for the next selection round will be notified by 11 June 2024. On-site interviews will take place on 2 July 2024 in Ghent.

  25. We provide all research-related services.

    0 likes, 0 comments - phdhelpdeskApril 18, 2024 on : "We provide all research-related services. i) Topic Selection ii) Synopsis writing. iii) Full Thesis Writing. iv ...