Essay on Tsunami for Students and Children

500+ words essay on tsunami.

Tsunami is a phenomenon where a series of strong waves that are responsible for the surge in water sometimes reach the heights in many meters. This is a natural disaster that is caused due to the volcano eruption in the ocean beds. Also, a phenomenon like landslides and earthquakes contributes to reasons for a tsunami. Like other natural disasters, the impact of the tsunami is also huge. It has been seen throughout history how disastrous the tsunami is. The essay on tsunami talks about various factors that contribute to the tsunami and the damage it causes to mankind. 

Essay on Tsunami

Essay On Tsunami

The disaster that is caused due to waves generated in the ocean because of the earthquake and whose main point is under the water is known as ‘Tsunami’. Also, the term tsunami is associated with tidal waves. Thus, a tsunami is also called as the series of ocean waves that have a very long wavelength. Because of the tsunami, there are strong waves of water is formed and this moves landwards. So, this causes inland movement of water which is very high and lasts for a long time. Thus, the impact of these waves is also very high. 

Greeks were the first people on Earth to claim the effects of the tsunami. They claim that tsunami is just like land earthquakes. Also, the only difference between tsunami and earthquake is that tsunami is caused in oceans. Thus, the scale and ferocity of the tsunami are almost impossible to control. 

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The History of Tsunami

The highest ever recorded tsunami was on 9th July 1958 in the record books. It took place in a bay which was located in the ligula bay along the coasts of Alaska. After the quake, a massive mass of rock fell into the bay waters from the cliff nearby. Thus, this created an impact and produced a wave that reached a height of 524 meters. Also, this is regarded as one of the highest recorded tsunami waves ever. 

The destructive waves responsible for the occurrence of tsunami is also produced in waters of bays or lakes. As this water approached the coast, it grows larger. However, the size of this wave is very low in deep-sea areas. Tsunami waves that are generated in the lakes or bays do not travel for a long distance. Thus, they are not as destructive as the ones produced in the ocean waters. There are various directions in which tsunami can travel from the main point. 

One similar devastating tsunami was experienced in India in 2004. However, the origin of this tsunami was located near Indonesia. Because of the tsunami, it was expected that a total of 2 lakh people lost their lives. The waves traveled extensively thousands of kilometers in countries like Thailand, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Maldives. 

Tsunamis occur mainly in the Pacific Ocean. There are very chances that they take place in the area where there are larger bodies. Coastlines and open bays next to very deep waters may help tsunami further into a step-like wave. 

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Tsunami Essay

Giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions in the sea are known as tsunamis . The height of tsunami waves does not substantially rise as they approach the ocean's depths. However, as the waves move inland, the ocean's depth declines, causing them to rise to ever-higher heights. Although tsunamis majorly affect only coastal areas, they have a tremendous amount of destructive power and can have an impact on entire ocean basins. Here are a few sample essays on "Tsunami".

Tsunami Essay

100 Words Essay On Tsunami

The first people to declare the existence of tsunamis were the Greeks. The Greeks considered a tsunami to be a ground quake. The only thing that separates tsunamis from earthquakes is that tsunamis happen in the ocean. Consequently, it is very difficult to limit the magnitude and spread of tsunamis. The ecology suffers significantly as a result of tsunamis. Buildings, ecosystems, livelihoods, and other things are destroyed.

Underwater earthquakes and volcanic eruptions play a crucial role in the development of tsunamis. Tsunamis are caused by various sources, including ground sinking, explosives, etc. Volcanic eruptions beneath the ocean's surface also cause tsunamis to occur. It is commonly known that tsunamis frequently happen in the Pacific Ocean.

200 Words Essay On Tsunami

The word "tsunami," meaning "harbour wave," is of Japanese origin. A tsunami is a series of lengthy water waves that are caused by ocean floor tremors and volcanic eruptions. A landslide will be the primary effect of the earthquake, barring any failure to produce a tsunami on the inside of the seas.

Warning Signs About Tsunamis

The ecology is destroyed by tsunamis , just like any other natural disaster. When a tsunami hits, the ocean waves accelerate to 420 km/h. There are warning signs advising individuals to get away if a tsunami is approaching in several places along the western coastline of the United States, which is vulnerable to tsunamis from the Pacific Ocean.

Based on details about the event that caused the tsunami, the topography of the sea floor, and the coastal landmass, computer simulations can roughly forecast the tsunami's arrival and damage.

Signals By Animals | Animals in the neighbourhood provide one of the first warnings. Before the flood comes, a lot of creatures recognise danger and seek higher ground. Marine life is impacted by tsunamis as well. The ability to predict earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters could be achieved by closely observing their behaviour.

Tsunami Warning Systems | The public can now be alerted to tsunamis before they reach the coasts in areas with a high risk of flooding by using the tsunami warning systems that are available nowadays.

500 Words Essay On Tsunami

A tsunami is a natural disaster that originates under water and is brought on by the waves that an earthquake causes to be generated in the ocean. The tsunami's impacts were initially reported by Greeks on Earth. They claim that earthquakes on land and tsunamis are identical. The sole distinction between a tsunami and an earthquake is that a tsunami results from an oceanic event. Because of this, it is practically impossible to manage the height and intensity of the tsunami.

Tsunami In India

In 2004, India suffered from a terrible tsunami. The tsunami's source was, though, close to Indonesia. It was estimated that 2 lakh people died due to the tsunami. The waves covered thousands of kilometres in places like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and the Maldives.

In the Pacific Ocean, tsunamis dominate. They are likely to occur in a region with more massive bodies. A tsunami may be aided in its progression into a step-like wave by open bays and coastlines near extremely deep oceans.

Controlling Destruction

Here are some steps that can be taken by the government to prevent Tsunami and especially the destruction it brings:-

Infrastructure | Government expenditures can go toward developing infrastructure that is robust, highly secure, and capable of withstanding a tsunami's impact. The height should be sufficient to prevent the tsunami's upper wave from conquering it. A tsunami-prone area can be protected from intensive development and habitational activity.

Warning Systems | The local government can install a quick and effective early warning system. This would assist in raising everyone's level of alertness. By doing so, it might be possible to reduce the loss of human life by getting more people to migrate or escape dangerous locations.

Awareness | It is vitally important to inform people about the effects of tsunamis and their potential consequences. They must be instructed on recognising and understanding the early tsunami warning signs. Under challenging circumstances, they must learn to stay fully prepared rather than panic and anxiously rush around.

Afforestation | Another alternative is to plant trees that can absorb the force of tidal waves, like mangroves, along the coast and its borders. These may lessen a tsunami's effects and limit the devastation they create.

My Experience Of Mock Drills

I remember mock drills were conducted in my school and high school as they were located near the coast of the Arabian sea. These mock drills were conducted to prepare the students for any emergency circumstances like tsunamis, earthquakes and fire disasters. We were taught how to escape in a planned manner which does not create a problematic situation. We were strictly instructed not to use lifts in such a scenario. During heavy rains, school was kept off since Tsunami is more likely to strike during rains.

Tsunamis are less common than other types of natural disasters. However, they may still cause significant damage. A tsunami's most severe consequence is the massive number of deaths. As a result, individuals have little time to flee or escape a tsunami's immediate, nearly silent impact. Tsunamis significantly harm the environment in addition to bringing severe degradation. Marine life suffers extreme damage.

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Speech therapist, gynaecologist.

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Are you searching for an ‘Anatomist job description’? An Anatomist is a research professional who applies the laws of biological science to determine the ability of bodies of various living organisms including animals and humans to regenerate the damaged or destroyed organs. If you want to know what does an anatomist do, then read the entire article, where we will answer all your questions.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or  MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

ITSM Manager

Automation test engineer.

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

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tsunami disaster essay

What is a tsunami?

A tsunami is a series of waves caused by earthquakes or undersea volcanic eruptions..

damage from tsunami in American Samoa

On September 29, 2009, a tsunami caused substantial damage and loss of life in American Samoa, Samoa, and Tonga. The tsunami was generated by a large earthquake in the Southern Pacific Ocean.


Did you know?

Tsunamis are giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea. Out in the depths of the ocean, tsunami waves do not dramatically increase in height. But as the waves travel inland, they build up to higher and higher heights as the depth of the ocean decreases. The speed of tsunami waves depends on ocean depth rather than the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves may travel as fast as jet planes over deep waters, only slowing down when reaching shallow waters. While tsunamis are often referred to as tidal waves, this name is discouraged by oceanographers because tides have little to do with these giant waves.

More Information

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Tracking Tsunamis (Ocean Today Video)

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NOAA Tsunami Program

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Author: NOAA

How to cite this article

99 Tsunami Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best tsunami topic ideas & essay examples, 🥇 most interesting tsunami topics to write about, 📌 simple & easy tsunami essay titles, ❓ tsunami research questions.

  • Impact of the Japan Tsunami 2011 Disaster on Tourism and Hospitality Industries Most coastal regions in the Pacific countries are highly populated due to the fact that the inland regions are usually mountainous and inhabitable compared to the relatively flatland in the coastal areas.
  • The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 and Its Consequences The worst effects of the great wave were observed in Indonesia, where the death toll exceeded 160,000 people, and the overall damages almost reached $4. We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • 2011 Tsunami in Tohoku and Its Effects on Japan In this instance, the geological origin of the tsunami has to be discussed due to the fact that it plays a significant role in predicting the presence of a tsunami in the future.
  • Damages of Tsunami to Human Beings High Cost of Fighting Tsunami The total cost of tsunami could be billions of dollars since the damages of income generating business, and the cost used to curb the situation on the ground was quite […]
  • Tsunami Warning Management System Tsunami emergency management system detects and predicts tsunami in addition to warning individuals and government in good time before the onset of the disaster.
  • Natural Disasters: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Tsunamis In addition, the paper will outline some of the similarities and differences between tsunamis and floods. Similarities between tsunamis and floods: Both tsunamis and floods are natural disasters that cause destruction of properties and human […]
  • Tsunami’s Reasons and Effects Therefore, it is essential to know how to anticipate the place and time of the occurrence of a tsunami and to determine which factors are the main in assessing the potential wave’s power and the […]
  • South California Tsunami and Disaster Response This paper provides the report’s estimate figures in terms of human casualties and the structures affected by the wave. The Figure 1 represents the graphical representation of the data collected.
  • The Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 Documentary The documentary reflects the events leading to the natural disasters and their aftermath, including an investigation into the reasons for the failure of the precautionary measures in place during the 2011 earthquake in Japan.
  • Tsunamis: Case Studies Massive movement of seabed caused the tsunami during the earthquake movement. The Burma plates slipped around the earthquake’s epicenter.
  • Tsunami Warning Systems In such a way, it is possible to conclude that the poor functioning of awareness systems in the past preconditioned the reconsideration of the approach to monitoring tsunamis and warning people about them.
  • Tsunami and the Health Department The overstretching of health facilities poses a great challenge; how can the health department deal with tsunami cases to ensure that the community is disease-free and safe?
  • Economic Tsunami and Current Economic Strategies The current economic situation in the world is the result of a great number of different factors including the sphere of finance.
  • Tsunami Handling at a Nuclear Power Plant The information presented in this research paper has been analyzed and proved to be the actual content obtained by various parties that participate in the study of tsunamis.
  • The Sumatra Earthquake of 26 December 2004: Indonesia Tsunami As such, the earthquake resulted in the development of a large tsunami off the Sumatran Coast that led to destruction of large cities in Indonesia.
  • Tsunami Funding: On Assistance to the Victims of the December 2004 Tsunami In the US, through the help of the United Nations Organization in conjunction with the Red Cross, sited and established centers where people in the community would take their donations.
  • Tsunami: Crisis Management The saving of lives during a disaster and emergency incident will depend on the proper coordination of the rescue team, delivery of the right skills to the scene which can only be achieved through the […]
  • The Recommendations Made in the Field of Tsunami Emergency Managements Additionally, the tsunami that hit the coastal area of the Indian Ocean in 2004 was one of the events that led to reconsiderations of the preparedness levels in dealing with catastrophes of such scales.
  • Physical Aspect of Tsunami According to Nelson, wave length is the distance between similar points of the wave; the concepts of tsunami wave height and amplitude are interconnected, as the height is the distance between tsunami’s trough and peak, […]
  • Causes and Effect of the Tsunami in Indonesia Scientifically tsunami is caused by the water which is impelled afar the interior of the underwater commotion, the change in this water levels move at the speed of about four hundred miles per sixty minutes […]
  • Natural Hazard: Tsunami Caused by Earthquakes Other areas that are prone to the tsunamis include Midwestern and Eastern United States of America and parts of Eastern of Canada, Indian Ocean and East Africa.
  • Tsunamis and Their Harmful Effects on Countries As it begins, the video shows the surrounding of the beach which is still full of people, then focuses on an approaching wave.
  • Tsunami Geological Origin Firstly, the source of the volcanic eruption has to be understood, as this natural phenomenon is one of the primary causes of a tsunami.
  • Natural Disasters: Tsunami, Hurricanes and Earthquake The response time upon the prediction of a tsunami is minimal owing to the rapid fall and rise of the sea level.
  • The Causes and Consequences of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka Due to a displacement of sea water as a result of displaced debris from landslides, a series of waves that has a potential of causing a tsunami is formed.
  • Effect of the 2004 Tsunami on Indonesia The areas prone to tsunamis on the Indonesian coast are: The west coast of Sumatra, the south coast of Java, the north and south coasts of West Nusa, Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara provinces, the […]
  • Tsunami Disasters in Okushiri Island In addition, fire outbreaks also contributed to the devastating effects of the tsunami. In addition, the question of educating and passing information about dangers of tsunami contributed to massive loss of lives.
  • Marketing after a Crisis: Recovering From the Tsunami in Thailand The researchers aim was to assess the damages caused by the tsunami, to evaluate and adjust the impact and strategize on how to combat the crisis in the future.
  • Tsunami: Definition and Causes Tsunamis have gained worldwide notoriety following the two devastating tsunamis that have occurred in the course of the last ten years. Submarine earthquakes can generate dangerous tsunamis and that the intensity of this tsunami is […]
  • What Is a Tsunami and What Causes Them? We shall dwell on the Shifts in the Tectonic plates as the reasoning behind the Tsunamis, but we have to understand the concept involved in the movement of the plate tectonics then how the earthquake […]
  • The Impacts of Japan’s Earthquake, Tsunami on the World Economy The future prospects in regard to the tsunami and the world economy will be presented and application of the lessons learnt during the catastrophe in future” tsunami occurrence” management.
  • Effect on People Who Have Been Through Tsunami The community and government were left with a major challenge of how to cope with the physical and psychological stress that was quite evident.
  • Exceedance Probability for Various Magnitudes of Tsunami
  • A Short History of Tsunami Research and Countermeasures in Japan
  • New Computational Methods in Tsunami Science
  • Adult Mortality Five Years After a Natural Disaster: Evidence From the Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • Affect, Risk Perception and Future Optimism After the Tsunami Disaster
  • Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards
  • Tsunami Risk Assessment in Indonesia
  • Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions
  • Battening Down the Hatches: How Should the Maritime Industries Weather the Financial Tsunami
  • A Simple Model for Calculating Tsunami Flow Speed From Tsunami Deposits
  • Implementation and Testing of the Method of Splitting Tsunami Model
  • The Storegga Slides: Evidence From Eastern Scotland for a Possible Tsunami
  • Coastal Vegetation Structures and Their Functions in Tsunami Protection: Experience of the Recent Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • Tsunami Fragility: A New Measure to Identify Tsunami Damage
  • Geological Indicators of Large Tsunami in Australia
  • Calamity, Aid and Indirect Reciprocity: The Long Run Impact of Tsunami on Altruism
  • Cash and In-Kind Food Aid Transfers: Tsunami Emergency Aid in Banda Aceh
  • Confronting the “Second Wave of the Tsunami”: Stabilizing Communities in the Wake of Foreclosures
  • A Numerical Model for the Transport of a Boulder by Tsunami
  • Experimental Investigation of Tsunami Impact on Free Standing Structures
  • Economic and Business Development in China After the Tsunami
  • How Effective Were Mangroves as a Defence Against the Recent Tsunami?
  • Estimating Probable Maximum Loss From a Cascadia Tsunami
  • Faster Than Real Time Tsunami Warning With Associated Hazard Uncertainties
  • Tsunami Science Before and Beyond Boxing Day 2004
  • Sediment Effect on Tsunami Generation of the 1896 Sanriku Tsunami Earthquake
  • Tsunami Generation by Horizontal Displacement of Ocean Bottom
  • Joint Evaluation of the International Response to the Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • The Effectiveness and Limit of Tsunami Control Forests
  • Distinguishing Tsunami and Storm Deposits: An Example From Martinhal, SW Portugal
  • Developing Effective Vegetation Bioshield for Tsunami Protection
  • Indian Ocean Tsunami: Disaster, Generosity and Recovery
  • Three-Dimensional Splay Fault Geometry and Implications for Tsunami Generation
  • Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an Example From Herakleio, Crete
  • Knowledge-Building Approach for Tsunami Impact Analysis Aided by Citizen Science
  • Mental Health Problems Among Adults in Tsunami-Affected Areas in Southern Thailand
  • Legitimacy, Accountability and Impression Management in NGOs: The Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • Measuring Tsunami Preparedness in Coastal Washington, United States
  • Standards, Criteria, and Procedures for NOAA Evaluation of Tsunami Numerical Models
  • The Use of Scenarios to Evaluate the Tsunami Impact in Southern Italy
  • Could a Large Tsunami Happen in the United States?
  • What Does a Tsunami Look Like When It Reaches the Coast?
  • Is It Rare for a Tsunami to Happen?
  • What Happens to Sharks During a Tsunami?
  • Where Is the Safest Place During a Tsunami?
  • What’s the Worst Tsunami Ever?
  • What Happens to the Beach Before a Tsunami?
  • Why Does Water Go Out Before a Tsunami?
  • Can You Survive a Tsunami With a Life Jacket?
  • Where Do Tsunami Most Hit?
  • How Are Tsunamis Different From Normal Ocean Waves?
  • What Are the Designated Service Areas of the Tsunami Warning Centers?
  • How Quickly Are Tsunami Messages Issued?
  • What Is the Difference Between a Local and a Distant Tsunami?
  • What Types of Earthquakes Generate Tsunamis?
  • Can Near Earth Objects Generate Tsunamis?
  • What Are the Causes of Tsunamis?
  • How Can Tsunami Be Controlled?
  • What Keeps a Tsunami Going?
  • Which Country Has the Most Tsunamis?
  • What Are Some of the Most Damaging Tsunamis to Affect the United States?
  • What Is the Tsunami Hazard Level for Anchorage and the Upper Cook Inlet in Alaska?
  • What Are Ways Tsunami Start?
  • How Many Tsunami Happen a Year?
  • Can a Boat at Sea Survive a Tsunami?
  • What Happens to a Whale in a Tsunami?
  • How Much Warning Is There Before a Tsunami?
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2023, January 24). 99 Tsunami Essay Topic Ideas & Examples.

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Essay on Tsunami for Students in English | 500+ Words Essay

January 1, 2021 by Sandeep

Essay on Tsunami: A sudden, unexpected series of ocean waves of high risen wavelengths are called tsunami waves. They are strong currents of water waves that rush through inland spaces, flood nearby areas and last for a long time. They are seismic waves that trigger landslide undersea and force themselves through any obstacle on their way. Large volumes of water are displaced at great transoceanic distances at high speeds.

Essay on Tsunami 500 Words in English

Below we have provided Tsunami Essay in English, suitable for class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.

A tsunami is a series of fierce waves generated by the displacement of water. They occur in substantial water bodies due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and underwater explosions. Tsunamis are also oftenly referred to as tidal waves. The waves are very high in magnitude as well as their length, and they can be immensely destructive.

Japan is the country which has recorded the most significant number of tsunamis. The tsunami generated in the Indian Ocean in the year 2004 is still considered as the most upsetting tsunami taking more than two hundred thousand lives. Tsunamis are quite rare in occurrence as compared to other natural disasters , but they are equally damaging.

Causes of Tsunami

The leading cause of a tsunami is attributable to an earthquake . However, even volcanic eruptions, landslides and comets or other heavenly bodies hitting the sea can be a source. When the tectonic plates of the earth positioned under the sea are disturbed, an earthquake takes place, causing the seawater to displace and erupt in sudden waves. These waves move further and further towards the shores. They can go unnoticed in the deep ocean but become more prominent as the water becomes shallow.

Landslides are another prominent cause of a tsunami. When heavy debris falls without warning with massive force into the sea, it causes a tremendous ripple effect. This ripple effect thus, causes tidal waves to form, which ultimately rise towards the land and cause massive destruction. During the eruption of a volcano on land, debris falls with a great thrust into the water body, causing the same ripple effect. Volcanoes can be underwater as well. They are known as submarine volcanoes. Tsunamis can further occur as a result of meteorological activity and human-made triggers.

Effects of Tsunami

When water washes away the shores with such colossal force, it damages the sewage system and freshwater. It also causes water fit for drinking to erode and contaminate. Because of the water being stagnant and polluted, numerous diseases like malaria affect a large number of people. They become ill, and infections spread quickly. A tsunami may even destroy nuclear plants which result in emittance of harmful radiations. These radiations are fatal to the health of every living organism. Mass evacuations become necessary in areas exposed to radiations because they can result in cancer, death and can even affect the DNA structures.

The saddest effect of a tsunami is the loss of lives in huge numbers. Tsunamis hit suddenly, with almost no warning and hence people get no time to escape it or run away. They drown, collapse, are electrocuted, etc. Tsunamis not only cause massive destruction of life but also degrade the environment in a gigantic way. It uproots trees and destroys pipelines which lead to the release of dioxides, raw sewage and other pollutants into the atmosphere. When these hazardous pollutants are washed into the sea, they also cause unbearable damage to the aquatic underwater life.

When the waves of a powerful tsunami smash the shores, they destroy trees, cars, buildings, telephone lines, pipelines and other man-made equipment into bits and pieces. Poverty rises in areas which get most affected by the wrath of tsunamis. The governments are also able to do little for their betterment immediately due to the high funding requirement and expenses.

Prevention of Tsunami

The government can invest in building strong and high protective infrastructure which can withstand the force of a tsunami. The length should be so tall, that the most upper wave of the tsunami cannot over top it. Also, heavy construction and livelihood activities in tsunami-prone areas can be avoided. The local authorities can install an efficient and fast early warning system. This would help to get all the people on alert. This way, more and more people would evacuate or leave the areas of danger, and human life destruction could be minimised.

Educating people and making them aware of the effects and impact of a tsunami is exceptionally crucial. They should be taught about the early warning signals of a tsunami and how to identify them. They should also learn how to be fully prepared in tough times like these instead of panicking and rapidly running around. Planting the coastal regions and boundaries with trees such as Mangroves which can absorb tidal wave energy can be another option. These can help to reduce the impact of a tsunami and curb the levels of destruction caused.


Essay on Tsunami

Students are often asked to write an essay on Tsunami in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Tsunami

What is a tsunami.

A tsunami is a series of powerful waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water. This usually happens due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or underwater landslides.

How Does a Tsunami Form?

When the sea floor abruptly deforms, it displaces the overlying water, triggering a tsunami. The waves travel across the ocean at high speeds.

Effects of a Tsunami

Tsunamis can cause mass destruction when they hit land. They can flood cities, destroy buildings, and take lives. It’s important to have early warning systems to minimize damage.

Understanding tsunamis helps us prepare and mitigate their harmful effects.

Also check:

  • 10 Lines on Tsunami
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250 Words Essay on Tsunami


Tsunamis, deriving from the Japanese words ‘tsu’ meaning harbor and ‘nami’ meaning wave, are a series of powerful water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water. They are known for their destructive power and unpredictability, posing a significant threat to coastal communities.

Causes of Tsunamis

Tsunamis are typically triggered by seismic activities beneath the ocean floor. These include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. The energy released during these events displaces the overlying water column, generating waves that can travel across oceans at high speeds.

Characteristics and Impact

Unlike regular waves, tsunami waves involve the movement of the entire water column from the sea surface to the seabed. This attribute contributes to their long wavelengths and high energy, enabling them to travel vast distances. Upon reaching shallow waters, their speed decreases, causing the wave height to increase dramatically, often resulting in widespread destruction when they hit land.

Prevention and Mitigation

While tsunamis cannot be prevented, their impact can be mitigated through early warning systems, coastal zone management, and community preparedness. Technological advancements have made it possible to detect seismic activities and issue timely alerts, thereby saving lives.

Tsunamis, while a fascinating natural phenomenon, are a stark reminder of nature’s power. Understanding their causes and characteristics is crucial in developing effective mitigation strategies, thereby reducing their devastating impacts on human lives and the environment.

500 Words Essay on Tsunami

Tsunamis, often referred to as seismic sea waves, are a series of ocean waves caused by any large-scale disturbance of the sea surface. These disturbances can include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or even meteorite impacts in the ocean. Tsunamis are not regular sea waves but energy waves, often caused by seismic activities beneath the ocean floor. Their impact on human lives and the environment can be devastating, emphasizing the importance of understanding and predicting these natural disasters.

The Mechanics of a Tsunami

Tsunamis are initiated by a sudden displacement of the sea floor due to geological activities like earthquakes. This displacement results in a vertical shift of the overlying water column, creating a series of waves that radiate outwards from the point of origin. The speed of a tsunami is determined by the depth of water, with deeper waters facilitating faster wave speeds.

In the open ocean, these waves may be just a few centimeters high, but their wavelength, or the distance between successive crests, can span hundreds of kilometers. As these waves approach coastal areas, the shallowing sea floor compresses the wave energy, causing the wave to increase dramatically in height.

Impact and Consequences

The destructive power of a tsunami comes from the massive amount of water that it can move and the consequent flooding. When a tsunami reaches the shore, it can cause immense damage to structures, erode beaches and embankments, destroy vegetation, and severely impact both terrestrial and marine life.

The human toll can be equally devastating. Tsunamis can lead to loss of life, displacement of people, and economic damage. The aftermath of a tsunami often includes public health crises, with the spread of waterborne diseases and psychological trauma among survivors.

Unfortunately, tsunamis cannot be prevented as they are triggered by natural geological processes. However, their impact can be mitigated through early warning systems, community preparedness, and intelligent coastal management.

Tsunami early warning systems, comprising seismographs and sea level monitoring stations, can provide critical minutes to hours of warning. This allows people in the path of a tsunami to seek higher ground. Community preparedness involves education about tsunami risks, evacuation routes, and drills. Intelligent coastal management can include the construction of seawalls, planting of mangroves to absorb wave energy, and zoning laws to prevent construction in high-risk areas.

Tsunamis, while a fascinating demonstration of the power of nature, are a sobering reminder of our vulnerability to natural disasters. As our understanding of these phenomena grows, so too does our ability to protect ourselves and our communities. The implementation of early warning systems, public education, and intelligent coastal management are key components in reducing the devastating impact of these ocean giants. Through continued research and community resilience, we can mitigate the effects of tsunamis and safeguard our future against these powerful sea waves.

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Natural Disaster Essay: How to Write, Topics, & Examples

tsunami disaster essay

What would you do if someone told you that a tsunami would wipe out your house tomorrow afternoon? You won’t believe them. It always seems that natural disasters happen in someone else’s life. But every year, millions of people worldwide suffer from various natural calamities. This article attempts to systemize the chaos of nature for you to write an impressive natural disasters essay. You will get acquainted with the seven types of disasters, get a long list of topics and examples of natural disaster essay in 200 words and 300 words.

  • 🌪️ Natural Disaster: The Basics
  • 💡 114 Essay Topics
  • 📑 Outlining Your Essay
  • 🌊 Essay Sample (200 Words)
  • 🏜️ Essay Sample (300 Words)

🌪️ Natural Disaster Essay: What Is It About?

A natural disaster is a large-scale meteorological or geological event that can to cause loss of life or massive damage to people’s property. Floods and severe storms are the most reported acts of nature in the US, but other incidents also happen from time to time. That is why you can dedicate your essay on natural disasters to earthquakes, droughts, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, or tornadoes.

The picture lists the 7 main types of natural disasters.

💡 114 Natural Disasters Essay Topics

What could you write in a natural disaster essay? You can invent your own topic about various types of natural disasters, their causes, and aftermath, or their impact on human life and the economy. Depending on the discipline, you can also describe historic calamities that changed the direction of human civilization. Alternatively, choose one from our comprehensive list below.

  • Why are the Great Plains of the central US ideal for tornado formation?
  • Global Warming and Climate Change Legislation .
  • Research the atmospheric parameters inside a tornado.
  • Energy, Technology and Climate Change .
  • Why are the boundaries of Tornado Alley in the US so debatable?
  • The global climate change as a manmade disaster.
  • Which actions should you never do when a tornado is nearby?
  • Volunteers’ Role During Disasters .
  • Suggest your opinion on the best action strategy in a hurricane.
  • The Columbia Disaster and safety violations.
  • What were the causes and effects of a flood?
  • Analysis on Climate Change and Global Impact .
  • Describe the most devastating wildfires in the US and find their common features.
  • Earthquake Engineering Considerations and Methods .
  • Brainstorm ideas to prevent wildfires.
  • Global warming and the greenhouse effect.
  • How can building dams cause earthquakes?
  • Climate Change and Its Impact on Freshwater .
  • Analyze the impact of droughts on tourism .
  • Climate Change Effect on Coral Reef Communities .
  • Describe the most extended droughts in human history.
  • Marine and Coastal Climate Change in Australia .
  • Write an essay on natural disasters and earthquakes in particular.
  • Air pollution and mortality rates
  • What are the distinctive features of droughts in third-world countries ?
  • Global Warming, Climate Change, and Society’s Impact on the Environment .
  • Study the relationship between global warming and droughts.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After a Hurricane .
  • Evaluate the damage caused by Hurricane Maria in 2017.
  • Social Media’s Role in Disaster Response .
  • Classify the effects of natural disasters in an essay.
  • Sustainability and Climate Change .
  • Describe the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mt. Tambora, Indonesia.
  • Hurricane Katrina: Overview, Impact, Response .
  • Each new leap of civilization causes new responses of nature.
  • Animal Exploitation. Animal Agriculture and Climate Change .
  • Think of any positive effects a volcanic eruption may have.
  • In Arizona, Collaboration Averts Water Disaster .
  • Children are the poorest victims of any disaster.
  • A Solution to Remedy Climate Change .
  • Which ways of disaster risk reduction do you know?
  • An Emergency Operations Center During Hurricane Harvey .
  • Research the current problems in disaster management.
  • Disaster Recovery Plan for Information Technology Organizations .
  • Analyze ineffective disaster management in an essay about hurricane Katrina.
  • Nurse Competencies and Scope of Practice in Disaster .
  • What should a household have at home in the case of a disaster?
  • Hurricane Katrina: The Powerful Natural Disaster .
  • Describe the humanitarian disaster during the drought in Somalia.
  • Technology in Disaster Preparedness .
  • Can man-made disasters entail natural calamities?
  • Disaster Management in Philadelphia .
  • Review the criteria for disaster classification.
  • Jeddah Floods and Adaptation Strategies in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia .
  • Search for real examples of hybrid disasters.
  • Natural Disasters Prevention: A Tabletop Exercise .
  • Who is responsible for casualties after a natural disaster?
  • The Sand Storms: Remote Sensing and Meteorological Variables .
  • List the lessons we could learn from our past disaster experience.
  • Fire Development, Growth, and Spreads .
  • The ice storm and silver thaw: A gentle disaster.
  • Fire Crisis Management in the UAE .
  • Rockslides: A pressing issue for rural areas.
  • 1d – 2d Flood Modeling Using PCSWMM .
  • What are the psychological benefits of disaster preparedness?
  • Structural Control and Origin of Volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone .
  • When does a blizzard become a disaster?
  • Extreme Weather Events + Geographies of Globalization .
  • Research the causes of dust storms and name the affected areas.
  • Strategies for Sustainable Integrated Oil Disaster Management in West Africa .
  • Why did the San Francisco earthquake (1906) cause devastating fires?
  • Causes of Climate Change .
  • What could be done to help people who lost their homes in an earthquake?
  • Book Review: Energy and Global Climate Change .
  • Analyze the role of World Vision in humanitarian aid after disasters.
  • Tangshan earthquake of 1976 showed that high population density is disastrous.
  • The Role of Carbon Dioxide in Climate Change .
  • Rock avalanche: Why water is the most powerful geological agent.
  • Aspects of Climate Change .
  • When do extreme weather conditions turn into a disaster?
  • Climate Change: Reasons, Kyoto Protocol .
  • Write an article on shelter-providing organizations for disaster victims.
  • Establishing an IT Disaster Recovery Plan .
  • Describe earthquake cycles in Haiti.
  • Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food .
  • How can nature damage ecology in natural disasters?
  • Climate Change. Problems. Effects .
  • Disaster management should include psychological help to the survivors.
  • Climate Change Causes: Position and Strategies .
  • Suggest ways to prevent damage caused by debris flow.
  • HAT 4: Disaster in Franklin Country .
  • How did the lack of evacuation after the Bhola cyclone (1970) result in the massive death toll?
  • The Effects of Climate Change .
  • The most significant Yellow River flood: 2 million deaths in 1887.
  • Resilience Building Against Natural Disasters in the Caribbean Islands .
  • Sinkholes: A natural disaster or attraction for cavers and water-divers?
  • Global Climate Change and Health .
  • Describe the dynamics of landslides in California .
  • Which early-warning systems to detect avalanches do you know?
  • Los Angeles Regional Collaborative for Climate Action .
  • Pyroclastic flow: The deadliest volcanic hazard.
  • Communication During Disaster Response .
  • Describe the volcano eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed the Herculaneum and Pompeii.
  • Disaster Planning for Families .
  • Disaster prevention measures: Investments that save millions of lives.
  • Natural Disaster Management and Historical Prospective Study in the UAE .
  • Research the PTSD in survivors of natural disasters.
  • Are the latest disasters the nature’s fightback to humanity?
  • Estimate the human impact on natural disasters.
  • List the countries with the largest number of disasters and find their standard features.
  • Everyday Communication on Climate Change .
  • Insurance coverage against disasters: Our inevitable future.
  • Emergency Planning Before and After Hurricane Katrina .
  • One natural disaster could bring the world to its end.

Haven’t found a suitable topic in the list above? Use our essay topic generator to get more ideas.

📑 Natural Disaster Essay Outline

Outlines differ, depending on the assigned length and essay type. It is a reference sample. Feel free to modify it, extending some points and narrowing the others. Still, the overall structure should remain the same. We have chosen the “Causes of Earthquakes” essay topic for demonstrative purposes.

  • Hook . There are millions of possible ways to start your essay, from a rhetorical question to any imaginable scenario. The point is to grab the reader’s attention, showing them that your writing is unique and creative. For example: We are always concerned with the consequences of a natural disaster. But what brought us into such a calamity in the first place?
  • Concepts. Natural disasters can be studied in the framework of various disciplines. But in all cases, they are linked with geology, biology, chemistry, geography, and some other subjects with broad and complicated terminology. Explain the terms that could be elusive for your readers here. For example: For the purposes of this essay, an earthquake is a sudden displacement of the land surface.
  • Background. How did you come to think of this problem? Why is it topical? The causes of earthquakes are numerous and often unrelated. To understand them as a system, we need a strict classification.
  • Thesis statement . Clearly state the aim of your essay. This essay attempts to group the causes of earthquakes to determine which factors can be tackled by human forces.
  • Transition sentence. It comes in the previous sentence (for paragraphs 2 and 3) and ensures smooth reading. E.g.: Tectonic movements are the most powerful causes of earthquakes, and we cannot influence them. But still, there is something we could do.
  • Topic sentence . What will you explain in this paragraph? Human interference with nature can also cause earthquakes.
  • Evidence. How can you confirm the topic sentence? Heavy clubbing of dam water can disturbance the crustal balance. Nuclear bombing causes shockwaves that penetrate the surface, changing the tectonic plates and their natural alignment. Mining can also cause earthquakes by removing extensive volumes of stone from under the ground.
  • Warrant. Why does the reader need this information, and how does it relate to the thesis statement? Knowing these facts can help us change the old-fashioned approaches and lessen the ecological damage to our planet.
  • Summary. Collect and summarize all your arguments here. Tectonic movements, volcano eruptions, and geological faults cause a significant part of earthquakes worldwide. But various man-made causes bring us to the same result.
  • Rephrased thesis. We cannot stop the tectonic movements or hinder volcanic eruptions, but we can use natural resources with more care.

🌊 Natural Disaster Essay 200 Words

Below you will find a short natural disaster essay for 200 words. It explores the causes and effects of the tsunami in Japan in 2011.

Tsunami in Japan: Causes and Effects The proximity of the deadliest disasters is often unpredictable. As a result, the consequences of a tsunami can exceed any possible expectations. This essay looks for the decisive factors that caused the tsunami in Japan in 2011 and its results for the local population and other countries. The causes were out of human control and could not be predicted. The Pacific plate moved in the horizontal and vertical plane, advancing beneath the Eurasian Plate. It displaced the seawater above and entailed several destructive waves. The disaster had enormous consequences for the Japanese people and their economy. It killed almost 16,000 people, although the country had a sophisticated alarming system. Besides, the earthquake caused fires and explosions at oil factories. The cooling system of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant went out of service. Two people were lost, and many were injured. Nissan, like many other large corporations, had to suspend the operation of its four factories. The economic losses due to the catastrophe amounted to 300 billion dollars. But the disaster moved to other places. On 24 March 2011, the earthquake in the east of Myanmar claimed the lives of 60 people and destroyed 300 buildings. As we can see, everything is linked on our planet. Movements of the earth’ crust in any part of the world bring about earthquakes and tsunami in other countries. The series of waves in Japan was caused by the underwater earthquake and had horrible consequences.

🏜️ Natural Disaster Essay 300 Words

If your assignment is longer, you will have to provide your opinion in the essay. Or, you can make your argumentation more detailed. Below you can check our 300-word sample of a disaster essay.

The Economic Effects of the Dust Bowl Drought When someone says “a natural disaster,” we usually imagine an earthquake or a tsunami. Buildings are destroyed, and property is lost. But imagine a scenario of a devastating drought, which happened in the US in the 1930s. Its effect is less visible because it lies in the domain of the national economy. This essay reveals the economic consequences of the Dust Bowl drought. During the third decade of the XX century, strong winds raised choking dust in the southern states, from Texas to Nebraska. People and animals died as the crops failed in the area for several years in a row. The Dust Bowl lasted for almost a decade and was also called “the Dirty Thirties.” This drought intensified the impact of the Great Depression. Local farmers had to migrate to urban areas in search of better conditions and other sources of living. About 2.5 million people moved West from the worst-hit states, namely New Mexico, Texas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Kansas. But they found only discrimination, meager salaries, and inhuman working conditions. Many had to live in tents near irrigation ditches. They were called “Okies,” a disdainful name for migrants of any state. Regular rains returned to the southern states by the end of 1939, closing the drought. However, the economic aftermath persisted. The counties that suffered the most failed to recover the agricultural value of their land till the 1950s. Thus, the local population kept decreasing for twenty years. Although a drought does not ruin property, it can tangibly lower human life levels. The Dust Bowl threw people into a lose-lose situation. Their farms were unfit for gaining any profit, and the new places of living gave them no better opportunities. It took two decades to restore public wellbeing in the Southern States.

Researching the worst acts of nature can teach you to value what you have. We hope that this article has made your creative writing more manageable and pleasurable. You can write an essay of any length by simply following our outline. All you will need to do after that is make a cover page for it.

Please share your natural disaster essay ideas in the comments below.

❓ Natural Disaster Essay FAQ

How to write an essay about natural disaster.

Your approach should depend on the discipline. But in any case, you can discuss the types of disasters, their consequences, characteristics, and preconditions. The excellent idea is to select a past disastrous event and analyze it from the economic, social, or individual point of view.

What Is a Disaster Essay?

A disaster essay explores the stages of a natural or man-made calamity and seeks the possible ways to prevent similar emergencies in the future. An article on disaster management studies the correct and efficient activities to lower the casualties and property loss after a disaster.

What Is Disaster Preparedness Essay?

This type of writing analyzes the level of readiness of a region or municipality to an unexpected natural disaster. You can highlight the vulnerable groups of the population that will suffer the most. Or, you may invent measures that could reduce the disaster response and coping time. Such assignments teach you strategic thinking and a systematic approach to problem-solving.

How to Describe a Natural Disaster for an Essay?

You should specify that the event was unexpected and led to many deaths and property loss. The most critical things include the causes of the disaster, its progress and duration, and the negative consequences for the locals. You can also specify the negative effect on the economy and humanitarian condition of the area.

🔗 References

  • Natural Disasters and Severe Weather | CDC
  • Types of Disasters | SAMHSA
  • Natural Disaster – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
  • Natural Disasters – National Geographic
  • What Is Disaster Management: Prevention and Mitigation

National Academies Press: OpenBook

Tsunami Warning and Preparedness: An Assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program and the Nation's Preparedness Efforts (2011)

Chapter: 1 introduction, chapter one introduction, the tsunami threat in the united states.

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami resulted in catastrophic losses of life and property and demonstrated how destructive tsunamis can be. More than 200,000 people died, with most occurring in Indonesia, which was near the tsunami source, but deaths were also reported in countries as far away as Somalia. Recently, the Samoan (September 2009) and Chilean (February 2010) tsunamis reminded the world of how quickly a tsunami can move onshore and destroy lives. In comparison to extreme weather—such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes—tsunamis have caused comparatively few fatalities in the United States over the past 200 years. Modern records kept since 1800 tally less than 800 lives lost due to tsunamis in the United States and territories. 1 In 1960, a magnitude 9.5 Chilean earthquake generated tsunami waves that killed 61 people and caused $24 million in property damage in Hilo, Hawaii (Eaton et al., 1961). The 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Alaska generated a tsunami that devastated local Alaskan communities and inundated distant communities as far south as Crescent City, California.

Earlier tsunamis—yet to be repeated in modern times—include tsunami waves of North American origin in the year 1700 that caused flooding and damage as far away as Japan. Paleo-records indicate that the Cascadia subduction zone off the Washington, Oregon, and northern California coasts has repeatedly generated potentially catastrophic tsunamis (Atwater et al., 2005). Because of the relative infrequency of catastrophic tsunamis in recent U.S. history, mobilizing the required resources to maintain the nation’s warning and preparedness capabilities is challenging.

Tsunamis are caused by a variety of geological processes, such as earthquakes, subaerial and submarine landslides, volcanic eruptions, or very rarely from meteorite impacts ( Box 1.1 ). However, it takes a large event (e.g., typically an earthquake of magnitude greater than 7.0) to generate a damaging tsunami. Therefore, determining the likelihood of future tsunamis for U.S. coastal communities requires an understanding of the likelihood of reoccurrence of such geological processes, the likely magnitude of such events, and the location of the sources (see Chapter 3 for additional details). Because most tsunamis result from earthquakes, the tsunami hazard is high along U.S. shores that adjoin boundaries between tectonic plates, particularly along the subduction zones of Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, the Caribbean, and the Marianas ( Figure 1.1 ). However, U.S. shores are also exposed to tsunamis generated far from them. For example, Hawaii has been struck by tsunamis that have been generated by earthquakes off the coasts of South America, Russia, and Alaska (Cox and Mink, 1963). Submarine landslides,

probably triggered by earthquakes, account for much of the known tsunami hazard along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and in southern California (Dunbar and Weaver, 2008). Seismically active faults and the potential for landslides in the Caribbean pose a significant tsunami risk for that region (Dunbar and Weaver, 2008).

Tsunami hazard zones of U.S. coastal communities contain thousands of residents, employees, and tourists, and represent significant economic components of these coastal communities (Wood, 2007; Wood et al., 2007; Wood and Soulard, 2008). The economic and social risks from tsunamis grow with increasing population density along the coasts. To reduce societal risks posed by tsunamis, the nation needs a clear understanding of the nature of the tsunami hazard (e.g., source, inundation area, speed of onset) and the societal characteristics of coastal communities (e.g., the number of people, buildings, infrastructure, and economic activities)

FIGURE 1.1 Global map of active volcanoes and plate tectonics illustrating the “Ring of Fire” and depicting subduction zones; both areas associated with frequent seismic activity. SOURCE:; USGS.

FIGURE 1.1 Global map of active volcanoes and plate tectonics illustrating the “Ring of Fire” and depicting subduction zones; both areas associated with frequent seismic activity. SOURCE:; USGS .

that make them vulnerable to future tsunamis. With a clear understanding of the tsunami hazards and social vulnerability that comprise tsunami risk, officials and the general public can then prepare for future events and hopefully reduce this risk. 2

When assessing tsunami hazard and developing risk reduction measures, it is important to consider the distance between a coastal community and potential tsunami sources as well as the probability of occurrence. Near-field tsunamis (see Box 1.1 ) pose a greater threat to human life than far-field tsunamis because of the short time between generation and flooding; because the extent of flooding is likely greater; and because the flooded area may be reeling from an earthquake (National Science and Technology Council, 2005). Near-field tsunamis account for most U.S. tsunami deaths outside of Hawaii, but even Hawaii has suffered losses from near-field tsunamis. Because it takes a very large earthquake to impact the far-field, more triggering events have the potential to impact communities that are within an hour or less from the source. For example, an earthquake generated within the Cascadia fault zone along the northern California, Oregon, and Washington coasts will allow only minutes for evacuation of

the coastal communities after the earthquake is felt. In addition, tsunami observations demonstrate an increase in wave height with proximity to the source, resulting in extensive coastal flooding by a near-field tsunami. Consequences of a near-field tsunami are far greater for any given location.

Far-field tsunamis afford hours of advance notice for evacuation and are likely to have smaller wave heights than those in the tsunami’s near field. However, the farther a coastal community from the earthquake source the less likely it is to have felt the earthquake and the more dependent it is on an instrumental detection system to provide warnings. Timely and accurate warnings are required to implement orderly evacuations and to avoid frequent unnecessary evacuations, which can be costly. The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) report (2005) concludes that “the challenge is to design a tsunami hazard mitigation program to protect life and property from two very different types of tsunami events.”


The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, spurred two congressional acts intended to reduce losses of life and property from future tsunamis. The Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005 (P.L. 109-13), included $24 million to improve tsunami warnings by expanding tsunami detection and earthquake monitoring capabilities. This Act was followed in 2006 by the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (P.L. 109-424), which directs the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to strengthen the nation’s tsunami warning system (TWS), work with federal and state partners toward the mitigation of tsunami hazards, establish and maintain a tsunami research program, and assist with efforts to provide tsunami warnings and tsunami education overseas.

Section 4(j) of the Tsunami Warning and Education Act calls upon the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) “to review the tsunami detection, forecast, and warning program established under this Act to assess further modernization and coverage needs, as well as long-term operational reliability issues.” In response, NOAA asked the NAS to assess options to improve all aspects of the tsunami program. This request is reflected in the first part of the committee’s charge (see Appendix B ) and accordingly focuses on efforts on tsunami detection, forecasting, and warning dissemination.

The NAS, in accepting this charge and in consultation with NOAA, broadened the review’s scope to include an assessment of progress toward additional preparedness efforts to reduce loss of life and property from tsunamis in the United States as part of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). The main rationale for this broadened scope was to address Section 5(a) in P.L. 109-424, which called for “a community-based tsunami hazard mitigation program to improve tsunami preparedness of at-risk areas in the United States and its territories.” Such a tsunami hazard mitigation program requires partnership among federal, state, tribal, and local governments. Its strategies include identifying and defining tsunami hazards, making inventories of the people and property in tsunami hazard zones, and providing the public with knowledge and infrastructure for evacuation, particularly for near-field

tsunamis that come ashore in a few minutes. The broadened scope aims at encompassing the range of national tsunami warning and preparedness efforts.

The Range of Options Available for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation

As the scope of the study was broadened to include aspects of tsunami hazard mitigation, the committee recognized the need to define the term “mitigation” and set some boundaries for the study, because the full suite of mitigation options exceeds the purview and capacity of this particular study. The definition of hazard mitigation and the actions it includes differ among various hazard communities. Some members of the academic community consider the full range of hazard mitigation options to include three classes of actions (White and Haas, 1975): (1) modifying the natural causes of hazards, (2) modifying society’s vulnerability (e.g., levees, wind- and seismic-resistant houses), and (3) redistributing the losses that occur (e.g., insurance, emergency response). In contrast, natural hazard practitioners consider the range of human adjustment to natural hazards to fall into two major classes of actions: (1) mitigation of potential losses through interventions in the constructed world in ways that lessen potential losses from nature’s extremes (e.g., land-use management, control and protection works, building codes), and (2) preparedness for, response to, and recovery from specific events and their associated losses (Mileti, 1999).

Focus on Warning and Preparedness

Although land-use planning and adjusting building codes is important in mitigating the impacts of tsunamis, the charge to the committee is focused primarily on the detection, forecast, and warning for near- and far-field tsunamis and issues directly related to the effective implementation of those warnings. To be responsive to its charge, the report focuses on the second class of mitigation actions, which generally includes pre-event planning to develop preparedness plans, appropriate organizational arrangements, training and exercises for issuing event-specific public warnings, an adequate emergency response, and plans for recovery and reconstruction. These types of adjustment are based on the notion that the adequacy of pre-event planning determines the effectiveness of event-specific response. This view also places insurance in the preparedness class.


Only very recently has there been a national interest in tsunami warning and preparedness. Before 2004, most efforts were spearheaded by local, state, or regional initiative operating on very limited budgets. Integrating these existing individual efforts into a national tsunami program has led to a very different type of program than that of a national tsunami warning program designed from the outset. The history of tsunami warning and preparedness efforts can be traced back to two of the six destructive tsunamis that caused causalities on U.S. soil.

These efforts were originally part of the National Geodetic Survey, which developed the two tsunami warning centers (TWCs) in Hawaii and Alaska after the 1946 Aleutian tsunami (Unimak Island, AK) and the 1964 Alaskan tsunami (Prince William Sound, AK) ( Figure 1.2 ). These centers eventually became part of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS), but each is located in different NWS regions and is managed independently.

Concern about tsunamis in Washington, Oregon, and California increased in the late 1980s and early 1990s when several new scientific studies revealed their near-field tsunami threat from the Cascadia subduction zone (Atwater, 1987; Heaton and Hartzell, 1987). California was reminded of its potential tsunami threat by an earthquake near Cape Mendocino in 1992, which generated a small tsunami that arrived in Eureka only minutes after the earthquake occurred. These and other developments prompted a more urgent call to produce comprehensive assessments of tsunami risk and preparedness at the state and federal level.

Congress responded to this call in a 1995 Senate Appropriations Committee request to NOAA to develop a plan for reducing tsunami risk to coastal communities. NOAA suggested the formation of a national committee to address tsunami threat, leading to the establishment of the NTHMP that same year. The NTHMP is tasked with coordinating the various federal, state, territorial, and commonwealth tsunami efforts. NOAA’s Tsunami Program was established in 2005 to incorporate all the current tsunami efforts at NOAA (see below). To respond to the committee’s charge (see Appendix B ) and assess progress made toward improved tsunami warning and preparedness, the committee begins its evaluation with an inventory of the elements of the NTHMP and NOAA’s Tsunami Program.

National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

The NTHMP has a Coordinating Committee (steering committee) that works to collaborate on the tsunami mitigation efforts of the NTHMP and three subcommittees: a Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee, a Warning Coordination Subcommittee, and a Mitigation and Education Subcommittee. 3 In addition to coordinating individual efforts, the NTHMP provides guidance to NOAA’s TWSs. Federal partners include NOAA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). State partners originally included Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, and now include all 29 U.S. coastal states and territories.

The USGS contributes to the seismic network that the TWCs use through operating and maintaining their respective seismic networks and to the tsunami research and risk assessments and conducts an independent seismic analysis of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes at its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC). The USGS and NOAA both support the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), which provides high-quality seismic data to assist earthquake detection (including tsunamigenic earthquakes). Both agencies also support earthquake and seismic studies to improve tsunami warning efforts and tsunami disaster response and hazards assessments. FEMA is responsible for hazard mitigation and emergency response; as

FIGURE 1.2 Timelines for U.S. tsunami warning centers, programs, tsunami budget, deaths from tsunamis in the United States and its territories, and earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 or larger worldwide since the year 1900. Sources of data for this figure include: NOAA (federal spending); (tsunami fatalities); (great earthquake history). SOURCE: Committee member.

FIGURE 1.2 Timelines for U.S. tsunami warning centers, programs, tsunami budget, deaths from tsunamis in the United States and its territories, and earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 or larger worldwide since the year 1900. Sources of data for this figure include: NOAA (federal spending); (tsunami fatalities); (great earthquake history). SOURCE: Committee member.

part of its mitigation efforts it has issued Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2008). FEMA becomes the lead federal agency in managing the emergency response once a tsunami has caused damage to U.S. coastlines.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) used to be a partner of the NTHMP, but as its involvement decreased the decision was made in 2009 to remove it from the NTHMP. Its primary function is to provide research funding and to partner with other federal agencies in research and development. NSF provides funding for the GSN. NSF has also been actively involved with investments regarding tsunami research infrastructure, such as the Network for Earthquake and Engineering Simulation (NEES), Earthquake Engineering and Research Centers (EERCs), and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) (Bement, 2005). Because it is not part of the NTHMP and its funding decisions are primarily driven by the demand in the research community, this report does not include an explicit discussion of NSF’s role but rather discusses the role of the broader research community in the nation’s tsunami efforts.

NOAA has been carrying most of the responsibility and obtains most of the funding to provide tsunami warnings, maintain observing networks (including seismic networks not funded by the USGS in Alaska and Hawaii), manage and archive data, and conduct research (further discussed in the next section).

The coastal states, U.S. territories, and commonwealths contribute their own initiatives and resources to the nation’s preparedness and education efforts; these vary in extent and approach from state to state. In particular, states are responsible for providing communities with inundation maps that allow municipalities to produce evacuation maps and guidance, and to educate the public about the hazard and appropriate responses. Local officials in turn are responsible for transmitting tsunami alerts throughout their respective jurisdictions, issuing evacuation orders, managing evacuations, and declaring all-clears.

NOAA’s Tsunami Program

In 2006, the Tsunami Warning and Education Act (P.L. 109-424) charged NOAA with addressing the nation’s priorities in tsunami detection, warning, and mitigation. NOAA’s Tsunami Program assumed the responsibilities to plan and execute NOAA’s tsunami efforts, primarily the program’s budget, strategic plan, and the coordination of activities among its NOAA organizational components and external partners, including the NTHMP. NOAA’s Tsunami Program advocates an end-to-end TWS, which includes detection, warnings and forecasts, message dissemination, outreach and education, and research.

NOAA’s Tsunami Program is supported by five line offices ( Table 1.1 ): NWS; the Office of Marine and Aviation Offices (OMAO); the National Ocean Service (NOS); Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR); and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). The NWS, as the administrator for NOAA’s Tsunami Program, is primarily responsible for helping community leaders and emergency managers in strengthening their local tsunami

TABLE 1.1 Tsunami Program Matrix

warning and preparedness programs through its TsunamiReady program as well as operating the TWCs.

The Pacific Region’s Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) and the Alaska Region’s West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) are administered within the NWS, although the two TWCs report to their respective regional NWS offices. The two TWCs have distinct areas of responsibility as described in Chapter 5 . The NWS also houses the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), which operates and maintains the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. These buoys monitor and alert the TWCs of sea level changes associated with a tsunami. OMAO collaborates by providing detection system maintenance support and conducting coastal surveys. NOS provides state and local coastal emergency managers with hazard-related information such as training and assessment tools, and also operates coastal tide stations and sea level gauges that monitor changes in sea level. OAR comprises a research network involving internal research laboratories, grant programs, and collaborative efforts between NOAA and academic institutions. Pacific Marine Environmentla Laboratory (PMEL), within OAR, focuses on designing optimal tsunami monitoring networks, improving forecast modeling, and improving impact assessment on coastal communities. NESDIS provides access to global environmental data; such as climate, geophysical, and oceanographic data. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), housed within NESDIS, manages a database for historic tsunami events, maps, and DART and tide gauge records. Some negative consequences arising from this distribution of tsunami detection, forecast, warning, and planning functions across different parts of NOAA and across different NTHMP partners is discussed in greater detail in Chapters 3 and 5 .


Because tsunami warning and preparedness efforts are distributed across federal and state agencies and were historically conducted without a federal coordination mechanism, the committee faced a number of challenges in assessing progress in the nation’s ability to warn and prepare for the threat of tsunamis. The first challenge results from the need to assess many individual activities. Secondly, it is difficult to extrapolate from these individual activities to assess whether all the distributed efforts can function coherently during a tsunami to warn and evacuate people in a timely fashion. To help address these challenges, the committee began its analysis by sketching the required functions and elements of an idealized integrated warning and preparedness effort based on available research findings in the hazards and high-reliability organizations (HRO) literature (see section below). The committee then sought to compare its vision of an idealized system with the evolving status quo.

An ideal integrated TWS comprises multiple technologies, systems, individuals, and organizations. A comprehensive view of the elements therefore includes technical, organizational, social, and human components. The ideal system incorporates risk assessment, public education, tsunami detection, warning management, and public response ( Figure 1.3 ).

Protecting and warning the public begins with an understanding of the tsunami risk envi-

FIGURE 1.3 Components of an integrated warning system: Risk assessment includes all assessments required to effectively plan evacuations (including tsunami source determination, inundation modeling, and evacuation mapping) and prepare the communities to evacuate in the event a warning is issued or received. Risk assessments identify needs for public education. Public education aims to ensure maximum preparedness and a public that knows what to do when it receives a warning or feels the ground shaking in the case of near-field tsunamis. Threat detection comprises the continuous monitoring of the natural and technological environments that could create an emergency; it informs the warning management and public response component using threshold criteria and communication technology. Warning management interfaces the threat detection component with the public response component and is responsible for tsunami alerts, warnings, and evacuations; in consultation with the threat detection component it will alert and warn the public. Public response is the ultimate outcome of the integrated warning system, and it integrates public education, threat detection, natural cues from tsunami triggers, and warning management. SOURCE: Committee member; design by Jennifer Matthews, University of California, San Diego.

FIGURE 1.3 Components of an integrated warning system: Risk assessment includes all assessments required to effectively plan evacuations (including tsunami source determination, inundation modeling, and evacuation mapping) and prepare the communities to evacuate in the event a warning is issued or received. Risk assessments identify needs for public education. Public education aims to ensure maximum preparedness and a public that knows what to do when it receives a warning or feels the ground shaking in the case of near-field tsunamis. Threat detection comprises the continuous monitoring of the natural and technological environments that could create an emergency; it informs the warning management and public response component using threshold criteria and communication technology. Warning management interfaces the threat detection component with the public response component and is responsible for tsunami alerts, warnings, and evacuations; in consultation with the threat detection component it will alert and warn the public. Public response is the ultimate outcome of the integrated warning system, and it integrates public education, threat detection, natural cues from tsunami triggers, and warning management. SOURCE: Committee member; design by Jennifer Matthews, University of California, San Diego.

ronment. This must be done before a tsunami is generated in order to design the threat detection system, the education and awareness campaigns, and the evacuation and response plans. To understand the risk environment, both hazards (the physical characteristics of tsunamis and the inundation area) and vulnerabilities (the people and properties in harm’s way) need to be characterized (National Research Council, 2006). Pre-event public education is required to enable at-risk populations to correctly interpret: (1) natural cues from the environment (e.g., ground shaking from the earthquake) or (2) warnings from a technical detection system as a signal to evacuate to higher ground in a timely fashion. The threat detection component monitors the environment for threshold events using cues from natural and technical systems (Mileti, 1999; Mileti and Sorenson, 1990).

Once a significant tsunami is detected, the warning process needs to be managed. Tsunami information needs to be analyzed and decisions have to be made about the extent of the warning. Managers and decision makers issue warnings directly to the public. Ideally, officials managing the response also maintain situational awareness and information flow between the technical detection system and the public to update warnings and messages with the required protective actions to be taken. Because of the dominance of real-time communications, the Internet, and social networking, both the general public and media will increasingly access tsunami information directly from real-time information sources (e.g., the TWCs, seismometers, and water-level gauges) before local officials are able to respond. The public’s real-time access to different information sources, such as social media and networking systems, underscores the importance of public education to prepare both the public and the press for proper interpretation of information and response to detected hazards. An effective warning system monitors the public’s response and reactions in order to improve its processes for effective, understandable, actionable, reliable, and accurate warnings of impending danger. In the following chapters, the report covers the system components and compares the idealized system with current and/or planned efforts.

An integrated TWS has an impact on large populations and on a wide range of resources and, in the event of failure, has the potential to cause enormous economic, social, organizational, technological, and political losses. Although often seen as mainly comprising technical and technological elements, a warning system must, out of necessity, include the human dimension, such as people’s behavior, policies, procedures, and organizations. However, it is the human dimension that poses a significant challenge:

This involves the setting and running of national services (people), and the implementation of complex emergency-preparedness and awareness plans at the national and local levels to immediately inform every person of the threat. In the building of any early warning system, this is the difficult part. (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and World Meteorological Organization, 2005).


Reducing the vulnerability of coastal settlements and infrastructure to tsunami risk poses some unique challenges. Although tsunamis can be devastating, as was seen during the 2004 Indian Ocean event, catastrophic tsunamis are relatively infrequent. This infrequency makes it more challenging to sustain the capacity to educate, warn, and prepare for this particular hazard. As discussed above, the history of tsunami warning and mitigation efforts in the United States shows that significant new funding is often made available only after a tsunami has devastated a coastal community and caused casualties. High funding levels and commitment to tsunami mitigation dissipate over time, leading to difficulties in maintaining efforts, knowledge, and lessons learned over time. Another challenge is the need to relay warnings from the fed-

eral government to state and local officials in just minutes (in the case of a near-field tsunami) or hours (in the case of a far-field tsunami). Sustaining the organizational preparedness and coordination across many jurisdictional boundaries presents a daunting challenge.

The committee recognizes that the nation’s tsunami detection, warning, and preparedness efforts originated in many diverse efforts distributed across several coastal states, and that attempts to integrate these distributed components into a coherent program have only recently begun. In particular, because tsunamis are rapid onset events, there is very little margin for error in the system before failure becomes catastrophic. An organization that operates in a low probability, high-risk environment, allowing few errors, is called an HRO (Roberts, 1990). HROs manifest a number of common properties: flexible and adaptable organizational structures, continually reinforced organizational learning, decision making that is both flexible and mobile, a strongly reinforced organizational culture, constant and effective communication, and trust among members of the system, particularly across organizations (Grabowski and Roberts, 1999; Grabowski et al., 2007). Because the committee identified the need for high-reliability operations in TWSs, the committee draws from the research literature on HROs (Roberts, 1990) and resilient systems (Hollnagel et al., 2008) to highlight particular characteristics that reduce the risks of failure in an idealized end-to-end warning system:

Situational Awareness in an Emergency: Because tsunamis are events that allow only minutes to hours for evacuation, a keen sense of situational awareness and the ability to respond quickly and effectively is required (Weick, 1990, 1993, 2003). HROs require decision making that is adaptable to change and surprise, and that is able to continually reassess needs across distributed organizations (Weick, 1993, 1998; Weick et al., 1999). Such is the case with the nation’s tsunami warning and preparedness efforts, where the TWCs, the state and local offices, and emergency managers and the affected public are geographically dispersed and often lack face-to-face contact. The dispersed and decentralized nature of the end-to-end tsunami warning and preparedness efforts make it a significant challenge to maintain awareness of the evolving situation during a crisis.

Learning and Training: To maintain situational awareness under changing conditions requires training. Therefore, an effective TWS requires that watchstanders, emergency managers, regulators, the public, and the media learn together, and engage in learning that enhances sense-making and developing alertness to small incidents that may cascade into much larger disasters (Weick, 1993; Farber et al., 2006). Because of the low frequency of tsunamis (e.g., California is issued an alert bulletin on average once every three years; Dengler, 2009), a TWS has few opportunities to learn from an event and therefore needs to learn from exercising the system through drills. Trial and error can be disastrous not only because disasters are rare, but also because in the absence of a major catastrophe to focus attention in the system, lessons learned from previous events may be forgotten or misapplied (March et al., 1991; Levitt and March, 1988; De Holan and Phillips, 2004). Learning in a high-reliability organization needs to be systematic, continually reinforced, measured, and made part of the system’s core values.

Fluid Organizational Structures: HRO structures are often adaptable and fluid, allowing the system to expand or contract in response to its environment (Roberts, 1990). TWSs with flexible organizational structures would be able to expand and contract resources in response to shifts and changes in environmental demands, disasters, or periods of slack resources. In the event of a tsunami, TWS managers need to grow effective, functioning response organizations in a period of less than 24 hours, and then adjust the organizational structures to the needs of the response (Tuler, 1988; Bigley and Roberts, 2001). The ability to provide varied organizational structures in response to environmental demands may be critical to the success of TWS organizations, similar to the way fire and emergency organizations expand and contract in response to fire demands (Grabowski and Roberts, 1999). Distributed information technology that connects the system responders can provide the technological glue that ties HRO members together, and fluid organizational structures can allow the organization to grow, expand, contract, and respond to changes in a dynamic, high tempo environment (Bigley and Roberts, 2001). Similar requirements for members and organizations in TWSs can be envisioned as tsunami conditions unfold.

Strong Organizational Culture: Schein (1992, 1996) defines “culture” as a set of basic tacit assumptions, that a group of people share, about how the world is and ought to be; it determines their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and to some degree, their overt behavior. In many organizations, shared assumptions typically form around the functional units of the organization and are often based on members’ similar educational backgrounds or experiences (Grabowski and Roberts, 1996, 1997). HROs are characterized by strong cultures and norms that reinforce the organization’s mission and goals and that focus attention on procedures, policies, and reward structures consistent with the organization’s mission and safety (LaPorte and Consolini, 1991). HROs have cultures attentive to errors; cultures where closely held ideas about the organization, its mission, and member roles in reliability enhancement are articulated; cultures that encourage learning; and cultures where safe areas—for decision making, communication, and the like—are created as buffers (Weick, 1993). Constructs such as oversight and checks and balances reinforce the strong cultural norms of the HRO. Melding the varied cultures that integrate the system into a cohesive whole can be extremely difficult in distributed systems that are connected by linkages that can dissolve and wane as requirements, organizational structures, and political will change (Weick, 1987; Weick and Roberts, 1993; Grabowski and Roberts, 1999).

Managing decision making across organizations that report to different management structures is a challenge for highly dispersed efforts; this is certainly the case with U.S. tsunami detection, warning, and preparedness efforts. A particular challenge is that the federal government has responsibility to forecast and warn about potential hazards, yet local governments order evacuations. Failure to consider distributed decision making within groups and across multiple units can lead to lack of readiness for the next large-scale catastrophe; e.g., Hurricane Katrina (Roberts et al., 2005; Farber et al., 2006). Building good communication and trust aid in

effective decision making and can increase the likelihood of success in geographically dis-tributed organizations. Trust can be built by common training; opportunities for scientific and operational exchange; and workshops, conferences, exercises, and simulations that build community and coherence across distributed organizations.


In the following chapters, the committee assesses progress in the nation’s distributed tsunami preparedness, detection, and warning efforts and compares it to its vision of an idealized warning system ( Figure 1.3 ). Chapter 2 evaluates progress in hazard and vulnerability assessments and identifies potential improvements that could guide the nation’s tsunami risk-assessment efforts. Chapter 3 discusses education and outreach efforts and evaluates pre-event community and organizational preparedness and the coordination between the various entities at the local, state, and federal levels. Chapter 4 examines the technical hazard detection system, including the seismic and sea level sensor networks. Chapter 5 examines the TWCs’ operations and how technology and human capital are used to provide their functions. Appendices present supporting data on tsunami sources, hazard and evacuation maps, educational efforts, seismological methods, and several case-study tsunamis.

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Many coastal areas of the United States are at risk for tsunamis. After the catastrophic 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, legislation was passed to expand U.S. tsunami warning capabilities. Since then, the nation has made progress in several related areas on both the federal and state levels. At the federal level, NOAA has improved the ability to detect and forecast tsunamis by expanding the sensor network. Other federal and state activities to increase tsunami safety include: improvements to tsunami hazard and evacuation maps for many coastal communities; vulnerability assessments of some coastal populations in several states; and new efforts to increase public awareness of the hazard and how to respond.

Tsunami Warning and Preparedness explores the advances made in tsunami detection and preparedness, and identifies the challenges that still remain. The book describes areas of research and development that would improve tsunami education, preparation, and detection, especially with tsunamis that arrive less than an hour after the triggering event. It asserts that seamless coordination between the two Tsunami Warning Centers and clear communications to local officials and the public could create a timely and effective response to coastal communities facing a pending tsuanami.

According to Tsunami Warning and Preparedness , minimizing future losses to the nation from tsunamis requires persistent progress across the broad spectrum of efforts including: risk assessment, public education, government coordination, detection and forecasting, and warning-center operations. The book also suggests designing effective interagency exercises, using professional emergency-management standards to prepare communities, and prioritizing funding based on tsunami risk.


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  • Paragraph Writing
  • Paragraph On Tsunami

Paragraph on Tsunami - Check Samples for 100, 150, 200, 250 Words

A tsunami is a kind of natural disaster which is caused due to volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds. Tsunamis are natural occurrences in which a series of powerful waves cause a surge in water that can reach heights of several metres. There are various other reasons that can cause a tsunami which is equally hazardous to people as other natural disasters.

Table of Contents

Paragraph on tsunami in 100 words, paragraph on tsunami in 150 words, paragraph on tsunami in 200 words, paragraph on tsunami in 250 words, frequently asked questions on tsunami.

Tsunamis are caused due to various reasons. There are many factors that can lead to tsunamis and cause harm to humankind. Before writing a paragraph on tsunamis, check the samples provided below.

Tsunamis are caused majorly due to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes that occur under the ocean. There are various factors that cause tsunamis, like the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. Tsunamis occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. Tsunamis also happen due to volcanic eruptions under the ocean beds. The Pacific Ocean is well-known for the frequent occurrence of tsunamis. Tsunamis cause a lot of damage to the environment. It destroys buildings, forests, livelihood, etc. Since it is a sudden event, no one can anticipate its occurrence.

Tsunamis are natural disasters that are destructive to the environment. It is caused due to an earthquake underwater. Just like earthquakes are unpredictable, tsunamis occur suddenly, and no one can anticipate their occurrence. There can be various reasons for a tsunami to occur, like the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. Tsunamis occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. It is known that the Pacific Ocean is a hub of tsunamis. Tsunamis also happen due to volcanic eruptions under the ocean beds. Tsunami is a term that refers to tidal waves. Therefore, a tsunami is defined as a sequence of ocean waves with a very long wavelength. Due to the tsunami, strong waves of water are created and move landwards. As a result, there is a large inland water movement that lasts for a long time. As a result, these waves have significant destructive power. Like other natural disasters, tsunamis also bring great destruction to the environment. It brings losses to livelihood, property, forests, etc.

A sudden movement under the sea beds causes tsunamis. It is an earthquake inside the sea or ocean. The Pacific Ocean is known to be a hotspot of tsunamis. Other than earthquakes, there are other reasons for tsunamis to occur. One of the major reasons is volcanic eruptions under the sea beds. Other reasons for the occurrence of tsunamis are the sinking of the earth, explosives, etc. These natural disasters occur primarily in areas where two continents meet. A tsunami is a term that refers to tidal waves. Therefore, a tsunami is defined as a sequence of ocean waves with a very long wavelength. Due to the tsunami, strong waves of water are created and move landwards. As a result, there is a large inland water movement that lasts for a long time. As a result, these waves have significant destructive power. Like any other natural disaster, tsunamis bring massive destruction to the environment. When a tsunami strikes, the sea waves reach a speed of 420 kilometres per hour. Beaches are ruined, trees and plants are broken, and human settlements, residences, buildings, and ports are demolished due to the tsunami.

The term “tsunami” refers to tidal waves. As a result, a tsunami is characterised as a series of extraordinarily long-wavelength ocean waves. Strong waves of water are formed by the tsunami and move landward. As a result, there is a massive and long-lasting inland water movement. As a result, these waves have considerable destructive power. Tsunamis are caused by abrupt movement beneath the seabed. It’s an earthquake that occurs deep within the water or ocean. The Pacific Ocean is known to be a hotspot of tsunamis. Tsunamis can develop for a variety of reasons other than earthquakes. Volcanic explosions beneath the seabed are one of the leading causes. Tsunamis can also be caused by the earth sinking, the explosion of bombs, and other factors. Tsunamis are especially common in locations where two continents meet. Tsunamis cause strong water waves to move towards the ground. The Greeks were the first people on the planet to assert that tsunamis had occurred. As per the Greeks, a tsunami is a ground quake. Tsunamis and earthquakes are only distinguished by the fact that tsunamis occur in the oceans. As a result, controlling the size and spread of tsunamis is nearly impossible. Tsunamis, like every other natural calamity, wreak havoc on the environment. The sea waves reach a speed of 420 kilometres per hour when a tsunami strikes. Due to tsunamis in seas or oceans, beaches are wrecked, trees and plants are washed away, and human settlements, dwellings, buildings, and ports are destroyed.

What is meant by a tsunami?

A tsunami is a strong and abrupt movement inside the water, causing destruction to the environment. It is a kind of natural disaster which is similar to earthquakes. It occurs inside the water causing strong tidal waves.

How are earthquakes different from tsunamis?

Earthquakes are strong and sudden movements on land, but tsunamis are caused by earthquakes inside the seas or oceans.

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Essay On Tsunami – 10 Lines, Short & Long Essay For Children

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Key Points To Remember: Essay On Tsunami For Lower Primary Classes

10 lines on tsunami for kids, a paragraph on tsunami in english for children, short essay on tsunami for kids, long essay on tsunami for children, what will your child learn from this essay, interesting facts about tsunami for kids.

The word ‘Tsunami’ is of Japanese origin, which means harbour wave. A tsunami is the repetition of long-wavelength water waves triggered due to quakes and volcanic eruptions in ocean beds. If the earthquake fails to cause a tsunami inside the ocean, it will mostly cause a landslide. This tsunami essay for classes 1, 2 and 3 will help your child learn about new things. A tsunami essay in English will also improve ability to convert thoughts into words, positively impacting communication and vocabulary.

A topic like tsunami isn’t a very easy topic to write about. Children might need the assistance of parents or teachers to write about tsunamis. Here are a few key points to remember when writing a composition on tsunami for lower primary classes:

  • Use videos or pictures while explaining tsunamis to kids. Visual aids help in better memorisation.
  • Keep the content crisp and clear. A tsunami is a phenomenon that involves geographical terms. So, keep in mind to use simple language.
  • Encourage your child to write their essay independently once the basics are covered.

What is a tsunami? How does it occur, and what is its impact? Get answers to these questions from the essay for class 1 and 2 kids on tsunamis. Mentioned below are a few lines on tsunami:

  • Tsunamis are natural disasters that cause harm to the environment.
  • It happens due to an earthquake underwater.
  • These occur unexpectedly.
  • Volcanic eruptions, plate shifting, the sinking of the earth, etc., are other reasons for tsunamis.
  • The term tsunami means harbour waves.
  • It has a series of waves with a high wavelength, capable of serious damage.
  • The waves created in seas and oceans move towards the land and destroy buildings, homes, forests, etc.
  • Landslides also lead to tsunamis.
  • Most tsunamis often happen in the Pacific ocean.
  • India experienced a similarly destructive Tsunami in 2004.

Do you want to read a short paragraph on tsunamis for children? Then, you are at the right place. Given below is a template for reference:

A tsunami is a series of waves of high wavelengths that cause water to move toward the land. It happens due to earthquakes whose main point is in the water/ocean. Greeks were the first to notice the effects of tsunamis. Sudden volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds, the sinking of the earth, etc., are the other major reasons for tsunamis. Like any other natural calamity, it causes widespread damage to human lives, buildings and trees. Underwater explosions can lead to tsunamis as well. The Pacific Ocean is known to be the hub of tsunamis. Ports and harbours get affected badly by tsunamis.

Looking for a simple-written short essay for classes 1,2 and 3 on tsunamis for kids to understand? Well, search no further. Given below is the template for the same:

A tsunami is defined as a series of waves of high wavelengths that cause water to move toward the land. It happens due to earthquakes whose main point is in the water. Greeks were the first to study the effects of tsunamis, and the only difference between earthquakes and tsunamis is that the latter happens in water. Tsunamis are called seismic waves. We should know that all seismic waves are tsunamis, but earthquakes are not the sole cause of all tsunamis. It also occurs due to sudden volcanic eruptions in the ocean beds, the sinking of the earth, etc. Like any other natural calamity, it causes widespread damage to human lives, public and private properties, and forests. Underwater explosions can lead to tsunamis as well. The Pacific Ocean is known to be the hub of tsunamis. During tsunamis, marine life is also get affected.

Natural calamities like tsunamis occur due to various reasons and cause damage to living and non-living. Here is an essay for class 3 kids on the causes, impacts and history of tsunamis.

History of Tsunami

According to legend, the Greek historian Thucydides suggested that there might be a connection between undersea earthquakes and tsunamis. But until the 20th century, knowledge of the causes and nature of tsunamis was limited. Ammianus, a Roman historian, characterised the sequence of events leading up to a tsunami as an earthquake, a quick retreat of the sea, and then a massive wave. The highest ever tsunami took place in a bay along the coasts of Alaska on July 9th, 1958.

What are the Causes and Effects of Tsunami?

Causes of Tsunami 

  • Earthquakes and Landslides:  Shifts in tectonic plates cause earthquakes, and when the main point is in the water, a tsunami is triggered. Sometimes landslides induced by earthquakes lead to these tidal waves.
  • Volcanic Eruptions in Sea Beds:  Volcanic eruptions in sea beds are another cause of these high wavelength waves.
  • The Sinking of The Earth:  Changes in the earth’s crust or interiors often lead to the sinking of the earth, and this sudden shift can trigger a tsunami.
  • Underwater Explosions:  Incidents like meteor collisions with the earth, or chunks of ice breaking off from glaciers lead to underwater explosions.

Effects of Tsunami

  • Boats and Ships Sink:  The crashing of such high waves causes widespread damage to boats and ships off the coast.
  • It Ruins Buildings, Trees and Houses:  Since the water moves towards the land and is of high velocity, it can destroy homes, uproot trees and displace vehicles.
  • Causes:  As in the case of any natural calamity, a tsunami also takes a toll on people’s lives.

How Can Tsunami Be Prevented?

The effects of a tsunami can be reduced by avoiding inundation areas, slowing down water by building ditches, slopes, etc. and steering water to strategically placed walls or structures. An alert well ahead of time can also reduce the damage percentage.

How To Prepare for a Tsunami Disaster?

  • To escape a tsunami, go 100 feet above sea level or 2 miles away.
  • Often there are weather reports and cautionary warnings for a tsunami. Please take care to follow them.
  • Every foot inland or upward is sure to make a difference!
  • If you can see the wave, you are too close for safety!

Your child will learn about the causes, history and effects of natural disasters such as tsunamis. They will also understand essay writing and its ways better.

  • The word tsunami means harbour wave in Japanese.
  • The Pacific Ocean is the hub of tsunamis.
  • The first wave of a tsunami is never the biggest.
  • The series of waves generated by a tsunami is called a wave train.
  • Often called tidal waves, tsunamis are not related to ocean tides.

What is the Difference Between Earthquake and Tsunami?

The major difference between an earthquake and a tsunami is that tsunamis are triggered by earthquakes whose main point is in the oceans or seas. And earthquakes happen on the land.

Topics like composition on tsunamis create awareness about natural calamities and the damage these can cause to humans. Teach your child about possible effects and help them learn new things.

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Home Essay Examples Geography Japan

Tsunami As The Most Dangerous Natural Disaster In Japan

  • Category Geography
  • Subcategory Asia
  • Topic Japan

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On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Japan at 2:46 pm. It continued for 3 minutes and is the greatest earthquake recorded in Japan. As a result, a massive tsunami around the height of 38m equivalent to a 12 story building flooded more than 517km² of Japan’s coast. The epicentre was located 130km off of Sendai Honshu, 32km below the sea. An estimated 28,000 people died with 90% of them drowning. According to national geographic, the water cascaded in a 5.5m sea wall which is also the deepest sea wall in the world. In the Naka River, the current of the water moved upstream. Consequently, all the water washed cars houses trees and countless other rubble away. The coastline of Sendai Honshu subsided about 1.5m. the land also shifted a few metres from its original place. In Fukushima, the waves corrupted the power supply of the nuclear generators.

Tsunamis are created by underwater earthquakes on the ocean floor. The earthquake creates a disturbance in the ocean and creates a wave. Waves start to build up as the reach the land and can travel up to the speed of a jet plane. The waters from the shore slow retract from the shores as the wave hits the coastline. The waves can create great damage.

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When the tsunami hit, it immediately destroyed buildings and washed away cars. The flooding contaminated the food supply and other human necessities. Majority of the population had no clean water or electricity. Many people had lost their lives. About 28,000 people died or were missing and 90% of deaths were from drowning. The area of Fukushima had a nuclear emergency and residents had to evacuate. To this day, about 52,000 evacuees are still living in temporary housing although the majority have bought or build new houses.

After the tsunami occurred, the Japanese governments established a contingency plan to help the population rebuild. One of the most important parts of the plan is designated evacuation sites for people. These sites are used to shelter people who have fled their homes because of a natural disaster. The government also created systems for different people with different needs. The system has different levels of housing damage which will sort residents into a more suitable home. For example, if a resident’s house has been completely damaged then they get to use the support fund which will replace, repair or lease a house for them. Government-funded temporary housing also gets bigger and residents can stay for even longer.

People from around the world started donating money and aid after hearing about the devastating tsunami. Many people gave donations and created fundraising to donate to organisations. The AAR Japan set up temporary housing and donated food and necessities within one day of the tsunami. On March 15th, 2011, the Direct Relief donated $15 million and an additional $600,000. On April 25th, 2011, JACL and Direct Relief gave an additional $1 million to those who still needed help.

The responses had a major impact on Japan and its people. The government and their contingency plan helped the residents and also will prevent another tragedy because of a tsunami. Without the temporary housing, many of the residents would be left without homes or shelter to live it. Many of the residents would not be able to get new houses, build or repair if they did not get help from temporary housing and the government. Without donations, the economy would not be able to restart again. Residents would not be able to get food, water or necessities if they weren’t donated.

After the earthquake occurred, the tsunami warnings were not properly managed or sent out. Although the earthquake warning worked perfectly fine, there was a large power outage after the earthquake hit. This because the cables weren’t strong enough. The tsunami warnings did not reach to the residents living in the coastal areas or people who have left their homes already. Despite the 30 – 60 minutes time the residents had to evacuate after the earthquake, the radios and TVs did not display the warning in time. In the future, Japan needs to upgrade its warning and alert system. They need more durable electrical systems that can be able to withstand earthquakes. Stronger radios and emergency connections need to be built so everyone is aware of the tsunami warning. Schools and public places need to be informed of the evacuation plan beforehand. Doings theses things will stop another preventable tragedy from happening.

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Was Today’s Earthquake Connected to the Solar Eclipse?

The tidal forces on Earth grow as the sun, moon and Earth begin to align, a configuration that can lead to a solar eclipse. But the results of several studies of the relationship between earthquakes and tides are inconclusive, a geophysicist said.

  • Share full article

An image of the total solar eclipse in August 2017.

By Katrina Miller

  • April 5, 2024

With a total solar eclipse set to pass through the United States on Monday, it is easy to imagine a linkage between unusual events in the heavens and on Earth. But geoscientists were cautious about making such a connection.

Earthquakes happen along fault lines, or cracks between two blocks of rock on Earth’s crust. Tides stretch and squish the land on Earth just as they contribute to waves in the ocean, and those tidal forces grow as the sun, moon and Earth begin to align — a configuration that sometimes creates a solar eclipse.

One theory is that this may introduce additional stress along Earth’s fault lines.

“We do know that the relative position of the Earth and the moon and the sun does exert tidal forces,” said William Frank, a geophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “And we know that changes the stress that can be on a fault that can host an earthquake.”

But the results of several studies of the relationship between earthquakes and tides are inconclusive, according to Seth Stein, a geophysicist at Northwestern University. “If there’s any effect, it would be incredibly weak,” he said.

Earthquakes are driven most often by the motion between two tectonic plates making up Earth’s crust — either when two plates slide along each other in opposite directions, or when one slides under the other.

Both types of movements introduce strain at the junction, which often gets relieved by an earthquake.

But at the moment, it’s difficult to say that plate motion was responsible for the quake that shook the Northeast Friday morning.

“It’s not quite as obvious, because there is no tectonic plate boundary that is active,” Dr. Frank said.

Still, he added, fault lines from past activity are everywhere on Earth’s crust.

“Some of these faults can still be storing stress and be closure to failure,” he said. “And it can just require a little bit more to push it over the edge.”

Katrina Miller is a science reporting fellow for The Times. She recently earned her Ph.D. in particle physics from the University of Chicago. More about Katrina Miller


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