DepEd PH

Understanding DepEd K-12 Program in the Philippines

The K-12 program was officially signed into law as Republic Act No. 10533, also known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.” This law paved the way for the restructuring of the country’s education system, adding two more years to the traditional 10-year basic education cycle. The implementation of the K-12 program in the Philippines was initiated under the administration of then-President Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III. The Department of Education (DepEd) , led by Secretary Armin Luistro during that time, played a huge role in developing and rolling out the K-12 curriculum.

The K to 12 curriculum includes Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School) to allow for adequate time for concept and skill mastery, develop lifelong learners, prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skill development, employment, and entrepreneurship. The system addresses the need for a more globally competitive education system by adding two years to the traditional 10-year basic education cycle.

Countries such as the USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, India, China, Singapore, and Germany are also under this system. This guide explores the objectives, goals, grades, subjects, curriculum, and enrollment process of the K to 12 Program, providing an in-depth understanding of its structure and why it’s a good change.

Table of Contents

The implementation of the K-12 curriculum aims to enhance the quality of education in the Philippines and align it with international standards. Before this, our country’s basic education cycle only covered ten years. While this has worked for our system for decades, it was not enough to fully prepare our students for the challenges of tertiary education and employment in the global setting. The K-12 program addresses this gap by providing learners with a more holistic and comprehensive educational experience.

Objectives & Benefits

Just like any other DepEd program of the government, this K-12 also presents some objectives:

  • Improved Quality of Education – By extending the basic education cycle, this may help improve the overall quality of education in the Philippines.
  • Enhance Global Competitiveness – The program aims to produce graduates who are globally competitive, well-rounded, and equipped with the necessary skills. In addressing the goals of the K-12 program, the Philippine government also aims to align its education system with international standards. This alignment enhances the country’s competitiveness on the global stage, ensuring that Filipino students are adequately prepared to meet the demands of a rapidly evolving and interconnected world.
  • Holistic Development – Emphasizing holistic development, K to 12 focuses on intellectual, emotional, and social growth to produce well-rounded individuals.
  • Quality Basic Education – Ensure the delivery of high-quality basic education that meets international standards.
  • Equitable Access – Provide equal access to education for all students across different regions and socio-economic backgrounds.
  • Relevance – Align the curriculum with the needs of the global job market, ensuring graduates are equipped with practical skills. The additional two years in senior high school serve as a bridge between basic education and either tertiary education or employment.

This component of the project is designed to equip students with specialized skills and knowledge, making them more marketable and ready to meet the demands of various industries.

understanding the deped k to 12 program

Grades in K-12 Explained

The K to 12 Program redefines the traditional grading system by adding two additional grades, Grade 11 and Grade 12.

  • Kindergarten – Early childhood education focuses on developing foundational skills.
  • Grades 1-6 – Elementary education focuses on fundamental subjects like Math, Science, English, and Filipino.
  • Grades 7-10 – Junior High School, which includes a more specialized curriculum and the introduction of tracks leading to specific career paths.
  • Grades 11-12 – Senior High School, where students choose a specific strand (Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, or Sports) based on their interests and career aspirations.

What are Strands?

These strands are part of the Academic Track which provides students with more specialized knowledge and skills in specific fields of study. The four strands under the Academic Track are:

STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)

This strand is designed for students interested in pursuing careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Core Subjects: Pre-Calculus, Basic Calculus, General Biology, General Physics, General Chemistry, and General Mathematics.

ABM (Accountancy, Business, and Management)

This strand is suitable for students who aspire to pursue careers in accountancy, business, entrepreneurship, and management.

Core Subjects: Applied Economics, Business Ethics and Social Responsibility, Fundamentals of Accountancy, Business, and Management 1 and 2, and Basic Calculus.

HUMSS (Humanities and Social Sciences)

The HUMSS strand is for students interested in humanities, social sciences, and other related fields.

Core Subjects: Creative Writing/Malikhaing Pagsulat, Introduction to World Religions and Belief Systems, Creative Nonfiction, Trends, Networks, Critical Thinking in the 21st Century Culture, and Philippine Politics and Governance.

GAS (General Academic Strand)

The GAS strand is a flexible strand that allows students to choose subjects from different academic disciplines.

Core Subjects: Humanities, Social Science, Philosophy, Applied Economics, Organization and Management, Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction, and Research.

Each strand provides a strong foundation in the chosen field of any student and serves as a preparation for higher education or entry into the workforce. It’s important to note that curriculum details may have evolved since the moment of writing. Hence, it’s advisable to check with the Department of Education (DepEd) or relevant educational authorities for the most current information on the K-12 strands in the Philippines.

k-12 infographic as shared by deped philippines

Subjects and Curriculum

The K to 12 curriculum is designed to provide a well-rounded education and includes core subjects such as Math, Science, English, Filipino, and Social Studies. Additionally, students can choose specialized subjects based on their chosen strand in Senior High School. The ABM track, for example, offers subjects relevant to specific industries, preparing students for immediate employment after graduation.

Purpose of this additional 2 Years in the Philippine education system. 

  • Aligning with International Education Standards – The Philippines aimed to align its education system with international standards to produce globally competitive graduates. By adding two years to the basic education cycle, the country sought to provide students with a more intensive curriculum, better preparing them for higher education and the global workforce.
  • Enhanced Basic Education – The traditional 10-year education cycle was considered insufficient to equip students with the necessary skills and knowledge for the challenges of the modern world. The additional two years in Senior High School (SHS) allow for more specialized and focused learning, catering to the diverse interests and career paths of students.
  • Workforce Readiness – K to12 aims to make students more job-ready by incorporating technical-vocational courses and work immersion programs at the Senior High School level. This is intended to address the gap between the skills acquired in school and the skills demanded by the workforce, helping students make informed decisions about their future careers.
  • Decongestion of Curriculum – The expanded curriculum allows for the distribution of lessons across more years, resulting in a less crowded and more balanced approach to teaching and learning. This can potentially lead to a better understanding and retention of the subject matter.
  • Alignment with ASEAN Integration – The K-12 is designed to align with the goals of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) integration, promoting regional cooperation and standardizing education practices across member countries.
  • Quality of Education – By adding two years to the basic education system, policymakers aimed to improve the overall quality of education in the Philippines. The longer duration provides more time for students to acquire not only academic knowledge but also critical thinking and life skills.

How to Enroll in the K-12 Curriculum for Senior High Scholl (SHS)

This is targeted towards those who have completed Grade 10 prior to the implementation of K-12. Those who have not yet finished high school or are still in elementary school will automatically be enrolled in the new program.

Step 1: Enrollment in Senior High School involves choosing a specific track (Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, or Sports).

Parents and students should attend orientations or career guidance sessions to make informed decisions about the preferred track.

Required documents may include the student’s Junior High School report card, a clear photocopy of the birth certificate, and a filled-out enrollment form.

Visit the chosen Senior High School and follow the school’s enrollment process. Private schools may have different requirements, so it’s essential to communicate with the school administration.

Step 2: Selecting a Senior High School Track

Students need to choose a track based on their interests and career aspirations.

Career guidance counselors at schools can assist in making informed decisions about the best-fit track for each student.

Step 3: Payment of Fees (if applicable)

Public schools generally have minimal or no tuition fees, but there may be other fees for miscellaneous expenses. Private schools may have tuition fees, and parents should inquire about the payment schedule and any available discounts or scholarships.

Step 4: Orientation and School Requirements

Attend orientation sessions conducted by the school to understand the rules, regulations, and expectations. Fulfill any additional requirements specified by the school, such as medical examinations, uniform purchase, and submission of additional documents.

Parents or guardians may inquire at their local public schools or private institutions for more information on admission requirements and enrollment procedures. Students who have completed Grade 10 are eligible to enroll in Senior High School, where they can choose a specific strand based on their interests and career goals.

Can Students after Grade 10 Proceed to Finding Jobs?

Students may also choose to enter the workforce after completing Grade 10, as there are technical-vocational courses available in Senior High School for those who wish to gain employment immediately. However, the K-12 program also aims to make students more competitive in the job market, and completing Senior High School may provide better opportunities for employment.

Overall, the K-12 program aims to provide a more comprehensive and relevant education for Filipino students, preparing them for success in higher education, the workforce, and global citizenship. So while students may choose to enter the workforce after Grade 10, completing Senior High School can give them an edge in a competitive job market.

The additional two years in the Philippine education system offer various benefits that aim to enhance the overall quality of education and produce globally competitive graduates.

Video: K-12 curriculum, babaguhin; bagong classrooms at special allowance, kasama sa 2023 plans – DepEd

In this video, DepEd Secretary Sarah Duterte Carpio announced some of the changes that will happen to the current K-12 program in the Philippines. Some of the mentioned improvements are new classrooms and special allowance.

DepEd K-12 Program is a transformative initiative to start improving the quality and relevance of basic education in the Philippines. With its objectives centered around global competitiveness, holistic development, and improved quality of education, the system introduces additional grades, specialized tracks, and a curriculum designed to prepare students for the challenges of the modern world.

This educational curriculum might require parents and students effort, time, and money, but it will surely change the lives of new graduates for the better. Understanding the structure, objectives, and enrollment process of the K to 12 Program is advisable for parents, students, and educators as they navigate the evolving landscape of Philippine education.

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Aquino signs K-12 bill into law

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This is AI generated summarization, which may have errors. For context, always refer to the full article.

MANILA, Philippines – President Benigno Aquino III on Wednesday, May 15, signed the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 into law, more commonly known as the K-12  program.

WIth the law passed, students will now undergo “Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]), before heading into higher education.”

This adds two years to the basic education system in an effort to further prepare students for the world ahead.

In a speech by President Aquino on the signing of the K-12 law , he noted the strengths of implementing the K-12 law, including the implementation of universal indergarten in public and private schools and and other initiatives for basic education up to junior high school.

“ Tinitiyak nating sapat at  kapaki-pakinabang ang kasanayang naibabahagi sa ating mga mag-aaral (We ensure the what is taught and imparted to students is adequate and beneficial to them),” Aquino said.

Of having a senior high school track in the academe, Aquino added, “ Sa pagkakaroon naman ng senior high school kung saan makakapili ang kabataang Pilipino ng specialized tracks para sa akademya, technical education, at sports and arts, ginagarantiya nating talagang handa silang humakbang para abutin ang kanilang mga mithiin .” (Having senior high school years, where  the Philippine youth can choose specialized tracks in academics, technical education, and sports and arts, guarantees that they are ready to move forward to reach for their dreams.)

Twenty-nine percent of the workforce are jobless or underemployed, according to the latest government data. Nearly 10 million Filipinos have been forced to seek better-paying jobs abroad.

The government said it was building tens of thousands of new classrooms, hiring nearly 18,000 teachers, and printing tens of millions of textbooks this year to implement the program nationwide.

The education department budget has been raised to P232 billion this year, up 44 percent from 2010 levels, largely to pay for the extra services, Aquino said.

Schools operated by the private sector must also begin implementing the reforms in the next school year, which starts in June.

Another major part of the reforms will be to teach in native languages from kindergarten until the third year of primary school.

The language of instruction will then gradually shift to English from grades four to six in primary school. Subjects will then be taught in English throughout high school.

In the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) portion on the K-12 program page, the law now allows the hiring of the following to help in the transition:

  • graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Engineering, and other specialists in subjects with a shortage of qualified Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants
  • graduates of Technical-Vocational courses
  • Higher Education Institution faculty
  • Practitioners 

There has previously been criticism from some sectors , noting the additional cost of implementation and the possibility of aggravating problems in the educational sector. –, with the Agence France-Presse

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PNoy signs law institutionalizing K to 12 program

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k 12 basic education curriculum law

K to 12 General Information

What is the k to 12 program, the k to 12 program covers 13 years of basic education with the following key stages:.

  • Kindergarten to Grade 3
  • Grades 4 to 6
  • Grades 7 to 10 (Junior High School)
  • Grades 11 and 12 (Senior High School)

Why are we now implementing 12 years of basic education?

  • The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries worldwide with a 10-year pre-university cycle (Angola and Djibouti are the other two).
  • A 12-year program is found to be the best period for learning under basic education. It is also the recognized standard for students and professionals globally.

What has been done to get ready for K to 12? Are we really ready for K to 12?

  • SY 2011-2012: Universal Kindergarten implementation begins
  • SY 2012-2013: Enhanced curriculum for Grades 1-7 implemented
  • 2013: K to 12 enacted into Law
  • 2014: Curriculum for Grades 11-12 finished
  • This 2015, we are getting ready for the implementation of Senior High School (SHS) in SY 2016-2017.
  • We are on the fifth year of the implementation of the K to 12 Program. Our last mile is the Senior High School. All 221 divisions of the Department of Education (DepEd) have finished planning and have figures on enrolment a year in advance. These plans were reviewed by a separate team and finalized upon consultation with other stakeholders.
  • Classrooms : DepEd has built 66,813 classrooms from 2010 to 2013. There are 33,608 classrooms completed and undergoing construction in 2014. As of DepEd is planning to establish 5,899 Senior High Schools nationwide. As of April 30, 2015, DepEd has issued provisional permits to 1,866 private schools set to offer Senior High School in 2016.
  • Teachers : From 2010-2014, DepEd has filled 128,105 new teacher items. DepEd is targeting two kinds of teachers: those who will teach the core subjects, and those who will teach the specialized subjects per track. DepEd will hire 37,000 teachers for Senior High School for 2016 alone.
  • Textbooks : Learning materials are being produced for elementary to junior high while textbooks for Senior High School (which has specialized subjects) are being bid out.
  • Curriculum : The K to 12 curriculum is standards- and competence-based. It is inclusive and built around the needs of the learners and the community. The curriculum is done and is available on the DepEd website. It is the first time in history that the entire curriculum is digitized and made accessible to the public.
  • Private SHS : There are 2,199 private schools cleared to offer Senior High School and over 200 more being processed.

How will K to 12 affect the college curriculum?

  • The College General Education curriculum will have fewer units. Subjects that have been taken up in Basic Education will be removed from the College General Education curriculum.
  • Details of the new GE Curriculum may be found in CHED Memorandum Order No. 20, series of 2013.

I’ve been hearing that a lot of people have not been consulted regarding K to 12. Is this true?

  • DepEd has always been transparent in the planning and implementation of K to 12. There have been regular consultations with various sectors since 2010, before the law was passed, during the crafting of the IRR, and during implementations. DepEd representatives have also attended various fora and conferences, including legislative inquiries, regarding K to12. We are open to criticisms and suggestions regarding this.

How can I help improve basic education?

  • Private partners can donate through the Adopt-A-School program. A 150% tax incentive will be provided for every contribution.
  • Help spread awareness and information on the K to 12 Program.

K to 12 Curriculum

K to 12 curriculum guides overview


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From Policy to Practice: An analysis of the factors affecting ground-level execution of the K-12 Program in the Philippines

Profile image of Michi  Ferreol

In the wake of the passage of the Enhanced Basic Education Act into Philippine law, schools throughout the Philippines were forced to adopt two additional years of high school into their institutional structure, as well as to enforce a variety of curriculum and instructional changes. The policy effectively transitioned the nation from a 10-year basic education structure to a K-12 system, promising a more globalized curriculum and greater employment opportunities for graduates. This change, however, placed tremendous pressure on teachers and administrators—dubbed by Michael Lipsky (1980) as the “street-level bureaucrats” who execute policies on the ground level—as they were expected to comply with the demands of the law within a limited time period. Thus, in an effort to better understand the ground-level experiences of educators in the aftermath of this policy, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 71 teachers and administrators across four Philippine private schools and five public schools in the National Capital Region. Questions ranged from participants’ day-to-day experiences of the implementation process to their attitudes towards the policy itself. These interviews aimed to broadly answer the question: what factors affect the ground-level execution of a newly instituted education policy? Findings revealed that teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, and strategies were heavily shaped not only by the immediate needs of their classrooms, but also by a confluence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level structures. This, in turn, affected how they executed their discretion and met their obligations as street-level bureaucrats.

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Every education system for K-12 will strive to perform their best, however, very few are able to go far and progress. These types of programs aim to offer extensive knowledge to children, at the same time, offer the parents “peace of mind” in knowing that their children receive the best education possible. Most countries like Finland, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan, Singapore, Korea, China, and Israel which are among those with the top rated education systems around the world invested much for their education. The Philippines has just recently implemented the K-12 curriculum. Within a country’s educational system, the relevant institutions and policies include the ways in which a society finances and manages its schools, how a society assesses student performance, and who is empowered to make basic educational decisions, such as which curricula to follow, which teachers to hire, what textbooks to purchase, how many classroom or school buildings have to be constructed. In terms of policy, one might speculate that if a nation assesses the performance of students with some sort of national exam and uses this information to monitor teachers, teachers will put aside their other interests and focus mainly on raising student achievement. With this task the teachers have to accomplish, it is just reasonable to provide them more incentives. Moreover, strong school administrators should also know how to go about their jobs systematically for a successful implementation of the curricular program in the country. In the Philippines, the proposed K-12 curriculum has raised brows of many Filipinos in the beginning. Gradually, the acceptance to the new curriculum has paved the way to its total implementation. There are good effects of the K12 implementation but these effects outweigh the negative ones. Change is not just easy to accept, but if this change would benefit the majority in the end, then there is no other way except go for it and cooperate.

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Philippines congress to revamp k-12 programme

You are here.

Deputy Speaker and former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo recently filed a bill with the Philippines’ lower house of Congress seeking to replace the K to 12 basic education programme with a K+10+2.

Under her K+10+2 proposal, basic education will cover compulsory Kindergarten and 10 years of basic education with, for those seeking to proceed to professional degree studies such as accounting, engineering, law, medicine, an additional two years of post-secondary, pre-university education.

K to 12 also known as Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 or Republic Act No. 10533 was enacted a decade ago with the aim of strengthening the curriculum of and increasing the number of years for basic education. Section 4 of the said law outlined the stages of the enhanced basic education program: at least one (1) year of kindergarten education, six (6) years of elementary education, and six (6) years of secondary education, in that sequence.

The additional years that a student must spend before they can work or proceed to higher education proved to be controversial and unpopular to some sectors. A 2022 Pulse Asia survey commissioned by a Philippine senator found forty four percent of Filipinos expressing dissatisfaction with K to 12.

There have been calls for outright abolition to amendment of certain provisions of the said law. A local national daily noted that these calls have gained traction lately as evidenced by the bill filed by Deputy Speaker Arroyo.

While the proposed bill retains the current number of years that a student must take before admission into a university, any structural changes will possibly impact current comparability advice on post K-12 bachelor’s degrees from the Philippines.

This year, UK ENIC updated its advice for bachelor’s degree from the Philippines. It now considers degrees awarded from 2022 onwards comparable to a UK bachelor’s degree. In a statement, it said that this ‘reflects increased confidence in the suitability of recent and future graduates from Philippine universities for admission to postgraduate study in the UK’.

UK ENIC is the UK National Information Centre for global qualifications and skills and provides advice on comparisons (also called comparability advice) of international qualifications against UK qualifications and framework levels.

This comparability advice is largely premised on the reforms to the basic education system in the Philippines culminating in the passage of the K to 12 law. Since a major outcome of the K-12 law is harmonised basic and tertiary curricula, any possible disruptions to this harmonised pathway might affect existing and future international recognitions. Legislators anticipate that it will still be a long process before the proposal is put in legislation. In the meanwhile the Philippines continues with the K to 12 basic education rhythm.

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America has legislated itself into competing red, blue versions of education

American states passed a blizzard of education laws and policies over the past six years that aim to reshape how K-12 schools and colleges teach and present issues of race, sex and gender to the majority of the nation’s students — with instruction differing sharply by states’ political leanings, according to a Washington Post analysis .

See which states are restricting, requiring education on race and sex

Three-fourths of the nation’s school-age students are now educated under state-level measures that either require more teaching on issues like race, racism, history, sex and gender, or which sharply limit or fully forbid such lessons, according to a sweeping Post review of thousands of state laws, gubernatorial directives and state school board policies. The restrictive laws alone affect almost half of all Americans ages 5 to 19.

How The Post is tracking education bills

Since 2017, 38 states have adopted 114 such laws, rules or orders, The Post found. The majority of policies are restrictive in nature: 66 percent circumscribe or ban lessons and discussions on some of society’s most sensitive topics, while 34 percent require or expand them. In one example, a 2023 Kentucky law forbids lessons on human sexuality before fifth grade and outlaws all instruction “exploring gender identity.” On the other hand, a 2021 Rhode Island law requires that all students learn “African Heritage and History” before high school graduation.

The Post included in its analysis only measures that could directly affect what students learn. Thus, 100 of the laws in The Post’s database apply only to K-12 campuses, where states have much greater power to shape curriculums. At public institutions of higher education — where courts have held that the First Amendment protects professors’ right to teach what they want — the laws instead target programs like student or faculty trainings or welcome sessions.

Tell The Post: How are education laws, restrictions affecting your school?

The divide is sharply partisan. The vast majority of restrictive laws and policies, close to 9o percent, were enacted in states that voted for Donald Trump in the 2020 presidential election, The Post found. Meanwhile, almost 80 percent of expansive laws and policies were enacted in states that voted for Joe Biden in 2020.

The explosion of laws regulating school curriculums is unprecedented in U.S. history for its volume and scope, said Jonathan Zimmerman, a University of Pennsylvania professor who studies education history and policy. Controversy and debate over classroom lessons is nothing new, Zimmerman said, but states have never before stepped in so aggressively to set rules for local schools. School districts have traditionally had wide latitude to shape their lessons.

He said it remains an open question whether all laws will translate to curriculum changes, predicting some schools and teachers may refuse to alter their pedagogy. Still, a nationally representative study from the Rand Corp. released this year found that 65 percent of K-12 teachers report they are limiting instruction on “political and social issues.”

“What the laws show is that we have extremely significant differences over how we imagine America,” Zimmerman said. “State legislatures have now used the power of law to try to inscribe one view, and to prevent another. And so we’re deeply divided in America.”

In practice, these divisions mean that what a child learns about, say, the role slavery played in the nation’s founding — or the possibility of a person identifying as nonbinary — may come to depend on whether they live in a red or blue state.

Legislators advancing restrictive education laws argue they are offering a corrective to what they call a recent left-wing takeover of education. They contend that, in the past decade or so, teachers and professors alike began forcing students to adopt liberal viewpoints on topics ranging from police brutality to whether gender is a binary or a spectrum.

Tennessee state Rep. John Ragan (R), who sponsored or co-sponsored several laws in his state that limit or ban instruction and trainings dealing with race, bias, sexual orientation and gender identity on both K-12 and college campuses, said the legislation he helped pass does not restrict education.

“It is restricting indoctrination,” Ragan said. Under his state’s laws, he said, “the information presented is factually accurate and is in fact something worth knowing.”

Those advancing expansive legislation, by contrast, argue they are fostering conditions in which students from all backgrounds will see themselves reflected in lessons. This will make it easier for every student to learn and be successful, while teaching peers to be tolerant of one another’s differences, said Washington state Sen. Marko Liias (D).

Liias was the architect of a law his state passed last month that requires schools to adopt “inclusive curricula” featuring the histories, contributions and perspectives of the “historically marginalized,” including “people from various racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds, people with differing learning needs, people with disabilities [and] LGBTQ people.” He was inspired to propose the bill after hearing from educators who wanted to create more welcoming classrooms and by memories of his own experiences as a queer student in the 1980s and 1990s, when, he said, there were no LGBTQ role models taught or accepted in schools.

“When schools are inclusive broadly of all the identities brought to the classroom, then everybody thrives and does better,” Liias said.

To construct its database of education laws, The Post analyzed more than 2,200 bills, policies, gubernatorial directives and state school board rules introduced since 2017. The Post identified regulations for review by examining state legislative databases, education law trackers maintained by national bipartisan nonprofits and the websites of various advocacy groups that monitor curriculum legislation.

How curriculum policies took hold

Some blue states began enacting expansive education laws in the late 2010s. From 2017 to 2020, 10 states passed legislation or rules that required schools to start teaching about the history of underrepresented groups such as Black Americans, Pacific Islanders or LGBTQ Americans, The Post found .

State and school leaders were drawing on more than a dozen studies published from the 1990s to 2017 that found student performance, attendance and graduate rates rise when children see people like them included in curriculum, said Jennifer Berkshire , a Yale lecturer on education studies.

“They were thinking, ‘You know, our curriculums aren’t representative enough,’” Berkshire said. “The argument was, if we’re going to realize the goal of full rights and civil participation for kids, we need to do things differently.”

Fourteen of these laws, or 36 percent, came in a rush in 2021, the year after the police killing of George Floyd sparked massive demonstrations and a national reckoning over racism. At the time, activists, teachers, parents and high school students across America were urging schools teach more Black history and feature more Black authors.

Of the expansive laws and policies The Post analyzed, the majority — 69 percent — require or expand education on race or racial issues, especially on Black history and ethnic studies. About a quarter add or enhance education on both LGBTQ and racial issues. Just 8 percent focus solely on LGBTQ lives and topics.

But the onslaught of restrictive legislation in red states began in 2021, too, also inspired in many cases by parent concerns over curriculums.

Anxiety first stirred because of coronavirus pandemic-era school shutdowns as some mothers and fathers — granted an unprecedented glimpse into lessons during the era of school-by-laptop — found they did not like or trust what their children were learning.

Soon, some parents were complaining that lessons were biased toward left-leaning views and too focused on what they saw as irrelevant discussions of race, gender and sexuality — laments taken up by conservative pundits and politicians. National groups like Moms for Liberty formed to call out and combat left-leaning teaching in public schools.

Their fears became legislation with speed: Mostly red states passed 26 restrictive education laws and policies in 2021; 19 such laws or policies the next year and 25 more the year after that.

“If you’ve got parents upset at what they’re seeing, they’re going to go to school board meetings and take it up with their legislators,” said Robert Pondiscio , a senior fellow studying education at the conservative American Enterprise Institute. “And legislators will do what they do: pass laws.”

How the restrictions and expansions work

The plurality of restrictive laws, 47 percent, target both education on race and sex. About a third solely affect education on gender identity and sexuality, while 21 percent solely affect education on race.

Almost 40 percent of these laws work by granting parents greater control of the curriculum — stipulating that they must be able to review, object to or remove lesson material, as well as opt out of instruction. Schools have long permitted parents to weigh in on education, often informally; but under many of the new laws, parental input has more weight and is mandatory.

Another almost 40 percent of the laws forbid schools from teaching a long list of often-vague concepts related to race, sex or gender.

These outlawed concepts usually include the notion that certain merits, values, beliefs, status or privileges are tied to race or sex; or the theory that students should feel ashamed or guilty due to their race, sex or racial past. One such law, passed in Georgia in 2022, forbids teaching that “an individual, solely by virtue of his or her race, bears individual responsibility for actions committed in the past by other individuals of the same race.”

At the college level, among the measures passed in recent years is a 2021 Oklahoma law that prohibits institutions of higher education from holding “mandatory gender or sexual diversity training or counseling,” as well as any “orientation or requirement that presents any form of race or sex stereotyping.”

By contrast, a 2023 California measure says state community college faculty must employ “teaching, learning and professional practices” that reflect “anti-racist principles.”

Some experts predicted the politically divergent instruction will lead to a more divided society.

“When children are being taught very different stories of what America is, that will lead to adults who have a harder time talking to each other,” said Rachel Rosenberg, a Hartwick College assistant professor of education.

But Pondiscio said there is always tension in American society between the public interest in education and parents’ interest in determining the values transmitted to their children. The conflict veers from acute to chronic, he said, and currently it’s in an acute phase. “But I don’t find it inappropriate. I think it is a natural part of democratic governance and oversight,” Pondiscio said.

He added, “One man’s ‘chilling effect’ is another man’s appropriate circumspections.”

k 12 basic education curriculum law

Part 253 - Mississippi Secondary Curriculum Frameworks in Secondary Education, 2023 Web Design I

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  1. PNoy to finally sign ‘K-12’ law

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  2. PPT

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  4. K-12 Basic Education Curriculum

    k 12 basic education curriculum law


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  2. Lecture 01

  3. Webinar

  4. K to 12 Basic Education Program 2/2

  5. An Introduction to K-12 Competency Based Education Webinar


  1. K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum

    Alternative Learning System (ALS)- K to 12 Basic Education Program. Learning. Strand 1: Communication Skills (English) Communication Skills (Filipino) Learning. Strand 2: Scientific Literacy and Critical Thinking Skills. Learning.

  2. Republic Act No. 10533

    Section 1. Short Title. — This Act shall be known as the "Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013″. Section 2. Declaration of Policy. — The State shall establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people, the country and society-at-large. Likewise, it is hereby declared ...

  3. Republic Act 10533: Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013

    Video: R.A. 10533-Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 (Part 1: Sections 1-6) | K-12 curriculum For more details on the Republic Act 10533, please watch the video below: As stated in the video, the late President Benigno Aquino III signed into law the Republic Act 10533, or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.

  4. Republic Act No. 11476

    (c) Values Education shall be integrated in the teaching of the subjects in Grades 11 and 12 under K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum. Section 5. Coverage of Values Education.- It is hereby mandated that Values Education shall be an integral and essential part of the Deped's K to 12 Basic education Curriculum.

  5. Understanding DepEd K-12 Program in the Philippines

    The K-12 program was officially signed into law as Republic Act No. 10533, also known as the "Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.". This law paved the way for the restructuring of the country's education system, adding two more years to the traditional 10-year basic education cycle. The implementation of the K-12 program in the ...

  6. All set for K to 12 implementation

    The Universal Kindergarten Implementation began in School Year 2011-2012. All 5-year-old children are required to be in Kindergarten before they will be accepted to Grade 1. In School Year 2012-2013, the enhanced curriculum for K to 12 was implemented. In 2013, K to 12 was enacted into law known as RA 10533. SHS Curriculum was finished in 2014 ...

  7. Republic Act No. 11510

    (a) Alternative Learning System K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (ALS K to 12 BEC) shall refer to the comprehensive curriculum indicating the competency, content, key stages, and standards for the ALS program under this Act. The ALS K to 12 BEC is benchmarked on the DepEd K to 12 formal school curriculum and focuses on the 21st Century Skills ...

  8. DepEd issues policy guidelines for K to 12 basic education program

    The K to 12 Basic Education Program, DepEd said, is "considered to be one of the most significant educational reforms in the country" because it "introduces programs and projects that aim to expand and improve the delivery of basic education in the country." ... In May 2013, the K to 12 Law (RA No. 10533) was also passed which added two ...

  9. Aquino signs K-12 bill into law

    MANILA, Philippines - President Benigno Aquino III on Wednesday, May 15, signed the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 into law, more commonly known as the K-12 program. WIth the law passed ...

  10. PNoy signs law institutionalizing K to 12 program

    Aquino signed Republic Act 10533 seeking to institutionalize the government's "K to 12 program," which was already introduced by the Department of Education (DepEd) to schools all over the country last school year. In his speech after the signing, the President said the K to 12 Law makes sure that Filipino youth will have a "bright future" even ...

  11. WSG Article: Bridging the Gap: Enhanced Basic Education through K-12

    The program shall be supported by and implemented through an enhanced basic education curriculum which the DepEd shall formulate alongside the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), in consultation with other national agencies and stakeholders including the Department of Labor ...

  12. Bridging the Gap: Enhanced Basic Education Through K-12

    One of the more stirring reforms in the past two decades in the field of education is Republic Act 10533, or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 (¿Enhanced Basic Education Act¿). Passed by Congress on January 30, 2013 and approved by the President on May 15, 2013, the law in its full name stands as ¿An Act Enhancing the Philippine Basic Education System by Strengthening its Curriculum ...

  13. The K to 12 Law: A Decade Since

    Fundamentally, however, the K to 12 Law (coupled with the Universal Kindergarten Law, RA 10157, signed in January 2012) made it compulsory for all Filipinos to undergo and complete basic education ...

  14. K to 12 General Information

    The K to 12 Program covers 13 years of basic education with the following key stages: Kindergarten to Grade 3 Grades 4 to 6 Grades 7 to 10 (Junior High School) Grades 11 and 12 (Senior High School) Why are we now implementing 12 years of basic education? ... 2013: K to 12 enacted into Law; 2014: Curriculum for Grades 11-12 finished; This 2015 ...

  15. DepEd Inclusive Education Policy Framework

    The K to 12 Curriculum. Inclusion is a key standard and principle of the K to 12 curriculum and its actualization is supported by other standards and principles that further describe the features of an inclusive curriculum— learner-centered, developmentally appropriate, culture-sensitive, relevant, gender-responsive, and contextualized.

  16. (PDF) From Policy to Practice: An analysis of the factors affecting

    In the wake of the passage of the Enhanced Basic Education Act into Philippine law, ... The policy effectively transitioned the nation from a 10-year basic education structure to a K-12 system, promising a more globalized curriculum and greater employment opportunities for graduates. ... the proposed K-12 curriculum has raised brows of many ...

  17. K to 12 Program to continue --- DepEd

    The K to 12 Program was created by a law, the Republic Act (RA) 10533 or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, passed during the administration of former president Benigno Aquino III. Signed in May 2013, the K to 12 law formally mandated Kindergarten and a 12-year basic education curriculum in the country, replacing the old 10-year cycle.

  18. Stakeholders' Perceptions on the K-12 Implementation ...

    Signed into law in 2013, the K-12 basic education curriculum replaced the 10-year basic education curriculum K-12 curriculum through Republic Act No. 10533 (Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 ...

  19. Philippines congress to revamp k-12 programme

    K to 12 also known as Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 or Republic Act No. 10533 was enacted a decade ago with the aim of strengthening the curriculum of and increasing the number of years for basic education. Section 4 of the said law outlined the stages of the enhanced basic education program: at least one (1) year of kindergarten ...

  20. Learn the Importance of Education Policy and Law With NWMSU

    Informed knowledge of education law is critical for the success of schools as it enables educational leaders to create policies, manage resources and develop programs that align with legal requirements. Indeed notes that roles such as teachers, professors, deans, curriculum leaders and principals all use education law to some extent, making ...

  21. America has reshaped education into red and blue versions

    April 4, 2024 at 5:30 a.m. EDT. 10 min. American states passed a blizzard of education laws and policies over the past six years that aim to reshape how K-12 schools and colleges teach and present ...

  22. Part 253

    Cornell Law School Search Cornell. Toggle navigation. Please help us improve our site! Support Us! Search. About LII ... Title 7 - Education K-12; Part 253 - Mississippi Secondary Curriculum Frameworks in Secondary Education, 2023 Web Design I;

  23. DO 41, s. 2017

    Pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution and Republic Act No. 10533, otherwise known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, the Department of Education (DepEd) issues the enclosed Policy Guidelines on Madrasah Education in the K to 12 Basic Education Program. The Program aims to: provide Muslim learners with appropriate and relevant educational opportunities while recognizing their ...